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Tree Problems in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira in February 2018





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Problems with electrical re-wire in my home, with the knowledge after the event that the client can do nothing about it, since NAPIT requires you to re-use the same contractor to fix the problems. Would you after reading these pages?

We wrote the concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21; Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021 which had no effect on the credit card company or NAPIT. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with Napit; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from Napit; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
10 lists 18 electrical faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

  • fault 2 is a Code C1 'Danger Present' and immediate action is required from March 2021,
  • Faults 4, 12, 14 and 18 are Code C2 and Urgent remedial action required,
  • Faults 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17 are Code C3 where improvement is recommended


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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019


I wrote the following about this problem in February 2018 with no result:-


Sadness about Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Maderia, which will either

  • send only their branch(es) to the ground or
  • include the branches with the tree trunk and send those to the ground,
  • within the next 3 years.
  • See photos of trees in Monte and the tragedy when people were killed by 1 of them falling on top of them at the bottom of this page. Would a mulch and irrigation have stopped this occuring? If yes and nothing is done for these trees during the next year, then I extend my
    condolences to the bereaved from those tree parts falling on their relatives who might send the Tourism Minister a spray of
    Red Carnation - Alas for my poor heart,
    Christmas Rose - Relieve my anxiety and
    Hawthorne - provide Hope (ISBN 0 7181 0593 1);
    on the funeral day
    condolences to the tourists if they are cut down as a cheaper solution or
    condolences to the remaining trees who no longer have the wind reduction support of their neighbours. Roads who had trees in their pavements could well become wind tunnels.


I walked between the Tourism Department in Funchal to the Forum along the pavements either side of the main road used by buses 1, 2 and 4 including the 2 parallell roads above the Pestana Promenade, the one above the other (which was used as the main road) before the cul-de-sac road below with the Pestana Promenade at its end was turned into the main road instead.

The following explains some of the problems with the

  • tree roots
  • junction between tree roots and trunk
  • trunk and branches

with some suggestions for:-

  • tree roots
  • junction between tree roots and trunk
  • trunk and branches
  • where to get the water that is wasted in order to water these trees and
  • where to get the mulch material

The trees in the pavement between those 2 points have these problems for their roots:-

  • ROOT1 - their roots are being starved of oxygen by the tarmac of the road or pavement, or the concreted white/black marble in the pavement,
  • ROOT2 - they are being asphixiated by their own roots release of carbon dioxide and nitrogen,
  • ROOT3 - they are being denied water due to the tarmac above.
    The following is from drought care by The Morton Arboretum - " When watering trees, shrubs, and other landscape plants, remember that they absorb water and nutrients through their roots, most of which are in the upper 1 to 2 feet (30-60 cms) of soil. The goal is to keep plant roots moist, but not wet. Constantly saturated conditions also can damage roots. Depending on air temperatures, trees and shrubs need at least 1 inch of water applied every week to 10 days to cope with lack of rain. Larger, established trees have a wide-spreading root system and need not be watered as frequently, perhaps every 2 to 3 weeks. Let the top few inches of soil dry out between watering to avoid saturation and to allow roots and soil organisms to breathe."
    The following is from How and when to water by The Morton Arboretum - "There is no reason to water the leaves of a plant. Water the soil, where the roots are. The Arboretum recommends watering within the drip line of a tree, from the trunk out to the end of the branches, to reach the roots most effectively."
  • ROOT4 - their roots are being cut off, enclosing walls built and 18 inches (45 cms) depth of soil or the excess concrete added on top (If this added soil is in contact with the trunk instead of its roots then the tree will come under more strain than having had 1 of its main roots with 20cm diameter cut off in order to erect the wall). Moist soil piled against a trunk or on top of root flares causes decay at different rates, depending on the tree species and soil type. Constantly moist bark loses its ability to protect the tree from pathogens and insects and puts the tree in stress), and then a new pavement round the wall, so that pedestrians no longer have to step out 1.0 metre from the original pavement edge into the road to get to the next section of pavement,
  • ROOT5 - there would appear to be a 1 metre diameter of soil enclosed by a concrete wall of edging or concrete allowed for each tree for its entire life from when it is inserted into that area as a 2.5 cm diameter x 300 cm high trunk and tied with inner tube tyre to a 2.5 cm wooden pole also 300cms high (The Morton Arboretum has a different tree planting system; including the staking method). The ground level within each tree enclosure area was either bare soil, tarmac, tarmac on the road with roots exposed to passing vehicle tyres, or some other pavement material. The following is the care advice given by The Morton Arboretum - "Mulch is another important element in good plant health care maintenance. Apply a 3-to-4-inch layer of organic, composted mulch (wood chips, leaves, or pine bark) extending from the base of the plant out past the drip line (end of the branches). Do not let the mulch rest against the trunk of the plant. All plants benefit from mulch, because, as the mulch breaks down, it provides an excellent growing medium for roots, and acts as a slow release fertilizer. Mulch will also help conserve moisture, moderate soil temperatures, eliminate weeds, and protect the trunk from mechanical injury, especially weed whips and lawn mowers."
  • ROOT6 - The soil within some of the enclosures for these trees appears to have shrunk to form a pit and expose the tree roots. Is this because the tree has kept on removing the water from the soil until it becomes dust and so the ground level sinks?


The following is a copy of the information in The Morton Arboretum website:-


Root systems are vital to the health and longevity of trees. All plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients. These are most readily available near the soil surface where precipitation infiltrates the soil and oxygen from the atmosphere diffuses into the porous soil. Most roots, therefore, especially the important, tiny, absorbing roots, proliferate near the soil surface. The majority of a large tree’s roots are in the upper 18"-24" (45-60 cms) of soil. When space is available, roots can spread two to three times further than the branches. Tree roots are often associated with situations that cause damage to structures, pavements, and utilities. In almost every case, roots are not the cause of the problem.



Instances of pipes being broken by the growth of roots are rare, but blockage of damaged pipes is not uncommon. As roots enlarge, they may occasionally break the pipes and enter the cracks. More commonly, the pipes fail (especially at the joints) due to age or slight movement of the soil, allowing roots to invade. Moisture and nutrients released from ruptures can stimulate root growth toward the break in the pipe. Once a root enters a sewer pipe, the conditions of aeration, moisture, and nutrients are quite favorable for rapid growth. Species that are naturally found in wet areas such as poplars, willows, and silver maples, are commonly associated with clogged pipes. Blocked sewers usually must be cleared mechanically. Mechanical routing may be needed on an annual basis. Registered chemical treatments are available. The main advantage of these products is that they can be placed into the sewer as a foam for more effective contact with roots; however, it is essential to follow label directions. The only permanent solution to the problem, however, is to replace ruptured pipes. Modern materials and joints should prevent most problems in the future.



If trees are too close to pavement, or if compacted soil forces large roots to grow very near the soil surface, roots can eventually lift pavement. When roots encounter a paved area, the only entry is often a gap between the soil and pavement. Future problems can be prevented at the time of planting by using smaller plants, providing a minimum distance of 4 feet between the tree and the pavement, or using mechanical barriers to prevent roots from growing under the pavement. Remedies for lifted pavements around mature trees often involve either moving the pavement away from the tree or pruning off the problem roots. Barriers are often installed after the roots are cut to prevent re-growth of the roots and recurrence of the pavement lifting. Cutting off the problem roots often causes stress and instability. Trees without sufficient root support can be blown over more easily in a storm.



Roots are often blamed for damage to foundations. In reality, roots are rarely the cause of the problem. Though small roots may penetrate existing cracks in foundations, they are incapable of causing mechanical damage through their growth. Soil subsidence can result in damage to structures. Under very special circumstances roots can contribute to this problem. When soils are prone to shrinking substantially during periods of drought, and if foundations are shallow, roots can contribute to depletion of soil moisture under the foundation, causing it to subside. See further details in the following pages - Subsidence and Case Study number 1.



Major tree roots often grow within a few inches of the soil surface. Some species, such as maples, grow roots particularly close to the surface. Alternate freezing and thawing causes frost-heaving, which can expose roots that would otherwise remain below the soil surface. On slopes, soil erosion may also expose roots. These surface roots could become a foot hazard or cause difficulty in mowing, and are easily injured. Removing these roots may disrupt the moisture supply to the tree, causing serious stress. Covering them with soil could cut off the oxygen supply to the fine roots in the soil below. Both situations could lead to decline. The best solution is usually to mulch the area under the tree with compost and/or wood chips. These materials are porous enough to allow sufficient oxygen supply to the soil and may actually encourage fine root growth. Acting as an insulator, the mulch will minimize further frost-heaving and erosion. Another benefit is the replacement of highly competitive turf grass with mulch, which supplies nutrients as it decomposes. Grass removal is not necessary before the mulch is applied. If mulch is not an option, raise the soil surface by adding no more than two inches of halfcompost/ half-topsoil mix. An additional 2 inches can be added each year as necessary to raise the soil level sufficiently to cover the roots. The lawn can then be replanted, but the tree roots may reappear on the surface within a few years.



Tree roots that wrap around the base of the trunk can restrict the flow of water and nutrients up and down the trunk, leading to decline and dieback of the crown. Norway maples are most susceptible to damage from girdling roots, but they can occur in most trees. When roots circling inside of a pot in the nursery cause the problem, the tree seldom survives more than a decade in the landscape. On “balled & burlapped” plants, girdling roots develop for different reasons and the decline may take 20 to 30 years to develop. To prevent girdling roots in nursery stock, make sure that all circling roots on the outside of the root ball are eliminated at time of planting. Research shows that moderate disruption of the container root system does not increase stress. For large girdling roots on established trees, correcting the problem can be difficult. Removal of the girdling roots may cause enough damage to the root system to hasten the decline. Several roots may be intertwined, making it even more difficult. It is difficult to predict if removing the roots will be more damaging than leaving them alone.



Roots grow much closer to the soil surface than is often believed. Since roots are near the surface and depend on oxygen, raising the soil level around an established tree can have serious impact. This new soil will drastically reduce the oxygen supply to roots. On the other hand, removing just a few inches of topsoil can also remove much of the tree’s root system, severely stressing the plant. When grade changes are necessary, avoid changing the grade within the dripline of the tree. The fewer roots that are impacted, the better the chances that the tree will survive. Another alternative would be to construct a retaining wall outside the dripline to accomplish the grade change. If the grade change is necessary to improve site drainage, be sure to divert the excess water away from the tree.



Balance between the tree’s crown (top) and root system is important for maintaining healthy trees. When roots are lost for any reason, the imbalance creates stress. A tree usually has 4 to 7 major roots. Cutting just one of them within a few feet of the trunk can remove up to 25 percent of the root system. In such situations, giving the tree extra water during summer dry periods and thinning the crown may help to minimize decline. During temporary excavation, such as for utility installation or repair, significant root loss may result, but if the soil is replaced soon afterward, roots can regenerate into the replaced soil and recovery is more likely. Extra care (primarily watering) will be required for many years during the restoration of the lost roots. When underground utilities must be installed close to a tree, tunneling or augering under the root system avoids damage altogether."


How does water act in the soil? page shows how even on the sandy-type soil in Maderia that 'soil crusting' can occur where this crusting effectively seals the soil surface so that instead of infiltrating the soil, rain or irrigation water collects in puddles where it is then evaporated.


If you walk from the Lido roundabout down the main road towards the Pestana Promenade Hotel, you come to the first hotel, whose almost horizontal carpark drive runs parallel to the lido roundabout and back to what tourists call Cardiac Hill with its restaurants and supermarket. The hotel has installed a very narrow flower bed with palm trees and a rubber pipe irrigation system that has irrigated those trees since they were planted many years ago. Those trees look in the pink of health, because their roots have had the water and the oxygen and probably some fertiliser in the irrigation water with bare soil above them since they were planted.

One of the first trees on the left side of that drive had 1 or 2 young shoots growing very near the base of the trunk. There are no shoots with any leaves on them for at least 5 metres in height on the trees within the pavements from the Tourism Department to the Forum shopping centre, due to those branches and trunks being repeatedly covered with light bulbs for separate holiday functions every year with the humans who erect them clambering all over those exposed surfaces and destroying any juvenile new growth.

The only fault that is evident within the flower beds of the carpark drive of that hotel is that all waste plant growth is removed from those beds so those plants are entirely reliant on man-made nutrients in soluble form:-

As you walk down the main road to that hotel on the left and seaward side with its irrigated plants in its driveway beds, you will notice the mass of vegetation between that main road and its partner above. This vegetation covers the ground and is not managed - that means all its dead leaves etc stay with it and the geckos and other soil life organisms cycle that waste to the plant's roots as nutrients. The ground-covering vegetation reduces water loss from the sun's rays hitting the ground or the wind from drying it out. Those flowers and plants look healthy with plenty of growth.
It is quite likely that that vegetation is of native Maderian plants - there are experts in the Lido Tours on the native maderian plants, geology, bats, etc who might be able to advise. Opposite the Pestana Promenade Hotel the cliff has been excavated to allow a bed of grass and palm trees to be grown. Apparently people are afraid that the weight of the native trees in the pavement of the main road above are causing the rockfalls. It is possible that the original cliff was at about 150 degrees to the horizontal road below. It is probably now at 120 degrees, thus the weight above is no longer fully supported and the downward force is breaking the cliff. The grass (see the root amount created by a grass plant planted in Type I Roadstone to appreciate how those roots abstract any water they find from their root surroundings) and palm trees continue to rob all the water from the bed area, turning that soil into dust, which does not provide the support or cohesion that soil with sufficient water in it does. If the grass (see the fibrous roots of a Ryegrass Plant to show why all rain is absorbed by roots of the grass before the roots of that tree underneath can receive any and this is why I recommend that a radius of at least 24 inches - 60 cms - from the trunk is left free of grass or any other perennial, shrub or tree. Bulbs planted there are fine providing they not electric bulbs) and palm trees were removed from that bed and the grass growing on the cliff just below the wall alongside the pavement of the road above, that would stop the dehydration of that cliff face. If the same plants as in the cliff area closer to the Lido were planted with an irrigation system, which was used to get them established within 2-3 years and then switched off, and NO PLANT MAINTENANCE CARRIED OUT ON THAT AREA TO REMOVE DEAD PLANT MATERIAL OR PRUNE EXCEPT TO PRUNE OFF ANY MATERIAL ESCAPING THE ALLOTTED AREA, then that cliff face could be stabilised.


Summary of main problems with the ROOTS of the trees in the pavements and roads of Funchal.

Roots of trees require water, oxygen and nutrients as shown above in Tree Root Problems. Airflow through the soil for the roots to breathe in the oxygen and for the roots to breathe out carbon dioxide - The carbon content stored in soil is eventually returned to the atmosphere through the process of respiration, which is carried out by heterotrophic organisms that feed upon the carbonaceous material in the soil. Since plant roots need oxygen, ventilation is an important characteristic of soil. This ventilation can be accomplished via networks of soil pores, which also absorb and hold rainwater making it readily available for plant uptake. Since plants require a nearly continuous supply of water, but most regions receive sporadic rainfall, the water-holding capacity of soils is vital for plant survival.

ROOT3 provides the following:-

  • The Arboretum recommends watering within the drip line of a tree, from the trunk out to the end of the branches, to reach the roots most effectively.

ROOT5 provides the following:-

  • Mulch is another important element in good plant health care maintenance. Apply a 3-to-4-inch layer of organic, composted mulch (wood chips, leaves, or pine bark) extending from the base of the plant out past the drip line (end of the branches).


Many of these trees have their drip line extending over most of the pavement and some of the road. So how do we provide the water, oxygen and nutrients as required?


Where can we get the water required for these trees?


Besides the main telephone not working, no instructions on how to get a DVD that we had brought with us to work on the tv, the light shade knocking on my head every time I sat down at the table for 4 and had my wife's elbow sticking into my ribs, the 3 seater-sofa-bed being made up although my wife had only asked for an extra duvet so that I could sleep on top of the sofa with pillows at my head and leg end so that I could drain my ankles overnight and stop myself from drowing in my own phlegm - with no instructions on how to convert it back to a sofa in my first weeks accomodation, both toilets were leaking water from the cistern directly to the toilet bowl. Every 2 to 3 hours the liquid in my body needs a normal method of discharge. Being on potassium-sparing diuretics the resulting liquid is coloured ( when I reported this to my doctor, she specified that I needed to drink more since I was dehydrated - didn't like to point out that according to the notes issued within the packaging of my medication, that 3 of the 9 should not taken in conjunction with each other), 3 hours later I was about to release some more liquid and was interested to note that the water in the bowl was not coloured anymore. I called in the hotel staff and the maintenance man removed the stainless steel plunger from the cistern and replaced the broken non-rubber washer with a rubber one in each cistern - having stated that these washers only lasted 2 years. My toilet in the guest bathroom continued to leak; the maintenance man came back with the housekeeper. After their visit, it still leaked.
The following week in different accomodation, my guest bathroom toilet also leaked. This time the discolouration after 3 hours became clear down to just under the top of the U bend in the bowl, so this leak was less. Being your most everso humble servants, we are extremely grateful to pay a mere £50 a day maintenance charges during the fortnight's stay for plumbing that leaks, curtains that are washed without the tapes being untied so that when they are rehung they no longer cover the window area leaving light from the external hotel lights coming inside; and rust on each of the 4 electric cooking plates above the oven.

If you dump the remainder of your strongly-coloured tea from the teapot into each of your loos, you will discover - if out of the million or so toilets with the same flushing system in Funchal - that yours is also leaking.


Where to get the water in order to water these trees?
Instead of the cistern water leaking into the loo this water could irrigate those trees within the pavement or road.


Having got a supply of water, where are we going to get the nutrients required?


In most areas of gardens, that I have seen in Funchal; the soil between the plants is bare. This means all prunings, grass mowings, autumn leaves etc are dumped.

Instead of dumping, collect them with 2% by volume of seaweed (see the benefits of seaweed from how to grow potatoes in Seaweed) and shred them into sawdust - do not compost this mixture as that will provide food for the soil organisms who turn it into further nutrients for the trees. Collect food not eaten from restaurants and put through a BIOGAS Production System and use the Biofertilizer produced to add to the shreddings. Mix with water in a concrete mixer before delivery - after each time the mulch has been transferred under the pavement by the irrigation system above it - to each of the 4 tree's irrigation/seating systems to provide a mulch and fertiliser.


The trees in the pavement between those 2 points have these problems for the junction between tree roots and trunk:-

PAVEMENT1 - The roots do have any or much access to the air for oxygen, carbon dioxide release, water and nutrients. The 100cm wide enclosure for the tree covers less than 1 square metre width of root area. We will assume that the tree is only 4 metres (400 cms = 160 inches) tall with 4 metre radius of roots. The area of root is 50.27 square metres. That means that less than 2% of the root area can ever receive any water, nutrients etc. Unfortunately the tree grows to fill that area with trunk and then overflow onto the pavement. So all of its life the tree in the pavements of Funchal are going to receive less and less water, nutrients or gas exchange until they receive nothing at all.
I have never seen any mulch in this enclosure for a tree in the pavement. I have yet to see any mulch for trees grown in the open ground in Funchal. Plants in public or private gardens seem to have to rely on water only or water with chemical fertiliser added to it.


The gas produced from the BIOGAS Production System can be used as a fuel for the glass destruction machines or to generate electricity for the same purpose. The glass destruction machines can break up the waste glass bottles into cullet of different colours. This will be used for the pavements, when I give the suggestions for providing oxygen to the roots as detailed below in the 'junction between tree roots and trunk' section.


The trees in the pavement between those 2 points have these problems for their Trunk and branches:-

TRUNK1 - The pruning of trees shrubs and conifers by George E. Brown, NDH formerly Assistant Curator, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew was first published in 1972 by Faber and Faber Lited. Reprinted 1982 and 1988. Re-issued 1987. ISBN 0 571 11084 3 was a recommended book by Hadlow College, whilst I was a student for HNC in Horticulture in September 1990 to June 1991; after I was made redundant having coded the display for the RAF Helicopter Pilots to use instead of them using paper maps (I was 42 and personnel over 36 were first in line for redundancy). Apparently people use it in their cars and it is currently named Satnav.
Page 31 has a section on Crown Thinning. Fig. 13. on page 32 shows good and bad methods of dealing with a mature tree which is unsafe and is in need of attention:-



It should be borne in mind that only the main branches have been shown. The broken lines indicate branches which are to be cut out.
(1) This is correct. Those branches which are to remain have been left at full length with very little if any shortening.
(2) The branch systems which are to remain have been shortened. This may lead to cavities in the region of these cuts at a later stage and such shortening should not be carried out.
(3) This form of lopping is definitely wrong.
(4) Lopped to this extent it would make a suitable support for a climber, but the strong shoots resulting from the cuts would need to be cut out occasionally.
Page 33 has a section on Crown Reduction with Fig 14:-



Part of a branch system under consideration for thinning. The broken lines indicate 2 branches which would be removed under a moderate thinning, the cuts being made at (a). Whole lengths are removed, making the cut as close to the parent branch as possible. Under a severe thinning policy, 3 additional branches are suggested for removal by making indicated by (b). With crown reduction, however, the branches are shortened, the cuts being carefully positioned just above a substantial limb growing in the right direction, see Fig. 2. on page 4:-


Cut number 1 is wrong, since it leaves a stump. The tree then produces multiple shoots from this stump, which are weakest at the stump end, overcrowd each other and then all shoots will need cutting out.

A tree in the front garden of the Miramar Hotel within 200 cms of the roadside pavement has been very recently pruned using the same cutting procedure as indicated in (4) of Fig. 13. above with each cut end being at least 15 cms in diameter. It left a trunk and bare branch network covering at least 10 metres width. Unfortunately there was a storm and the wind reduction enjoyed by the tree next to the hotel reception swayed to within 5 cms of the concrete balustrade above that reception area, whilst I watched it from my hotel suites lounge. The trunks of the palm trees that were higher than that tree hardly moved and only their topgrowth of leaves thrashed around. There is a swimming pool above the reception and office area and I do hope that those staff are supplied with diving suits and oxygen tanks. I suspect that nobody did a risk assessment on the result of removal of all foliage and topgrowth of that pruned tree which vastly reduced the wing speed before hitting the trunk swaying tree further up the hill.

None of the cut ends of the tree in the front garden of the Miramar had any protective dressing.
Page 6 of the pruning book by Brown states the following:-
The Protective Dressing
When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case of larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedliy as possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which may alight on the cut surface at any time. All cuts over 25mm (1 inch) in diameter should be treated, although with young specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed. The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests - in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property. It is necessary to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications, although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case is advisable, and it would be natural to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the surface of a large wound as it dries out.
I have never seen any protective dressing on any of the trees in Funchal.


Having informed each hotel's staff, it was suggested I talk with the Tourism Minister. I spoke to the receptionist at the Tourism Department in the centre of Funchal. She stated that the Minister was not in, but got a member of staff to have some words with me. I showed her the site map of the Evergreen Trees on my website www.ivydenegardens.co.uk in her office. Standing by the window which had a view of the trees in the pavement outside her office, I started to show her some of the problems with those trees. Before I was fully into my stride, one of her colleagues appeared and she had to go to a meeting. I thanked her and departed.


On the Sunday, I slowly walked from the Miramar to the roundabout at the bottom of the hill from the Presidents Office and on to to the English Church. I thought I would inspect the trees on my seaside side and inspect the trees on the other side of the road from the seaward side to see how many were damaged. After inspecting the first 5 on my side and discovering that

  • where branches had been cut off that rot was occuring in each of them and creating holes,
  • 1 of them had a jagged scar about 4-5 metres from the ground where a branch had ripped from its main branch in the storm during the previous week
  • 1 had bark missing over a large portion of the branch close to where that branch met the trunk with the knowledge that rot would occur and that tree would fall into the road and onto the zebra crossing at some future date

I didn't bother to check for further numbers of damaged trees any further in the walk to that roundabout to see if the remainder were in the same condition, since they were the same age and looked as if the same amount of care had been taken with them, whether it was crossing branches, missing bark from sections of the trunk or branches, rival leaders, or water sprouts.

I did note the paucity of topgrowth in a tree in the pavement opposite the park and about a third the way down the hill in comparison to a tree in an adjacent garden of probably the same age, due to the above stated problems.

When I reached the English Church to collect my wife after the Sunday service for the 34th time, I was sad to see that a member of the congregation drove his car from the back area of the church to the front and avoided the damaged part of the pebbled drive by putting his nearside wheels onto the lawn. The small pebbles in the drive are packed together on their edge and into the soil below. If 1 or more of these pebbles is dislodged then the ones alongside follow. Unfortunately the church cannot afford to pay for the crypt water damage or for these driveway repairs and even if they did, then someone accelerating too much on this driveway would create the same problem again. If Cedardrive was used to contain the pebbles, then this problem would no longer occur. Being one of the first churches on the Island, the original road system for use by a pony and cart must still be used for this driveway with smaller pebbles than used in the public road or pavement outside the gates of that church.

Walking from the Mirimar to the Lido passing the 17 Maple-leafed trees on the seaward side of the road, I noticed that besides the damage in the other 12, the last 5 had the following:-

  • holes in the trunk leading to a weakened trunk, which were continuing to rot
  • the end tree trunk was over 24 inches (60 cms) into the road. Its original aluminium post with its sign warning of a tree had been broken and that post had been grown round by the tree. The new sign on its new post had been hit; probably by a wingmirror of a lorry or bus. The base of the tree had been crushed repeatedly and about a 5 cm width of tree trunk removed at tarmac level by wheels of vehicles. Others also had their trunk/root area in the road by less than 24 inches.
  • 1 or 2 of them had overgrown the tarmac, concrete pavers or other material at their bases of the pavement. This reduces the trunk supporting width and leaves the tree getting heavier above but without the extra width of heartwood below to support that extra weight; as shown by the following from the introduction to the Garden Maintenance page -
    This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.
  • Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.
  • gardenmaintenanceimprove1
  • gardenmaintenanceimprove2
  • The roots of one tree were exposed to the pounding of the traffic over the top of them.
  • If nothing is done, those trunks or top branches will come down.


Walking from the Pestana Promenade to the supermarket on the top main road, I found a tree with a hole at ground level at 12:01 (the road) and 18:00 on the pavement and another at 15:00 about 1.5 metres from the ground. The inside heartwood was rotting and that trunk will fail. There was another tree in a similar state close to the Forum.

Walking next to the swimming pool at the Pestana Promenade, I noticed some grey stone gravel under a newly-laid area of concrete pavers. Unfortunately there was no Plantex weed control fabric under the grey stone. This means that the soil will mix with that gravel and come up between the pavers and then grass will grow in between as a result. I have started to notice this occuring on some of the older pavements in Funchal.



The cheapest answer is to chop those trees down, but at a £1,000,000 worth of each tree to the tourist and the economy of Maderia, I would request that you spend money and look after them.
Since neither the hotels nor the Tourism Department appeared to be interested, all I can do is HOPE.


I suggest that the existing pavement is carefully removed down to soil level without damaging the roots underneath. Use wheelbarrows and a human workforce on the pavements and no machinery which would crush the tender tree roots until the new pavement has been completed. Exposure of the roots can be for no longer than 20 minutes unless they sprayed with a mist spray pattern to keep them from drying out - see explaination of how soil works to understand how easily the rhizosphere round the tree roots can be destroyed. Then refill back to 4 cms from the original ground level with 8 millimetre cullet obtained from the waste bottles collected from the hotels, restaurants and private homes, with the main irrigation pipe next to the building on the other side of the pavement. Then lay Cedardrive (which was known as Cedargravel) on top and get your local artists, schools, etc to fill the Cedardrive with their choice of coloured cullet to create games, pictures etc. An area of 300 cms long and 30 cms wide can be covered with Cedardrive with its geotextile sheet removed. This area has a metal framed box shape sitting on top of it, which is supported by the pavement edge and the other sides by the Cedardrive which has been filled with cullet. A few sections of that metal frame are extended into the 300 x 30 cm area to stop it sliding into the road or the rest of the pavement. The meshed top can then be used as a seat and local artists, lacemakers etc can then use it during the day to make and sell their wares, or by the public as a seating area for us old fogeys. 1 each side of the tree by the pavement edge and 2 more at other side of pavement. The mulch created from edible food waste/ plant waste/ water can then refill the Cedardrive under those metal framed boxes each month using an open end to insert the flexible output pipe into. Instead of using a spray system in the side facing the pavement to spray the pavement and the mulch in the opposing irrigation system, use the system specified in the next row. The irrigation water will aid in transferring this mulch through the cullet which is under the main pavement area to the roots together with help from the soil organisms; whilst the oxygen and carbon dioxide gases can also have access together with the extra rain when that falls; through the cullet in the Cedardrive. Before the Cedardrive is inserted, soak the ground underneath the pavement, insert the mats on top and leave for 2 hours (long lunch-break?) before commencing the insertion of the mats with the correct colour of cullet.


A combination of cullet and expanding foam can be used to fill the holes in the trees, with the exposed area of foam being painted twice with Protective Dressing on the following day.


This paving system will work on both a hill and on horizontal pavements, since the loose cullet has been stabilised in this gravel stabilisation system.


Perhaps this changeover could be achieved with the same enthusiasm as provided after the middle of Funchal was flooded with rainwater, where within 2 weeks all evidence had been removed.

The main irrigation pipe is laid on the furthest side of the pavement from the road under the 2 irrigation/seating areas on that side and connected to them. Pipework from it to each of the 2 irrigation/seating areas by the pavement/road edge is laid between Cedardrive mats, so that in the event of their failure, it only requires the edges of these mats to be pulled up, pipe replaced and mats replaced. Although it would be great to have rainwater, because of the chlorine/fluorine in the water supply, we can't. So the top tank of this seating area is filled very slowly to get the water to automatically flush very 2-4 days. The top tank has a meshed top for ventilation to allow these gases time to escape from the water during that filling time, otherwise that water will kill the organisms in the soil below. The tank below into which this water will flow every 2-4 days has a side with the length of the tank facing the pavement. 60% up this side the remainder is a hinged door. Once the tank has been positioned then a section of geotextile is laid on the open meshed bottom of this lower tank and the cullet is inserted into this up to 75cms in depth. The hinged door is then closed. The water flushing into that tank will have to find its way between the cullet, the geotextile and the meshed bottom to get to the lower section. Thus, it will not flood that lower area by creating a high pressure hose but seep like a Leaky-Pipe Irrigation system instead. If the cullet gets blocked by the impurities in the water supply, then that hinged door can be opened, the cullet replaced and the door rehinged. The irrigation water now seeps onto the mulch below and this then carries that mulch into the area under the rest of the pavement to provide nutrients for the tree and food for the organisms in the soil. The 4 irrigation/seating areas can be cycled so that each day; 1 on each side of the pavement is supplying water to the tree. If this supplies too much or too little water to the tree, then the flow of water to the top tank can changed.

If the pavement is sloped by 1 in 40 towards the middle then this is sufficient for water to flow downhill.


What bliss, on a hot day to find a cool seat to sit on, whilst I watch the lacemaker making lace placemats on the opposing bench!!!

Provide each of your workforce with 3 Three Kneeling Pads to

prevent their knees from being wet or damaged by stones when kneeling on the ground to work on the pavement, etc. Put one beneath each knee and move one knee to the third when required. Why not try the Memory Foam Support Kneeling Mats?


kneelstep1exportedStep One

kneelstep2exportedStep Two

kneelstep3exportedStep Three

As shown on other tools page


If the workforce need to step onto the excavated pavement before the replacement cullet and the Cedardrive has been laid down, then provide 1 metre square kneeling mats for them to lay down before they walk over it and even push wheelbarrows over them as well.

Wear Yellow Criss Cross Gripper Gloves when using any tools to provide high
gripbarriercreamexported even when in water or in rain. These will prevent damage to your hands. They can be washed repeatedly and if holes appear in the palm of one then swap gloves and those holes get onto the top of the other hand.

I used to use protective barrier skin cream Derma Guard which is currently replaced with Derma Shield to prevent chaps on my hands (applied once in the morning and again after lunch).

Please wear overalls to spare my body reaction to the sight of that exposed skin. Unless I close my eyes when in the Dentist's chair my blood thinning medication goes haywire for 2 months due to long exposure to her face.


Use Rubber Garden Trugs, which are very flexible with tough handles; to put the pavement waste in whilst kneeling and excavating. Then, the waste can be loaded into the wheelbarrows behind them.
Use a combination of the Roughneck Utility, Wrecking and Aligning Bar Set and a Claw hammer with Shock-absorbent handle to the removal of the original pavement with its sub base down to the soil underneath. This will cause minimal damage to the roots of that tree under that original pavement.

A trug can also be used to contain 1 colour of cullet before that cullet is transferred into the Cedardrive using a trowel instead of your hands.


Use the Load Eze Skip Safety Ramp to walk the wheelbarrow up and empty into the skip, or the lorry to get your trugful of cullet (put cullet into trug, trug into wheelbarrow, and wheel it to where you need to use it).


The artist (from the school, the inhabitants of that road, or the grandmother's union whose only remaining task is to grow onions in shady gardens!) who is creating the coloured pattern in the pavement, should lay out the mats of Cedardrive on the pavement behind the workers removing the original pavement surface in the order that they will be laid onto the next excavated space. Dip a cullet of the required cullet in cane syrup and place in the bottom of each pocket of each mat with the colour of the cullet that will fill it, with 3 pieces of cullet in the top right corner pocket for orientation data to the cullt fillers. The correct colour of cullet can then be inserted later and at the end of that day's work fill all the newly laid mats with water to dissolve that syrup and soak the material under those mats. The pockets next to the tree should be empty of cullet and their sides cut and the geotextile removed under that pocket, so that the trunk growth can push them away. There is no reason why games cannot be inserted like hopscotch, or images with humour in them (walking through Gatwick Airport to and from the aircraft there are translations from many different languages on the walls to provide information on the English required for that service to be provided to them, which also make you smile).


If the tree is cut down, do stump-grind so that the risk of honey-fungus is reduced - there is at least 1 that has been recently cut to the ground and its stump left. If you replace that tree, do remember that that tree probably has a similar defense mechanism as Roses do - they release chemicals into the soil to kill any rose planted in the same area within 7 years, so replace it with a tree from a different family. Cutting the stump to provide a dipped are will cause water to collect and hasten the rotting or fungus build up in that trunk/roots. This fungus may well damage the replacement tree.

I have saved a 48 inch (120 cm) diameter of trunk of a tree, that its heartwood was so reduced that I could stand up inside it and if I leaned against it, I could have pushed it over. Using the foam etc, I saved that tree and it was stronger from its growing its outer live area within a year.

Do not give up on a tree.


I have not told you about succession yet - a plant has a life period. If you still want a stand of those trees, then you have to provide new trees at a rate to match the dying off of the old in succession rather that as a complete replacement of all at once.


Coals to Newcastle telling the people of Maderia (Origin - Portuguese, literally 'timber' (From Latin materia 'Substance'), because of the island's dense woods) how to look after trees.


Unfortunately simply walking up Cardiac Hill leaves me breathless, so I cannot help physically to save them. If I reach 70, I might see if anything has happened next year.
No need to worry, the same thing as above is happening to your trees in your town in almost any country in the world.



Continuation of Sadness about Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Maderia



Tree falls at monte funchal photo

This looks like the roots of the tree that fell at monte in 2017.


There does not seem to be much in the way of roots on this tree and the ones we can see are far too small for the height of this tree. Perhaps this tree was growing over a rock and that is why there appears to be no roots directly under a portion of the trunk. The visible radial roots are not thick enough to the right of the trunk, is that because not enough water and nutrients have been supplied to this tree every day when it is in very close competition with other very large trees very close by. The visible roots of this tree are far smaller than 1 of the major roots cut off as detailed in ROOT4 above.


There is no evidence of irrigation or of supplying nutrients to these trees. The root area is covered by concrete pavers. The size of the roots and the strength of them under that concrete will be negligible, when less than 1% of the root area can ever receive any rain. The roots need to breathe, receive humus on a regular basis to replace that which is lost to irrigation taking it below the roots and the soil life consuming it on a regular basis; and water to replace that lost by growth and what is transpired through the leaves. I have yet to see any mulches being used and I suspect that the only nutrients are supplied hydroponically in the irrigation system as was done at the Pestana Grand, where in the first winter they drowned their plants before I told them how to correct the situation - they followed the advice and when I saw the bed a year later, I found that they had stopped using that advice. When I see a dentist and they advise that a tooth is abstracted, most people do not ignore the advice and fail to have that tooth abstracted because they think they know better.


Homem vítima de agressão no Monte



Soil Structure

This describes the way in which sand, silt and clay particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’.


The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram.




Once microaggregates have formed, they can then coalesce to form macroaggregates. In soils that have low concentrations of clay, macroaggregate stability is highly dependent on organic matter. The soil underneath pavements and roads has neither clay nor organic matter in Funchal. You might add 1000 grammes of clay per cubic metre of mulch mix before replenishing the mulch which has been irrigated into the area under the pavement. This replenishment might need to be more than once a month, since its covering will no longer be visible under the irrigation/seat system before the end of that month. This clay might also stop the ground under this seating area from "Soil Crusting". If the soil is heavy clay, then add 1000 grammes of sand instead of clay per cubic metre of mulch mix. Pedestrians walking on the CedarDrive will break the cullet below it; this material can then be formed into more soil as a quartz grain equivalent.

The type of organic matter associated with macroaggregates is slightly different from the persistent organic material found in microaggregates. Type one are those stabilising agents that are referred to as ‘temporary’. These consist of microbial and plant by-products, the most important of which are the ‘polysaccharide gums’ that are simply long chains of sugar molecules. Secondly, there are ‘transient’ stabilising agents, which include the fine plant roots and fungal hyphae.

Both stabilising compounds are vulnerable to microbial attack so need to be replenished continuously through inputs of fresh soil organic matter.

If microaggregates do not have a continuing supply of organic matter, then they will break up so that soil particles simply return to being sand, silt or clay.


The soil under the pavement surrounding the above trees does not provide gas exchange, irrigation or nutrients to over 99% of those tree's roots. I have yet to see any mulch applied to any bed either in private gardens or public areas, so how does soil remain and not return to simply being sand or silt? Perhaps the trees are falling down due to lack of a mulch?


You might say that nobody irrigates or provides nutrients to the Madeira Laurel Forest: Laurissilva, so why do they not fall down?

  • Nobody crushes their roots by driving 40 ton waste lorries over the tarmac on top of them,
  • nobody restricts their access to gas exchange,
  • nobody restricts the rain irrigation or
  • nobody comes along and removes all plant waste material which would stop the replenishment of their nutrients from the leaves and branches that do fall to the ground in that forest, and get recycled by the soil life in their fast-food restaurant back to those roots.
  • The plants only grow when their share of the available recycled nutrients,
    support of the other trees round them,
    free gas exchange through the soil - being not compressed by vehicles or people even when that soil is saturated and therefore the channels created by the worms would get squashed -
    water and sunshine is in place.

    Neither is that soil rotavated each spring as happens in the vegetable garden, which totally destroys the soil structure - imagine if you lived in a skyscraper on the top floor and you only ate sunshine and your friend in the basement only ate the dark and then every spring your world was turned upside down, both of you would die. The lift (created by worms) that you used to use to see your friend when it rained and was full of water is destroyed. Then the water would have drained and air would have occupied that tube. The worms at different soil levels also died because they got cut up.
    How to use Companion Planting in your Garden with its covering of bare ground by spinach, mustard or nasturtium instead of rotovating will restore your soil to being soil instead of a Growmore chemically fed mess.


"Any tree planted within 3 feet (90 cms) of a wall will damage the foundations of that wall.

If the eventual height of the tree that you wish to plant will exceed the distance from a wall, then dig a hole 8 feet (240 cms) wide and 3 feet (90 cms) deep, line it with geotextile like Plantex from Travis Perkins - or overlapping concrete slabs on the sides and bottom- to prevent the roots from exceeding that space but it does allow water and air through its spaces. Then, mix

  • 3 portions of the Top Soil part of excavated soil with
  • 1 portion of Spent Mushroom Compost to provide the humus,
  • 0.5 portion of Cow Manure to provide the fertiliser and
  • 25Kg of Calcified Seaweed to provide the Trace Elements

using a cement mixer and refill that hole, firming the ground with your heels after each foot (30 cms) of height has been added." from Deciduous and Evergreen Trees Suitable for Small Gardens List Page that I originally created in December 2006.




You normally eat and drink at least 3 times every day to keep you growing, healthy and active;
plants also require to eat and drink every day.
Above 5 degrees Celcius plants tend to grow above ground and
below 5 degrees Celcius they tend to grow their roots underground.

2 minor points to remember with their result-

  • the oxygen you breathe to keep you alive has mostly been produced by plants using the Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Cycle . A 25 feet x 25 feet lawn can produce enough oxygen for you to keep breathing each year.
  • A car driven 60 miles will consume the same amount of oxygene that a mature beech tree produces in 1 year.
  • Result is that the Carbon Dioxide produced by machines and people/animals breathing is exceeding what plants can do to transform Carbon Dioxide back into air, especially since more of the ground area used for vegetation is being changed to one which is not.
    Increasing Carbon Dioxide increases the heat in the atmosphere and gives what we call Climate Change - In the early Pliocene, global temperatures were 1–2˚C warmer than the present temperature, yet sea level was 15–25 meters (50 - 75 feet) higher than today. The increase in temperature will raise sea level to drown many acres of coastal areas around the world because we as a human race are so stupid; within the next century.


Unfortunately Maderia is not the only country to totally ignore one of the basic requirements of humans - to breathe; it would appear that many including my own also do not bother that we are asphyxiating ourselves.


So lets see what would happen if we did to a growing child what we do to trees in pavements, like the Maple which is more than 24 inches (60 cms) into a main road:-


30 feet = 360 inches = 900 cms high and wide with radius of 15 feet for its roots


5.5 feet = 66 inches = 165 cms high with same width and root radius as tree. She has a 50cm radius, thick copper, band round her neck.

Roots in 63.64 square metres

May receive water on 1 square metre so only 1.57% of the roots get water


May receive water only on 1.57% of her mouth opening and that is only when it is raining or someone provides irrigation.


May transfer carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen through the ground to only 1.57% of roots

Nose and Skin

Breathing through only 1.57% of her nose and 1.57% of her skin


May transfer nutrients to only 1.57% of roots.


May receive on nutrients through only 1.57% of her mouth


98.43% of the roots will have to rely on the 1.57% of the roots to provide nourishment to keep them searching for underground water, underground other sources of nutrients and access to the atmosphere for gaseous exchange.


She is thirsty, starving and out of breath


Some exposed roots get run over by 40 ton lorries every day and others buried within 60cms also receive the same punishment.


I doubt her toes would last long.


1 or 2 of the 7 main roots are cut off. Support of tree is compromised.


Her big toes are cut off, which makes it difficult for her to maintain her balance in strong winds.

Junction of Roots and above ground Trunk

This Maple tree has exceeded its 100 cm diameter ground space and is now sitting on top of tarmac, concrete pavers and concrete slabs. These prevent the live trunk above from meeting the main root below. This means that amount of trunk supporting the tree above is becoming less and less able to provide the strength to support the tree. A strong wind will snap the tree at this point


The neck has exceeded 50cms radius. Her body and head have continued to grow. Because of the copper band her head may well break off in a high wind. Removing the copper band will also break her neck, since the muscles in the neck will not be able to hold the extra weight.


Due to lack of nutrients, water and gaseous exchange in the root area, it is difficult to create new branches or leaves.

Head and hair

The skin is stretched over the face in a gaunt expression and the hair is short and thin, due to same lack as for the trees.


Old branches fall off in the wind creating jagged tears in the trunks. These then rot and the rot continues down the heartwood of the tree, since no-one maintains these trees. This root weakens the tree and eventually it will fall down.


Any damage caused by wind, rain or objects hitting the face are not repaired and can lead to unfortunate results.


Strange that people need plants to get the oxygen they breathe every day, but do not connect that thought that these trees provide that oxygen.
They reduce their supply of oxygen by concreting over more and more of the world!


Those trees will die and fall down.


Since your daughter would have died long ago, if she had suffered the above, why do you make the trees suffer?

This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5.




This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.


More Details

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

These 4 rows show that plants need access to the air, water and nutrients in the ground for mycorrhizal fungi to exchange with them for 30% of the plants production of sugars and lipids. If the ground is covered with tarmac, concrete or stone, it will stop this exchange to the detriment of the plant and the fungi.


The following is from
This Book is a Plant
How to grow, learn and radically engage with the natural world
by different authors.
Published in 2023 by Profile Books Ltd in association with Wellcome Collection.
ISBN 978 1 78816 692 8 :-

"Some time around 600 million years ago, green algae began to move out of shallow fresh waters and onto the land. They were the ancestors of all land plants... Today, plants make up to 80% of the mass of all life on Earth and are the base of the food chains that support nearly all terrestrial organisms....

But the algal ancestors of land plants had no roots, no way to store or transport water, and no experience in extracting nutrients from solid ground. How did they manage the fraught passage onto dry land? ... It was only by striking up new relationships with fungi that algae were able to make it onto land.

These early alliances evolved into what we now call mycorrhizal relationships. Today, more than 90% of all plant species depend on mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal associations are the rule not the exception: a more fundamental part of planthood than fruit, flowers, leaves, wood or even roots....

For the relationship to thrive, both plant and fungus must make a good metabolic match. In photosynthesis, plants harvest carbon from the atmosphere and forge the energy-rich carbon compounds - sugars and lipids - on which much of the rest of life depends. By growing within plant roots, mycorrhizal fungi acquire privileged access to these sources of energy: they get fed. However, photosynthesis is not enough to support life. Plants and fungi need more than a source of energy. Water and minerals must be scavenged from the ground - full of textures and micropores, electrically charged cavities and labyrinthine rot-scapes. Fungi are deft rangers in this wilderness and can forage in a way that plants can not. By hosting fungi within their roots, plants gain hugely improved access to these sources of nutrients. They, too, get fed. By partnering, plants gain a prosthetic fungus, and fungi gain a prosthetic plant. Both use the other to extend their reach.... By the time the first roots evolved, the mycorrhizal association was already some 50 million years old. Mycorrhizal fungi are the roots of all subsequent life on land.

Today, hundreds of millions of years later, plants have evolved, faster-growing, opportunistic roots that behave more like fungi. But even these roots cannot out-manoeuvre fungi when it comes to exploring the soil. Mycorrhizal hyphae are 50 times finer than the finest roots and can exceeed the length of a plant's roots by as much as a 100 times. Their mycelium makes up between a third and a half of the living mass of soils. The numbers are astronomical. Globally, the total length of mycorrhizal hyphae in the top 10 centimetres (4 inches) of soil is around half the width of our galaxy (4.5 x 10 to the power 17 kilometres versus 9.5 x 10 to the power 17 kilometres). If these hyphae were ironed into a flat sheet, their combined surface area would cover every inch of dry land on Earth 2.5 times over....

In their relationship, plants and mycorrhizal fungi enact a polarity: plant shoots engage with the light and air, while the fungi and plant roots engage with the solid ground. Plants pack up light and carbon dioxide into sugars and lipids. Mycorrhizal fungi unpack nutrients bound up in rock and decomposing material. These are fungi with a dual niche: part of their life happens within the plant, part in the soil. They are stationed at the entry point of carbon into terrestrial life cycles and stitch the atmosphere into relation with the ground. To this day, mycorrhizal fungi help plants cope with drought, heat and many other stresses life on land has presented from the very beginning, as do the symbiotic fungi that crowd into plant leaves and stems. What we call 'plants' are in fact fungi that have evolved to farm algae, and algae that have evolved to farm fungi....

Mycorrhizal fungi can provide up to 80% of a plant's nitrogen, and as much as 100% of its phosphorus. Fungi supply other crucial nutrients to plants, such as zinc and copper. They also supply plants with water, and help them to survive drought as they have done since the earliest days of life on land. In return, plants allocate up to 30% of the carbon they harvest to their mycorrhizal partners....

And yet mycorrhizal fungi do more than feed plants. Some describe them as keystone organisms; others prefer the term 'ecosystem engineers'. Mycorrhizal mycelium is a sticky living seam that holds soil together; remove the fungi, and the ground washes away. Mycorrhizal fungi increase the volume of water that the soil can absorb, reducing the quantity of nutrients leached out of the soil by rainfall by as much as 50%. Of the carbon that is found in soils - which, remarkably, amounts to twice the amount of carbon found in plants and the atmosphere combined - a substantial proportion is bound up in tough organic compounds produced by mycorrhizal fungi. The carbon that floods into the soil through mycorrhizal channels supports intricate food webs. Besides the hundreds or thousands of metres of fungal mycelium in a teaspoon of healthy soil, there are more bacteria, protists, insects and arthropods than the number of humans who have ever lived on Earth.

Mycorrhizal fungi can increase the quality of a harvest. They can also increase the ability of crops to compete with weeds and enhance their resistance to diseases by priming plant's immune systems. They can make crops less susceptible to drought and heat, and more resistant to salinity and heavy metals. They even boost the ability of plants to fight off attacks from insect pests by stimulating the production of defensive chemicals...

But over the course of the twentieth century, our neglect has led us into trouble. In viewing soils as more or less lifeless places, industrial agricultural practices have ravaged the undergound communities that sustain the life we eat.... A large study published in 2018 suggested that the 'alarming deterioration' of the health of trees across Europe was caused by a disruption of their mycorrhizal relationships, brought about by nitrogen pollution." from Before Roots chapter by Merlin Sheldrake.



"We do know, that this fragile, generative world has been damaged by intensive farming, pollution, deforestation and global heating. A third of the planet's land has been severely degraded and 24 billion tons of fertile soil are destroyed every year through intensive farming, according to the Global Land Outlook. Topsoil is where 95% of the planet's food is grown and is very delicate. It takes more than 100 years to build 5mm of soil, and it can be destroyed shockingly easily. This destruction and degradation of the soil is created by intensive farming practices such as heavy mechanised soil tilling, which loosens and rips away any plant cover, leaving the soil bare. It is also caused by the overgrazing of animals, as well as forest fires and heavy construction work. These factors disturb the soil and leave it exposed to erosion from wind and water, damaging the complicated systems underneath its top layer...

We are losing good soil at an estimated 100 times faster rate than we can remake and heal it. The world's soils are thought to store approximately 15 thousand million tonnes of carbon - 3 times as much as all of our planet's terrestrial vegetation combined. Soils hold twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and when soil disintegrates, the carbon is released. In the last 40 years the soil in the UK's croplands lost 10% of the carbon it could store. In a time of climate crisis, soil's quiet potency, its ability to store carbon safely, is utterly essential to our future survival....

We know that soils are being destroyed, and that with that comes a higher risk of floods, and a more unpredictable and unreliable food and water system. An Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecostem Services report in 2018 told us clearly that land degradationis already putting the welfare of two-fifths of humanity at risk, and that urgent action is needed to avoid further danger. There are many things we can do to protect soils, and the organisms, plants and connections that thrive within them. Actions that can support and heal soil structure include

  • planting 'cover crops',
  • planting hedgerows or ley strips and
  • encouraging the habitats of animals such as earthworms, which act as 'ecosystem engineers' and aerate the soil as they burrow into it
  • Using reduced till or no-till regimes in farming can also help to prevent the destruction of organic matter in the soil.

Such regimes allow soil structure to remain intact, and protect the soil by allowing crop residues to stay on the surface. " from Strange Soil chapter by Rebecca Tamas.


Due to intensive farming techniques and chemical fertilisers this has occurred:-
A 2004 US study found important nutrients in some garden crops are up to 38% lower than there were at the middle of the 20th Century. On average, across the 43 vegetables analysed, calcium content declined 16%, iron by 15% and phosphorus by 9%.

The BBC has produced an article as to why modern food as lost its nutrients.


The following about trees in pavements show why when the roots are denied access to air, water and nutrients even the fungi cannot work to support the trees.

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


The following addition of this mulch improved the clay soil, so that
neither the fungi nor the plants would drown.

A 150mm deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

The following was then sent to me:-



and the following was sent to me in October 2004:-

An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was need in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.

Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Botanical Names
Common Names
will be compared in:-
Flower colour/month

Evergreen Perennial
Flower Shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant Use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G ,
H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,
O ,P ,Q ,R ,S ,T ,
U ,V ,W , X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
, I, J, K, L, M, N,
, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
, W, XYZ
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos A 1,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance,
Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Flower Shape
Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
for Bedding
in Windowboxes
in Border
naturalized in Grass
in Bulb Frame
in Woodland Garden
in Rock Garden
in Bowls
in Alpine House
Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




Plant Bedding in

Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial is to compare every plant in this website, starting from July 2022
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.