Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN as House Fern Page 1 of 6
"Ferns add grace to a room, and if the room is not too dry and has adequate light, many species can serve as permanent decorations. Light and humidity often can be improved, but if not, it is best to use several ferns in rotation, replacing a plant with a fresh one when it shows poor growth. Plants removed from display will recover if given sufficient light, humidity, and care. Since the kitchen and bathroom are often the most humid rooms in the house, they are good places to grow ferns if the light is adequate.
Generally, robust ferns with leathery fronds, such as the house holly fern (Cyrtomium falcatum) and leather fern (Rumohra adiantiformis), grow well indoors. Most davallias are also good as house ferns, and some are attractive for their finely cut foliage (Davallia fejeensis and Davallia marieesii var. stenolepis). The most frequently used indoor ferns are the Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata and its cultivars), which come in a variety of textures.
The main challenge in growing ferns indoors is to provide enough humidity and light. Otherwise the culture of indoor ferns (as detailed in Chapter 10 of
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran) is similar to that of ferns used elsewhere.

Trough Gardens
Trough gardens can be thought of as large, deep-dish gardens. Stone troughs used by farmers to water animals became much prized as planters for miniature plants. Trough and similar broad containers are ideal for displaying small ferns, confining species with long-creeping rhizomes, and serving as garden ornaments; as well as being useful in the house. Chapter 10 of Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran details the directions for building planting troughs. Rock garden magazines also provide the ingredients and directions for building these troughs.

Fern House as part of Home from Black's Gardening Dictionary, edited by E.T.Ellis. Second edition. Printed in 1928 by A. & C. Black Ltd.
Some attention must be given to the situation of the fern house by those who would grow these subjects successfully. The dislike too much or too intense sunshine, and though the house may be shaded it will save labour in this respect if the structure faces the east or north. The builder or owner may fix upon such a site for the sake of convenience, and the latter attempt the cultivation of flowering plants in the house with partial or complete failure, but find that ferns grow admirably in it. The house may even face the south if it is shaded from the east and west by wings of the dwelling, because the short period of exposure to direct sunlight has no injurious effect. Greenhouse ferns may be grown in an unheated house or even in a cold frame during the summer, but it should be furnished with a heating apparatus in order that the fire may be lighted during frosty nights or frosty periods, in the winter, so that the temperature may be kept from falling much below 40-45 F (4-7C), during the night or early morning. In any case frost should be excluded.
No attempt should be made by amateurs to grow stove ferns, which require a night temperature of 55-60F (13-16C), under the above conditions, otherwise the results will generally be unsatisfactory. Half-hardy ferns may be grown to perfection in such a house, if attention is given to their special requirements. All ferns require a certain amount of atmospheric moisture, more especially in summer when making their growth. Half-hardy sorts, such as Aiantum capillus-veneris, and the other FilmyFerns, will be happy if frost is more or less excluded and they are covered with a bell-glass or special case to preserve moisture about them. The Walking Fern (Scolopendrium rhizophyllum) as well as Aspidium falcatum and its varities, will live outside in the UK in mild and maritime districts, but should be sheltered by evergreen boughs during the colder and more windy periods of the winter.

The following are some favourite house ferns:-
"

 

USE OF FERN as Indoor Ferns in the UK from Ferns for Home and Garden Flowers & Plants. Published by Magna Books in 1995. ISBN 1 85422 888 9. Design and text of plan, planting plan, flowering and colour scheme: Bureau Willemien Dijkshoorn BNT, Amsterdam:-
 

INDOOR FERNS
Part Shade-Full Shade, protect against sun

Name

Height in inches (cms)

Keep Moist

Spray

Temperature in C
Day

Temperature in C
Night

Temperature in C
Winter

Adiantum

12-30 (30-75)

semi

*

18

 

 

Asplenium

24-40 (60-100)

semi

*

18-22

16

12

Blechnum

-40 (-100)

constant

*

16-24

 

14

Cibotium

40-80 (100-200)

semi

 

21-26

10-15

 

Cyathea

80-120 (200-300)

constant

* (stem)

21-26

18

 

Cyrtomium

12-16 (30-40)

semi

*

16-20

10-12

7-10

Davallia

12-34 (30-85)

semi

*

20-24

7-15

 

Dicksonia

40-80 (100-200)

constant

* (stem)

21-26

18

 

Didymochlaena

60-80 (150-200)

constant

*

20-22

 

 

Doryopteris

12-28 (30-70)

semi

 

24-26

15-21

 

Humata

8-12 (20-30)

semi

 

21-26

10-15

 

Microlepia

12-20 (30-50)

semi

*

18-22

 

15

Nephrolepis

12-28 (30-70)

semi

*

18-22

 

18

Pellaea

12-20 (30-50)

semi

*

14-20

 

12-15

Phlebodium

40-48 (100-120)

semi

*

18-22

 

10-16

Phyllitis

8-24 (20-60)

semi

 

18-24

7-13

 

Platycerium

12-36 (30-90)

semi

 

20

 

12-15

Polypodium

16-80 (40-200)

semi

*

21-26

10-15

 

Polystichum

12-40 (30-100)

semi

*

7-18

 

 

Pteris

10-40 (25-100)

semi

*

21-26

 

10-12

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Adiantum hispidulum

 

 

 

 

 

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Asplenium antiquum

 

 

 

 

 

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Asplenium australasicum

 

 

 

 

 

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Asplenium bulbiferum

 

 

 

 

 

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Asplenium nidus

 

 

 

 

 

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Cibotium schiedei

 

 

 

 

 

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Cyrtomium falcatum and cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

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Davallia fejeensis (Davallia solida var. fejeensis)

Lacy Hare's-foot, Lacy Rabbit's Foot Fern, Fiji davallia, Rabbit's Foot Fern

Native to Fiji and the Austral Islands.

Non-toxic for cats, dogs and horses.

Plants are very long-lived and individual fronds on healthy plants may last 2-3 years. The thick rhizomes usually grow through the air.

The Davallia fejeensis belongs to a genus of 40 plants that are epiphytic in nature, which means they grow on trees or within rock crevices taking moisture and nutrients from other sources "not soil" such as air, rain, trees and other debris.
The fejeensis is easily recognisable as a fern because of it's fronds (grow upright) that display gauzy or lace like leaflets. The small leaves are attached to kind of wiry stalks that grow from the visible rhizomes. These furry and yellowish brown rhizomes creep over the pot; they are main feature of this species.
It's important to keep in mind what pot the plant should be planted in so it can display it's rhizomes (within a hanging basket is common and a shallow pot). This House Plants Expert page provides other Culture and Propagation conditions.

8-40 x
(20-100 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern.
Epiphytic.
Hanging Basket in Conservatory in the UK.
Colour in Fern Fronds is from the furry and yellowish brown rhizomes creeping over the edge of the pot/basket

 

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species:Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

A choice, extremely popular fern which is favoured for basket culture and can be grown into large specimens.

It has medium- to long-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under medium light in drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss.

davalliafejeensispforwikimediacommons

Davallia fejeensis, in the United States Botanic Garden, Washington, DC, USA. Date June 2008. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia bullata-mariesii (Davallia bullata, Davallia Mariesii, Davallia mariesii var. stenolepis)

Canary Island Hare's-foot Fern, Ball Fern, Squirrel's-foot fern, Japanese Ball Fern

Tropical Asia and Malaysia, Japan, Korea

This is one of the most popular ferns in cultivation and it has been a favourite for decades.

Semi-hardy fern.

Plants are quite hardy and cold resistant and the fronds are shed each year.

Rootstock stout, with brownish scales, which are lanceolate from a broad dilated base: leaves deltoid, 4-6 inches (10-15 cms) each way, with the pinnae cut away at the lower side at base; segments short-linear, 1-nerved; sori intramarginal.

8-14 x 8-20
(20-35 x 20-50)

Grow in part shade to full shade

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

In Japan the live rhizomes are gathered when the plant is in its leafless period and tied into balls or other figures and subsequently hung out to grow as a basket fern.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

Shade-Tolerant. Cold-hardy.
Drier Soil Fern.
House Fern as a Basket Fern or Fernball in the UK.
Evergreen forests (Woodlands) and Rock Garden in native habitat.

 

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species:Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

It can be grown in a basket or pot and the long, furry rhizomes wander at will. These rhizomes can be trained into shapes and this makes it a popular subject in Japan. The variety stenolepis is a robust variety with conspicuous white scales on the rhizomes.

Best grown under medium light in drained, moist-dry garden soil, potting mix or uncut moss.

Evergreen forests at high altitude areas in India

davalliamariesiipforwikimediacommons

English: Davallia mariesii (Davalliaceae)

日本語: シノブ.
和歌山県田辺市 Tanabe City.Wakayama pref. Japan
Date: 18 July 2010. By keisotyo via Wkimedia Commons.

Davallia mariesii (シノブ). Date: 18 October 2014. By harum.koh from Kobe city, Japan via Wikimedia Commons.

davalliamariesiipfolwikimediacommons

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Microsorum grossum

 

 

 

 

 

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Microsorum punctatum and cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

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Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis'
Boston Fern, Sword Fern

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Major cultivar grown in the USA in Zones 10-12.

Native to Florida, West Indies, Mexico, Central America, South America, Polynesia and Africa.

 

Nephrolepis exaltata and its cultivars

It has graceful, arching, green fronds with a ruffled appearance that is best displayed in a hanging basket or on a stand where it can cascade over the edge.
The evergreen Boston Fern will not only bring an air of calm to your home. It is one of the best known plants for purifying the air and regulating humidity.

In St. Louis, it is easily grown indoors as a houseplant. Use a peaty, soil-based potting mix. Site in bright indirect light with no direct sun. Tolerant of some shade. Soils should be kept consistently moist, with only a slight reduction in watering from fall to late winter. Prefers high humidity and may appreciate being set on a tray of wet pebbles. Weak fertilizer applications may be made monthly from spring to early fall. Will shed fronds if soils dry out, at which point all fronds may be cut back to about 2” to regenerate.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Fronds initially grow upward but arch gracefully and then droop with age. Its fronds are broader and droop more than those of the species.

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Warm Greenhouse.
Hanging Basket.
House Fern.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

Average household temperatures 16-24°C, but no lower than 12°C. Avoid cold draughts.

They're quite sensitive to chemicals and the smoke from coal fires or wood burners are fairly toxic, draughts must also be avoided.
It's also one of the top rated plants for removing air pollutants from the air and because of its almost insatiable appetite for water it pumps out large amounts of water vapor into the nearby air, thereby increasing humidity.

As an indoor fern, it is perhaps best for pedestals or hanging baskets. Locations in or near bathrooms or kitchens may have better humidity. Where winter hardy outdoors, it may be grown in groups or massed in shady areas, or it may be sited at the base of shrubs or around trees.

nephrolepisexaltatabostoniensispforwikimediacommons

Location taken: Brookside Gardens, Wheaton Maryland. Names: Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis'  , Boston Fer Classification: Plantae > Pteridophyta > Polypodiopsida > Polypodiales > Lomariopsidaceae > Nephrolepis > Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis'. Date 8 March 2008. Photo by David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons.

Pellaea rotundifolia (Platyloma rotundifolia)

Button Fern, New Zealand Cliff Brake

Semi-hardy, Zone 8; can tolerate temperatures as low as -7C (19F) for one week

New Zealand

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Zones 8 (with lots of protection) and 9.

This fern is native to New Zealand, Australia and Norfolk Island where it is most frequently found growing on limestone cliffs, rocky crevices and moist open forested areas, but is occasionally found in drier woodland areas. North of Zone 9, it is primarily grown as a house plant in hanging baskets or in ornamental containers on tables.
Genus name comes from the Greek word pellaios meaning dark in reference to the dark colored stalks.
Specific epithet from Latin means having rounded leaves in obvious reference to the shape of the leaflets.

 

Non-Toxic to Dogs,
Non-Toxic to Cats,
Non-Toxic to Horses

Fronds 6-12 (15-30) long, 1-2 (2.5-5) broad. Pinnate, very leathery.

Rhizome is creeping. The pinnate fronds arch and cascade in horizontal layers of shiny green round "buttons" of pinnae.

Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention.

6-18 x 4-20
(15-45 x 10-50)

A small-medium fern with short-medium-creeping rhizomes and fronds in a loose cluster. Grows well under medium to high light in moist-dry, well-drained garden soil with coarse sand. The plants are easy to grow and thrive indoors in the United States. Do not water until the soil is nearly dry.

It is a popular garden plant (in zones 8 and 9) and house plant, tolerating low temperatures but not freezing. It is an evergreen fern that can have more than 30 pairs of round, dark-green, leathery pinnae on fronds up to 18 in. (45 cm). It needs acidic and well-drained soil; it does not appreciate the moist, humid conditions that most ferns require so does well with minimal watering.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

House Fern.
Cold Hardy Fern.
Hanging Basket and
Heated Greenhouse or Outdoor Container in Spring/Summer in temperate regions, with
Rock Garden,
Border and Foundation Ferns, Outdoor Container, Hanging Basket and moist Woodland in New Zealand.
Acid Soil.
Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

Requires a moderately fertile, ericaceous, moist but well-drained soil in full sun with protection from hot midday sun, or partial shade. In frost prone areas protect the crown with a dry winter mulch.

Good basket fern.

Greenhouse fern.

Evergreen.

It is found in light scrub, dry forests and occasionally in moist rainforest habitats within New Zealand.
Extremely attractive addition to the indoor fern collection or patio displays in temperate Zone 9 gardens. It requires an acidic and well-drained grainy compost and, while it should not dry out, it is more likely to be lost by being overwatered. Give it good indirect light and occasional water.

A very popular fern both with enthusiasts and commercial growers, that is prized for its rosette of neat, dark green fronds with blunt to rounded segments. Excellent in a pot or among rocks in a shaded rock garden. Likes an acid, humus-rich soil and bright light. Popular in some countries as an indoor plant.

This fern has a prostrate habit and its long fronds will arch downwards if potted into a hanging basket. It also looks effective cascading from a shelf.

pellaearotundifoliapfigurewikimediacommons pellaearotundifoliapfruwikimediacommons

Pellaea aff. rotundifolia (G.Forst.) Hook by Cam Kilgour. This image has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland Museum. For details refer to the Commons project page, via Wikimedia Commons.

Pellaea rotundifolia in Eastwoodhill Arboretum (New Zealand). Date: 26 November 2017. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

pellaearotundifoliapforwikimediacommons

Usage on sv.wikipedia.org - Pellaea rotundifolia , Phipps Conservatory. Date March 2009. By myself (User:Piotrus). Permission (Reusing this file)Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2.5 and older versions (2.0 and 1. Via Wikimedia Commons.

Phlebodium aureum

 

 

 

 

 

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Phlebodium pseudoaureum

 

 

 

 

 

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Platycerium bifurcatum

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris cretica and cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris tremula

 

 

 

 

 

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Rumohra adiantiformis

 

 

 

 

 

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Cheilanthes lanosa (Notholaena vestita)
Hairy Lip-fern

Hardy in USDA Zone 5, where it is native to the eastern United States.

Native to the Southwestern US, this will handle hot, dry summers, with its roots cool down among the rocks.

Myriopteris lanosa, the hairy lip fern, is a moderately-sized fern of the eastern United States, a member of the family Pteridaceae. Its leaves and stem are sparsely covered in hairs, but lack scales, hence its common name. One of the cheilanthoid ferns, it was usually classified in the genus Cheilanthes until 2013, when the genus Myriopteris was again recognized as separate from Cheilanthes. It typically grows in shallow, dry, soil, often in rocky habitats.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

 

Suitable for rockeries, beds, border fringes or in the container with Dianthus, Sempervivums or Sedums for example. A hardy plant which should survive normal winter conditions outside, especially if protected from the hardest frosts in the UK.

Lovely with other woodland plants or grown in a greenhouse in the UK.

Perfect respite for woodland animals when grouped.

8-16 x 4-20
(20-40 x 10-50)

Will not tolerate winter wet. Grow in sharply-drained, gritty, humus-rich soil in full sun, with protection from winter rain. Otherwise grow under glass in full light, with low humidity and good ventilation, in a mix of equal parts loam-based potting compost and coarse grit plus 10 percent added charcoal, and water sparingly in the UK.
Propagation in the UK - Sow spores at 16°C as soon as ripe. Division in spring is possible, but rhizomes resent disturbance.
Grow on Banks and Slopes, Gravel Garden, Patio & Container Plants, Rock Garden in the UK.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

 

This evergreen fern is best grown as a house plant here in the UK, although it can survice out in the garden if its roots are well protected from cold.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Acid Soil.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil Fern.
Terrarium.
Heated Greenhouse and Conservatory.
Tolerates Full Sun.
Woodland.
Outdoor Containers. Border and Foundation Fern.
House Fern in Trough Garden.

 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A small to medium evergreen fern with short-creeping rhizomes bearing clustered, grayish fronds. Grows under medium-high light in well-drained, acidic garden soil or potting mix kept moist-dry to dry. It usually grows on the ground in or among sandstone; it does not grow on vertical cliff faces.

A neat fern with clumps of bright green fronds which are densely woolly on the underside. Likes dry conditions in a sunny situation. Soil requirements are acid to neutral with excellent drainage. Must not be overwatered.

It can also grow in open woodlands and other open areas. It grows in shallow soil on rocky slopes and ledges, although not usually on cliff faces, at an altitude from 100 to 800 meters (300 to 3,000 ft). It is not particularly sensitive to rock type, growing on limestone, granite and sandstone, among others.

cheilantheslanosapfolwikimediacommons

Cheilanthes lanosa at the University of California Botanical Garden, Berkeley, California. Date: September 2006. By Stan Shebs via Wikimedia Commons.

Cheilanthes lanosa. Date: 10 July 2011.
by ghislain118 (AD) http://www.fleurs-des-montagnes.net via Wikimedia Commons

See photo of greyish foliage in USA.

cheilantheslanosapforwikimediacommons

 

"Although this fern is quite hardy (-15°C), it does not like too much damp in winter.
Maintenance: protect against winter damp by mulching with a thick mattress of pine needles in the autumn. Cut back the dry fronds at the end of winter." from
Le Clos d’Armoise Nursery - a perennial plant nursery in France.

Davallia corniculata (Humata corniculata)

Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra and Java

A rare species with slender rhizomes densely covered by brown scales

The fronds are finely-divided and much longer than they are wide, giving a narrow triangular appearance.

Rhizome long creeping, about 3 mm diam., densely covered with scales, the surface waxy and glaucous; scales more or less patent, gradually narrowing from base towards apex, about 5 mm long, up to 0.8 mm broad, brown or red-brown, ciliate at margin. Sori small, at margin of lobes; indusia about 0.3 mm long and wide.

12-28 x
(30-70 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

House Fern in Trough Garden or mossy Hanging Basket in the UK.
On tree trunks in Woodland in native habitat.

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species:Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

Can be grown in a pot or basket of coarse mixture.

On fallen tree trunks in half-shaded places on ridges at about 1400 m alt in Thailand.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Growing Davallia Species Indoors
"In their native habitat, these ferns are often epiphytic, which explains their creeping rhizomes. In indoor cultivation, they are frequently grown as hanging plants or long-term potted plants. Although the rhizomes do extend below the surface of the soil, they should never be buried. These roots serve something of the same function as orchid roots. They cling to surfaces and draw moisture and nutrients from the air and environment. Instead, let the rhizomes grow uncontrolled until they cascade from the container and add a cool visual note to your fern.
Growing Conditions
Light
These are shade-loving or at the very least shade-tolerant plants. Indoors, a north-facing or east-facing window would be ideal. Never expose them to direct sunlight unless they've been carefully acclimated. They can also be grown well under artificial lights.
Water
These ferns love humidity and will require both frequent watering and frequent misting. It's important not to let the rhizomes dry out, which will weaken and possibly kill the plants. The best-looking plants are grown in conditions similar to many Ivies.
Soil:
They like a loamy, rich soil with plenty of peat. Drainage is not a paramount concern (although they dislike being water-logged).
Fertilizer
Feed with a weak liquid fertilizer throughout the growing season.
Propagation
Along with clumping ferns, the Davallia are relatively easy to propagate. You can propagate from spores, but it's just as easy to divide the underground rhizome and split your fern in two, potting up each half into a new container. It's best to perform this operation on older plants so you can get the most viable rhizome possible.
Repotting
These do not need frequent repotting and in fact should be encouraged to overgrow their pots a little bit. This is especially true for hanging plants, which look better when they cascade slightly and their unique rhizomes are visible protruding from the container. For best growth, repot every other year.
Varieties
The Davallia genus is interesting throughout but unfortunately, only a few species are regularly found in cultivation. These include the deer's foot fern (D. canariensis), the squirrel's foot fern (D. trichomanoides) and the rabbit's foot fern (D. fejeenis). Most of the species stay relatively small with triangular fronds that measure about 12 to 18 inches in length and have airy, feathery foliage. The more delicate varieties require more water than their thicker cousins.
Grower's Tips
Growing these plants well requires a somewhat careful touch. They have to be given ample water to thrive, including daily misting of the rhizome or a really humid room. But they also do best when certain common things — like repotting and heavy fertilizing — are neglected a little bit. In general, they dislike being disturbed much and once you've found a good home for one, it will not react well to changing conditions.
Also be aware that these plants are very sensitive to accumulated fertilizer salts, in part because of their rhizomes. Make sure to flush the soil very well at least once a year and even soak the root ball to clean out fertilizer. Grow them in mossy baskets for a truly prehistoric look.
Davallia are vulnerable to pests including aphids, mealy bugs, scale and whitefly. If possible, identify the infestation as early as possible and treat with the least toxic option."

Davallia denticulata (Davallia elegans plus others)

Rabbit's Foot Fern, Paku Tertutup, Toothed davallia

Chinese Name :
假脉骨碎补, 兔脚芒

Hainan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia, Indian Ocean islands, Pacific islands]

A widely distributed species usually found in exposed situations. This fern grows as an epiphyte (epiphyte - A plant growing on another plant but not attached parasitically), also frequently among rocks and often as a terrestrial (terrestrial - growing on the ground) in sandy soil with the rhizomes deeply buried.

Rootstock clothed with woolly fibers: leaves 9-15 inches (22.5-37.5 cms) wide, with the main rachis slightly winged toward the apex; indusia, several to a segment, with the sharp teeth projecting beyond the cups.

Sori separate, several per segment, at forking point of veins.

24-40 x
(60-100 x )

Grows well under medium light in moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss with good drainage.

On dry rocks or on tree trunks in evergreen forests or half-shaded places at altitudes below 200 m, or rarely 500 m in Thailand.

It grows on big trees, partially sheltered by the canopy. It occurs locally in Pulau Ubin (Chek Jawa), Pulau Tekong and many other forested and urban sites. It can be propagated by spores or division of the rhizomes in Singapore.

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in Hanging Basket within a Conservatory in UK.
In Old World Tropics grow on rocks or cork in
Rock Garden or on trees in Woodland as a Shade-Tolerant Fern.
Can be grown in Coastal areas.
Epiphytic and Epilithic.

 

Stove evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
 

Stove Evergreen Fern.

Plants grow readily in a pot or in the ground but the fronds are deciduous during the winter in its native habitats.

Epiphytic on many different species of trees and in different types of forests including mangrove or on solitary trees, epilithic on granite, limestone, or sandstone, terrestrial on different kinds of soil; sea level to 2200 m. Only the typical variety (Davallia denticulata var. denticulata) occurs in China.

Often seen as a lithophyte (Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks ) or epiphyte in different forest types. It may lose all its fronds in dry periods.

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Davallia, commemorating Edmond Davall, an English-born Swiss botanist from the 18th century; Latin denticulata, finely toothed, referring to the rhizome scales with short spreading curved teeth.

 

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia embolostegia (Wibelia embolostegia)

Haresfoot fern

Native to Philippines and Borneo

A delighful fern with large, light green fronds which are produced in abundance from the spreading rhizome. The young tips of the rhizomes are covered with conspicuous, tangled, reddish-brown scales.
Each frond is quite long-lived.

Sori separate, often single on a segment at the bending point of a vein.

32-48 x
(80-120 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

House Fern in Trough, Hanging Basket or Terrarium in Conservatory in the UK.
In trough or outside container by waterfall, pond or river in native habitat.
Epiphytic and lithophytic.

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

Can be grown in a large container or basket in well-drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss. It needs heat and humidity to grow well.

Epiphytic, rarely lithophytic, in evergreen forest in Thailand.

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species:Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

 

 

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2