Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Scupture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

--->

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens
--->


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.
--->
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1, 2

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes)

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria) 1, 2, 3 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma)
 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P.Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.



 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2
Drier Soil
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2
Shade Tolerant

Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2

House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4

House Fern in Terrarium or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums 2, 3, 4
 

Grow in Woodlands
 


USE OF FERN as Fern for Acid Soils Page 1 of 2
"These ferns grow in acidic soils with pH 4-7." from Chapter 9 of
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually from Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Blechnum penna-marina

 

 

 

 

 

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Blechnum spicant

 

 

 

 

 

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Dennstaedtia punctilobula

 

 

 

 

 

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Dryopteris clintoniana

 

 

 

 

 

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Dryopteris expansa

 

 

 

 

 

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Dryopteris tokyoensis

 

 

 

 

 

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Osmunda claytoniana

Interrupted Fern, Flowering Fern

Very hardy,
Zone (2),3

Native to northeastern North America, India and Asia.

The unusual common name for this fern arises because on the fertile fronds the fertile segments are carried in between sets of normal barren segments, giving the appearance of a gap in the frond. Young fronds are covered with wooly, pinkish hairs.

The leaves grow from a rhizome growing at or below the ground.

Forming a lovely spreading vase habit, this low-maintenance native fern makes a distinctive addition to the shade border or woodland garden.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, laf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

Accent Fern.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Grows well with hostas in shaded woodland or wild gardens. Also effective along ponds or streams. Interesting accent for the shaded border.

This clump-forming fern has erect rhizomes that form occasional offshoots and grows in moist-wet to wet, acidic garden soil. The plants have deciduous fronds and do poorly in the Gulf States and subtropical climates.

Habitat in forests, shores of rivers or lakes, swamps, wetland margins (edges of wetlands).

Easily grown in medium to wet soils in part shade to full shade. Prefers moist, rich, humusy, acidic soils, but adapts to lesser conditions.

Deer resistant.

Osmundaclaytonianapfrondwikimediacommons

Osmunda claytoniana.
By Kurt Stueber via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

 

Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana, in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec.
By ‪Circeus‪ ‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

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Phegopteris connectilis

 

 

 

 

 

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Polystichum, various species

see below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Matteuccia struthiopteris
(Syn. Matteuccia pennsylvanica, Pteretis struthiopteris, Pteretis nodulosa, Struthiopteris pennsylvanica)

Ostrich Fern, Shuttlecock Fern

Very hardy.
Zone 2

Mid Green pinnate fronds taper at both ends and grow in a vase-like cluster around the robust rootstock.
Each cluster eventually develops a small trunk.

A vigorous fern which spreads by underground rhizomes, producng clusters of new fronds at intervals Flushes of new fronds are most decorative. Requires acid, loamy soil.

The sterile leaves are deciduous, but the fertile ones persist throughout the winter and shed their spores in early spring, sometimes over snow. Usually 1 or 2 new plants are produced each year from the stolons.

66 x 36
(165 x 90)

Spacing 24-30 (60-75)

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Large hardy deciduous fern. Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margin of pond. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady, cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, Mar or Apr. Water copiously Apr-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
Propagation: By spores gathered just before the cases burst and sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould, cover with glass and keep moderately moist in a shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants Mar-Apr.

Suitable for

Fern for Acid Soils

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Border and Foundation Ferns.

Ground Cover Ferns.

Outdoor Containers.

Ferns for Wet Soils

Grow in moist shade in a woodland garden, a damp border or at the edge of a pond.
Great at the front of the border, in containers or as ground cover under deciduous trees.
Used as a foundation planting around houses.

Mass in moist, shady woodland areas, wild gardens or wet areas near streams or ponds. Combines well with astilbes or hostas. Plant in conjunction with early spring wildflowers (e.g., trilliums, bloodroot, trout lilies or Dutchman's breeches) which will be well on the way toward dormancy by the time this fern reaches full size.

It will grow in full sun with constant moisture.

Clump-forming fern to grow in Part Shade and Full Shade in Medium to Wet soil.

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Matteuccia struthiopteris, young plant, Hurum, Buskerud (Norway). By Bjoertvedt via Wikimedia Commons.

 

English: Matteuccia Struthiopteris in Ypäjä, Tavastia Proper, Finland
Suomi: Kotkansiiven pysty kasvutapa. Kuva Ypäjältä 29.5.2011.
By Urjanhai via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

Русский: Страусник обыкновенный. Спорофиллы и вайи. Россия, Савинский район Ивановской области.
English: Matteuccia struthiopteris. Fertile and sterile fronds. Savinsky district, Ivanovo Oblast, Russia
By Borealis55 via Wikimedia Commons

 

Matteuccia struthiopteris
Deutsch: Junge Farne im Zeitzgrund bei Stadtroda (Thüringen).
By Michael Sander via Wikimedia Commons

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Onoclea
sensibilis Temperate-Tropical

Sensitive Fern, Bead Fern, Sympathy Fern

Native to North America, Canada and North Asia.

Onoclea comes from the Greek onos, vessel, and klein, to close, referring to the pinnules of the fertile leaf, which roll up into bead-like segments to enclose the sori.

A member of the Woodsiaceae Cliff Fern Family.

Zone 4

 

Available in USA from
Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery - Orefield, PA

ArcheWild Native Nurseries - Quakertown, PA

Toadshade Wildflower Farm - Frenchtown, NJ

Prairie Nursery - Westfield, WI

Yellow Springs Farm Native Plant Nursery - Chester Springs , PA

Upright, then arching, lance-shaped or triangular, pinnate, pale green sterile fronds.

The bead-like appearance of the fertile fronds accounts for this genus's common name of bead fern. Some say that the name sensitive fern originates from the frond's sensitivity to frost (they wither after the first subfreezing temperatures).

Winter survival will be enhanced if the dried fronds are left on the plant through the winter.

36-48 x 36-48
(90-120 x 90-120)
 

Miscellaneous Ferns

Hardy deciduous ferns. Fronds, barren ones, broad, once-divided, green; fertile ones, narrow, contracted, once-divided, brown.
Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margins of ponds. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, March or April. Water copiously April-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould covered with square of glass, and kept moderately moist in shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants, March or April.

Suitable for
Indoor Decoration.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and
Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns suitable for Outdoor Containers

Ferns for Wet Soils

Cold-Hardy Ferns

The fertile fronds are often used in dried flower arrangements.

Best in wet woodland gardens and moist locations alongside streams and ponds. Can grow in very wet soils as long as there is adequate oxygen. It cannot tolerate sour clay or stagnant water. Also, does not tolerate freezing well, turns black even in light frost.

Shelters salamanders and frogs

Open swamps, thickets, marshes, or low woods, in sunny or shaded locations, often forming thick stands from sea level to elevations of 1500 metres.
A coarse weedy fern commonly found in wet soils where it may form spreading colonies. Plants grow very easily in a pot or moist garden situation. In wet soils, the plants will stand considerable exposure to sun.
Thrives at the edge of water or in a damp shady border.

It grows best in a shaded or partially shaded area in a moist soil. The plant can tolerate dryer conditions in shade, and will tolerate wet soils and so occurs in soggy ground or at the very edge of water in shade or sun. Sensitive ferns spread to form colonies and are often the first species to inhabit disturbed areas. They can become weedy if not sited properly.

onoclessensibilispfor1wikimediacommons

onocleasensibilispfor3coblands

Rodgersia and Onoclea. 25 April 2014, 16:50. By peganum from Henfield, England via Wikimedia Commons

 

日本語: Onoclea sensibilis:コウヤワラビ
2003/06/15
新潟県:Niigata Pref. Japan. By Keisotyo via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

 

 

Juvenile Onoclea sensibilis sterile fronds in pots. By Coblands.

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Osmunda regalis

Royal Fern, Flowering Fern

Very hardy,
Zone 2(3)

A fibrous rootstock bears dense clumps of triangular-ovate-pinnate, bright green sterile fronds. In summer, partially fertile fronds, to 6 feet long, have tassel-like tips, with brown or rust-coloured sporangia covering the much smaller pinnae.

In autumn, they turn bronze before dying back. This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

72 x 144
(180 x 360)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, laf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Ferns suitable for

Outdoor Containers.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Bog or Wet-Soil Fern.

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns.

Cold-Hardy Ferns.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Excellent selection for wet areas along ponds, streams, water gardens or in bogs. Also grows well in shaded borders, woodland gardens, wild gardens or native plant gardens.

Grow in a damp border, or at the margins of a pond or stream.
This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

It prefers cool summer climates where it tolerates close to full sun as long as given consistent moisture. Full sun exposure is not recommended for the hot St. Louis summers.

osmundaregalispsoridenverbotanicgardens

 

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Osmunda regalis Image 1 on left from Denver Botanic Gardens

 

Osmunda regalis Image 2 from Denver Botanic Gardens

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Osmunda regalis on right. By Ghislain118 http://www.fleurs-des-montagnes.net via Wikimedia Commons

 

Nederlands: Plant - Koningsvaren - Osmunda regalis
English: Plant - Royal Fern - Osmunda regalis on left. ByMarianne Cornelissen-Kuyt via Wikimedia Commons

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Aglaomorpha coronans
(Pseudodrynaria coronans, Drynaria coronans, Phymatodes coronans, Pleopeltis coronans, Polypodium coronans)

Crowning Bear's Claw Fern, Santa Rosa Fern, Basket Fern

Semi-tender or hardier
Zone 10 (coldest zone where hardy) -11

Native to Bangladesh, India, China, Taiwan, southeastern Asia, Malaysia, and the Ryuku Islands of Japan.

Aglaomorpha is from the Greek aglaos (bright, pleasing) and morphe (shape)

Deep green ornately lobed outarching "fronds" with sing like basal oak leaf pattern anchored on large sienna pelted showy rhizomes.  Very sturdy and reliable.

 

 

This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Clayton, California

Hayward, California

Long Beach, California

Stockton, California

Brandon, Florida

36-48 x
(90-120 x )

Spacing 72-96 (180-240)

Staghorn Ferns

Requires consistently moist soil; do not let dry out between waterings.

Always makes an impressive basket fern when well grown. Does best in very couarse, porous epiphyt potting mix and allow it getting fairly dry between watering.

"On rather dry or mossy rocks or on tree trunks in open places or in dense forests, not so rare at medium altitudes throughout Thailand." from Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia

Suitable for

Tropical - in Denver Botanic Garden - Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse

Fern for Acid Soil: 5.6-6.0 pH

Basket Ferns

Best grown in well-drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss. The species is easy to grow and thrives in both humid and drier environments. It can be cultivated in the ground - if given sufficient drainage by using a coarse medium - and in hanging baskets. They collect falling leaves and other organic debris that eventually decay to provide a soil for the roots. The dry, papery texture of this humus-collecting leaf-base resists decay.

Though large, they are suitable as indoor plants because they tolerate low humidity and irregular watering.

 

Glasshouse Works has photos of this fern.

 

The perennials prefer a shady situation on moist soil. They tolerate temperatures only above at least 1°C (USDA zone 10).

Germination Instructions from Exotic Plants.

 

 

Polystichum andersonii
Anderson's Holly Fern, Anderson's sword fern

Hardy Species in Zone 5(6)

Native to North America, Pacific Northwest. Found growing in the mountains from Alaska south to Oregon and east to Montana. In Zones 6-9.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and evergreen, bud-bearing leaves - see Section 9 - Propagation

It likes cool and drained soils, acidic and humusy, in the shade.

Over
36 x 36
(90 x 90)
in height by spread in 5 years

It occurs where vegetation is dense, such as moist spruce-fir forests, avalanche chutes, along streams, and shrub thickets.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Ferns for Acid Soils

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It is found in deep woods in the mountains.  Fronds grow to 100 cms (40 inches).   It has a conspicuously chaffy fiddlehead and leaf stalk.  Pinnae are deeply cut making it appear doubly pinnate.  Bulblets form at the base of pinnae near the tip and may grow into a new plant when the frond touches the ground!

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English: Polystichum andersonii in Arboretum Rogow, Poland
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

English: Polystichum andersonii in Arboretum Rogow, Poland
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

polystichumandersoniipforwikimediacommons

Polystichum munitum
Western Sword Fern, Common Sword Fern

Hardy in Zone 7

Polystichum means many rows, referring to the arrangement of the spore cases on the undersides of the fronds.  Munitum means armed with teeth, referring to its toothed fronds.  Western Sword Fern is also known as Sword Holly Fern, Giant Holly Fern, Christmas Fern, Pineland Sword Fern, or Chamisso’s Shield Fern.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and evergreen fronds.This species does best in moist, cool climates and does not grow well in the eastern of Southeastern United States.

The species is native to the western United States, Canada, Alaska (Yukon), and Mexico (Guadalupe Island); it is naturalized in Europe.

35-47 x 23-47
(90-120 x 60-120)

The dark green fronds of this fern grow in a tight clump spreading out radially from a round base. Individual fronds live for 1.5 to 2.5 years and remain attached to the rhizome after withering.

Trim off dead fronds in early spring before new growth begins.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.
In cultivation, it also responds well to regular, light fertilizations. While this fern is a favored horticultural subject in western North America, it has proved difficult or impossible to cultivate satisfactorily in the eastern part of the continent.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Shade Tolerant.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Woodland.
Acid Soil.
Ground Cover. Outdoor Containers.
Accent.

Hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

The fronds are used by florists to include in vases.

Hardy fern for a shady, moist situation in the garden or fernery. Plants are quite cold tolerant.

The preferred habitat of this fern is the understory of moist coniferous woodlands at low elevations. It grows best in well-drained acidic soil of rich humus and small stones. It is very resilient and survives occasional droughts, but flourishes only with consistent moisture and light sunlight, and it prefers cool weather.

polystichummunitumfiddleheaddanakelleybressette

Phenology: Fronds partially unroll their “fiddleheads” by late May; by late July the spores are near maturity.
Fiddleheads and

 

 

Form of
Polystichum munitum, Western Sword Fern. Photos courtesy of Dana Kelley Bressette, Nativeplants PNW.com

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Polystichum setiferum (Polystichum angulare, Polypodium angulare, Aspidium angulare)
Soft Shield Fern, Soft Prickly Shield Fern, Angular-lobed Shield Fern

Hardy in Zone 6

This is one of the most graceful of all British native species.

Erect rhizomes and fronds that are evergreen in warmer climates. Many variants of this species from buds along the rachis - see Section 9 - Propagation . The plants do not like very high humidity.

This species is native to Europe. This forms a medium-sized clump of very soft-textured fronds, dark green in colour with a glossy finish. Plants perform best in soils that remain evenly moist, and slightly on the acidic side.

Height and Spread of
23-27 x 23-27
(60-70 x 60-70)

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Hedge.
Acid Soil.
Accent Fern.
Ground Cover.
Cold-Hardy.
Evergreen.
Shade Tolerant. Outdoor Containers.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
Woodland.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It grows in hedge-banks and in lowland woods, preferring, like most of the larger Ferns, the presence of plenty of free (not stagnant) water.
It is also grows in pots and rock garden.

Remains evergreen in mild winter regions. Attractive as a specimen, massed, or in containers.

polystichumsetiferumpbudswikimediacommons

Buds along the rachis of American Plant Food Company, 7405 River Road, Bethesda MD. Polystichum setiferum .
By David J. Stang. First published at ZipcodeZoo.com via Wikimedia Commons

Polystichum setiferum in botanical garden in Batumi
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum scopulinum
Western Holly Fern, Rock Sword Fern, polystic des rochers, Mountain Holly Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 4

It is native to much of western North America, and it is known from disjunct occurrences in eastern Canada, as well.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and leathery, semi-evergreen fronds. This species is difficult to grow.

This fern produces several erect, narrowly lance-shaped leaves up to 50 centimeters (20 inches) in length. The leaves narrow near the bases. Each leaf is divided into many lance-shaped or oblong leaflets up to 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) long. The toothed leaflets are sometimes twisted on their axes and overlapping.

The species is native to western North America and Canada.

20 x 12-40
(50 x 30-100)

 

Habitat in Moist rock crevices in subalpine zone, and moist rocks along rivers in the valleys.

Photos

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Sun-Tolerant.
Acid Soils.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Rock crevices and at base of boulders, serpentine to acidic substrates, usually exposed to full sun; 0--3500 m; B.C., Nfld., Que.; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo.

A small leathery fern suitable for planting among rocks.

It is found in dry coniferous forest or more commonly on cliffs and talus slopes.  It is more frequent east of the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains; it also grows in eastern Canada.

It grows in rocky habitat, often in full sun. It is widespread but mostly found in small populations, and is noted to be most abundant on serpentine soils - Soldiers Delight Natural Environmental Area in Baltimore County, Maryland, covers 1,900 acres of serpentine barren. The area has over 38 rare, threatened, or endangered plant species as well as rare insects, rocks and minerals.

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Fig. 35. Polystichum scopulinum from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons

Polystichum scopulinum by Sheri Hagwood. Bureau of Land Management. United States, ID, Bureau of Land Management Jarbidge Resource Area. August 1, 2006 via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum triangulum (Polystichum echinatum)

Zone 9(10)

It forms a spreading rosette of narrow, bright green fronds; the pinnae being deltoid to triangular in shape.

Native to South America and West Indies.

 

Polystichum triangulum (triangular), synonym Polystichum echina-tum, is a small fern that is recommended for Zone 9 and possibly Zone 10. It is most attractive with shiny diamond to triangular-shaped pinnae. If it is not suitable for your garden, try it as a house-plant where, with fronds up to 18 in. (45 cm), it is showy, manageable, and unusual. It can be reproduced by small bulbils on the frond tips.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Ferns suitable for

Acid Soil.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Although reported as being associated with calcareous rocks, this species grows well in acid, loamy soils.

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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Ceratopteris thalictroides
(Acrostichum thalictroides, Ceratopteris froesii, Ceratopteris gaudichaudii, Ceratopteris siliquosa )
Water Fern, Pod Fern, Oriental Water Fern, Water Sprite, Indian Fern, Water Hornfern, Water Elk's Horn

Tender in Zone 9

It is found throughout the tropics of the world, except Africa. Tropical America - Florida.

The name comes from the Greek keras, horn, and pteris, fern, alluding to the antler-like fertile leaves.

 

AC Tropical Fish (Aquatic Community.com, Aquatic Community) was founded in 2004 as a resource and meeting place for tropical aquarium fish keepers. It has since then grown into a comprehensive aquarium portal featuring information not only about tropical freshwater fish but also about all other types of aquarium fish.

Buds tend to grow on dying fronds.

The bright green, finely-cut, fertile leaves are erect and are produced above water. In Asia the foliage of this species is used in salads and is said to have a peppery taste. This genus has the distinction of having the fastest life cycle of any fern. The plants can take as little as 1 month to go from spores to mature, spore-bearing plants, though 3 or 4 months is more typical. The plants live about 1 year and are usuually perpetuated by the numerous buds that form on the blade surface, typically in margins of the sinuses. The buds detach and float away from the parent plant.

It can provide useful shade to shyer fish and small fry. The dense roots are said to take nutrients out of the water helping to prevent the growth of algae.
Small adventitious plantlets are grown on the mother plant and are then released when ready.
In small open aquariums it can grow out of the aquarium and form beautiful surface leaves.

30 x
(75 x )

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: Mature plants can be propagated by division of the rhizome, which may be allowed to float or, if grown submerged, held in place by coarse gravel. If plants are to be rooted in mud, garden soil with little organic matter will do. Some growers recommend a mixture of about half peat and half sand mixed with 10% top soil. Plants that are rooted in mud need their fronds kept moist. Temperatures must be maintained close to 27C (80F) for good growth. The plants and buds decline when temperatures are below 20C (68F), and if lost, new plants must be started from spores.

Propagation: By spores sown in February on surface of compost in pan or water as for culture in next column, vivaparous forms increased by pegging down leaves into soft mud, detaching later.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Fern for Acid Soils.
Fern for Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Stove aquatic fern that is usually only of annual duration, but when carefully grown may be a biennial.

Culture: Soil, sifted loam and charcoal with a little leaf-mould. Position, in pots or pans submerged to rim in tank of water for floating kinds, submerged kinds in aquarium compost. Plant, spring or summer. All need subdued light, moist, warm atmosphere. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September, about 75F (24C).

It grows best in soil with a pH reading of 5-9 and in very high amounts of light. It usually grows quickly.
This plant normally grows fast, but the addition of CO2 (CO2  concentrations of under 20 mg/l are sufficient) may be necessary to promote growth.

Grows in wet garden soil. Typically, the plants root in mud.

It succeeds best in a pot of good loam, wholly submerged in a tank of warm water in a stove house. It produces spores freely, or may be propagated by the young plants that form on all the fronds.

Swampy areas, swamp forests, sago (Metroxylon) swamps, marshes, natural and man-made ponds, mostly in stagnant water bodies or in still pockets along slow flowing rivers, full sun to moderate shade, from sea level to 1300 m, but mostly less than 500 m altitude. Sometimes massed on or around logs or other floating vegetation, once recorded in a fresh-water mangrove (Sonneratia) growing among the finger-like pneumatophores.
It is widely used as an aquarium plant, and is prized for its versatility, being used both as a floating plant and a plant that can be rooted in the substrate.

"The water temperature should ideally be kept above 20 degrees C." from the Aquatic Community.

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English: Foliage of Ceratopteris thalictroides
日本語: ミズワラビ By Show_ryu via Wikimedia Commons

Figure: Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas, insbesondere seiner tropischen Gebiete : Grundzge der Pflanzen-verbreitung im Afrika und die Charak-terpflanzen Afrikas. Ceratopteris thalictroides. By Engler, Adolf, 1844-1930 via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

English: Two floating aquatic fern: Salvinia minima (right) and Ceratopteris thalictroides (left) floating in aquarium. Identified by user Le.Loup.Gris.
Español: Dos helechos acuáticos flotantes: Salvinia minima (derecha) y Ceratopteris thalictroides (izquierda) flotando en acuario.By Pristigaster via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Pilularia globulifera
European Pillwort, Pillwort

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to Europe - found in western Central Europe and scattered throughout the British Isles in shallow water at edges of ponds, ricefields, marshy ground, wet heaths, often submerged, in acid substrata; very local and absent from many counties; local in Ireland.
Native UK plant.
 

Leaves arising from a creeping rhizome with nodes 1-4 cm (0.5-1.5inches) apart, 3-10 (15) (1.2-4 inches) long, subulate.

This tiny plant is a type of creeping fern. It is hard to spot because it has thin, grass-like leaves and often grows with water grasses or small rushes. The ‘pills’ are tiny round spore cases at the bases of the stems. It can still be found at a number of sites scattered across Britain, but is internationally threatened, as it is declining across its whole European range.
Key threats:-
Water pollution, particularly by fertilisers, which encourage the growth of coarse plants. The decline of cattle grazing and the resultant loss of trampling; drainage; the ploughing of old pastures; and invasion by the vigorous non-native water plant New Zealand pigmyweed (Crassula helmsii) - illegal plant in the UK.

About 3 inches (8 cms) tall, which is easily recognised by the characteristically unfurling leaves and the large (3 mm), round sporocarps, if present.

Lime green round stem-like leaves or  fronds approximately 1-1.5mm diameter.

Fronds unfurl from tight coils, and you can often see 1 or 2 fronds which have yet to unfurl even late into the season.

Fronds can grow up to 8cm tall, often standing upright from the ground or above the surface of the water, but they can be submerged.

The fronds are rarely straight and have a kinky or wavy appearance, especially when young.

The fronds arise singly, or at most 3 shoots, from a rhizome (horizontal underground stem), not in clumps or tussocks (as seen in grasses and rushes).

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation:

Pillwort is a specialist of bare pond edge habitats. It is not a good competitor and only thrives where there are few other plants. Like many specialists, it has some key habitat requirements:-
1. Seasonally fluctuating water levels, doing especially well in temporary ponds. 2. Poaching and grazing by livestock. This is the best form of sustainable management because it creates bare ground which the plant needs.
3. Slightly acidic ponds on clays, sands and peaty substrates.
4. Open habitats including heathland and acid grassland. It is intolerant of shading from scrub.
Pillwort can also be found growing on the edge of larger ponds and lakes, particularly sand and gravel pits, but only where there are fluctuating water levels and clean unpolluted water.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Fern for Acid Soils. Ferns suitable for Terrariums.
Use as Bog or Wet-Soil Fern.

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Pillwort can be grown in a "bog garden" or as a marginal aquatic in a garden pond.

Grows well under high light in sandy or silty garden soil kept wet. The plants can also grow submerged or partly submerged. Do not let them dry out completely. This speces is a rapid and robust grower in moist to wet soil.

It grows at edges of lakes, ponds, ditches and marshes, on wet clay or clay-sand soil (that are submerged for at least part of the year), sometimes in water up to 30 cm (12 in) deep. Some of the plants growing in association with this species in the UK include water celery (Apium inundatum), marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) and lesser spearwort (Ranunculus flammula).

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English: Single creeping plant of the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera, on wet ground.
Deutsch: Einzelner Kriechspross (Ausläufer) des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera) auf wechselnassem Teichboden. By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

English: Mature sporocarps at the base of the leaves from the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera.
Deutsch: Reife Sporenbehälter ("Pillen") am Grund der Blätter des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera). By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

English: Field of the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera, in a natural habitat (alternating wet pond bottom).
Deutsch: Aspekt eines rasenartigen Bestandes des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera) in seinem natürlichen Lebensraum (wechselnasse Teichbodenflur, Zwergbinsen-gesellschaft). By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

Pilularia globulifera - Image:Illustration Pilularia globulifera0.jpg from Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany via Wikimedia Commons

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Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Nephrolepis acuminata (Nephrolepis davallioides, Nephrolepis biserrata and other synonyms)
Giant Swordfern,
Golden Boston Fern making a striking hanging basket subject

Malaysia, Indonesia

Tropical - Semi-tropical

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

The fertile pinnae are deeply lobed and attractive.

Tufted clusters of golden-yellow foliage arising from underground rhizomes. The round sori (clusters of spore-bearing organs) are in two rows near the margins on the underside of the pinnae. The fronds grow upright at first, then arch gracefully downwards. They grow in lovely arching rosette shaped and spread by runners.

24-48 x 2-6
(60-120 x 5-15)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse. Basket Fern.
Acid Soil.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

This fern can be grown as a garden plant in the tropics, as well as in a large container.
Inorganic and Organic fertilizers and manures are useful for plants in the ground; in pots, slow-release and liquid fertilizers can be used. Fertilizers should only be applied during the warm, growing months. Avoid sprinkling solid fertilizer or solutions of liquid fertilizer onto the foliage of finely divided cultivars as it can cause rotting.
Most Nephrolepis are sensitive to severe cold weather, and frosts in particular. They have no reserves in their rhizomes and the tropical species usually collapse and die following such weather.

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Nephrolepis biserrata (Nephrolepis acuta, Aspidium biserrata)
Paku Larat, Sword Fern, Chinese Name : 长叶肾蕨 , Coarse Sword Fern, Giant Sword Fern,
Golden Boston Fern making a striking hanging basket subject

Malaysia, Malesiana, Indonesia, Southeast Asia, Australia, North and South America, the Pacific islands, Native Plants of South Florida

Tropical - Semi-tropical

 

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia. Species biserrata means double-toothed and refers to the leaf margin of the fern.

The fertile pinnae are deeply lobed and attractive.

Tufted clusters of golden-yellow foliage arising from underground rhizomes. The round sori (clusters of spore-bearing organs) are in two rows near the margins on the underside of the pinnae. The fronds grow upright at first, then arch gracefully downwards. They grow in lovely arching rosette shaped and spread by runners. Grow in Part Shade.

24-48 x 2-6
(60-120 x 5-15)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse. Basket Fern.
Acid Soil.
Groundcover on wooded edges in South Florida

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

This fern can be grown as a garden plant in the tropics, as well as in a large container.
Inorganic and Organic fertilizers and manures are useful for plants in the ground; in pots, slow-release and liquid fertilizers can be used. Fertilizers should only be applied during the warm, growing months. Avoid sprinkling solid fertilizer or solutions of liquid fertilizer onto the foliage of finely divided cultivars as it can cause rotting.
Most Nephrolepis are sensitive to severe cold weather, and frosts in particular. They have no reserves in their rhizomes and the tropical species usually collapse and die following such weather.

Found in swamps and hammocks.

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Nephrolepis biserrata
Date: 12 December 2013, 11:47:01.
By Mokkie via Wikimedia Commons

Nephrolepis biserrata
Date: 12 December 2013, 11:45:21.
By Mokkie via Wikimedia Commons

 

Further photos.

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Nephrolepis cordifolia (Nephrolepis tuberosa, Polypodium cordifolium, Aspidium cordifolium)
Fishbone Fern, Tuber Ladder Fern, Tuberous Sword Fern, erect sword fern, narrow sword fern and ladder fern, and herringbone fern

Native to northern Australia and Asia.

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Nephrolepis cordifolia has become an invasive species is some areas where it has been introduced. In New Zealand it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord, which prohibits the sale, cultivation and distribution of the plant.
It is listed as an invasive species in Florida, United States - "The sword fern poses a threat on native species. Through its aggressive spread, sword fern is able to form dense stands and quickly displace native vegetation. Because it is a true fern, it reproduces via spores. Thousands of spores can be produced by one plant and these can be dispersed by wind and water. Spore production occurs year-round in south Florida."

Nephrolepis cordifolia is a wood fern that typically grows in woodland areas. Both fertile and sterile fronds are pinnate, up to 3 feet in length and 3 inches wide. There are many leaflets, or pinnae, ranging from 40-100 mm (1.5 to 4 inches) on each side of the rachis. Each pinna is oblong to lanceolate with an auricle that overlaps rachis. Rhizomes are orange/brown to pale brown with linear scales having hair like tips. Stolons are straw colored and produce small underground tubers. The presence of tubers distinguishes sword fern from the native Nephrolepis exaltata fern. Numerous sori (spore containing structures) are also produced between the leaflet midvein and margin. Dispersal occurs via spores and through the movement of stolons, tubers, and rhizomes.

 

Hardy to 25°F.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Grows in wet, shady places, limestone ledges, cliffs, rock and roadsides in North America.

Suitable for

Basket fern.
Warm Greenhouse. Ferns for Woodland. Shade Tolerant.
Sun Tolerant.
Hedge in Philippine. Fern for Acid Soil. Groundcover in tropical and subtropical areas.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

Ground cover in tropical and subtropical areas.

Grows from shade to full sun (grows in full sun if given ample water) in soil, among rocks or as an epiphyte (particularly on palm trunks). It is colony former and is popularly grown in temperate regions but in the tropics is generally regarded as a weed. It can be grown in gardens, pots or baskets.

Bayabang grows in the Philippines as a hedge plant.

 

Also in
Zones 8-10 in the USA, where it tolerates sea air and salty soil - Lemon buttons ferns thrive in moist, well-drained, acidic soil with a pH of 4 to 7.

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Español: Cola de Quetzal (Nephrolepis cordifolia), jardín botánico de Tallinn, Estonia
English: Tuber ladder fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Tallinn Botanic Garden, Estonia.
Date 13 August 2012.
By Diego Delso, delso.photo, License CC-BY-SA via Wikimedia Commons

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C.Presl from Rodney Ecological District. This image has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland War Memorial Museum. By Ewen Cameron via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia - Sori. Date 19 March 2008. By Ixitixel via Wikimedia Commons

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Nephrolepis exaltata
Sword Fern, Boss Fern, Ladder Fern, Common Sword Fern, Boston Fern

Florida, Mexico, Brazil, West Indies.
It is common in humid forests and swamps, especially in northern South America, Mexico, Central America, Florida, the West Indies, Polynesia and Africa. Nephrolepis exaltata loves moist, shady locations and is found frequently in swamps and floodplains. It likes to grow epiphytically on Sabal palmetto.

Tender to Semi-tender in USDA Zones 9-11.

The fronds of Nephrolepis exaltata are 50–250 centimetres (20–98 in) long and 6–15 centimetres (2.4–5.9 in) broad, with alternate pinnae (the small "leaflets" on either side of the midrib), each pinna being 2–8 centimetres (0.79–3.15 in) long.

Although the fern may appear totally dead due to frost, it will re-emerge in the spring. In general, the Boston fern likes damp, but not soggy soil that is rich in nutrients. Of the common cultivated ferns, the Boston fern is the most tolerant to drought. The fern thrives best in humid conditions, so when grown as a house plant it becomes necessary to mist the plant when relative humidity falls below around 80%. Although outdoors this plant prefers partial shade or full shade, inside it doesn't grow in shade and feels best in bright filtered light.

20-100 x 48
(5-250 x 120)

It is safe for pets as it is known to be non-toxic.

In 1989, the NASA Clean Air Study showed that the Boston Fern could filter Formaldehyde, Xylene and Toluene from the air.

 

Nephrolepis exaltata is classified as an invasive alien plant in South Africa. In some provinces it must, by law, be eradicated.

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

This plant is usually propagated by division of the rooted runners, as named cultivars will not produce true spores.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Warm Greenhouse.
Hanging Basket.
Acid Soil.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

It is a very popular house plant, often grown in hanging baskets.

Grow in steamy bathroom.

A medium-large fern with short, erect, stolonoiferous rhizomes. Grows best under medium to high light in moist-dry potting mixes. So commonly grown are these ferns that commercial growers have established the precise cultural conditions for optimum growth: 2000 foot-candles of light, temperatures between 18 and 35 degrees Centigrade (65-95 degrees Fahrenheit), fertilizers with a 3-1-2 composition, micronutrients, and dolomite to adjust the pH to 5.5. Use a mix with good drainage, and water when the soil surface is slightly dry. To prevent breakage and decay of fronds, water should be applied at the soil level, not on the foliage. Poor foliage results when temperatures are below 18 degrees Centigrade (65 Fahrenheit) for more than a month. Repotting just before the active growth in spring is recommended.

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Nephrolepis exaltata (in a greenhouse). English: Greenhouses of the Botanical garden (Saint Petersburg).
Русский: Оранжереи Ботанического сада Ботанического института им. Комарова в Санкт-Петербурге.
Date: 11 June 2007.
By Kor!An (Корзун Андрей) via Wikimedia Commons

 

The Boston Sword Fern - Nephrolepis exaltata is widely planted from an origin in Central America and the Caribbean. Lomariopsidaceae Lotusland, Montecito, California. By Dick Culbert from Gibsons, B.C., Canada via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Nephrolepis exaltata. I take this photo from Chinese Medicine Garden in Saikung Hong Kong on 19th March 2006. By ‪Xiaowei‪ (talk | contribs)‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

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See more photos.

Nephrolepis pendula (Nephrolepis cordifolia)
Boston Fern, Long John Fern, Long John Pendulant Fern

Native to tropical America, Mexico, Central and South America

Tender to Semi-tender in Zones 9a-11

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

This fern is ginormous! It commonly grows up to 6′ tall, and its fronds can grow to 20 feet long. That may not work great for small apartments in the city, but they look fantastic in hotels, interior atriums and malls where they can stretch to their full glory.

36-72 x 24-36
(90-180 x 60-90)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Basket Fern with Pendulous Fronds for Conservatory.
Acid Soil.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

A large evergreen fern with short, stoloniferous rhizomes.Grows well under medium light in moist potting mix. It is a choice fern for hanging baskets becase of its long, narrow, pendent fronds.

Prefers part shade and relatively high humidity to grow well.
Requires excellent drainage in pots.
Fertilize once a month with a liquid fertilizer.

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.