Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Grass List

 

The Grass Gallery compares colour photographs of some of the following grasses.

 

Grass Lawn

The different turves produced by Lindum for lawn laying are detailed at the bottom of this page.

Grass Lawn Maintenance

It is worth collecting the leaves from deciduous trees in the autumn by using a rotary lawn mower on your lawn. If you do this about once a week, whilst the leaves are falling, then this will prevent the grass from being smothered and dying off. Use these collected leaves on the beds and under the hedges at a 4 inch (100mm) depth as a mulch. This will

  • a) reduce the appearance next year of annual weeds since the sunlight cannot then get to the seeds to germinate them,
  • b) feed the plants with their nutrients, and
  • c) aid in preventing the ground drying out through the action of wind and sun.

Mosses are tiny non-flowering plants with green leaves. They are anchored to the substrate - soil, bark, timber, brick wall, roof tile and tarmac - by 'non-absorbing' roots called rhizoids. There are 3 types of moss that cause problems in turf:-

Cushion forming mosses - tiny ground-hugging clusters of moss indicative of dampness and mower scalping,
Trailing mosses - symptoms of very poor drainage and shade (50 kg of top dressing for every 25 square yards annually in April on clay soil improves drainage), and
Upright mosses - larger, taller and tuftier moss plants found on drier and more acidic soils (add ground limestone to make it less acidic).

Shade encourages moisture and therefore moss, and especially the shade created by year-round reduction in light level caused by conifers and other evergreen trees/shrubs. Open up the canopy to allow more sunlight to reach the turf.
Lawn Sand is a mixture that contains two products; a lawn fertiliser and a moss killer that work together to condition your lawn. The lawn fertiliser feeds the grass and promotes growth to create rich, deep green grass and a healthier lawn. The moss killer tackles the moss, causing it to blacken and die. It can then be raked out and disposed of. Lawn Sand can be used between early March and mid November. It is not suitable for use during drought, freezing conditions or when rain is falling or expected. Add Calcified Seaweed to the turf in March to provide the trace elements.

Regular housekeeping of turf by scarification, and aeration by spiking using a fork, all help to avoid the compaction and persistent dampness that encourages moss.

Mowing begins when the grass starts growing in March. Don't mow when the grass is wet; it is dryer in the afternoon after the dew has evaporated. Utility lawns can be cut to 14 (35 cms)5 inches and 'Fine lawns' to 0.75 inches high, removing no more than about 0.5 inches per cut.

A grass height above 1.5 inches favours course grasses (ryegrasses) at the expense of the fine grasses (fescues). Cuts below 0.5 inches severely reduces the ability of the grass to regenerate and allows weeds in. During the summer in drought-free conditions the final heights can be reduced to 1 inch for utility and 0.5 inches for 'fine lawns' in the UK.

I do not recommend the use of 'Mulch Mowers'.

 

grassrootThese are the roots of one bog-standard ryegrass plant that was growing in Type I Roadstone. I washed out the stone and you can see how much root it has. If you have grass growing within 3 feet radius of a tree, then it will absorb most of the rain that falls on that section of the ground and any nutrients in the soil, leaving very little for that tree or any shrub/tree vegetation you have growing in a lawn or grass area.

RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue see RTF in the Lindum Turf Range below), can root to 1.5 metres deep giving it a chance to tap into water reserves that normal lawn turf cannot reach. That would mean no water or nutrients for any other plant in that section of ground.

Evergreen Grass

Plant Name

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
Plants below 24 inches (60 cms) in Height

 

Evergreen - Of plants that retain their foliage for more than one growing season; semi-evergreen plants retain only a small proportion of their leaves for more than one season.

Carex hachijoensis 'Evergold'
Festuca eskia
Festuca glauca 'Blue Fox'
 

12 x 14 (30 xxx35)
6 x 10 (15 x 25)
12 x 10 (30 x 25)
 

 

Evergreen Grass

Plant Name

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
Plants between 24 and 72 inches (60 - 180 cms) in Height

 

Grass - Erect or arching stems are usually round and hollow, with regularly spaced nodes. Being monocotyledons means having only one (mono) seed-leaf (cotyledon).Their leaf veins are typically parallel to one another and the leaf margins are often smooth.

Carex pendula
Luzula nivea
Luzula sylvatica
Luzula sylvatica 'Aurea'
Phalaris arundinacea 'Feesey'
...
Phalaris arundinacea var. picta
 

54 x 60 (135 x 150)
24 x 18 (60 x 45)
30 x 18 (75 x 45)
30 x 18 (75 x 45)
60 x indefinite (150 x indefinite)
36 x 12 (90 x 30)
 

 

Evergreen Grass

Plant Name

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
Plants above 72 inches (180 cms) in Height

 

 

Cortaderia selloana
'Sunningdale Silver'
Stipa gigantea (Golden Oats)
 

120 x 96 (300 x 240)
.
96 x 48 (240 x 120)
 

 

 

Herbaceous Grass

Plant Name

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
Plants below 24 inches (60 cms) in Height

 

Herbaceous - A non-woody plant in which the upper parts die down to a rootstock at the end of the growing season. It is chiefly applied to perennials, although botanically it also applies to annuals and biennials.

Carex comans
Carex siderosticha 'Variegata'
 

12 x 30 (30 x 75)
12 x 16 (30 x 40)
 

 

Herbaceous Grass

Plant Name

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
Plants between 24 and 72 inches (60 - 180 cms) in Height

 

 

Carex elata 'Aurea'
 

28 x 18 (70 x 45)
 

 

 

 

The Lindum Turf Range.

All turf produced by Lindum is grown on stone-free sandy loam soils to rigorously high, certified standards.

All grades of Lindum's turf can be supplied washed. Washed turf is particularly appropriate if you have an area that needs to become established quickly as it roots much more rapidly than standard turf, providing the ideal solution if you have tight timescales to work to. The turf is processed to remove all the soil from the root mat using a specially patented system. It is available in standard or large rolls and can be used in conjunction with re-inforced rootzone systems.

Code

Name of Grade

Application

Features

Seed Mix

LT1

Tournament Greens

Bowling Greens

Very Fine
Dense Sward
Close Mowing
High Maintenance

Chewings/ Slender
Creeping Red Fescue
Browntop Bent or High % Browntop Bent

LT3

Ryegreen

Cricket and Tennis
Finest Lawns

Hard Wearing
Good Recovery
Mow to 6mm

Fine Leafed Ryegrass
Chewings & Creeping Red Fescue

LT4

Smooth Stalked Tees

High Quality Formal Lawns

Hard Wearing
Fine Turf
Good Appearance
Variable Maintenance

Chewings & Creeping Red Fescue
Smooth Stalked Meadow Grass

LT6

Sporturf

Football

Very Hard Wearing
Good Recovery Average Maintenance

Dwarf Rye Grass
Smooth Stalked Meadow Grass Chewings & Red Fescue

LT7

Festival

Lawns

Hard Wearing Good Recovery Average Maintenance

Dwarf Rye Grass Smooth Stalked Meadow Grass Chewings & Red Fescue

LT9

RTF

Landscaping
Soil Stabilisation

Shade Tolerant Drought Tolerant Average Maintenance

Rhizomatous Tall Fescue
Smooth Stalked Meadow Grass

 

RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, produces rhizomes (an underground stem) that send a shoot up to the soil surface while extending new roots downwards. In fact, RTF can root to 1.5 metres deep giving it a chance to tap into water reserves that normal lawn turf cannot reach.

By re-turfing a garden with heat and drought tolerant RTF turf, lawns should remain green, lush and consistently thick, even in the height of summer. The lawn has high tensile strength, which quickly fills in damaged or open spots with new shoots of grass effectively knitting the lawn together, resulting in a garden that is extremely wear and tear tolerant, and one that can withstand the stress of adverse conditions such as drought and shade.

Because RTF is suited to almost all soil types and needs little maintenance and minimal irrigation, gardeners will be rewarded with beautiful lawns, rich in colour and disease resistant, not only in the summer but all year round. During the winter months, the lawn will hold its lush green colour and can resist frost and darker corners. With the onset of spring the rapid germination and quick spring green-up means that lawns are greener earlier.

Besides Lindum, RTF Turf can be obtained from Turfgrass Services International Limited, Tillers Turf Company and Q Lawns.

 

Lindum Grassfelt

Grassfelt is a mature soil-less grass growing in felt especially designed to retain moisture as well as giving great strength and flexibility.

Lindum Grassfelt is extremely pliable and flexible and the resulting “living carpet" is ideal for covering unusual contours, including steep slopes, embankments and sculptures. It is suitable for temporary or permanent use both indoors and outdoors, and is supplied in large rolls resulting in minimal visible joins.

A temporary tennis court was laid in Trafalgar Square, London with Lindum Grassfelt for the finals of the "Ariel Tennis Ace" campaign.

All their different varieties of turf can be produced by Lindum as a Grassfelt grass.

 

Lindum Lokturf

Lindum Lokturf uses a crimped fibre technology to produce tough, wear-resistant turf with an extensive root system. By producing a superior interlock between fibres, sand and roots, Lindum Lokturf not only gives greater stability but also acts as an effective shock absorber.

It is ideal for areas of heavy impact and Lokturf provides a durable, fast recovering surface which stays firmer and level for longer.

Due to its unique composition, Lindum Lokturf also helps areas to drain rapidly by reducing rootzone compaction, meaning that surfaces quickly recover ready to be re-used.

It can be used for equestrian surfaces, grass access roads and grass car parks.

 

Lindum Wildflower

Lindum Wildflower contains more than 20 species to provide a colourful display over a prolonged flowering period, but these can be changed according to soil type and location. Suitable for private gardens and green roofs, Grassfelt’s stabilizing qualities mean that the product is also ideal for roadside embankments and steep slopes or mounds.

 

Lindum Reedfelt

A combination of Lindum's Grassfelt technology using a biodegradable felt made from recycled British Textiles, and British Flora's high quality reeds, Lindum Reedfelt provides a lighter and more sustainable alternative to traditional coir blankets.

Lindum Reedfelt can be used for the stabilisation of waterways and wild margins as well as water filtration treatment.

LT6 - Sporturf would be suitable for children and dogs.
LT7 - Festival would be suitable for most lawns.
LT4 - Smooth Stalked Tees would be suitable for use in formal outside social use.
LT3 - Ryegreen would be suitable in a small area for cricket, tennis or croquet.
LT1 - Tournament Greens would be suitable for your own bowling green.

Clover in Lawns

Clovers are useful leguminous plants. Rhizobium bacteria in the root nodules fix atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate and improve soil fertility. The leaves are protein rich and make good grazing for your pet rabbit!!. The flowers are important sources of nectar for bees from May to October.

White Clover - Kentish Clover - (Trifolium repens) prefers alkaline soils.
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), Lesser trefoil (Trifolium dubium) and Black medick (Medicago lupina) also prefer dry alkaline soils; derived from sand or limestone.

Scarification is one means of organic suppression, whereas chemical control using herbicides like 2,4-D in Weed -Feed & Moss Killer is another, which is inorganic. It is better to leave the clover in the lawns, especially with climate change affecting the increase in growth from the temperature increase, but slowing it down due to less rainfall in the summer and any nitrogen fertiliser applied being used up faster.

 

Grass Seed for Lawns

Barenbrug produces 90,000 tonnes of seed worldwide; amongst which they produce the following 4 grass seed mixtures for private gardens, which are available from their the-perfect-lawn website:-

  • Bar 10 with RTF has the deep rooting capability of RTF (Rhizomatous tall fescue) to make it tolerant of waterlogging and drought, together with its excellent tensile strength and rapid recovery. The Barlennium ryegrass performs well in combined shade and wear and has excellent salt tolerance (suitable for wind driven salt from the sea into coastal gardens). This mixture would be best on acid soils, since 90% of its seed components have their optimal pH range of 5.5-7.0.
  • Bar 30 with RTF is similar to Bar 10 with RTF and has extreme drought tolerance (ie for use on steep banks). 35% of the mixture is crested hairgrass with optimal pH range of 5.5-8.0, so making it more suitable for alkaline soils (like ones based on chalk).
  • Bar 40 is the ultimate low maintenance mixture with reduced thatch production and excellent disease resistance. It is suitable for gardens near a coast and for formal outside social use. 70% of its seed has optimal pH range of 5.5-7.5, so making it suitable for any lawn. Excellent companion grass for wild flowers.
  • Bar 14 is suitable for road verges, embankments and low input situations, giving a dense sward requiring little maintenance. This is the Ministry of Transport approved mixture. The inclusion of Smooth-stalked meadowgrass provides slow regrowth for reduced mowing frequency. The inclusion of Small-leaved white clover removes the need for Nitrogen applications (Clover is a legume that fixes atmospheric nitrogen to improve soil fertility), yet it will not dominate the sward.

Barenbrug also produce the following grass wildflower seed mixtures for low lawn maintenance:-

  • Barflora Flower Meadow is general purpose. It is designed to perform well over a wide range of soils with a good range of native British biennial and perennial wild flowers. For extra colour in the year add a small amount of Barcolour - their annual native wildflower mixture. Maintenance - bi-annual mowing spring and autumn, removal of all cut material.
  • Barflora 1 is for shady places, hedgerows and woodland glades. Sow in areas of light shade under deciduous trees and shrubs, hedge banks and north facing slopes. It is recommended to sow it in early spring to allow germination before canopy closes. Maintenance - one cut a year before leaf fall. Leaves from the hedgerows/trees should be removed each autumn from the lawn.
  • Barflora 2 is for loamy, free draining soils. For loams and lighter alluvial soils (more sandy), this contains 6 interesting grasses and a comprehensive selection of 15 native wild flowers that are found throughout lowland Britain. Maintenance - bi-annual mowing spring and autumn, removal of all cut material.
  • Barflora 3 is for heavy clay soils prone to waterlogging. Clay soils can present their own difficulties to work, warming up slowly in spring and drying out in summer. They can support a very diverse and interesting plant population that tends to be predominantly summer flowering. They recommend early autumn soil preparation with a winter fallow period to allow frost to condition the soil, fiolled by spring sowing when the soil temperature has risen. Maintenance - bi-annual mowing spring and autumn, removal of all cut material.

 

How to renovate an existing lawn

  • Remove broad-leaved weeds by applying a proprietary selective weedkiller
  • Mow the lawn as closely as possible – down to 15mm (1/2 inch)
  • Aerate the lawn using a garden fork, a hollow-tine fork, or a mechanical solid-tine or slitter aerator (from a hire shop)
  • Use string or bamboo canes to mark out square metres. Apply the seed from above mixtures by hand or through a drop spreader at a rate of 20g/m2
  • Apply a light top dressing of soil and sand mixture (kiln-dried topdressing is available from Gardenscape) and brush in with soft brush or besom broom
  • Water in with watering can or hose with fine nozzle.
  • Apply fertiliser after germination rather than a pre-seed fertiliser to reduce the competition from the existing sward and this assists establishment of the new grass.
  • Allowing the sward to grow too long before the first cut, or in between cuts, puts it under unnecessary stress, so mow regularly as required.

 

How to sow a newly constructed lawn

  • Prepare the site to be sown by digging thoroughly, incorporating cow manure and levelling
  • Firm ground by rolling or treading using your heels only
  • Rake surface to achieve fine seed bed
  • Finally rake to leave 5mm (1/4 inch) furrows. Sowing depth influences speed of establishment, species composition and subsequent performance of the turf (if small seeds are sown too deeply the more aggresive, generally larger-seeded species in the mixture could completely dominate the sward, thus affecting the synergy of the mixture with the loss of desirable characteristics)
  • Mark out seed bed with string, or bamboo canes at each end
  • Sow seed from above mixtures by hand or with a drop spreader at a rate of 30g/m2
  • Lightly rake over at right angles to previously in order to cover the furrows
  • Roll lightly, or walk over all the dry surface to get the seed in contact with the soil
  • Water in thoroughly using a fine spray, avoiding washing away any soil or causing puddles
  • Keep well watered until grass becomes established (about 3 weeks)

 

Lawn care advice from the company (that breeds the seed, then produces it, followed by Lindum, Turfgrass Services International Limited, Tillers Turf Company and Q Lawns who create the lawn turf from that seed) is available from the perfect lawn.

 

Please do not use weedkillers on the lawn.

The following is from Page 36 of Issue 208 in Spring 2013 of The Organic Way :-

Aminopyralid (AP) and clopyralid (CP) are used to kill broadleaved weeds, such as daisies and dandelions, in grass. AP is used maily by farmers, but can also be used on amenity grass. CP is available to amateurs and professionals, for use on lawns, golf courses, etc (I wonder if this is used by Green Thumb when they kill the weeds). Although AP and CP are not used in organic growing, AP can unwittingly be brought into a garden in contaminated manure, and CP, in grass mowings and, potentially, in compost and growing media.

Even as low as 3 parts per 1000,000,000 (a billion), CP and AP cause distorted growth and sometimes crop failure in a wide range of important and popular food and ornamental plants. Both chemicals bind strongly to lignin in organic matter - in this case the treated grass. They are released only when this lignin is broken down. AP can pass through an animal's gut and still be active; hence, the problem with manure contaminination. CP will still be active in lawn mowings 3 cuts after application, and it can take many months to breakdown in a compost heap.

Damage can occur on plants grown in soil or potting compost where contaminiated manure or compost has been used as a mulch. In a polytunnel or greenhouse, where the soil receives much less water than outdoors, the effects tend to be longer lasting - 2 years or more.
Symptoms include:

  • thickened, curved and twisted shoots, stems and leaves
  • cupped and crinkled leaves
  • cracked stems
  • proliferated growth.

After many reports of aminopyralid damage to manured crops in 2008, products containing these chemicals were withdrawn from sale in the UK.But after an awareness campaign and stricter labelling, aimed at preventing these chemicals getting into manure, they are now back on the market. CP containing products have been banned in New Zealand and in some states in the USA. In the UK, the response has been simply to require improved labelling of amateur products by 2014, with the aim of keeping contaminated mowings out of municipal composting systems.

Many UK Councils will not empty a general refuse bin that contains plant material. Part of "improved labelling" on a plastic canister of Clopyralid states "Do not dispose of via council composting schemes". So, if it cannot go in the Green Waste Bin, where does it go? Kept in the Garden or illegaly dumped in a ditch?"

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) June 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

 

PLANTS PAGE
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PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Above 72 inches
(180 cms)

 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
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Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
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Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
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Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
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Photos - Hedging
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Photos - Rock Garden
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Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
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Crevice Garden
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Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
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Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
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Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
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Photos - Fern
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Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
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Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

 

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants *
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.