Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns


British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain



Where to see

San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds


Where to see

Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

Hortus Botanicus Leiden.



Where to see

Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens

Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.

Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.


Where to see

Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.




USE OF FERN - as Ferns for Wet Soils Page 3 of 3
"The following ferns will grow in wet soils but prefer situations where the water is not stagnant. Those marked with an asterisk - * - are very tolerant of wet conditions.

Appendix 7 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1
, provides the following list of Ferns for Wet Soils:-"

Fern Species


Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern



is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
Chris Garnons-Williams


Lygodium circinnatum

Temperate - Subtropical









Lygodium circinnatum

Tropical - Subtropical









Lygodium circinnatum

Tropical - Temperate









Marattia salicina

Tropical - Temperate









Microlepia speluncae

Tropical - Subtropical









Nephrolepis biserrata * (Nephrolepis acuta, Aspidium biserrata)
Paku Larat, Sword Fern, Chinese Name : 长叶肾蕨 , Coarse Sword Fern, Giant Sword Fern,
Golden Boston Fern making a striking hanging basket subject

Malaysia, Malesiana, Indonesia, Southeast Asia, Australia, North and South America, the Pacific islands, Native Plants of South Florida

Tropical - Semi-tropical


The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia. Species biserrata means double-toothed and refers to the leaf margin of the fern.

The fertile pinnae are deeply lobed and attractive.

Tufted clusters of golden-yellow foliage arising from underground rhizomes. The round sori (clusters of spore-bearing organs) are in two rows near the margins on the underside of the pinnae. The fronds grow upright at first, then arch gracefully downwards. They grow in lovely arching rosette shaped and spread by runners. Grow in Part Shade.

24-48 x 2-6
(60-120 x 5-15)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)


Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse. Basket Fern.
Acid Soil.
Groundcover on wooded edges in South Florida

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

This fern can be grown as a garden plant in the tropics, as well as in a large container.
Inorganic and Organic fertilizers and manures are useful for plants in the ground; in pots, slow-release and liquid fertilizers can be used. Fertilizers should only be applied during the warm, growing months. Avoid sprinkling solid fertilizer or solutions of liquid fertilizer onto the foliage of finely divided cultivars as it can cause rotting.
Most Nephrolepis are sensitive to severe cold weather, and frosts in particular. They have no reserves in their rhizomes and the tropical species usually collapse and die following such weather.

Found in swamps and hammocks.


Nephrolepis biserrata
Date: 12 December 2013, 11:47:01.
By Mokkie via Wikimedia Commons

Nephrolepis biserrata
Date: 12 December 2013, 11:45:21.
By Mokkie via Wikimedia Commons


Further photos.


Onoclea sensibilis Temperate-Tropical

Sensitive Fern, Bead Fern, Sympathy Fern

Native to North America, Canada and North Asia.

Onoclea comes from the Greek onos, vessel, and klein, to close, referring to the pinnules of the fertile leaf, which roll up into bead-like segments to enclose the sori.

A member of the Woodsiaceae Cliff Fern Family.

Zone 4


Available in USA from
Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery - Orefield, PA

ArcheWild Native Nurseries - Quakertown, PA

Toadshade Wildflower Farm - Frenchtown, NJ

Prairie Nursery - Westfield, WI

Yellow Springs Farm Native Plant Nursery - Chester Springs , PA

Upright, then arching, lance-shaped or triangular, pinnate, pale green sterile fronds.

The bead-like appearance of the fertile fronds accounts for this genus's common name of bead fern. Some say that the name sensitive fern originates from the frond's sensitivity to frost (they wither after the first subfreezing temperatures).

Winter survival will be enhanced if the dried fronds are left on the plant through the winter.

36-48 x 36-48
(90-120 x 90-120)

Miscellaneous Ferns

Hardy deciduous ferns. Fronds, barren ones, broad, once-divided, green; fertile ones, narrow, contracted, once-divided, brown.
Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margins of ponds. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, March or April. Water copiously April-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould covered with square of glass, and kept moderately moist in shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants, March or April.

Suitable for
Indoor Decoration.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and
Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns suitable for Outdoor Containers

Ferns for Wet Soils

Cold-Hardy Ferns

The fertile fronds are often used in dried flower arrangements.

Best in wet woodland gardens and moist locations alongside streams and ponds. Can grow in very wet soils as long as there is adequate oxygen. It cannot tolerate sour clay or stagnant water. Also, does not tolerate freezing well, turns black even in light frost.

Shelters salamanders and frogs

Open swamps, thickets, marshes, or low woods, in sunny or shaded locations, often forming thick stands from sea level to elevations of 1500 metres.
A coarse weedy fern commonly found in wet soils where it may form spreading colonies. Plants grow very easily in a pot or moist garden situation. In wet soils, the plants will stand considerable exposure to sun.
Thrives at the edge of water or in a damp shady border.

It grows best in a shaded or partially shaded area in a moist soil. The plant can tolerate dryer conditions in shade, and will tolerate wet soils and so occurs in soggy ground or at the very edge of water in shade or sun. Sensitive ferns spread to form colonies and are often the first species to inhabit disturbed areas. They can become weedy if not sited properly.



Rodgersia and Onoclea. 25 April 2014, 16:50. By peganum from Henfield, England via Wikimedia Commons


日本語: Onoclea sensibilis:コウヤワラビ
新潟県:Niigata Pref. Japan. By Keisotyo via Wikimedia Commons.





Juvenile Onoclea sensibilis sterile fronds in pots. By Coblands.


Osmunda cinnamomea*

Temperate - Subtropical









Osmunda cinnamomea

Temperate - Subtropical









Parathelypteris beddomei*










Pitularia globifera










Plagiogyria pectinata










Pneumatopteris pennigera

Temperate - Subtropical









Pneumatopteris pennigera sogerensis

Tropical - Temperate









Pseudo-phegopteris paludosa

Tropical - Subtropical









Pteris comans*










Pteris comans umbrosa*

Temperate - Subtropical









Selaginella kraussiana

Temperate - Subtropical









Thelypteris confuens*

Subtropical - Temperate









Todea barbara*

Temperate - Subtropical









Woodwardia virginica

Temperate - Subtropical









Dryopteris goldiana

Giant Wood Fern, Goldie's Fern.
Very hardy.
Zone 3-8

The species is native to eastern North America

The new fronds of this fern are covered with prominent white and brown scales and the flush on a large plant in spring is quite decorative.

Over 36 x 36
(90 x 90) in 5 years

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Hardy Fern Type.
Culture of Hardy species: Soil, ordinary, light, rich. Position, shady borders or rock gardens. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather May-Sep. Top-dress annually with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. Protect in severe weather with bracken or litter. Do not remove dead fronds until April.
Propagation: Hardy species by spores sown on surface of sandy soil in shady cold frame; division in April.

Suitable for
Cold-hardy Ferns.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Rock Garden and Wall ferns.

Shade-tolerant Fern.

Deciduous Fern. Plants grow easily in a shady position with plenty of moisture. In cold climates the fronds are deciduous.


Detail of back of Dryopteris goldiana, showing sori. Photo was taken in early July, 2007. By Maria97 at English Wikipedia via Wikimedia Commons


Dryopteris goldiana - Botanical specimen in Jenkins Arboretum, 631 Berwyn Baptist Road, Devon, Pennsylvania, USA. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons


Osmunda claytoniana

Interrupted Fern, Flowering Fern

Very hardy,
Zone (2),3

Native to northeastern North America, India and Asia.

The unusual common name for this fern arises because on the fertile fronds the fertile segments are carried in between sets of normal barren segments, giving the appearance of a gap in the frond. Young fronds are covered with wooly, pinkish hairs.

The leaves grow from a rhizome growing at or below the ground.

Forming a lovely spreading vase habit, this low-maintenance native fern makes a distinctive addition to the shade border or woodland garden.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, laf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

Accent Fern.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.


Grows well with hostas in shaded woodland or wild gardens. Also effective along ponds or streams. Interesting accent for the shaded border.

This clump-forming fern has erect rhizomes that form occasional offshoots and grows in moist-wet to wet, acidic garden soil. The plants have deciduous fronds and do poorly in the Gulf States and subtropical climates.

Habitat in forests, shores of rivers or lakes, swamps, wetland margins (edges of wetlands).

Easily grown in medium to wet soils in part shade to full shade. Prefers moist, rich, humusy, acidic soils, but adapts to lesser conditions.

Deer resistant.


Osmunda claytoniana.
By Kurt Stueber via Wikimedia Commons




Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana, in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec.
By ‪Circeus‪ ‬ via Wikimedia Commons.


Osmunda regalis

Royal Fern, Flowering Fern

Very hardy,
Zone 2(3)

A fibrous rootstock bears dense clumps of triangular-ovate-pinnate, bright green sterile fronds. In summer, partially fertile fronds, to 6 feet long, have tassel-like tips, with brown or rust-coloured sporangia covering the much smaller pinnae.

In autumn, they turn bronze before dying back. This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

72 x 144
(180 x 360)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, laf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Ferns suitable for

Outdoor Containers.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Bog or Wet-Soil Fern.

Cold-Hardy Ferns.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.


Excellent selection for wet areas along ponds, streams, water gardens or in bogs. Also grows well in shaded borders, woodland gardens, wild gardens or native plant gardens.

Grow in a damp border, or at the margins of a pond or stream.
This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

It prefers cool summer climates where it tolerates close to full sun as long as given consistent moisture. Full sun exposure is not recommended for the hot St. Louis summers.




Osmunda regalis Image 1 on left from Denver Botanic Gardens


Osmunda regalis Image 2 from Denver Botanic Gardens








Osmunda regalis on right. By Ghislain118 http://www.fleurs-des-montagnes.net via Wikimedia Commons


Nederlands: Plant - Koningsvaren - Osmunda regalis
English: Plant - Royal Fern - Osmunda regalis on left. ByMarianne Cornelissen-Kuyt via Wikimedia Commons



Polystichum setiferum* (Polystichum angulare, Polypodium angulare, Aspidium angulare)
Soft Shield Fern, Soft Prickly Shield Fern, Angular-lobed Shield Fern

Hardy in Zone 6

This is one of the most graceful of all British native species.

Erect rhizomes and fronds that are evergreen in warmer climates. Many variants of this species from buds along the rachis - see Section 9 - Propagation . The plants do not like very high humidity.

This species is native to Europe. This forms a medium-sized clump of very soft-textured fronds, dark green in colour with a glossy finish. Plants perform best in soils that remain evenly moist, and slightly on the acidic side.

Height and Spread of
23-27 x 23-27
(60-70 x 60-70)


Graceful arching green fronds that droop at the tips as they unfurl showing lighter coloured undersides.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Acid Soil.
Accent Fern.
Ground Cover.
Shade Tolerant. Outdoor Containers.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Ferns for Wet Soils.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It grows in hedge-banks and in lowland woods, preferring, like most of the larger Ferns, the presence of plenty of free (not stagnant) water.
It is also grows in pots and rock garden.

Remains evergreen in mild winter regions. Attractive as a specimen, massed, or in containers.

Grow in a rock garden or well-drained border.
It is perfect for semi-shade in good soil that doesn't become waterlogged yet still stays moist. These are ideal conditions for most evergreen ferns.


Buds along the rachis of American Plant Food Company, 7405 River Road, Bethesda MD. Polystichum setiferum .
By David J. Stang. First published at ZipcodeZoo.com via Wikimedia Commons

Polystichum setiferum in botanical garden in Batumi
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons


Azolla caroliniana
Carolinian Azolla, Fairy Moss, Water velvet (with the Complete guide to Aquariums), Mosquito Fern, American waterfern, Pacific mosquitofern - from Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants of University of Florida who treat this aquatic weed with herbicide or you could take out and use it as a free fertiliser on your land.

Hardy in
Zone (4)5; survives frost and ice

Tropical - Subtropical

Native to Eastern North America.

Carolina - North America. Americas, Europe and Asia.

Azollas tend to die in cold weather after forming buds, which sink to the bottom of the pond and resume growth when warm weather returns. Mosquito ferns prefer full sunlight, warm temperatures, and silty water containing organic matter. High light encourages reddish growth.

Azolla is a highly productive plant. It doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields.

Carolina mosquitofern distribution in USA.


This attractive floating pond plant will grow in damp soil or on moist rocks along the ponds edge. Usually covers 1 to 2 square feet (1 foot = 12 inches = 30 cms) of surface area. Pond Plants Online also provide Water Garden Planting and Care Instructions.

Pale green, turning bright red in autumn (several weeks later they die and sink to the bottom), lacy-looking and closely overlapping. Plants are roughly circular to triangular and about the size of a dime.


Azolla has filamentous roots which extend down from the thread-like rhizome, which branches repeatedly and bears fronds in 2 rows.
Its name comes from azo, to dry, and olluo, to kill, presumably alluding to the fern's tendency to be killed by drying. Azolla is the world's most important economic fern because it used as an organic fertilizer in rice paddies in China and Vietnam. It is allso fed to livestock and certain fish.

The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being widely used as a biofertiliser, especially in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years. When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year.

As the rice grows, the ferns are shaded, die and sink to the bottom, thus recycling the vital nutrient to the food crop.

Less than 1 inch (2.5 cms) in height
Leaves normally not eaten by fish; overwinter indoors; naturalized in shallow ponds, ditches and sluggish streams.


Azolla caroliniana mature plant floats on the still water, and has no true roots, but the small divided leaves on the underside of the stem are often mistaken for them. The spores are found amongst these so-called roots. The plants grow annually from these spores. Frequently these are lost through insufficient care. They may be preserved by placing the plants in a tank of water that is half filled with sandy loam. When the plants die in the winter, the spores remain and germinate in the following year. They are very pretty plants, and hardly rise above the surface of the water which they cover with a carpet of green that becomes bronze in summer.

Aquatic Ferns


Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.


Water Garden Plants nursery is completely free from the invasive non-native species Crassula helmsii 
(New Zealand Pigmyweed/
Australian Swamp-Stonecrop), 
Myriophyllum aquaticum
(Parrot's Feather), 
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating
Pennywort), Floating Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.), and Water Fern (Azolla spp.).

"The above Invasive non-native species can have a devastating cost to the economy, costing £1.7 billion to control. Floating pennywort, which can grow up to eight inches a day, costs the British economy £23.5 million per year. The plants form dense mats in water, depleting oxygen and light availability, causing declines in the numbers of fish and other aquatic species. They also reduce access to waterways for boating and angling and increase flood risk which, taken together, can cost millions of pounds per year." Press release Sale of invasive water plants banned to protect wildlife of Published 29 January 2013.
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Wet Soils.
Rapidly Growing Fern.

Hardy, Floating Aquatic Fern with delicate fern-like foliage.
Culture: Grow in shallow ponds or in indoor aquariums. Require no soil, merely to float on surface of water. Being very sensitive to cold, especially frosts, it may need the protection of a heated greenhouse or a well lit tropical aquarium. It grows in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly.


They are great, attractive nutrient absorbers and the roots make excellent and attractive cover for fry.

Cordon off a small area to place Azolla.

How to grow Azolla caroliniana in aquariums.

A free floating aquatic fern which forms colonies on still water. Easily grown in ponds etc, but very cold-sensitive.

The common name - Mosquito Fern - is derived from the fern's supposed ability to discourage mosquito reproduction by densely carpeting the water's surface, thereby preventing the adults from laying eggs and preventing the larvae from getting air at the surface.

This floating fern is the best species for growing on mud.




Closeup of this vegetation choking the lake at Jack London State Historic Park. Taken last spring. The lake is in the lengthy process of remediation by the Jack London Lake Alliance. Date: 28 April 2009, 15:33:15 File: Azolla caroliniana.jpg cropped to a 2x3 format. By Ingrid Taylar from San Francisco Bay Area - California, USA via Wikimedia Commons

Azolla caroliniana at Orto botanico di Pisa. Date: 18 January 2012, 17:55:20. By Notafly via Wikimedia Commons.

English: Carolina Mosquito Fern (Azolla caroliniana). Zamora (Spain).
Español: Helecho mosquito de Carolina (Azolla caroliniana) invasor. Zamora (España).
Date: 4 February 2012, 11:59:39. By David Perez
(DPC) via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-sa-4.0





Azolla Production and Demonstration Farm involving on the 4 qualified Azolla, namely - Azolla, - Azolla microphylla Kaulf., Azolla pinnata, Azolla pinnata var pinnata, Azolla pinnata var imbricata, and Azolla caroliniana, in Philippine Rice Research Institute, PhilRice, (is a government corporate entity attached to the Department of Agriculture, created through Executive Order 1061 on 5 November 1985 (as amended), Irrigated Rice Research Consortium, and International Rice Research Institute; located in Barangay, Maligaya, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, in front of its Barangay Hall and Chapel along the Pan-Philippine Highway, also known as the Maharlika "Nobility/freeman" Highway or Asian Highway 26, in Cagayan Valley Road; or Category:Maharlika Highway (Cagayan Valley Road, Talavera-Santo Domingo-Quezon-Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija section) since its re-launch in September 2014, the museum opened 3 exhibits titled, Lovelife with Rice, Abundant Harvest, and Colors of Rice, which focuses on the health and nutrition aspects of rice, will run until Feb. 2016; per guidance of Visual Artist Consultant of the Rice Museum, Rogelio N. Bibal; under bad weather photography due to effects of Typhoon Goni (2015)). Date: 24 August 2015. By Judgefloro via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-sa-4.0

Marsilea quadrifolia
Water Clover/ Water Shamrock, European Water Clover, Four leaf clover

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to Northeastern United States, southeastern Europe, and Asia

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

Aquatic fern bearing 4 parted leaf resembling '4-leaf clover' (Trifolium). Leaves floating in deep water or erect in shallow water or on land.

Roots are present on nodes and internodes. Leaves with 4 clover-like leaflets.

14/-1/2inch leaf width, 1-2 inch tall submersed growth

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
Herbaceous Fern.


Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

"Four Leaf Clover - is one of the most popular carpet aquarium plants for the foreground and it is recommended for beginners to create a dense carpet. It grows slowly but it is easy to keep because is undemanding and can be grown in moderate lighting. Higher lighting and carbon dioxide injection improve growth rate and promote more compact growth. In the lower light situations it produces bigger leaves with a single lobe, very different from the emerse plant. No substrate or water special conditions are required (temperature between 18°C - 28°C or 64°F - 82°F, pH 5 - 7.5 and GH between 1 - 20 dH)." from Aquarium and Pond Plants with their Aquarium Plants guide and who ship their plants worldwide.

Grows well under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist-wet garden soil or sand-peat mix. The plants are used in China for treating infections.

Found in Europe in shallow water of periodically flooded localities such as water-meadows or ricefields, with the leaves floating and the sporocarps usually developing in the mud when the water-level is lowered.

Marsilea quadrifolia is grown in aquaria.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist or wet soil and can grow in water.
Marsilea quadrifolia can be grown as a potted plant, either just with soil kept wet, or semi-submerged, with fronds emergent from the water, or fully submerged, with the fronds floating on the surface of the water.
In the aquarium, water clover is grown fully submerged, usually in the foreground where it spreads by means of runners. It normally seems to be unfussy as to light and water conditions, and doesn't need a rich substrate.




Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

Juvenile foliage of Marsilea quadrifolia. By Vinayaraj via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

Mature foliage of Marsilea quadrifolia, Romania. By Frank Vassen from Brussels, Belgium via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-2.0

Form of Marsilea quadrifolia
(European water clover) in May 2005, By Phyzome via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0-migrated

Fig. 85. Marsilea quadrifolia from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons, License Public Domain in United States.




Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Pilularia americana
American Pillwort

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to United States and Mexico.
The range of the American pillwort is well-established throughout much of California and south-central Oregon.

The genus name comes from the Greek pilula, little ball, and refers to the globose sporocarps.

It is an unusual species of fern. The fronds essentially consist of the stems only, any form of flattened laminae having been lost.



This fern resembles a very small clump of grass. However, unlike grasses, the leaves are initially coiled from the tip downward, and unfurl like a typical fern fiddlehead. The leaves also become distinctively curly when dry. Sporocorps look like small woolly marbles and are important for identification.

Leaves sparsely hairy, threadlike, elongate, with an unbranched midvein, round in cross section, 1.6-10.2 cm long, about 0.5 mm wide. Sporocarps present underground June to July; plants are most easily identifiable before vernal pools dry up in late June.

Aquatic Ferns


This plant is easily grown given a suitable habitat and kept uncrowded. The pillwort also may die out for drier or colder parts of the season, regenerating the next year from the sporocarps. While it is in the aquatic fern group, it prefers to be emergent (in shallow water, with fronds emerging into the air) or growing completely emersed (fronds completely out of water), though preferring to be rooted in wet mud.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for Wet Soils.

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Grows well under high light in sandy or silty garden soil kept wet. The plants can also grow submerged or partly submerged. Do not let them dry out completely.

Ecology: Vernal pools, mud flats, lake margins. Poorly collected, often overlooked due to its small, grass-like appearance.
This species is sensitive to disturbance from domestic grazing.

Botanical illustration including Pilularia america with 5 photos of that plant -

Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux 2012, Pilularia americana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=38232, accessed on January 06, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on January 06, 2019.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.


Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Associated species include mosses, annual hairgrass (Deschampsia danthonioides), tiny mousetail (Myosurus minimus), popcornflower (Plagiobothrys spp.), pale spike-rush (Eleocharis macrostachya), needle spike-rush (Eleocharis acicularis), fruitleaf knotweed (Polygonum polygaloides ssp. confertiflorum), Pacific foxtail (Alopecurus saccatus), whitehead navarretia (Navarretia leucocephala), elegant calicoflower (Downingia elegans), and water mudwort (Limosella aquatica). Photogragh shows that this fern grows between the grassland and the vernal pool.

Pilularia globulifera
European Pillwort, Pillwort

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to Europe - found in western Central Europe and scattered throughout the British Isles in shallow water at edges of ponds, ricefields, marshy ground, wet heaths, often submerged, in acid substrata; very local and absent from many counties; local in Ireland.
Native UK plant.

Leaves arising from a creeping rhizome with nodes 1-4 cm (0.5-1.5inches) apart, 3-10 (15) (1.2-4 inches) long, subulate.

This tiny plant is a type of creeping fern. It is hard to spot because it has thin, grass-like leaves and often grows with water grasses or small rushes. The ‘pills’ are tiny round spore cases at the bases of the stems. It can still be found at a number of sites scattered across Britain, but is internationally threatened, as it is declining across its whole European range.
Key threats:-
Water pollution, particularly by fertilisers, which encourage the growth of coarse plants. The decline of cattle grazing and the resultant loss of trampling; drainage; the ploughing of old pastures; and invasion by the vigorous non-native water plant New Zealand pigmyweed (Crassula helmsii) - illegal plant in the UK.

About 3 inches (8 cms) tall, which is easily recognised by the characteristically unfurling leaves and the large (3 mm), round sporocarps, if present.

Lime green round stem-like leaves or  fronds approximately 1-1.5mm diameter.

Fronds unfurl from tight coils, and you can often see 1 or 2 fronds which have yet to unfurl even late into the season.

Fronds can grow up to 8cm tall, often standing upright from the ground or above the surface of the water, but they can be submerged.

The fronds are rarely straight and have a kinky or wavy appearance, especially when young.

The fronds arise singly, or at most 3 shoots, from a rhizome (horizontal underground stem), not in clumps or tussocks (as seen in grasses and rushes).

Aquatic Ferns



Pillwort is a specialist of bare pond edge habitats. It is not a good competitor and only thrives where there are few other plants. Like many specialists, it has some key habitat requirements:-
1. Seasonally fluctuating water levels, doing especially well in temporary ponds. 2. Poaching and grazing by livestock. This is the best form of sustainable management because it creates bare ground which the plant needs.
3. Slightly acidic ponds on clays, sands and peaty substrates.
4. Open habitats including heathland and acid grassland. It is intolerant of shading from scrub.
Pillwort can also be found growing on the edge of larger ponds and lakes, particularly sand and gravel pits, but only where there are fluctuating water levels and clean unpolluted water.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Fern for Acid Soils. Ferns suitable for Terrariums.
Use as Bog or Wet-Soil Fern.

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Pillwort can be grown in a "bog garden" or as a marginal aquatic in a garden pond.

Grows well under high light in sandy or silty garden soil kept wet. The plants can also grow submerged or partly submerged. Do not let them dry out completely. This speces is a rapid and robust grower in moist to wet soil.

It grows at edges of lakes, ponds, ditches and marshes, on wet clay or clay-sand soil (that are submerged for at least part of the year), sometimes in water up to 30 cm (12 in) deep. Some of the plants growing in association with this species in the UK include water celery (Apium inundatum), marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) and lesser spearwort (Ranunculus flammula).




English: Single creeping plant of the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera, on wet ground.
Deutsch: Einzelner Kriechspross (Ausläufer) des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera) auf wechselnassem Teichboden. By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

English: Mature sporocarps at the base of the leaves from the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera.
Deutsch: Reife Sporenbehälter ("Pillen") am Grund der Blätter des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera). By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

English: Field of the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera, in a natural habitat (alternating wet pond bottom).
Deutsch: Aspekt eines rasenartigen Bestandes des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera) in seinem natürlichen Lebensraum (wechselnasse Teichbodenflur, Zwergbinsen-gesellschaft). By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

Pilularia globulifera - Image:Illustration Pilularia globulifera0.jpg from Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany via Wikimedia Commons




Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Pilularia novae-hollandiae (Pilularia novae-zelandiae)
Australian Pillwort, Austral Pillwort

Found in Tasmania and throughout New Zealand.

Fertile fronds are required to confirm the identity of this aquatic or semi-aquatic fern with grass-like fronds, though fertile fronds tend not to develop in plants that are submerged for most of the year. The production of fertile fronds appears to be associated with seasonal drought or stress though plants can die down in dry conditions. Most herbarium specimens from Tasmania have been collected from November to March and those from Victoria have been collected in spring.

2-3 x
(5-7.5 x )

Aquatic Ferns



It grows among grasses in soft mud at the edges of swamps and pools, or in shallow water.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for Wet Soils.

A small species from ponds and low-lying areas subject to periodic inundation, often growing in drying mud. Colonies may decline after a few years and benefit from restarting with a small division in a fesh mix.

Austral Pillwort grows in shallow swamps and waterways, often among grasses and sedges. It is most often recorded in drying mud as this is when it is most conspicuous.

Austral Pillwort is a semi-aquatic fern, resembling a small fine grass. Its thread-like fronds, to 8 cm long, arise in tufts from a creeping underground stem (rhizome). The fruiting capsules are small, spherical hairy pills that form at the base of fronds. This species is probably ephemeral (especially in the drier parts of its range), appearing when soils are moistened by rain.

Cite as: Threatened Species Section (2019). Pilularia novae-hollandiae (australian pillwort): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link. https://www.threatenedspecieslink.tas.gov.au/Pages/Pilularia-novae-hollandiae.aspx. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Tasmania. Accessed on 8/1/2019.

Contact details: Threatened Species Section, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, GPO Box 44, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 7001. Phone (1300 368 550).

Permit: A permit is required under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 to 'take' (which includes kill, injure, catch, damage, destroy and collect), keep, trade in or process any specimen or products of a listed species. Additional permits may also be required under other Acts or regulations to take, disturb or interfere with any form of wildlife or its products, (e.g. dens, nests, bones). This may also depend on the tenure of the land and other agreements relating to its management.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.


Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Regnellidium dihyllum
Latex Fern, Two-leaf Water Fern, Clover two-leaf

Very Tender - easy to grow but apt to die if the temperature drops below 21C (70F).

The genus has only this one speces. Native to southeastern Brazil and adjacent Argentina.

The specific epithet diphyllum means having two leaves.

It has 2-lobed leaves (rather than 4).

It was, vigorously growing in a garden pond in California with Photos.

Culture: Prefers good nutrition - growth poor under nutrient stress.

The rhizomes are creeping and bear fronds 1-3 cm (0.5-1.2 inches) apart.

Quick grower up to 6 inches (15 cm) high and spreading with glossy green, double leaves.

Aquatic Ferns



Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.
Culture: Place in water no deeper than 2 inches over the crown. In colder regions, allow to go dormant in a non-freezing location, but do not let the plant dry out. An exceptional pond plant.

It roots in mud, although sometimes it is submerged and the fronds are floating. The rhizomes are creeping and bear fronds 103 cm (0.5-1.2 inches) apart.

Grows well under high light in moist-wet soil (a mixture of sand and peat) or fully submerged. The plants are typically grown in pots set in water or in aquarium with plants partly submerged.

This fern is sometimes grown in aquaria. It is the only non-flowering plant that produces latex.


Regnellidium diphyllum. A Two-leaf Water Fern, native to southeastern Brazil. UC Berkeley Botanical Gardens. Marsileaceae. By Dick Culbert via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-2.0


The genus is related to Marsilea, the clover fern, but differs by having 2 leaflets instead of 4. The leaves are produced too far apart on the rhizome to make an attractive pot plant; the plants are mainly used as a novelty in aquariums.



















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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.


Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.



using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1

Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4

using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1

Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations with 8 problems caused by clay, ryegrass (kills plants) in Roadstone and CedarGravel creates stable drive surface.
Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
...by Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
All Plants Index
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
Shape, Form

use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses

(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
, 5, 10
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages

V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Climber /Pillar
Exhibition, Speciman

Grow In A Container
Climber in Tree
Edging Borders
Tolerant of Poor Soil
Tolerant of Shade
Back of Border
Adjacent to Water


Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant

Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
Coastal Conditions
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
Cut Flower
Potted Veg Outdoors
Potted Veg Indoors
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
Grow in Acidic Soil
Grow in Any Soil
Grow in Rock Garden
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2