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Damage to Tree Roots in pavements in Funchal, Madeira caused by people





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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019

Every one of the 166 trees with problems in this Funchal Cathedral to the Forum Shopping Centre main road pavements can be repaired and the trees health vastly improved with minimal cost instead of cutting them all down.

130/95/ARB Tree Root Systems by Martin Dobson
, Arboricultural Advisory and Information Service:-

The development and structure of tree root systems are described. They are wide spreading, extending radially in any direction for distances often in excess of the tree's height. Roots grow predominantly near the soil surface - over 90% of all roots, and virtually all the large structural supports, are in the the upper 60cm (24 inches) of soil. Soil disturbance within the rooting area should be avoided, as this can significantly affect tree stability and moisture uptake.

A tree's root system is typically fairly shallow (frequently no deeper than 200 cms (80 inches), but is widespreading, with the majority of roots found in the upper 60cm of soil.
Tree roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, serve as a store for carbohydrates and form a structural system which supports the trunk and crown. Root spread has often been underestimated - they usually extend outwards well beyond the branch spread ('drip line').

Root System Development
Initially a germinating seed has a single root, the radicle, or taproot, which grows veryically downwards provided soil conditions are suitable. Elongation is most rapid during the first 2 or 3 years but decreases with tree age and increasing soil depth. Horizontally growing side shoots (laterals) form at an early age and soon become largely responsible for structural support. Development of the taproot then declines with the result that only a small proportion of trees have a sizeable taproot at maturity. In fact, it is hard to distinguish a taproot at all in many mature trees, as injury to the juvenile taproot tip often occurs, for example, by the browsing of soil fauna, root rot, failure to penetrate hard or compact soil layers, or for nursery stock, by undercutting/transplanting. Intact taproots are usually largest just beneath the trunk and taper until they reach a depth or 50-100 cms (20-40 inches), where they often divide into several smaller, but nevertheless downwardly growing, roots.
Lateral roots near the soil surface thicken over successive years, eventually becoming the large woody roots of the framework root system of a mature tree - there are usually between 4 and 11 such roots which may become 30cm (12 inches) or more in diameter close to the stem.They taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms (80-120 inches) distance they are usually only 2-5 cm (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here that they tend to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm. Beyond the 'zone of rapid taper', lateral roots extend outwards in a broad zone for many metres, without appreciable further decrease in size - typically maintaining a diameter of 1-2 cm (0.5-1 inch). They are sparsley branched, perennial, woody and rope-like in appearance. Although most rope-like roots are only 500-1500 cms (200-600 inches) long, some can be 2500 cms (1000 inches) or more in length.
Roots branching from the upper side of laterals grow upwards and divide profusely in the surface soil, which is usually well-aerated, to form fans or mats of thousands of fine (<2mm diameter) non-woody 'absorbing' or 'feeder' roots. In woodland, they grow horizontally between the 2 to 3 year year old fallen leaves. Root fans permeate and hold together the litter over a considerable area; each one can occupy a thin horizontal layer of 300 square centimetres or more. Associated with these roots are much finer, thread-like, mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizae are symbiotic fungi which grow on or in roots, an association which is mutually beneficial to both the tree and the fungus. They are extremely efficient at nutrient absorption, especially phosphorus, and many trees cannot survive without them. Fine roots and their mycorrhizae are jointly responsible for moisture and nutrient uptake, whilst the perennial woody roots primarily act as conducting vessels to and from the trunk. Fine roots have a life span ranging from a few days to several years - on average surviving for 1-2 years.
Roots branching from the lower side of the laterals are known as 'sinkers roots' and usually occur within a few metres of the stem. They are usually 1-2cm (0.4-0.8 inch) in diameter, grow downwards, and in contrast to the taproot or oblique laterals, divide at their extremities into fine, non-woody roots.

Root Distribution
The variability of soil conditions and the presence of obstacles and barriers to root growth result in variable and unpredictable distribution. This is because root growth is opportunistic, occuring only where the soil environment can sustain it. Roots proliferate wherever they encounter favourable conditions, which is why the greatest root concentration is found close to the soil surface where the soil is loosest, and water, oxygen and nurients are most readily available. Soil bulk density increases and aeration decreases with increasing soil depth and consequently root numbers and size decline sharply with depth, thus below 100 cms (40 inches) it is rare to find many roots which are larger than a few mm in diameter.

Root Depth
The deepest roots are usually found directly below, or near to, the trunk as tap, oblique lateral or sinker roots. All trees can develop a deep root system (200-300 cms = 80-120 inches, deep) if soil conditions allow.
Whilst genetic characteristics of a tree play some part in rooting pattern, soil conditions are of overriding importance. Thus, downward penetration of tree roots can be halted by excessive stoniness, ironpans, compact soil layers (especially compact clays), bedrock, poor aeration and high or perched water tables. Even taproots are unable to continue downwards when they reach such conditions - either they turn horizontally or die back. Where deep roots dies, several replacement root tips can develop just behind the dead tissue and these in turn either become horizontal or die. Obstructions in the soil at shallow depths are common in the UK, and thus it is not surprising that a survey of the root plates of windthrown trees in southern England after the storms of 1987 and 1990 revealed that 44% of root plates were shallower than 100 cms (40 inches), 95% were shallower than 200 cms (80 inches) and the deepest root plate was only 300 cms (120 inches). This pattern accords well with the large amount of data available from excavations of root systems which indicate that average root depths are typically in the range 100-200 cms (40-80 inches).

Root Spread
Root spread is not confined to the area delineated by a downward projection from the branch tips as has often been supposed. Excavation has revealed that roots can grow for a considerable distance beyond the branch spread; typically extending outwards for a distance equivalent to at least the tree's height, and in some cases (particularly in infertile or compacted soils) up to 3 times tree height. Roots distant from the trunk are usually very close to the soil surface. Obstacles in the soil such as rocks, kerbs or building foundations provide a physical barrier to root extension. Roots meeting such obstacles are typically deflected by them and once clear of the obstruction they often resume their original direction of growth.


Factors Affecting Root Distribution
Soil Bulk Density
Root growth declines sharply with increasing density of soil. Compaction can be a natural feature on some sites, e.g caused by glaciation, or it can be induced, e.g by repeated passage of vehicles over the soil surface. Where soils have been compacted it is often difficult to establish trees because the roots fail to penetrate into the soil effectively. Trees growing in such soils develop a very shallow root system with a greater number of lateral roots in the relatively less dense surface soil. Roots reaching a compact subsurface horizon tend to deform or branch profusely and continue laterally above the plane of compaction. If these roots encounter a pathway through the compact layer, e.g. following a fissure or decayed root channel, they may resume downward growth. If soil beneath the obstruction is favourable then roots may proliferate, producing a two-tier root system. Established trees that experience sudden compaction of the soil (for example by movement of machinery on construction sites, taxis parking on pavements with only a concrete paver between it's wheel and the ground underneath, or lorries delivering supplies to shops parking on pavements, traffic running over tarmac road where gap in tarmac reveals tree root) frequently suffer root death, and crown dieback often occurs because of the inability of the tree to adapt quickly to the rapid change in soil conditions.

Soil Aeration
In order for roots to survive, oxygen must be available imediately surrounding them. Oxygen supply to roots is governed by soil structure and texture; in loose or coarse textured soils the air gaps between the soil particles are relatively large and so atmospheric oxygen diffuses readily into the soil, and the waste product of respiration, carbon dioxide, can diffuse away. This process is inhibited in fine textured (clayey), waterlogged and compacted soils because pore spaces are small and may also be filled with water - gaseous diffusion is 10,000 times quicker in air than in water.
Poor soil aeration can result in the death and decay of a large proportion of the existing root system.
Trees standing in such conditions tend to be characterised by very shallow, plate-like root systems where roots are confined to the upper, more aerobic soil. The roots of dormant trees (i.e.deciduous trees when defoliated) tolerate periods of poor aeration better than those of actively growing trees because their respiration rate is reduced and they need less oxygen.

Fertile soil encourages the growth of shoots realtive to roots and increases the branching of roots. Roots of established trees proliferate in areas of moist soil that are rich in nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. In general, soils with low fertility produce root systems characterised by long, slender, poorly branched surface roots, whereas sites with higher fertility produce root systems that are well branched and descend deeper into the soil (provided it is sufficiently loose and oxygen is available).


Tree Roots and the Water Table
It is a common misconception that trees are heavily dependent upon the water table for moisture during dry summer months. In most parts of the UK the water table is situated deep in the soil, well beyond the reach of tree roots, and contributes nothing to meeting the water demand of trees. Trees, and other vegetation, are usually wholly dependent on recent rainfall and the water stored in the soil. Moffat has demonstrated that the water requirement of trees in most parts of the UK and for most soil types, even during dry summers, is available in a soil depth of about 150 cms (60 inches). In the rare cases where roots are within reach of the water table, they quite often proliferate just above it, in the 'capillary fringe' but they are unable to grow into the saturated pores of the water table because of poor aeration.


Practical Implications
Tree roots may extend radially a distance equivalent to at least the height of the tree and are located primarily in the upper 60 cm (24 inches) of soil. The main structural roots are usually found in the upper 30 cm (12 inches), and taper substantially within about 300cm (120 inches) of the trunk. The vast majority of fine absorbing roots are even closer to the soil surface. Thus any soil disturbance within the rooting zone will damage tree roots and should be avoided. Within the rooting area the following should especially be avoided:-

  • soil stripping and site grading
  • trenching, even a shallow (<150 mm = 6 inches) trench
  • soil compaction by movement of vehicles or storage of materials
  • deposit of toxic or impermeable materials

The nearer to the trunk that such operations occur, the greater the damage and loss of roots. This will increasingly reduce the ability of the tree to absorb sufficient water to sustain the foliage - dieback of the crown may result. IF ROOTS GREATER THAN 20CM (8 INCHES) ARE CUT WITHIN 200-300 CMS (80-120 INCHES) OF THE TRUNK, STABILITY MAY BE AFFECTED AND THE TREE MADE DANGEROUS.
There is considerable misinformation about the damage that can be caused by tree roots. It is true that under some circumstances they may cause damage to built structures. However, direct damage is rare and usually only occurs when trees are situated less than 100-200 cms (40-80 inches) away from lightly loaded structures such as boundary and garage walls, paving slabs and kerbs. However, the direct pressure exerted by tree roots can be measured and is surprisingly small. Indirect damage to structures may occur where tree roots contribute to the drying of shrinkable clay soils where foundations are inadequate to accomodate movements. Guidelines exist for determining the appropriate depth of foundations for new houses on clay soils (NHBC, 1992)."

Ivydene Gardens Soil: What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay? Page for further details and
Ivydene Gardens Soil: Case 1 - Clay on Sand Subsidence Page for the following:-
"The house below was built on sand at the bottom of a sloping lawn. The 12 feet wide patio stretching the length of the back of the house was laid on top of 2 feet thick of blue clay. The lawn sloped down towards the house and also sloped towards the hedge you can see on the right hand side. When it rained, the water would flow off the lawn onto the patio and then to the house. The water then percolated down to the clay, which then swelled (clay can usually absorb 40% of its own volume in water before it turns from a solid to a liquid) which caused a break in the wall above the bay window, resulting in subsidence to the building 6 years after it was built.

GreenBlue Urban provides a tree pit solution for cities where the tree roots get room to expand and grow from planting to maturity, get irrigated and have access for their gaseous exchange with the outside air.

Benefits of Urban Trees:-

  • Health – Urban trees have a positive impact on the incidence of skin cancer, asthma, hypertension and stress related illnesses amongst city dwellers. They also provide a number of additional psychological benefits.
  • Efficiency – One study conducted calculated that every $1 spent on tree planting, would yield $7 of savings in terms of infrastructure and energy costs.
  • Property Values – Urban trees can increase real estate values. Independent studies show a consistent increase in property values in tree lined streets of between 5-15%.
  • Crime Reduction – Researchers have discovered reductions in both violent and petty crime, including domestic violence in locations with mature urban tree planting.
  • Urban Forest Air Quality – Research has shown a 60% reduction in particulates from exhaust fumes, etc in streets with urban tree planting. For every 10% increase in a city tree canopy, ozone is reduced by between 3-7%.
  • Cooling Effects – One mature tree can produce the same cooling effect as 10 room sized air conditioners. This makes urban trees an effective tool in reducing urban heat islands and hot spots in cities. Trees can save up to 10% of local energy consumption through their moderation of local climate.

Sustainable Urban Drainage (SuDs)
Sustainable Urban Drainage (SuDs) provides opportunities to reduce flood risk and attenuate surface water runoff.
The most robust and effective schemes are implemented when, at the very earliest stages of the design process, Planners, Landscape Architects, Architects, Civil Engineers, Tree Officers and all other stakeholders work to decide on the configuration and appropriate scale of SuDs interventions on site.

  • Mitigating Climate Change
  • Increasing Biodiversity
  • Stormwater Management
  • Improved Public Realm
  • Combatting Urban Heat Island Effect
  • Health Outcomes
  • Reduced cost to public and private sectors: costs of water treatment, flood damage

GreenBlue Urban continues to design and manufacture SuDs compatible solutions for planting trees into the hard landscape. Through the use of our root directors, modular cell systems such as StrataCell and RootSpace, combined with our Arborflow system, a simple tree pit is transformed. Our systems provide the aeration, irrigation and space that the root system requires to ensure that urban trees can thrive and provide the long-term canopy cover to be efficient contributors to the SuDs train.

Trees & Climate Change
By signing up to international carbon reduction targets, world leaders have issued a challenge to everyone involved in urban space design. Whilst we cannot realistically claim that planting trees will significantly affect global climate, what we do know is that trees and climate change have a closer relationship than we once realised, and thus, green infrastructure has a major role to play in city climate mitigation and adaptation strategies.
Trees can, by providing shade and cooling through transpiration and evaporation processes, reduce temperatures around them. Clusters of well established urban trees probably represent the most effective tool available to urban designers in combating urban heat islands and heat sinks in cities. These pockets of heat accumulate in urban areas as a result of solar energy and glare reflected off engineered hard surfaces. These same surfaces store the heat and release it over night, scarcely having time to cool before the next sun rise.
As mentioned elsewhere on the site, one well established tree can have the effect of 10 room sized air conditioners – but of course from a totally sustainable, zero energy source!
The targets set for CO2 reduction are extremely challenging – by 2020, a reduction of 1.2m tonnes of CO2 per annum is looked for in the UK, and by 2050 a reduction target of 80% of 2009 levels. If trees are to play a part in implementing this reduction, a lot needs to happen quickly.

How we can help:

  • By assisting you in evaluating tree pit designs
  • Providing guidance on best practice in tree pit layout and planting methods
  • Giving you quality advice
  • Providing detailed tree pit specifications and costings
  • Supplying practical, cost effective products to assist tree establishment
  • Site support when planting
  • Supplying lists of suitably qualified contractors to execute the work

St Peter's Square in Manchester, England is an example where GreenBlue Urban has installed trees.

From the blurb on the GreenBlue Urban website, it looks as though each tree planted is a proper semi-mature tree, not a pollarded 4 metre high 2.5 cm diameter trunk of a juvenile tree. Their trees were installed in pits 16-25 square metres instead of 1 square metre in Maderia. Their trees had root directing systems for the growth in their lifetime instead of none in Madeira. Their trees were irrigated, but I did not see this either being done or evidence that it had been done in Madeira. Once the tree in Madeira had filled the 1 square metre, then it had no access to irrigation, or gaseous exchange and they could not grow their roots to support the growth created by the leaves getting it from rain and the minerals from the volcanic soil (farmers in the surrounding hills are now not allowed to use chemical fertilisers and so rely on the compost from their own fields, cattle or goats and simply the irrigation water from the levadas). What I will suggest in the Solution to Tree Problems Page is nothing as sophisticated as the GreenBlue Urban solution, but could prevent the tourists in Madeira from leaving Funchal due to overheating.


The following diagrams come from Plant Anatomy by A.Fahn Professor of Botany in the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Translated from the hebrew by Sybil Broido-altman. Publ;ished by Pergamon Press Ltd in 1967. Reprinted 1972. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 66-24822.

Root hair, a type of trichome developing on the epidermis of roots; absorbs solutions from the soil. (page 490 in Glossary of Terms).


Section 3 of Fig 68.1 show maturing root hairs from Page 158 of Chapter 10 Epidermis.


"Root hairs are usually viable for only a short period, generally only a few days" from Page 159 of Chapter 10 Epidermis. Since they are the roots that absorb the ions required by the tree in solution of water, then when there is no more water in the soil, where is the solution for the growth of the tree?


This is Fig 111.1 from Page 244 of Chapter 13 The Root. This shows the root hair on the circumference of the root, with the vascular cylinder in the middle as shown in the figure below.


This Fig 112 from Page 245 of Chapter 13 The Root.


This is from Page 258 of Chapter 13 The Root.

"Ions are selectively transported and accumulated by roots." These ions come from the Root Hairs through the Cortex to the 'Vascular Cyclinder ... serves as the main transport system for water and ions".

Lack of water in the soil; leaves little point for the root to produce root hairs and so how does a tree whose roots are under concrete, tarmac or other impermeable material survive?

Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4

Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG_6048.JPG


Photo 2 - tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG_6048.JPG

The lateral between the tree and the road has been turned round by the kerb. Another deposit of impermeable material restricting the growth of this tree, further details below.

Photo 3 - tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG_6048.JPG

It has been decided that the pavement would be tidied up by applying concrete over 2 of the laterals of this tree.

From the Death of tree roots in Madeira caused by people page:-
Practical Implications
Tree roots may extend radially a distance equivalent to at least the height of the tree and are located primarily in the upper 60 cm (24 inches) of soil. The main structural roots are usually found in the upper 30 cm (12 inches), and taper substantially within about 300cm (120 inches) of the trunk. The vast majority of fine absorbing roots are even closer to the soil surface. Thus any soil disturbance within the rooting zone will damage tree roots and should be avoided. Within the rooting area the following should especially be avoided:-

  • soil stripping and site grading
  • trenching, even a shallow (<150 mm = 6 inches) trench
  • soil compaction by movement of vehicles or storage of materials
  • deposit of toxic or impermeable materials

The nearer to the trunk that such operations occur, the greater the damage and loss of roots. This will increasingly reduce the ability of the tree to absorb sufficient water to sustain the foliage - dieback of the crown may result.
Concrete is both a toxic and an impermeable material.





Photo 4 - tree 97 from pestana promenade to forum roots under pavers IMG_6047.JPG

Another example of 1 lateral root being turned by the kerb and the other by the concrete pavers. Even though pink coloured concrete was laid over a lateral root, that concrete was broken by that root hunting for water perhaps in a Hotel garden nearby and the root increased in diameter in order to support the tree, provide water and nutrients to that tree and be able to have gaseous exchange.

It would appear that the lateral root on the left has been repeatedly stepped on and I am sure that laying the remainder of the concrete edging onto the earth has been greatly appreciated by that tree as it unknowingly consumes a toxic material. You can see sections of the concrete edging on the side of the tree enclosure nearest the bottom of the photo.

The weeds are quite happily growing between the pavers, which may indicate that those pavers have been laid directly onto the earth instead of onto a valid foundation sub-base with a 2 inch (5 cms) depth of sharp washed sand above it.


Photo 5 - tree 97 from pestana promenade to forum roots under pavers IMG_6052.JPG

Note that the kerb has been pushed out, the surrounding conrete slabs moved and the concrete paving pavement elevated by the roots.

If we are generous and assume that the square of ground bounded round that tree is 60 x 60cms, then if we assume that the roots only go out up to 3 times the tree height in compacted soils and assume that this tree is only 6oo cms high, then the root area will only be 1018 square metres (Area of circle is Pi x radius x radius. The area of ground in which this tree sits is 0.36 square metres. The area of exposed ground for the tree roots - if we exclude the fact that the tree itself is in the same space - is only 0.00335363 of the possible root space.

I wonder if that same amount of space on a human for it to breathe, drink and eat from is less than the open area of 1 nostril. You know that could present problems, but these people in Madeira are very clever and get round these minor difficulties.

If the CORE TRP SYSTEM as detailed on the Solution to tree problems page was used for the entire pavement, then a great deal more of the root area could have access to the open air.


Photo 6 - tree 100 from pestana promenade to forum tree with roots above ground IMG_6060.JPG

Another example of 2 lateral roots being turned by the kerb and the other by the concrete pavement sections.

Photo 7 - tree 100 from pestana promenade to forum tree with roots above ground IMG_6061.JPG

Same tree from its other side.

Photo 8 - tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree IMG_6062.JPG

This tree has a hollow trunk as you can see with the black area and other problems at ground level.




Photo 9 - tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk IMG_6068.JPG

Concrete pavers come right up to the trunk of this tree and the tree trunk is into the road.



Photo 10 - tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk IMG_6063.JPG

The hole in the trunk could be sold by the Tourist Office, who would; of course; install a thin front door (you would need to go inside your bijou residence sideways) with a toilet behind it ( you could also sleep on this toilet saving hotel bed costs), a small sink to the side and hanging space for one's clothes for a very reasonable price. A camping stove could be set up outside to cook your meals and then you could use a small fold-up stool for seating.
Household insurance to cover the flat from being blown down could be expensive. You would need to scrub off the charcoal from the burnt inside of the trunk, before you could paint it magnolia. You might not be able to extend the living space within the trunk without structural collapse.

Try not to be on the zebra crossing when it does fall if there is no repair.



Photo 11 - tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum IMG_6026.JPG

The grass growing between the concrete pavers will absorb any irrigation water so where else is this tree going to get soil water, soil air for oxygen, live soil organisms with their food of organic matter to produce food for the tree using that oxygen in the soil air?

Photo 12 - tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk IMG_6039.JPG

Photo 13 - tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG_6043.JPG




























This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.


More Details

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

These 4 rows show that plants need access to the air, water and nutrients in the ground for mycorrhizal fungi to exchange with them for 30% of the plants production of sugars and lipids. If the ground is covered with tarmac, concrete or stone, it will stop this exchange to the detriment of the plant and the fungi.


The following is from
This Book is a Plant
How to grow, learn and radically engage with the natural world
by different authors.
Published in 2023 by Profile Books Ltd in association with Wellcome Collection.
ISBN 978 1 78816 692 8 :-

"Some time around 600 million years ago, green algae began to move out of shallow fresh waters and onto the land. They were the ancestors of all land plants... Today, plants make up to 80% of the mass of all life on Earth and are the base of the food chains that support nearly all terrestrial organisms....

But the algal ancestors of land plants had no roots, no way to store or transport water, and no experience in extracting nutrients from solid ground. How did they manage the fraught passage onto dry land? ... It was only by striking up new relationships with fungi that algae were able to make it onto land.

These early alliances evolved into what we now call mycorrhizal relationships. Today, more than 90% of all plant species depend on mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal associations are the rule not the exception: a more fundamental part of planthood than fruit, flowers, leaves, wood or even roots....

For the relationship to thrive, both plant and fungus must make a good metabolic match. In photosynthesis, plants harvest carbon from the atmosphere and forge the energy-rich carbon compounds - sugars and lipids - on which much of the rest of life depends. By growing within plant roots, mycorrhizal fungi acquire privileged access to these sources of energy: they get fed. However, photosynthesis is not enough to support life. Plants and fungi need more than a source of energy. Water and minerals must be scavenged from the ground - full of textures and micropores, electrically charged cavities and labyrinthine rot-scapes. Fungi are deft rangers in this wilderness and can forage in a way that plants can not. By hosting fungi within their roots, plants gain hugely improved access to these sources of nutrients. They, too, get fed. By partnering, plants gain a prosthetic fungus, and fungi gain a prosthetic plant. Both use the other to extend their reach.... By the time the first roots evolved, the mycorrhizal association was already some 50 million years old. Mycorrhizal fungi are the roots of all subsequent life on land.

Today, hundreds of millions of years later, plants have evolved, faster-growing, opportunistic roots that behave more like fungi. But even these roots cannot out-manoeuvre fungi when it comes to exploring the soil. Mycorrhizal hyphae are 50 times finer than the finest roots and can exceeed the length of a plant's roots by as much as a 100 times. Their mycelium makes up between a third and a half of the living mass of soils. The numbers are astronomical. Globally, the total length of mycorrhizal hyphae in the top 10 centimetres (4 inches) of soil is around half the width of our galaxy (4.5 x 10 to the power 17 kilometres versus 9.5 x 10 to the power 17 kilometres). If these hyphae were ironed into a flat sheet, their combined surface area would cover every inch of dry land on Earth 2.5 times over....

In their relationship, plants and mycorrhizal fungi enact a polarity: plant shoots engage with the light and air, while the fungi and plant roots engage with the solid ground. Plants pack up light and carbon dioxide into sugars and lipids. Mycorrhizal fungi unpack nutrients bound up in rock and decomposing material. These are fungi with a dual niche: part of their life happens within the plant, part in the soil. They are stationed at the entry point of carbon into terrestrial life cycles and stitch the atmosphere into relation with the ground. To this day, mycorrhizal fungi help plants cope with drought, heat and many other stresses life on land has presented from the very beginning, as do the symbiotic fungi that crowd into plant leaves and stems. What we call 'plants' are in fact fungi that have evolved to farm algae, and algae that have evolved to farm fungi....

Mycorrhizal fungi can provide up to 80% of a plant's nitrogen, and as much as 100% of its phosphorus. Fungi supply other crucial nutrients to plants, such as zinc and copper. They also supply plants with water, and help them to survive drought as they have done since the earliest days of life on land. In return, plants allocate up to 30% of the carbon they harvest to their mycorrhizal partners....

And yet mycorrhizal fungi do more than feed plants. Some describe them as keystone organisms; others prefer the term 'ecosystem engineers'. Mycorrhizal mycelium is a sticky living seam that holds soil together; remove the fungi, and the ground washes away. Mycorrhizal fungi increase the volume of water that the soil can absorb, reducing the quantity of nutrients leached out of the soil by rainfall by as much as 50%. Of the carbon that is found in soils - which, remarkably, amounts to twice the amount of carbon found in plants and the atmosphere combined - a substantial proportion is bound up in tough organic compounds produced by mycorrhizal fungi. The carbon that floods into the soil through mycorrhizal channels supports intricate food webs. Besides the hundreds or thousands of metres of fungal mycelium in a teaspoon of healthy soil, there are more bacteria, protists, insects and arthropods than the number of humans who have ever lived on Earth.

Mycorrhizal fungi can increase the quality of a harvest. They can also increase the ability of crops to compete with weeds and enhance their resistance to diseases by priming plant's immune systems. They can make crops less susceptible to drought and heat, and more resistant to salinity and heavy metals. They even boost the ability of plants to fight off attacks from insect pests by stimulating the production of defensive chemicals...

But over the course of the twentieth century, our neglect has led us into trouble. In viewing soils as more or less lifeless places, industrial agricultural practices have ravaged the undergound communities that sustain the life we eat.... A large study published in 2018 suggested that the 'alarming deterioration' of the health of trees across Europe was caused by a disruption of their mycorrhizal relationships, brought about by nitrogen pollution." from Before Roots chapter by Merlin Sheldrake.



"We do know, that this fragile, generative world has been damaged by intensive farming, pollution, deforestation and global heating. A third of the planet's land has been severely degraded and 24 billion tons of fertile soil are destroyed every year through intensive farming, according to the Global Land Outlook. Topsoil is where 95% of the planet's food is grown and is very delicate. It takes more than 100 years to build 5mm of soil, and it can be destroyed shockingly easily. This destruction and degradation of the soil is created by intensive farming practices such as heavy mechanised soil tilling, which loosens and rips away any plant cover, leaving the soil bare. It is also caused by the overgrazing of animals, as well as forest fires and heavy construction work. These factors disturb the soil and leave it exposed to erosion from wind and water, damaging the complicated systems underneath its top layer...

We are losing good soil at an estimated 100 times faster rate than we can remake and heal it. The world's soils are thought to store approximately 15 thousand million tonnes of carbon - 3 times as much as all of our planet's terrestrial vegetation combined. Soils hold twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and when soil disintegrates, the carbon is released. In the last 40 years the soil in the UK's croplands lost 10% of the carbon it could store. In a time of climate crisis, soil's quiet potency, its ability to store carbon safely, is utterly essential to our future survival....

We know that soils are being destroyed, and that with that comes a higher risk of floods, and a more unpredictable and unreliable food and water system. An Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecostem Services report in 2018 told us clearly that land degradationis already putting the welfare of two-fifths of humanity at risk, and that urgent action is needed to avoid further danger. There are many things we can do to protect soils, and the organisms, plants and connections that thrive within them. Actions that can support and heal soil structure include

  • planting 'cover crops',
  • planting hedgerows or ley strips and
  • encouraging the habitats of animals such as earthworms, which act as 'ecosystem engineers' and aerate the soil as they burrow into it
  • Using reduced till or no-till regimes in farming can also help to prevent the destruction of organic matter in the soil.

Such regimes allow soil structure to remain intact, and protect the soil by allowing crop residues to stay on the surface. " from Strange Soil chapter by Rebecca Tamas.


Due to intensive farming techniques and chemical fertilisers this has occurred:-
A 2004 US study found important nutrients in some garden crops are up to 38% lower than there were at the middle of the 20th Century. On average, across the 43 vegetables analysed, calcium content declined 16%, iron by 15% and phosphorus by 9%.

The BBC has produced an article as to why modern food as lost its nutrients.


The following about trees in pavements show why when the roots are denied access to air, water and nutrients even the fungi cannot work to support the trees.

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


The following addition of this mulch improved the clay soil, so that
neither the fungi nor the plants would drown.

A 150mm deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

The following was then sent to me:-



and the following was sent to me in October 2004:-

An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was need in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.

Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Botanical Names
Common Names
will be compared in:-
Flower colour/month

Evergreen Perennial
Flower Shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant Use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G ,
H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,
O ,P ,Q ,R ,S ,T ,
U ,V ,W , X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
, I, J, K, L, M, N,
, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
, W, XYZ
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos A 1,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance,
Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Flower Shape
Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
for Bedding
in Windowboxes
in Border
naturalized in Grass
in Bulb Frame
in Woodland Garden
in Rock Garden
in Bowls
in Alpine House
Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




Plant Bedding in

Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial is to compare every plant in this website, starting from July 2022
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.