Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Gardens Fern Plants Gallery:
Fern Culture
from Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S. Published by John Heywood in Manchester in May, 1892

 

"The aim of the author has been to give simple and clear instructions - avoiding, as far as possible, technical phraseology - and to supply all necessary information, interspersing here and there such remarks as it is hoped may add to the interest and benefit of perusal.
It is not intended for the book to count as a botanical or scientific production, but simply as a practical guide.
The various subjects are necessarily treated briefly, but as the information given is the result of 25 year's experience in the cultivation of Ferns, and in the daily study of their requirements, the writer trusts that the remarks, though brief, may prove lucid enough even for the most inexperienced amateur to understand and profit by.
John Birkenhead. Sale, May, 1892"
from the Preface of the above book.
 

 

Rules for Fern Culture
These may be summarised thus:

  • The right kind of soil must be provided;
  • the plants must be potted or planted in a proper manner;
  • they must be watered carefully;
  • they must be kept at a certain temperature during winter and summer, according to that of the places of which they are natives;
  • they should have a moist, quiet atmosphere, free from either cold draughts or currents of hot dry air;
  • and they must have sufficient light at all times, with protection from scorching sun during summer.

 

Section 1 - Modes of Growth
Most tropical ferns are evergreen. The fronds of one season are retained until others are produced the following season, and in some instance fronds remain green on the plants for a number of years. There are a few tropical species which are deciduous - that it, they lose their foliage at a given time, and remain without for a longer or shorter period - but it is among the species of colder climates that the deciduous kinds are most numerous. These, during their period of rest, must not be neglected. It is sometimes thought, by inexperienced cultivators, that when ferns have lost their foliage they may be put on one side and left without water for weeks. Thus they become dust dry, the roots are injured if not killed outright, and the plants cannot possibly make the vigorous growth the following season that they would if they had been kept continually damp. Those which have lost their foliage should be supplied with water enough to keep them always moist.

All ferns consist of 3 distinct parts, viz.

  • roots,
  • stem, and
  • foliage.

 

Roots
It may seem unnecessary to many to draw attention to this fact, but among those who have not given much thought to the matter the roots and the stems are often confused. Roots are the thin, wiry-looking fibres produced from the stem which hold the plant in its place, whether in the soil, on rocks, trees, or elsewhere, and they are also the food-seekers of the plant. They spread about, creeping into crannies and chinks, their peculiarly-pointed tips inserting themselves in the interstices of the soil, rock, bark of trees, or wherever they may be growing.
aspleniumadiantumnigrumpplatewikimediacommons

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum.
Plate from book.
Date 1857.
Source The ferns of Great Britain and Ireland.
By Thomas Moore ;
edited by John Lindley ; nature-printed by
Henry Bradbury, via Wikimedia Commons.


(showing fibrous roots, stem and fronds).

 

By means of numerous fine, hair-like organs with mouths they take up moisture and other elements within their reach which are suitable for them. The crude matter thus taken up passes in the form of sap through the stems and into the foliage, where, being acted upon by the light, it is digested and prepared for assimilation by the plant.

 

Stems
Stems are of various characters, specified by the names

  • caudex - the trunk of a tree fern,
  • rhizome - a modified underground stem from which the fronds are produced - and
  • stolon or sarmentum - horizontal elongated stem rooting at the nodes

Caudex

dicksoniaexternapforwikimediacommonsThe foliage of the "Lady Fern" (Athyrium filix-femina) and the "Male Fern" springs from a central crown. This crown is the top of the caudex or stem, which slowly increases in thickness and length year by year. In these Ferns the stems are of upright growth, and occasionally rise above the ground a few inches.

Dicksonia externa.
Conservatoire botanique national de Brest
August 2012
By
Citron / CC-BY-SA-3.0
via Wikimedia Commons.  

 

Other species - Lomaria gibba, for instance - attain a height of 24 inches (60 cm) or more, producing at the top a head of spreading fronds. These are miniature tree-ferns, but Dicksonias, Alsophilas, Cyatheas, and other genera, frequently rise to a height of 50 feet = 600 inches = 1500 cms, producing immense heads of fronds, 20-30 feet - 240-360 inches = 600-900 cms across. These are gigantic specimens - veritable Tree-ferns.

 

Some species have a creeping, sideways habit of growth, and thus slowly change their position; but they still belong to the section whose stems are each styled a caudex.

Rhizome
davalliacanariensispforwikimediacommons

The next division may be represented by the "Squirrel's Foot", or "Hare's Foot" Ferns. These belong to the genus Davallia. The "feet", as they are commonly called, are often taken to be roots. This, however, is a mistake; they are not roots, but stems, botanically known as rhizomes. They correspong to the stem of Tree-ferns, so conspicuous in their majestic height. The roots are produced underneath these creeping stems, and the fronds from their sides or tops.

Español: Davallia canariensis. Detalle del hábito. Ejemplar cultivado.
Davallia canariensis. Cultivated, UK. May 2006.
By
No machine-readable author provided. MPF assumed (based on copyright claims).
via Wikimedia Commons.

By these stems the Ferns travel over large spaces, spreading in all directions, and producing large quantities of foliage. Not only do they creep over the level ground, but over stones, up moist rocks, stems and branches of trees; and thus they completely clothe with their beautiful foliage spaces which otherwise be blank and unsightly. The rhizomes of some species of Hymenophyllum are like thin black thread, delicate and easily injured.

The rhizomes of others, such as the Gleichenias, are thicker, stronger, and very wiry, spreading in their native homes to such an extent that they cover acres of ground. Others are much thicker and slower in growth, their peculiar appearance giving rise to many common names, as, for instance, the "Bears Paw" fern (Aglaomorpha Meyeniana).

Location taken: the New York Botanical Garden. Names: Davallia solidavar. fejeensis (Hook.) Noot., Fiji davallia, Lacy hare's-foo Classification: Plantae > Pteridophyta > Polypodiopsida > Polypodiales > Davalliaceae > Davallia > Davallia solida fejeensis.
Date 30 march 2006.
By David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons

(showing creeping rhizomes, with a mature frond and several juvenile fronds)

davalliasolidavarfejeensispforwikimediacommonsThe rhizomes of this species are covered thickly by a light brown, woolly-looking substance. When they divide into 3 or 4 side growths, their appearance warrants the application of the common name.

 

These creeping stems are not all above ground; some species produce them underground, often like dark-coloured twine, as in the Oak Fern (Polypodium dryopteris) and the Beech Fern (Polypodium phegopteris). They work their way along, creeping between stones and other obstructions, and send up their delicate-looking foliage in profusion. These underground stems produce roots below and fronds above, just as those do which are above ground. If the growing points of those stems are broken off or injured, the growth is at once checked, and some kinds are a long time before they make a fresh start.

Stolon or sarmentum
There is another kind of stem called a sarmentum or stolon, which is produced from the caudex of certain species.

nephrolepiscordifoliapfigurewikimediacommons

The Nephrolepis are conspicuous examples of this mode of growth. From the plant rooted in a particular spot, numbers of this cord-like growth are produced, and spread to an amazing extent. They send out roots like the rhizomes already noticed, and these take hold of any damp surface with which they come in contact. Here and there a bud is formed.

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia.
Beknopt leerboek der plantkunde voor Nederlandsch-Indië / door Z. Kamerling.
Date 1923
Source https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/pageimage/11325144
This file comes from the Biodiversity Heritage Library. By Kamerling, Z. via Wikimedia Commons.

 

This soon develops into a plant, and is prepared to take up an independent existence, while the sarmentum is rambling about seeking for fresh space of which to take possession.
The buds formed on these stems provide a ready means of propagation, and they may be used to any extent without interference with the parent plant.

 

Fronds of Ferns
The fronds are what many people call leaves. The fronds in most cases have 2 functions to perform

  • one the exposure to the light of the materials taken up by the roots, whereby it is prepared and fitted for assimilation by the plant, and which is afterwards changed into frond, stem, or root;
  • the other is the production of spores, commonly called seeds, for the perpetuation of its kind. In addition to spores some fronds bear upon their upper surface numbers of tiny bulbils, which develop into plants much more quickly than spores do.

aspleniumbulbiferumpbulbilwikimediacommons

Asplenium bulbiferum in Mount Ngongotaha Scenic Reserve by Rotoroa (New Zealand). By AuthorKrzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

(showing bulbil on frond)

Ferns also breathe through their fronds as trees do through their leaves, so that cutting off fronds injures them, just as human beings are injured when by disease their lungs and digestive organs are unable to perform their functions. From these causes weakness, and eventually death, ensues.

Osmundaclaytonianapforwikimediacommons

In some species the sterile and fertile fronds are entirely distinct from each other, having so different an appearance that they do not appear to belong to the same plant. In the majority the fronds do not differ, the spores being produced on the under surface of the fronds without affecting their form.

 

 

 

 

Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana, in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec.
By ‪Circeus‪ ‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

(Showing fertile and barren fronds)

 

 

Section 2 - Compost
Ferns grow in many different kinds of soil, and in different positions. The principal ingredients required for the preparation of suitable compost are

  • fibrous loam,
  • leaf mould,
  • peat and
  • sand.
  • Other materials of benefit to certain kinds are sandstone, charcoal and moss.

Loam
Loam is of various kinds and qualities. That with which most people are acquainted is the common garden soil, which is harsh and destitute of those qualities necessary for the well-being of plant life. Good loam is rich, greasy-looking and full of body. The best type is that found in old pasture fields which have lain uncultivated year after year, and been overflowed occasionally by some stream bringing with it and depositing upon the land a rich sediment. Some loam is dark brown, some red, some yellow. Perhaps, of the three, the yellow, such as is found in Kent, is the best, but the dark brown is also excellent.
Fibrous loam is that which has more or less fibrous roots in it. The more there is the better for the plants, as, when dead, these fibrous parts consist of vegetable matter of great value to living plants. To obtain it, grass sods should be taken from a field, stacked up grass side down, layer upon layer, and allowed to remain so for a few months. It will then be found that the grass and the roots are dead. It should be chopped sufficiently small for potting purposes, and it will form the basis of a grand compost for Ferns. When the sods are cut from the field, they should be only so thick as to include the roots, 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) being the depth of soil to be taken from the surface; thus a mass of fibre is secured without the looser material into which the roots had not penetrated, and which, though often good, is not nearly so valuable as the fibrous part. Any stray living roots found in the loam when about to be used should, of course, be thrown out. Whenever loam is mentioned in this gallery, the term applies to the kind here described.

Leaf Mould
Leaf mould, or leaf soil, consists of decayed leaves. In woods, when the leaves fall from the trees in autumn, they are often blown into hollow places or ditches. There they gradually decay and form a rich light, spongy mass of mould, containing the very elements in which Ferns revel. This is a natural production of the highest value. The best is that made up of oak and beech leaves. These should be obtained if possible; if unprocuable, then any other kind may be substituted. In places where the fallen leaves have been left undisturbed for a long time, this rich mould may be found of considerable depth. The number of fibrous roots and plants growing in this deposit testifies to its value. Those who are not in the vicinity of woods, where leaves have accumulated naturally, may provide a supply by having the leaves in their gardens or along the sides of the roads and lanes, collected and placed in a heap in some out-of-the-way corner, where, exposed to the weather, they will decay, and in the course of a year or less will be decomposed for use. The leaves, when collected, should either be in an enclosure, or have some branche plaed over them to prevent their being blown about. All sticks, pieces of wood, and other foreign substances, should be thrown out, and the leaf soil kept pure.

Peat
At one time peat was considered to be the one necessary and all-sufficient material for Ferns, but observation and experience are convincing many that it is not of such paramount importance. The value of leaf mould is now generally acknowledged (this book was published in May 1892 during the Queen Victoria Period), for most species will grow equally well in it, and in some cases better than in peat. On the other hand, it must be conceded that some species are naturally bog or marsh plants, and these should have a special supply of peat.
There are different qualities of peat. The common bog found in many parts will do for Ferns planted out of doors, but for those indoors, whether in pots or rockwork, the peat should be of a different kind. That already mentioned is almost entirely decayed moss, with very little fibre if any. The best is that commonly known as orchid peat, containing sand, fibre, and fern roots. This, while it will hold moisture, also contains nutritive matter not found in the other, neither is it of so spongy a nature, but is more solid, has more substance, and is admirable as a constituent in fern compost. It is found in the South of England, especially in Kent and Hampshire, though here and there in the more northern parts of the country a good quality is also obtainable - this may have been true in 1892 but in 2018 the government is attempting to strip out the topsoil and replace with houses, roads and businesses, thus depriving the population with both water from the rain (sent down storm drains and out to sea) or oxygen from the plants which were growing on that land.

Sand
The coarse silver sand found in Bedfordshire is the best; it is clean, sharp, and serves the purpose intended better than any other. Sand is used to keep the compost open, and to facilitate the passage of all surplus water through the soil. Silver sand, although the best, is not indispensable. Any clean, sharp sand will do as an inferior substitute. Clean, coarse, river sand is very good, and for the more robust free-growing Ferns suitable sand may often be procured at building excavations. If not sufficiently clean and sharp it may be washed, and when dry it will be much improved.

Sandstone
This is of 2 kinds, the red and the white. Of the 2, white is preferable for mixing with the compost for Filmy Ferns, some of the Cheilanthes, Nothocloenas, and Pellaeas. It must be broken into small pieces, and if made very small it may be used instead of ordinary sand, if there is difficulty in procuring that material.

Charcoal
For certain Ferns this is very valuable. It should be broken small and mixed with that compost, which has to be kept very open and porous for the ready escape of surplus water.

Moss
Spagnum moss grows in wet places, and no doubt to a large extent forms common bog. When alive and in a growing condition it is much used for orchid culture. It may be chopped small and mixed with some kinds of fern compost.
Wood moss is found in large flakes. It is useful for lining baskets, wire netting for walls, cylinders, etc, and it is also serviceable for putting over the drainage of pots, to prevent the soil washing down and stopping up the outlet.

Crocks
These are broken terracotta plant pots used for drainage. They must be of various sizes, according to the pots for which they are required. Bricks broken small, rough cinders, or pieces of charcoal, will answer the same purpose.

Potting Sticks
These may be mentioned as accessories to the potting materials. Their use is to facilitate the pressing of the new soil regularly and firmly round the old ball of a plant when being re-potted. For example, when a plant from a 6 inch (15 cm) pot is being put ino a 7 or 8 inch (17.5 or 20 cm), without one of these sticks there would be difficulty in getting the new soil all round the ball in a proper manner. By means of the stick there is no difficulty whatever.
 

  • One stick should be 14 or 15 inch (35-37.5 cms) long, 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, and 1 inch thick, rounded at the bottom, and the rough edges smoothed;
  • another should be 10 or 12 inches (25-30 cm) long, 1 inch wide and o.5 inches (1.25 cm) thick; and
  • one 8 or 9 inches (20-22.5 cms) long, 0.5 inches wide and 0.25 inches (6mm) thick, made slightly thinner at the bottome for small pots.

When these are used the potting is better performed, and there is no risk of breaking the roots. A piece of slater's lath will for the largest, a double thick plasterer's lath for the medium, and an ordinary lath for the smallest. They should be smoothed at the top, so that they may be handled with comfort.

 

 

Section 3 - Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets.
 

 

The British species of these genera grow in meadows in pure loam, therefore they simply require fibrous loam. When these are being collected from their native homes, they should be taken up with a piece of the grass sod in which they are growing, as they are difficult to establish if their roots are disturbed. The exotic species should be potted in equal parts of loam and peat. Minor point, you are not allowed to take these plants from somewhere that you do not own as stated in Any Person removing any native plant in the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

 

Botrychium

 

Ophioglossum

 

Fibrous loam, leaf mould, and sand in equal quantities. Adiantum Farleyense frequently fails to grow satisfactorily, owing to having peat in its compost. Some of the strong-growing species may do with a little, but all are better without it.

 

Adiantum

 

 

These all do well in loam, leaf mould, peat, and sand in equal parts.

 

Adiantopsis
Aglaomorpha
Aleuritopteris
Alsophila
Anemia
Balantium
Blechnum
Brainea
Campyloneurum
Ceratodactylis
Ceterach (Exotic)
Cibotium
Cyathea
Cyrtomium
Dennstaedtia
Dicksonia
Dictyogramma
Disphenia
Doodia
Doryopteris
Elaphoglossum
Fadyenia
Goniopteris
Gymnogramma
Gymnopteris
Hemionitis
Hemitelia
Hymenodium
Hypoderis
Hypolepis
Lastrea
Lepicystis
Lomaria
Lomariopsis
Woodwardia

 

Anemidictyon
Angiopteris
Arthropteris
Aspidium
Athyrium
Lindsaya
Lonchitis
Litobrochia
Llavea
Lygodictyon
Lygodium
Meniscium
Microsorum
Mohria
Nephrodium
Olfersia
Onoclea
Phegopteris
Phlebodium
Phymatodes
Platyloma
Pleocnemia
Pleopeltis
Pleuridium
Poecilopteris
Polybotrya
Polystichum
Pteris
Sadleria
Salpichloena
Selliguea
Stenosemia
Struthiopteris
Trichiocarpa

 

Loam and sand equal parts, with half as much more leaf-mould and a little chopped spagnum moss.

 

Drynaria
Platycerium

 

Polypodium
Selaginella

 

For these, loam, leaf mould, and sand in equal parts, with a double quantity of peat

 

Acrophorus
Acrostichum
Actiniopteris
Anapeltis
Asplenium (Exotic)
Callipteris
Camptosorus
Didymochloena
Diplazium
Drymoglossum
Goniophlebium
Thyrsopteris

 

Lopholepis
Leucostegia
Marattia
Neottopteris
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Onychium
Osmunda
Rhipidopteris
Stenochloena

 

The same compost as the in the preceding row, but coarser and more lumpy

 

Davallia
Gleichenia

 

Humata
Nephrolepis

 

Loam, leaf mould, sand, in equal quantities, with half as much old mortar, and for Scolopendriums some oyster shells broken small. One needs to assume that old mortar in 1892 was made from the following:- "Mortar consisting primarily of lime and sand has been used as an integral part of masonry structures for thousands of years. Up until about the mid-19th century, lime or quicklime (sometimes called lump lime) was delivered to construction sites, where it had to be slaked, or combined with water. Mixing with water caused it to boil and resulted in a wet lime putty that was left to mature in a pit or wooden box for several weeks, up to a year.
Traditional mortar was made from lime putty, or slaked lime, combined with local sand, generally in a ratio of 1 part lime putty to 3 parts sand by volume." from Repointing mortar joints in historic masonry buildings.

 

Asplenium (British)
(British)

 

Cystopteris
Scolopendrium

 

Equal quantities of loam, sand, sand, and leaf mould, with a small quantity of slaty shale or broken sandstone

 

Allosorus (Parsley Fern)

 

Woodsia

 

Loam, leaf mould, sand, and peat in equal quantities with a little small charcoal and sandstone

 

Cheilanthes
Nothochloena

 

Pellaea

Loam, leaf mould, sand and peat in equal quantities, with half as much charcoal and sandstone, all very rough and open in order to allow a free passage of water. A little chopped spagnum moss may also be added.

 

Hymenophyllum
Todea

 

Trichomanes

 

Although manure is not necessary for Ferns, many do not object to it; the strong growing kinds particularly appear to like it. That from an old mushroom bed may be mixed in moderate proportion with the compost. A small quantity of Ichthemic guano, (the Ichthemic Guano Company was wound up on 6 April 1944) or a little powdered cow manure, may be added, but with caution.

The foregoing arrangement will be a guide to those anxious to have their plants in the best possible condition. If the arrangement is adhered to, other conditions being also favourable, the results will be entirely satisfactory.

 

Wardian Cases
The compost for Wardian cases should consist of loam, leaf mould, sand, and peat in equal proportions, with half as much charcoal, and if for Filmies, a little broken sandstone, all rather rough and open.

wardiancasesphotowikimediacommons

Deutsch: Ward’sche Kästen, verschiedene, teils elegante Ausführungen zur Zimmerkultur tropischer Pflanzen

English: Wardian cases
This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art, and This photographic reproduction is therefore also considered to be in the public domain in the United States.
By ‪Greenhorn~commonswiki‪ (talk | contribs)‬ via Wikimedia Commons

 

Walls. Pockets
Compost for Ferns planted against wired walls should be rougher than that in pots and pans, but of the same ingredients. For small receptacles like cork pockets and fern tiles fastened against walls it should be similar to that used for pots. Whenever good peat is unobtainable an extra quantity of leaf mould should be put in the compost.

 

Rockwork
Compost for this, whether indoors or out, should be specially rough and open, the roughest being used for the bottom and the finer for the upper portion of the pockets in which the Ferns are planted. Compost for outside ferneries should consist of loam, leaf mould, sand and peat in equal quantities,

  • giving to Polypodiums a little extra leaf mould;
  • to Osmundas, extra peat;
  • to Scolopendriums a little old mortar or oyster shells crushed small.
  • Blechnums cannot do with lime in any form. The should therefore be planted quite apart from Scolopendriums and others of similar tastes.

 

 

Section 4 - Various Habits of Ferns
Ferns are so diverse in their habits of growth and in the character of their foliage that a knowledge of the particulars in relation to the more distinct kinds will materially assist the cultivator in providing the conditions under which the plants will be most at home.

 

The majority grow on the ground, on raised banks, in gullies, glens, ravines, in forests, woods, and some in open country exposed to the full sun.
These have usually upright foliage foliage of a more or loose drooping habit. They are suitable for pot culture or for planting in rockwork. Others grow in elevated positions, on the ledges of rocks, on trees, and in places where their pendent fronds hang unobstructed. These are suitable for cultivation in baskets suspended from the roof of the fernery. If in pots they should be raised up sufficiently to allow the foliage to develop naturally and show to advantage.
Among these the following may be enumerated:-

 

Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum ciliatum
Asplenium longissimum
most of the Davallias
Goniophlebium chnoodes
Goniophlebium
sybauriculatum
Goniophlebium verrucosum
most of the Nephrolepis
Platyceriums and
Woodwardia radicans

 

Others creep along the ground, over damp rocks, up the stems of trees, round and round the branches, and in every conceivable position of growth.
These are suitable for planting on blocks of virgin cork for suspending, at the foot of Tree-ferns, on rockwork, or in other positions where they may freely ramble about.
Members of the following genera belong to this class:-

 

Anapeltis
the smaller species of Davallia
Drynaria putulata
Hypolepis amaurorachsis
Hypolepis distans
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Phlebodium venosum
Pleopeltis
the smaller species of Polypodium,
Stenochloena
and some of the Selaginellas

 

Most of the Cheilanthes, Nochochloenas, and Pellaeas grow in crevices of the rocks fully exposed to the weather, unless they happen to be protected by some overhanging projection.
Their roots go deeply into the cracks and fissures, obtaining moisture and nutriment, wile their foliage is exposed to the elements. These should be placed in light, airy positions, many of them in cool houses, just protected during winter from the frost. They must be attended to carefully, so that they may not suffer from lack of water, as their compost, being very porous, will allow the water to escape quickly. In summer, they will require an abundant supply, but in winter only enough to keep them just damp.
The British Aspleniums, Ceterach and Cystopteris, have the same habits, and should be treated in like manner when cultivated in pots.

 

Cheilanthes
Nochochloenas
Pellaeas

 

 

 

 

British Aspleniums
Ceterach
Cystopteris

 

Lygodiums, Lygodictyon and Salpichloena volubilis are climbers.
They usually grow among bushes and trees, producing fronds many yards = 3 feet = 36 inches = 90 cms in length, taking hold of and climbing round any twig or branch with which they come in contact. They soon produce great tangled masses of foliage, while some of the fronds, taking an upward course, reach the tops of the trees. Most of the species form buds in the axils of the branches and at the apices of the fronds. From these fresh growth takes place the following year. As this is repeated again and again the fronds attain an indefinite length. This habit of growth necessitates support for the foliage. They may be trained

  • up sticks or twine in pyramidal form;
  • on wire netting in the shape of acylinder 3 or 4 feet = 36-48 inches (90-120 cms) high, and the width in proportion to the size of the pot in which the plant is growing;
  • on wire balloons;
  • up perpindicular wires leading to the roof, and then horizontally along other wires.

If planted at the base of pillars or of wire archways, they may be trained so as to form a beautiful verdant covering; and if in a border, with stakes driven into the ground and wires stretched to the roofs, they may be employed to hide many an unsightly wall.

 

Lygodium
Lygodictyon
Salpichloena volubilis

 

Filmy Ferns, consisting of the genera Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, and Todea (excepting one or two of the latter), are a most beautiful and interesting section.
Their fronds are thin and membranaceous in substance. Their peculiarly delicate nature necessitates their being constantly in a moisture-laden atmosphere. They are found in both tropical and temperate climates, but always in positions where it is cool, shaded, and damp.
In the warmer climates they abound in moist forests on the mountains, covering the damp rocks and clothing the stems of trees. The heavy rain and mist cause their foliage to be in a continually dripping condition, the moisture hanging in drops at the tips of the divisions of the fronds, like myriads of diamonds. In the cooler climates they grow in ravines and gullies and on dripping rocks, rarely in exposed situations.
To imitate these conditions of growth they require a cool house, shaded from the rays of the sun, and either glazed very tightly so as to keep the house closed and free from draughts, or the Ferns must be covered by glass shades or frames. Many of the species, notably the Todeas, are so hardy that they will bear many degrees of frost without injury, although it is unquestionably better to keep the temperature from falling below 35F (2C). The Todeas have upright stems, and in time form miniature Tree-ferns. They may be planted in pots, pans, or rock-work. The Hymenophyllae and Trichomanes are nearly all creepers. Their thin rhizomes spread freely, and necessitate their being in pans, or rockwork, or on the stems of Tree-ferns. For Wardian cases these are unequalled by any other class of plants.
If the atmosphere of the house or frame can be densely laden with moisture, so as to keep the foliage always damp, the Filmies will not require watering overhead. This may sometimes be accomplished by sprinkling plenty of water on the paths, walls, stages, and rock-work. If this is not sufficient they will require dewing overhead with the fine rose of a syringe. Sometimes this causes discolouration of the foliage. When it does it is probably the result of some injurious element in the water. Only soft, tepid water should be used, and with just sufficient frequency to keep the foliage always damp.

 

Hymenophyllum
Trichomanes
Todea

 

Tree-ferns are very tropical-looking, and so distinct that specimens should be in every collection. The Alsophilas, Cibotiums, Cyatheas, Dicksonias, and some Lomarias are comparitively hardy and easily managed.
The stems should be frequently syringed or watered to keep them damp. They produce many roots from the bases of the fronds at the top of the stems, and when the stems ae kept damp these roots work their ay down to the soil, adding thickness to the stems and strength to the plant. If a thin layer of spagnum moss be bound round the stems with fine copper wire, it will retain the moisture and preserve the roots in their downward course; besides, many seedling Ferns will come up on it, adding much to the appearance of the tree.
If the smaller species of Davallias, such as bullata, dissecta, decora, Mariesii, also Anapeltis nitida, drynaria pustulata, and other creeping ferns, are planted at the base of each stem, they will creep up and clothe it with foliage in a very interesting manner. Brainea insignis, Lomaria gibba, and the miniature Lomaria L'Herminierii, with some of the Alsophilas and other genera, should have a warm greenhouse temperature, or they will not grow satisfactorily.

 

Alsophila
Cibotium
Cyathea
Dicksonia
Lomaria

 

The Gold and Silver Ferns are not only interesting but exceedingly beautiful. The bright yellow, silvery white, or cream-coloured, farinose powder more or less coating their fronds above and below, gives them a specially-attractive appearance.
They are found in various climates, hence some require stove temperature, others warm greenhouse, while a few will do nicely in cool houses with a winter temperature of 35-40F (2-4C). They belong to the genera Adiantum, Cheilanthes, Gymnogramma, Nothochloena, and Pellaea. The tropical or stove species require a dry atmosphere, so if there is any part of the house dryer than another they should be placed there. They should have an abundance of light, their roots should never be allowed to become dry, and their foliage must never be wet, either by syringing, watering, or drip from the roof.
All require the same treatment in respect to damp roots and dry foliage. If the fronds are wet by any means, the water washes off the powder, causing an insightly appearance on the soil, and, worse still, decay of the fronds, which, of course, injures the plants.

 

Adiantum
Cheilanthes
Gymnogramma
Nothochloena
Pellaea

 

Elk's Horn and Stag's Horn Ferns belong to the genus Platycerium, and are most remarkable of the whole family. They have received their common appelation on account of their striking resemblance to the antlers of the animals whose names they bear.
They grow upon trees, in the forks of the branches or on the stems, to which they attach themselves by their roots. The sterile fronds or shields, as they are commonly called, grow upwards, at the same time turning backwards and wrapping round the roots and body of the plant. It looks then almost like a lage, green, open fan, the horizontal parts turned completely back, the other parts more or less erect and deeply lobed. The fertile fronds of some species are also erect, but entirely different in form from the sterile. At first narrow and firm, they gradually flatten, spread out, and divide into deeply-cut lobes, more or less drooping. In other species, such as grande, they are pendent; in biforme they hang down several feet = 12 inches = 30 cms. Their appearance is remarkable in the extreme. The best way to cultivate this genus is by fastening the plants on pieces of charred wood, blocks of virgin cork, or pieces of Tree Fern stems suspended from the roof or against a wall.

 

Platycerium

 

Flowering Ferns, so called, form a curious but not a large section. That which gives rise to the term is the peculiar arrangement of the spore cases.
In the majority of Ferns the spore cases are produced underneath the fronds, occasionally at the edge, and in one notable instance, Polystichum anomalum, on the top as well as underneath. In the Flowering Ferns the spikes bearing the spore cases stand erect, in some species they spring from the sterile portion of the frond, in others the fertile fronds are entirely destitute of leafy portion. the section includes Anemia, Anemidictyon, Botrychium, Ceratodactylis, Llavea, Onoclea, Osmunda, and Struthiopteris. Other genera are sometimes included in the section, but these named are the most distinct. They do not require any special treatment, and they form a feature of interest among the Ferns.

 

Polystichum anomalum

Anemia
Anemidictyon
Botrychium
Ceratodactylis
Llavea
Onoclea
Osmunda
Struthiopteris

 

 

 

Section 5 Various Modes of Cultivation
On account of the varied modes of growth the manner of cultivation has to be varied.

Ferns having an upright or a slowly-creeping rootstock (stem), or those growing from a cluster of crowns, are suitable for cultivation in pots. As they usually send their roots further down than others, the depth of soil in a pot is acceptable, and necessary to hold the tall-growing species in their places.

 

Those with rhizomes do not usually root so deeply, but as they spread quickly, either under or above ground, they require more surface and less depth. This is obtained by using round pans.
The principal genera and species of this class are:

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum assimile
Adiantum capillus veneris and its varieties
Adiantum diphanum
Adiantum venustum
Aglaomorpha
Anapeltis
Arthropteris obliterata
Asplenium obtusilobum
Camptosorus
nearly all the Davallias
Drymoglossum
Drynaria
Gleichenia
Goniophlebium
Hymenophyllum
Leucostegia
several Litobrochia
Lomariopsis
Lopholepis
Nephrolepis
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Phlebodium
Phymatodes
Pleopeltis
many Polypodiums
Rhipidopteris
Stenochloena
Trichomanes
and nearly all Selaginellas

 

For rockwork, properly constructed, nearly all Ferns are suitable, judgement being exercised in planting the different varieties in the places best adapted for them, considering their habits of growth, size, vigour, and other necessary matters.

 

Section 10 gives lists for rockwork

 

For baskets, some kinds are specially fitted. Many with creeping rhizomes, and others which do not creep but have drooping fronds, are suitable. A list appears further on in Section 10, giving the most desirable kinds for this purpose.

 

Section 10 gives lists for baskets

 

Blocks of cork suspended from the roof, planted with suitable kinds, are exceedingly ornamental. For various reasons they are superior to baskets, and they look a great deal more natural. Davallias, Anapeltis, and others twine round and round them, just as they grow in their native homes, appearing to find exactly the conditions in which they delight.

 

Section 10 gives lists for cork

 

Unsightly walls can be covered with Ferns and made to look very attractive, if properly done and planted with suitable varieties. Walls may also be covered with virgin cork pockets, arranged so that the Ferns planted in them may almost hide the wall. Fern tiles are used for the same purpose. They are made to fasten against the wall, joined end to end, and forming a trough to hold compost. Arranged one height above another they are better for Ferns than cork pockets, because they hold more soil. Ferns do very well in them, but until the plants have made good growth, and to a considerable extent hidden the tiles, the effect is not so pleasing as when cork is used to hide the brickwork. Narrow borders under the edges of stages, with a little rock worked in, and planted with the smaller-growing varieties, will often make a great improvement in the appearance of a house.

 

Section 10 gives lists for walls

 

Dead Tree-ferns, with a nice drooping Fern planted on the top, and smaller ones fastened on with a little soil and moss, wrapped round with wire to hold them in position, look very ornamental.

 

 

Upright cylinders, of various diameters, made of wire netting lined with moss, filled with compost, and secured by a stake through the centre, form a foundation upon which may be planted creeping Davallias, Anapeltis, Lomariopsis, Oleandras, Pleopeltis, Stenochloenas, and similarly habited species. These will soon cover the foundation by their luxuriant foliage. A pillar of this kind may be utilised for the training of Selaginella willdenovii, with its abundant and most beautiful irridescent foliage, and it will constitute a splendid ornament of nature.
Iron pillars, sometimes indispensable in ferneries, and yet eyesores, if surrounded by wire netting, with room left for lining of moss and a quantity of soil, may be converted into ornaments by planting small Ferns in the moss and keeping the whole damp. They will soon grow, and pay well for the little expense and trouble incurred.

 

creeping Davallias
Anapeltis
Lomariopsis
Oleandras
Pleopeltis
Stenochloenas

Selaginella willdenovii

 

Potting
The time for potting stove and warm greenhouse varieties is February or the beginning of March; for hardier kinds March. It is advisable to attend to this matter just as the Ferns are beginning to grow, and before their new foliage is developed. At this stage those to be divided may be operated upon with least injury or check to them; those which require their balls reducing, and to those to be put into larger pots, can all be manipulated with the least risk of injury. Large plants should be examined and potted if they require it; but it is not necessary to repot such every year. It is advisable not to do so. When they actually need it they must be carefully turned out of the pots, and if the ball will admit of reducing this should be done by means of a sharp pointed stick, worked carefully among the roots, retaining them as intact as possible, and removing the old exhausted unoccupied soil in the middle of the ball. This operation will possibly allow the plant to be put back into a pot the same size as before. Under any circumstance the plant must not be put into a pot larger than actually necessary. Smaller plants should be treated in a similar way. If they can safely be reduced let it be done, and the plants put back into pots the same size, or a little larger, as they may be required. Small plants, in 3 or 4 inch (7.5 or 10 cms) pots, if pot-bound, should have their roots carefully loosened, and e put into larger sizes. The following matters cannot receive too much attention:-

  • Ferns must not be overpotted.
  • They must not have their roots torn away or broken off.
  • A plant with its roots matted together in a hard mass should not be put into a larger pot until they have been carefully loosened as much as possible.
  • The overpotting of plants is unquestionably the cause of the death of thousands every year, and it must be avoided. Roots that have filled the bottom of the pot and become matted among the crocks, unless they can be safely disentangled, had better be left without disturbance at all, leaving the crocks in. The roots must not be torn away to remove the crocks, or the plant will be deprived of the best part of its feeders, and will suffer accordingly. Small plants may require potting several times during the year, as, in the growing season, under favourable conditions, they make roots very quickly.
  • It is by far the better plan to repot several times as required, giving a slightly larger pot each time, than to put a plant out of its pot into one much larger, with the object of saving the trouble or repotting in a month or two. The first plan will result in the plant obtaining the full value from each small supply of new soil, while the latter plan - which is really overpotting - will probably cause sickness and death. The reason for this is difficult to understand, yet it is a stubborn fact; therefore, amateurs may take warning, and professional gardeners, too, for overpotting is a very common practice.
  • Plants require repotting less frequently the larger they become and the larger the pots are in which they are growing. This operation may be continued through spring and summer, but it as well to cease at the end of September. After that time little growth will be made, and the adding of new soil, if it did not cause injury to the plant, would be of no use, for its properties would be washed away before the spring by the continued watering in the meantime.
  • Terracotta Pots must be clean when used. If new, they should be dipped in water until they cease to absorb it. Those used before must be scrubbed with a brush and hot water both inside and out, then allowed to dry before being used again. Pots dirty on the outside look slovenly; if dirty inside, they are sure to cause injury to the plant when next it has to be removed. A wet or dirty pot will cause the new soil to adhere so tenaciously that it will be impossible to turn the plant out, for repotting, without leaving behind a lot of soil and roots, and breaking up the ball, thereby causing injury. If a new pot is used without first being dipped to a sufficient degree in water, when the plant has been put in, it will quickly absorb moisture from the soil, and probably cause the plant to suffer before the evil is detected; the soil will also adhere to a new dry pot, as it will to a dirty old one, and lead to mischief in that way.
  • Pots become green when in use as the result of vegetation growing upon their damp surfaces. This should be removed by frequent washing with a scrubbing brush and hot water. The result will be two-fold - improved appearance and benefit to the plant by opening the pores of the pot and allowing the passage of air to the roots.
  • Healthy plants having filled their pots with roots may be repotted thus:
    • From 3 to 4.5 inch (7.5 to 11.25 cm)
    • from 4.5 to 6 inch (11.25 to 15 cm)
    • from 6 to 8 inch (15 to 20 cm)
    • from 8 to 10 or 11 inch (20 to 25 or 27.5 cm)
    • and from 10 to 13 inch (25 to 32.5 cm)
    • and so on. The measurements given are those across the pot inside the top.
  • The soil and the pots being ready, the latter should be crocked, that is drained, by putting a piece of broken pot, large enough to cover the hole, hollow side downwards, with a number of others over and around it to the depth of an inch (2.5 cm) or so, according to the size of the pot. On the top should be placed a layer of moss or leaves. The object of the crocks is to allow the surplus water to drain away, and the moss is to prevent the soil washing among the crocks and stopping up the drainage, which would soon cause the soil to turn sour. The plant to be repotted may be turned out by placing the left hand over the ball of the plant, turning it upside down, and giving the edge of the pot a sharp knock on the bench. The pot may then be removed with as much soil and drainage as possible without injuring or breaking off the roots. A little soil should be put in the fresh pot on the top of the moss, the plant placed upon it,pressed down, and filled all round the ball with fresh soil, making it firm, but not hard, with the potting stick. The top of the ball should be low enough to allow a good supply of water being given - for example, in a 4.5 inch (11.25 cm) pot it should be 0.5 inch (1.25 cm) below the rim, the depth being increased according to the size of the pots used.
  • The crowns of Ferns should be kept well out of the soil, and never buried, otherwise there is danger of their rotting. Some grow with underground rhizomes, which should be buried; others have rhizomes running on the surface, and these should be fastened down with small pegs of wood or wire.
  • This brings to view the necessities of those spcies for which pans have been recommended. Lke pots, they must be clean, not wet, yet not as dry as from the kiln. They should be drained, covering the holes with large crocks, and filling up an inch (2.5 cm) or more with smaller pieces. The drainage being covered with moss r some substitute, there should be put in a layer of very rough compost, higher in the middle than the sides, then some a little finer, and so on, until there is sufficient to plant the Ferns. When this is firmly done, and all the rhizome pegged down and well watered, it will require little further attention, except watering, for some time.
  • As the rhizomes grow they will have a tendency to come over the side. This should be prevented by carefully turning them on to the soil and pegging them securely. The rhizomes will then continue to root and add strength to the plant; but when they gey beyond the damp soil, and stretch over the side, they cease sending out roots, and instead of adding to the strength of the plant they have supported by it, which results sooner or later in unnecessary exhaustion
  • The compost in the centre of the pan may be raised in the form of a cone, using rough pieces of peat as a foundation, all being made quite secure. This provide greater surface, and a congenial position for the rhizomes of the smaller Davallias, Anapeltis, etc, which will creep up, over, round and round, and make specially beautiful specimens. A little extra care will be required to prevent these becoming dry.
  • Ferns to be repotted must not be wet and sodden, nor yet very dry. The operation cannot be performed satisfactorily in either case. The soil should be just in want of water. If too wet, it will become very hard in the process of repotting; if too dry, the water will not afterwards penetrate the old ball, it will become dust dr, and the plant is sure to suffer.
  • The roots should be spread out as much as possible, not crammed together in a bunch, as is sometimes done.

 

Baskets
Baskets should be made up every spring, as the large amount of water given to them during the previous season is sure to have washed away all the good qualities of the soil not absorbed by the Ferns. Baskets are to be seen in various shapes, and made of various materials - the highly-ornamental wire basket, and the plainer kinds of galvanized wire; the square wood and the terra-cotta baskets, such as are often used for orchids.
The very ornamental ones are often difficult to deal with, and they have also a tendency to look artificial, and not in character with the plants. The plain, galvanized baskets, with stiff suspending wires, are for some reasons preferable. The wooden ones, when not too heavy, look still better and more rustic; the terracotta are sometimes passable, and at others objectionable. Individual taste must decide the kind to be used; so far as the Ferns are concerned all are much alike to them.
The best material wherewith to line the baskets is green wood-moss, in as large thick flakes as can be procured. The next is living spagnum. A good thick lining should be placed in large baskets, and a few large pieces of charcoal, to partially fill the basket, so that it will not be so heavy as if filled entirely by soil. Smaller baskets will require less moss and will do without charcoal. If moss is not procurable, pieces of fibrous peat may be used, but this looks clumsy compared with the other. The wood-moss, or spagnum, if in good condition, and placed green side out, will often grow, adding materially to the appearance of the basket.
When the Ferns are planted, the centre should be lower than the sides, otherwise when water is given it will run off instead of through the soil.
There are many beuatiful ferns suitable for this style of culture, lists of which is given in Section 10.If small Ferns and Selaginella are planted in the sides and bottom of the basket the appearance is omproved.

 

Hanging Blocks of Virgin Cork
To prepare these,

  • various sizes of slightly-curved or semi-tubular pieces should be selected;
  • copper tacks, one inch (2.5 cm) long;
  • thin copper wire, like thread, to secure the plants on the cork, and
  • thicker copper wire for suspending the blocks;
  • some larger flakes of moss and ordinarily open compost, such as is recommended for Davallia.

The piece of cork should be laid ornamentall side down; copper tacks should be driven into it just below the edges, 2 inches (5 cms) apart. One large or several pieces of moss must then be laid on the cork, green side down, a little compost put upon it, and the Ferns put in position. The whole should be pressed firmly down, the moss hanging over the sides must be turned over the soil and worked round the crowns of the plants and under the rhizomes of tose of that mode of growth. A length of thin wire must be fastened to a tack at one side and carried over to a tack on the other side, giving it a turn round that, and so backwards and forwards until the network is sufficient to hold the moss, soil, and Ferns firmly in position.The tacks shoud each be driven up to the head and all will be secure. The hangers must be formed of thicker wire, pushed through the cork, turned up and knocked in to be quite firm, the tops drawn together and united by a hook, as in the case of ordinary wire baskets. All rhizomes should be pegged down on the moss, the plants watered, and the operation will be complete.
The first result obtained is as much more natural-looking mass of Ferns that can possibly be in any kind of basket - the ultimate result is a very beautiful object when the creeping Davallias and others have twined round and hidden the whole block by their lovely foliage.
For suspending from the roof 3 or 4 hangers should be attached, but if to hang against a wall 1 only is necessary. In the latter case the position of the plants on the cork will have to be considered, so that they may hang gracefully and to the best advantage. When, by oversight, these or baskets of other descriptions have become very dry, it is advisable to dip them in a pail of water for a few minutes. Ordinarily they may be watered in the usual way by a can with a rose.

 

Ferns in Rockwork
When planted in rockwork, indoors or out, Ferns require much less attention than when in pots. They do not need watering so frequently, neither do they require re-planting nearly so often; but when the compost is good and the drainage perfect they will grow for years without having to be disturbed. They attain a size and luxuriance rarely seen under other modes of cultivation. When rockwork is being planted there must be due consideration of the size to which the plants will grow; also their habits, so that overcrowding may be avoided. They must have room to develop their fronds perfectly, and the large ones must not bury or keep the light unduly from the smaller species. All should be so arranged that light may penetrate to every plant, otherwise the result will not be satisfactory.

 

Moss-covered Walls
One way of hiding unsightly walls is by stretching in front lengths of wire netting of 2 inch (5 cm) mesh. This must be secured by hooks driven into the wall of sufficient strength and number to hold the wire in position, about 5 inches (12.5 cms) from the wall. When the lower length is fixed it must be lined with moss, on the same principle and for the same purpose as the wire baskets. The space behnd should be filled with rough open compost. The Ferns should be planted as the work proceeds, this being much more easily done than when left to the last. As one height is completed the next may be taken in hand, and so on till the whole wall is covered. Each height of wire must be fastened by its lower edge to the one below it to prevent its bulging, or the trickling out of compost. If moss is unprocurable, the lining may be of thin flt pieces of peat, filled behiond in the usual way, but this does not produce so pleasing an effect.

 

Walls covered in Cork
This method requires patience and perseverance, but by its adoption walls may be made very rustic-looking. The flattest pieces of cork are most easily put on. They must be pressed close to the wall, and firmly secured by means of strong nails driven through the cork and between the bricks ( I beleive that the use of Rawlplugs and Screws would do less damage). The more circular pieces should be used to form pockets to hold Ferns. The pockets should be 12 or 14 inches (30 or 35 cms) deep, fitting close at the bottom, projecting at the top. Such pieces as cannot be pressed to the wall easily may be made more pliable by cutting a slit in the inner surface to weaken it, and to allow of its being flattened. When the wall is covered, the crevices should be filled with green moss; the holes in the pockets should also be plugged with moss or peat, to prevent the compost trickling or being washed out. Allformality of arrangement should be avoided, and there should be sufficient pockets, so that when the Ferns are growing the cork will be fairly well hidden.

 

Wall Tiles
When these are used they must be very securely fastened, as the soil in them is very heavy when wet. They give more room for the roots than the cork pockets. After fixing them according to the instructions given by the manufactureres in 1892, they should be filled with compost to such a height that when the plants are in the surface may be an inch (2.5 cms) below the rim.

 

Rockwork (Indoors)
It is impossible to give more than a few general directions on this subject in the space at disposal.
The construction of a rock fernery in a natural manner requires great experience, combined with a knowledge of the various requirements of Ferns.
The stone suitable for the purpose is of 3 kinds - sandstone, tufa, and limestone. Sometimes clinkers, or large pieces of coke dipped in thin cement, are used. These, however, are but a poor substitute for stone.
The plan of construction in all cases must depend largely upon the space at command. Where it is possible to go down into the ground the effect will be much finer than when the rockwork is all above the ground-level. The beauty of Ferns is seen to best advantage when looked down upon. The walks should undulate and wind to and fro; they should be made of stone or concrete with rugged steps here and there, the stone rising on each side, as though the whole were cut out the solid rock. Bold projections may be arranged at intervals, and so cause an entirely new view eact step that is taken. Ibuilding the stone together large pockets should be provided, to hold a good supply of compost, and these should be so arranged that they may be connected with the bulk of the soil on which the body of the rock is built. The arrangement of the stone should be irregular and free from any appearance of artificiality. The receptacles for the plants should recede as they rise, and the rock should be fixed so that the light may get to the lowest part without obstruction.
Arches may be oranamental, but they are not natural, and though to a limited degree they may be tolerated in a large place, the fernery will look better and more natural without them, and certainly the Ferns will grow more satisfactorily.
However large or small the fernery may be, it should continually be kept in mind that vegetation below the eye should be in equal or better condition than that above. This can be secured only by allowing full access of light to every plant, therefore all undue obstruction must be avoided.
The rockwork in a house must always be on a proportionate scale to the house. Too much spoils the whole - better have too little than it have it overdone.
 

 

Outdoor Ferneries
There are many places in gardens where flowering plants will not live, and in some of these Ferns will grow beautifully, and convert an uninteresting spot into a source of interest and much pleasure.
But there are so many exceedingly lovely varieties of Hardy Ferns that it would be a great mistake to plant them merely to fill a vacant space. They are worthy of special attention, and of the most favourable position that can be provided for them.
Hardy Ferns are easy to manage - in fact, there are no other plants so easy of culture, and certainly none which present so large a variety of graceful habit and curious forms.
The easiest and most satisfactory mode of culture is to plant them in borders, beds, or rock ferneries.
Many Fern lovers are so placed that they have not even a small garden in which to make a fernery. When such is unfortunarely the case, so unlikely a place as a back garden may be utilised. A few rough boxes, 6 or 8 inches (15 or 20 cms) deep, covered with pieces of thin virgin cork, will make suitable and rustic-looking receptacles for them. The boxes should have holes bored through the bottoms, and inch or two (2.5 or 5 cms) of broken pots placed inside for drainage, next a layer of moss or leaves, and then the compost. Some of the common British Ferns planted in these contrivances will yield much pleasure and serve to add no little charm to an otherwise dreary outlook.
A Fernery on a larger scale may be made by building and edging of burrs 2 layers in height filled in with compost. This would prove suitable, and may be provided with little trouble and expense. Those who have gardens should select a shaded and sheltered position, as little exposed to the sun as possible, and protected from strong winds. The fernery may take the form odf a border or bed. A position with a north aspect is the one most suitable, so that the plants may have a maximum of light without scorching sun.
Ferns may be planted among shrubs, but it is better to have the border or bed entirely of Ferns, so that there may nothing to interfere with the special characteristics of these plants. There should be a mixture of proper compost put into the border, to enable the Ferns to grow satisfactorily.
The most pleasing kind of fernery is that constructed of stone in the form or rockwork. It may be on the level ground, with mounds of soil and stone built up like miniature hills, with intervening valleys; or in the form of a glen, or ravine, excavated to a greater or less depth. In either case the paths should undulate, wind in and out, and should approach in appearance as near as possible a wild rocky pathway.
An excavated fernery will present a better appearance than one on the level ground; the vegetation and its surroundings being below the eye from various points of observation will be seen to greater advantage. Still, a very beautiful arrangement is possible without excavation.
In the construction of an outdoor fernery, as with an indoor, experience, combined with a knowledge of natural rock formation and the requirements of Fern-life, is necessary before anyone can undertake and carry through successfully the building of a large rockwork fernery.
The following suggestions will help those who desire to attempt the work:-

  • In whatever form the fernery may be arranged, drainage shold be provided for the escape of surplus moisture. When it is a mound or ridge raised on the level ground, holes may be dug down to the sand, filled with broken bricks, clinkers, or stones covered with sods, or other rough material, and the body of soil above. This will provide a ready means for all surplus moisture to passaway. If the fernery be sunk in the ground the water will drain to the lowest part, and therefore provision must be made for its disposal, either by enabling it to sink into the sand below, or by constructing a drain to carry it elsewhere.
  • Sandstone is one of the best materials for rockwork. Its color harmonises with the various tints of foliage, and all Ferns grow well in association with it. This stone is found in strata having a gentle dip in a given direction, therefore when it is used the natural formation should be imitated.
  • Limestone is hard, and found in all sorts of curious shapes. By the action of water some pieces have holes through them, others channels washed in their surface, with numerous chinks, crevices, and inequalities of outline. With this material a very ornamental rockery may be constructed, in which Ferns will grow luxuriantly and with pleasing effect.
  • In commencing the construction, the paths should first be planned. From these the rockwork should rise in an irregular mass. Large pockets should be formed in communication with the bulk of the soil constituting the foundation of the fernery.
  • The general outline should take the form of a series of terraces, rising tier above tier, receeding farther and farther from the path. Blocks of stone here and there should be placed to give character to the construction, and to prevent the view being too extended from any one point.
  • Every stone must be made perfectly secure, so that rain, frost, and other influences may not destroy or cause injury to the erection.
  • When the building is complete, some good compost for the Ferns should be put into the pockets, in which to plant the Ferns. Sometimes tree roots are used, but they soon commence to decay, so they are not at all suitable for a fernery which is to be of a lasting character.

 

Section 5 - Various Modes of Cultivation (continued at the top of the next table)
 

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

 

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds
 

All Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as useful websites.

See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1, 2

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes)

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria) 1, 2, 3 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma)
 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2
Drier Soil
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2
Shade Tolerant

Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2

House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4

House Fern in Terrarium or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums 2, 3, 4
 

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3
 

 

 

Section 5 - Various Modes of Cultivation (continued)
Rock-Fernery with Glass Protection
There is a wonderful difference between the condition of Ferns growing in the open air and those cultivated in a frame or unheated greenhouse. When protected from the extremes of heat and cold, wet and drought, storms, boisterous winds, and other injurious influences, their foliage develops more perfectly, is of greater beauty, and lasts much longer in nice condition. Not only are there these advantages, but species such as Adiantum capillus veneris, Asplenium lanceolatum, Asplenium marinum, and others, which rarely grow satisfactorily in the open air, may be successfully cultivated with the simple protection of a cold frame. When this form of fernery is being constructed, the walls should go well into the ground, the soil be excavated to the depth of 24 inches (60 cms), some good compost being put in. Aminiature rockery may be built with elevations, depressions, pockets, niches, and cosy corners for rare and beautiful little species.
Sandstone, limestone, or tufa may be used for the rockwork. The frame should have a northern aspect, the stone being built up inside to hide the walls, and to give the whole of the central part as diversified an arrangement as can be secured in the space.
This will form a perfect treasure-house to the Fern lover, for here, with the greatest ease, may be cultivated many dwarf kinds of various genera, which are more liable to be lost when fully exposed to the elements.
A frame should be occupied only by the smaller species - the larger and stronger would be out of place.
Built in the manner described, facing the north, abundance of light would be secured without the scorching rays of the sun. The frame should have a good elevation at the back, to give the glass at least an angle of 45 degrees. Being sunk in the ground, the temperture would be equable during both summer and winter. In the former the heat would have little effect, and during the winter it would be largely secure from the frost. If plante in good compost the roots would revel in the cool moist position among the stones, and the foliage, being hardened by a gentle and continued circulation of air overhead, provided by tilting the lights more or less according to the weather, would be more beautiful than even in their native rocks.
By carrying out this arrangement of rockwork in an unheated house an additional benefit may be obtained, as then the cultivator can walk about, and being under cover may enjoy the pleasure attending the cultivation of his plants, whatever the weather outside may be. Being on a larger scale, larger species may be accommodated and greater variety obtained also.
The cultivation of Ferns under these conditions is as simple as it possibly could be. Once planted the only attention necessary for a long time would be the giving of water and the ventilation, while the results would be highly gratifying.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 6 - Light
It is a very common idea that Ferns grow best in dense shade. This, however, is altogether erroneous. It is true that some kinds of Filmy Ferns are found growing in comparitively dark places, but Ferns generally no only can do with an abundance of light but they are much better with it.
A fernery should have in every case possible a northern aspect. Asouthern aspect is not good, because, unless shaded in some manner by trees or buildings, during the summer it receives the full glare of the sun, and means must then be taken to protect the plants from the strong light and scorching rays. A span-roof fernery should be built with its length running north and south, and all roofs should have a pitch of 45 degrees or 50 degrees. A flatter roof than this is likely to cause drip, which is as injurious to Ferns as to other plants. A lean-to fernery, with northern aspect, will require very little shading, even during summer, and not any during the greater portion of the year. The nearer the aspect is to the south, the more shading will be required.
The rule is to provide the fullest possible amount of light at all times, merely shading, when actually necessary, to prevent very strong sunlight scorching or bleaching the foliage.
From the beginning of September to the beginning of March, shading will not be required on a fernery of any aspect; on the other hand, the glass should be repeatedly washed outside and in, to enable all the light to penetrate the fernery. The accumulation of soot and dirt (coal was burnt in many rooms of houses in 1892 to provide heating) on the glass during winter becomes very detrimental to the wellbeing of plants if allowed to remain. Fogs are a great cause of this deposit in 1892, and not only so but the ingredients of burnt coal fog deposit are much worse to remove than ordnary dirt if once allowed to become dry. It will be wise, therefore, to be lavish in the use of warm water and brush to the outside during the autumn and winter months. If the glass and rafters inside are washed occasionally with warm water and sponge the house will look cleaner and the plants will be muh better for the labout expended. In the beginning of March the atmosphere becomes much clearer, the sun gains strength, and a little shade soon becomes necessary for houses containing stove Ferns if expose fully to the sun. The hardier greenhouse kinds will not require shad for some time, and hardy Ferns not for 2 or 3 months. The position of the house and the character of its inmates will determine the time when shading becomes necessary.

 

Means of Shading
Shade may be provided by blinds, or by one of numerous preparations put upon the glass. Blinds form the best means of shading. They should be fastened on rollers, and so arranged that when the rope is released the blind will roll down, and when no longer required may be rolled up again and secured in its place.
There were in 1892 various kinds of material suitable for blinds. Thick Tiffany, Frigi domo, closely woven cotton netting, and "The Willesden" rot-proof scrim canvas, the latter being preferable to any of the others, as it combines shading qualities with durability. These vary in thickness. For a house greatly exposed the thicker material may be selected. Where little shade is required a thinner material will be more suitable. The great advantage connected with blinds over the permanent shading material is that on wet, dull days, when there is little or no sunshine, by keeping the blinds rolled up the full light is admitted to the plants, greatly to their advantage. Also, every day, until the sunlight becomes too strong, and in the afternoon and evening, when the sun is no longer a source of danger, the plants can have the full light. This is of the highest importance; it is the cause of health and vigour of plants, which under other conditions of shade would have been weakly and of far les beauty.
When permanent shading is used in the form of powder sold for the purpose, white should be selected; green may obscure the glass more and produce a heavier shade, but this is beneficial only for a small portion of the time it is on the glass. It keeps out too much light at other times, and even if only a thin coating is put on the colour is objectionable. Cream colouyr is better than green, but white is best of all, for it will allow more light to penetrate on a wet or dull day, a matter not to be despised.
Whatever colour is used, it should be put on neatly. The practice of syringing it on produces a most untidy appearance as well as imperfect shade, and should not be tolerated anywhere. As soon as it possibly can be dispensed with, all shading should be removed, and the plants allowed the unrestricted light. Ferneries should never be glazed with green glass, but always with the clearest that can be obtained.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 7 - Temperature
Ferns require more or less heat, according to their natural place of growth. Most of those from the Tropics require stove temperature. If however, they grow high up the mountains, where the temperature is much lower than near the sea level, they may be cultivated in a warm or cool greenhouse. Some species are found in both hot and cold climates, hence they may be cultivated in various temperatures.
For convenience of cultivation the whole family may be divided into classes - those requiring stove temperature, those suitable for a warm greenhouse, and those which may successfully cultivated in cool greenhouse; those more hardy for cold greenhouse or frame, and the perfectly hardy species.

 

Stove Temperature
This need not be so high for Ferns as is often supposed, neither must it be as high in winter as in summer. Taking December as the starting point, the night temperature should be 60 to 65F (15-18C), rising to 70F (21C) during the day. About the middle of January the days lengthen, ad as the light becomes stronger and of greater duration, the temperature should gradually rise and continue to do so until by the end of May the maximum is reached at 70F (21C) by night and 75-80F (24-27C) by day. This temperature should be mantained during June and July, when it should be gradually reduced, until by the end of November the lowest point is again reached, at the season when the days are short and the light faint. At ant time the temperature may rise 5 or 10F (3-6C) higher, as the result of sun heat, but it is not wise to give more artificial heat than is necessary to maintain a temperature indicated bt these figures.

 

Warm Greenhouse
The temperature in December will be sufficiently high at 45-50F (7-10C) by night, and 50-60F (10-16C) by day. A the days increase in length the temperature should gradually rise, until by the end of May it is 60-65F (15-18C) by night, and 70-75F (21-24C) by day. In August it should begin to decline, until the lowest point is reached in November.

 

Cool Greenhouse
In a cool greenhouse the winter temperature by night should be 40F (4C), though 35 F (2C) might not do any harm; during the day 45-50F (7-10C) should be maintained. In spring a gradual rise should take place, until artificial heat is dispensed with for the summer. The temperature, when dependent upon natural heat, may sometimes, even in summer, be so low, owing to a combination of wet, cold weather, that a little fire heat becomes advisable for a short time. On the other hand, there is occasionally such intensely hot weather that it becomes difficult to keep the temperature down. This may be done by extra shading, and a free use of water sprinkled on the paths, walls, and stages, or rockwork.

 

Cold Greenhouse
The temperature of a house where there are no means of supplying artificial heat should be regulated during winter by outside covering. Perfectly Hardy Ferns are the only suitable kinds to have in a house where the frost may penetrate, and even for these it is well to use all possible precautions to keep out the frost. Hardy Ferns will bear many degrees without apparent injury, but it is certainly an advantage to them when kept above freezing point. When frost penetrates, it immdeiately affects everthing damp. It often breaks pots, and when it is severe it hurts the roots against the sides. By covering the place with mats or other materials, the effects of the frost may be reduced considerably, and by plunging all pots in cocoa-nut fibre or leaf mould the evils may be further reduced, resulting in undoubted benefit to the plants.

 

Ventilation
Means for ventilation should always be provided. Ferns must not be subjected to cold draughts, yet a gentle imperceptible supply of fresh air given at the proper time will prove of great benefit. There must be provision for the entrance of this at the lower part of the house, and for the escape of hot air at the top.
Often there are no means provided at the bottom for the entrance of air, and when the ventilators at the top are opened, a cold current at once rushs in, causing the moisture to condense upon the foliage. In winter this is particularly injurious to the plants, chilling them and leading to discolouration of the foliage. By opening ventilators at the bottom the fresh air enters at the proper place, while the hot air freely escapes at the top. An upward current is thus produced which prevents chilly down draughts.
Ventilation may be given whenever the temperature is high enough, care being excersided not to open the ventilators so wide that the temperature is suddenly reduced. On windy or cold days special care will be necessary. Air should be given as early in the morning as possible, and left on as long in the afternoon as is safe. This conduces to a sturdy growth, the foliage being harder and more enduring than would otherwise be the case.

 

Watering
There is more importance attaching to the watering of plants than many people imagine. It must be done in a haphazard or careless manner, for injurious watering causes a long train of evils. A clear and perfect knowledge of the proper way can be obtained only by experience, but a little care in following certain rules will enable the merest novice to steer clear of many dangers:-

  • The soil in which Ferns are growing should always be kept damp, but not in so thoroughly a wet conditionas to make it sodden. If it becomes very dry the plant drops, shrivels, and sometimes dies; if it is always very wet it soon becomes sour.
  • Plants should be examine every day; in the morning during winte, in the afternoon or evening during summer. Some plants will require water one day, others the next. Whenever a Fern is becoming dry it should be well watered, and not again until it requires it. It is a bad practice to water plants when it is not necessary; it is also a bad plan to give only a little at a time, as by that means the surface appears damp while at the roots the soil is often dust dry. If the pot receives a sharp rap the sound will at once indicate the condition of the soil. If it be a ringing sound like that of a bell the plant should have water, if it be dull and heavy, water is not needed. If the plant does not actially require water at the usual time of watering one daty, but appears likely to become dry before the ordinary time next day, it shuld be watered in a few hours, out of the usual course. If this is not practicable it will be better to water at once than run any risk of its suffering in the interval. The water given should be of the same temperature as the atmosphere of the house, or, at least, it should have the chill taken off.
  • Watering Ferns under glass by means of a hose-pipe attached to a cold water tap cannot be too strongly condemned. The water being colder than the air chills the plants, many receive water when they do not require it, and others may be missed; the foliage becomes drenched, and a state of sickness soon ensues. All Ferns, except Filies, should have their foliage kept dry, and should neither be watered overhead nor syringed. The foliage so treated soon becomes discoloured, and dies, or it has to be removed because of its objectionable appearance. This is a direct injury to the plant.
  • Sometimes, to save trouble or to cause a pretty(?) effect, perforated pipes are laid round the fernery, so that by turning a tap the whole place can be filled by sprays of water. This is a thoroughly bad practice and cannot possibly end in anything but disaster.
  • Whether in pots, baskets, planted in rockwork, in pockets, fern-tiles, or moss-covered walls, thee is nosafe way of watering but by means of a can with or without a rose. It certainly involves more time and labour, but the results far more than compensate for the extra trouble. Anyone refusing to spend the necessary time and care in properly watering the plants must be content to have less satisfactory results.
  • When a plant in pot or basket has become very dry it should be placed in a pail of water for 10 or 15 minutes until the soil is thoroughly wet.
  • Some cultivators have an idea that Ferns should be "dried off" in autumn to give them a rest; even evergreen varieties are treated so, while the deciduous kinds when they have lost their foliage are put away and do not receive water for weeks. This is wrong treament altogether. Deciduous as well as evergreen kinds should always be kept damp. The do not need water so frequently in winter as in summer, because they do not take up so much moisture from the soil, and there is not so much evaporation going on. Yet they must be watered with sufficient frequency to keep the roots always moist. Ferns growing wild in this country (UK) get a great deal more water in winter than in smmer; notwithstanding this they lose their foliage and rest. Their rest is not brought about by a lack of water, but to a large extent b a lowering of the temperature. So, under glass, if the temperature is reduced, this, with the dimunition of light, will bring a cessation of growth in a natural manner. When the days begin to lengthen and the temperature to rise, the plants will soon show vitality and grow vigorously after their rest.

 

Cutting Ferns Down
There is a common idea that Ferns should have all their foliage cut off in winter. This should not be done while the fronds are green. The dead foliage of the deciduous kinds should be removed when they are in greenhouses, as it looks unsightly, but the foliage of evergreen kinds should not be cut off until oit becomes discoloured, or is in the wa of the development of new foliage. In the case of such as the Miden Hair, where the new fronds are produced very thickly together, it is wise to remove the old just as the new oes begin to appear. If left on till the new growth is pretty well advanced, there will be more difficulty in removing them, and the new fronds might be damaged. But in the case of species producing only a few fronds in a season, and those at long intervals, the old foliage should be left until it becomes unsightly. As long as a frond is green it is of benefit to the plant, and every green frond cut off is a more or less severe loss to it.

 

Moisture in the Atmosphere
This should always be maintained, especially during the growing season. It can best be done by sprinkling the paths, walls, and stages, or rockwork more of less freely with water. On hot dry days this will be most beneficial, not only to maintain the required dampness, but to keep down the temperature. In winter, when the coal fires are being pushed strongly to keep up the temperature, the artificial heat will cause a dry, parched air, which must be remedied in the manner recommended.
A dry atmosphere has not only a tendency to restrict development of foliage, but it encourages insect pests of various kinds; yet the other extreme must be avoided. Too much moisture mat cause the plants to damp off, and will thus prove an evil. Judgement must be exercised in order to obtain the condition most congenial to the plants by attention to temperature, light, shade, moisture, and ventilation, avoiding excess in everything.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See USE OF FERN - in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page for text of Section 8 and Section 9

Section 8 - Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
The condition of atmosphere and the lack of light in dwelling-houses are such that few Ferns can grow satifactorily.

 

Wardian Cases and Fern Stands

 

Window Boxes

 

Window Cases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 9 - Propagation
Ferns may be propagated from buds produced on the fronds, from tubers and buds on the roots, from bulbils formed on their creeping sarmentum, by division of their crowns and rhizomes, and from spores.

 

Spores
 

 

Collecting the Spores
 

 

Sowing the Spores
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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See
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or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

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Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

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Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

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Section 10 - Selections of Ferns

 

50 choice
stove ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum bauseii
Adiantum cardiochloena, a large handsome species
Adiantum concinnum
Adiantum cultratum
Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum farleyense, an exceedingly beautiful variety
Adiantum lathomii, specially handsome
Adiantum macrophyllum, young fronds deep pink
Adiantum neo caledoniae

 

Adiantum reginae
Adiantum sanctae catherinae
Adiantum speciosum
Adiantum trapeziforme, a splendid species of large growth
Andiantum villosum
Aglaomorpha meyeniana (the Bear's Paw Fern)
Anemis adiantifolia
Aspidium plumierii
Asplenium australasicum (the Bird's Nest Fern)
Asplenium belangerii

 

Asplenium formosum
Asplenium inaequale
Asplenium laxum pumilum
Asplenium nobilis, a light, feathery, and graceful variety
Blechnum gracile
Cheilanthes elegans (the Lace Fern), very beautiful
Davallia dissecta
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia parvula, very small fronds, finely cut, exceedingly pretty
 

 

Davallia retusa
Drynaria musaefolia, the veining very distinct
Gleichenia dichotoma
Gymnopgramma alstonii (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma chrysophylla (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma decomposita, fronds very finely cut
Gymnogramma peruviana argyrophylla (Silver Fern)
Gymnogramma schizophylla gloriosa, very beautiful, fronds cut into fine segments, of graceful drooping habit
Lygodium dichotomum, a magnificent climbing fern
Nephrolepis davallioides

 

Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis duffii
Nephrolepis exaltata
Niphobolus heteractis
Onychium auratum, a very handsome species, fronds erect, finely cut
Phegopteris effusus
Phlebodium aureum, fronds large and deeply glaucous
Pteris tricolor
Pteris victoriae, very prettily variegated
Rhipidopteris peltata, small fronds, fan-shaped, deeply cut.

 

A second 50 choice
stove ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aneitense
Adiantum collisii
Adiantum concinnum latum
Adiantum curvatum
Adiantum flabellatum
Adiantum flemingii
Adiantum peruvianum
Adiantum pulverulentum
Adiantum rhodophyllum
Adiantum seemannii

 

Adiantum tenerum
Adiantum tetraphyllum gracile
Adiantum versaillense, dwarf fronds, branched and crested, very pretty
Adiantum victoriae
Adiantum weigandii
Anemia collina
Aspidium trifoliatum
Asplenium baptistii
Asplenium bifidum
Asplenium horridum

 

Asplenium obtusilobum
Asplenium prolongatum
Asplenium pteropus
Asplenium viviparum
Blechnum latifolium
Campyloneurum brevifolium
Cheilanthes radiata
Davallia alpina
Davallia elegans
Doryopteris palmata

 

Elaphoglossum l'herminierii (the Silver Eel Fern)
Gymnogramma calomelanos (Silver Fern)
Gymnogramma laucheana (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma muellerii
Gymnogramma parsonsii, a dwarf, crested gold fern
Gymnogramma pearceii d. fijiensis plumosa, a handsome variety, of large growth
Gymnogramma pearceii d. foeniculea
Gymnogramma pearceii d. polyantha
Gymnogramma pearceii d. pycnocarpa
Gymnogramma pearceii d. robusta, very beautiful, finely-cut fronds

 

Gymnogramma wettenhalliana (Crested Sulphur Fern)
Hymenodium crinitum (Elephant Ear Fern)
Leucostegia affinis
Lygodictyon forsterii (Climbing Fern)
Lygodictyon volubile (Climbing Fern)
Nephrolepis bauseii
Niphopsis angustatus
Phlebodium sporodocarpum
Pleopeltis fossa
Pleopeltis xiphias

 

25
basket ferns for stove

 

Adiantum amabile, sends its roots through the basket all round, young plants are produced on them, and their foliage soon forms a beautiful mass of green.
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum farleyense
Adiantum fragrantissimum

 

Adiantum peruvianum
Asplenium longissimum, produces long pendent fronds, bearing a young plant at the tip of each
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia pentaphylla
Goniophlebium chnoodes

 

Goniophlebium subauriculatum, one of the best Basket Ferns in cultivation, produce pendent fronds 72-120 inches (180-300 cms) long
Goniophlebium verrucosum
Gymnogramma chrysophylla, a Gold Fern, which shows its beautiful yellow powder to advantage when suspended
Gymnogramma dobryoydense (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma schizophylla gloriosa, a very beautiful variety with drooping fronds, exquisetly cut

 

Nephrolepis davallioides
Nephrolepis davalliodes furcans, a splendid variety, with crested fronds
Nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis pectinata
Phegopteris effusus

 

25 choice varieties for
planting on blocks of cork for suspending

 

Adiantum ciliatum, produces young plants at the tips of its fronds; these develop, and produce others at their tips, forming a graceful and pretty object
Adiantum dolabriforme is like the preceeding in habit, but its foliage is of deeper green
Asplenium nobilis
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta

 

Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia fijiensis plumosa

 

Davallia griffithiana
Davallia heterophylla
Davallia pentaphylla
Davallia pycnocarpa
Davallia tyermannii

 

Lopholepis piloselloides
Nephrolepis cordata compacta
Nephrolepis pectinata
Nephrolepis philippinensis
Oleandra nodosa
 

 

Phymatodes vulgaris cristata
Phlebodium venosum
Platycerium grande
Platycerium stemmaria
Platycerium willinckii
The Platyceriums should be suspendee by 1 wire, the others by 1 or 4 wires, according to whether they are to hang against the wall or from the roof.

50
stove ferns for rockwork

 

Acrostichum osmundaceum
Adiantum bauseii
Adiantum cardiochloena
Adiantum cultratum
Adiantum funckii
Adiantum lathomii
Adiantum trapeziforme
Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Aspidium dilaceratum
Aspidum plumierii

 

Asplenium australasicum
Asplenium belangerii
Asplenium horridum
Asplenium inaequale
Asplenium laxum pumilum
Campyloneurum phyllitidis
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia elegans polydactyla
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Davallia ornata
Davallia polyantha
Davallia retusa
Drynaria coronans
Drynaria musaefolia
Goniophlebium neriifolium

 

Hypoderis brownii
Lonchitis pubescens
Marattis elegans
Meniscum oligophyllum
Microsorum irioides
Nephrolepis davalloides
Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis ensifolia
Nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis zollingeriana

 

Oleandra articulata
Olfersia cervina
Phegopteris effusus
Phlebodium aureum
Phlebodium sporodicarpum
Ptymatodes nigrescens
Pleocnemia leuzeana
Pleopeltis xiphias
Polypodium leiorhizon
Stenochlaena scandens

 

25
stove ferns for walls

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum cuneatum

 

Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum fragrant-issimum
Adiantum peruvianum
Adiantum tenerum
Asplenium alatum

 

Adiantum planicaule
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia pentaphylla
Goniophlebium appendiculatum
Goniophlebium glaucophyllum

 

Leucostegia hirsuta
Nephrolepis cordata compacta
Nephrolepis pectinata
Polypodium catherinae
Stenochlaena scandens

 

12
stove ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum farleyense

 

Adiantum fragrant-issimum

 

Adiantum lathomii
Adiantum neo guinense
Adiantum scutum

 

Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia tyermannii

 

12
stove sellaginellas

 

Selaginella amoena, very pretty, light, and graceful
Selaginella atrovirides, distinct, brony brown in colour
Selaginella caesia, beautiful trailing species of deep metallic blue

 

Selaginella emilliana, a "Bird's Nest' moss, very pretty
Selaginella filicina, has large plumose fronds

 

Selaginella gracilis, very pretty and graceful
Selaginella grandis, exceedingly handsome, has large fan-shaped, spreading, bright green foliage

 

Selaginella haematodes, light green, glossy, crimpy fronds
Sellaginella inaequalifolia
Selaginella lyallii, has light green crisp foliage

 

Selaginella tassellata, very pretty and distinct
Selaginella willdenovii, commonly known as Selaginella caesia arborea and Selaginella laevigata, a most beautiful species, of climbing habit, producing large pinnae of a lovely metallic blue shade, the colour being most intense when the plant is growing in the shade, when its iridescence is very striking.

 

50
warm green house ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum capillus veneris o'brienianum
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum luddimannianum

 

Adiantum pacottii
Adiantum palmatum
Adiantum tinctum, young foliage beautifully tinted
Adiantum williamsii, a very handsome variety, with pea-green foliage, the stems slightly powdered
Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Cheilanthes elegans
Cheilanthes hirta
Davallia bullata (the Squirrel's Foot Fern)

 

Davallia canariensis (the Hare's Foot Fern),
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia mooreana, a handsome large-growing species
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana, a most beautiful variety, with gracefully drooping finely-cut fronds
Doodia aspera multifida
Gymnogramma othracea (a Gold Fern)
Lastrea richardsii multifida
Leucostegia immersa
Lomaria fluviatilis
Lomaria l'herminierii (a miniature Tree-Fern), young fronds a deep rose colour

 

Lygodium japonicum, a climbing Fern of very free growth
Lygodium palmatum, a climbing Fern of small growth but very pretty
Microlepia hirta cristata, a most handsome variety, produces large fronds, light green in colour, heavily crested
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera, a pretty, dwarf, crested, Royal Fern
Platycerium alicorne, a Stag's Horn Fern
Polypodium hastatum
Polystichum vivparum
Pteris argyrea, prettily variegated
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica nobilis, a handsome, densely crested variety
Pteris mayii, very pretty, dwarf, variegated crested
Pteris semipinnata
Pteris serrulata densa, heavily crested, graceful and pretty
Pteris serrulata fastigiata
Pteris tremula
Pteris tremula smithiana, fronds branched and heavily crested, very distinct
Pteris umbrosa
Pteris victoriae, a pretty, light, variegated variety
Sadleria cyatheoides, a very handsome species, with large, gracefully-arching
fronds, coriaceous in texture, dark green

 

Second 50
warm greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum cuneatum elegans
Adiantum lawsonianum, fronds finely-cut
Adiantum excisum multifidum, a heavily-crested variety
Adiantum hispidulum (pubescens)
Adiantum mariesii, a handsome variety, very distinct
Adiantum pedatum, a beautiful variety of free growth
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum veitchii
Adiantum venustum
Alsophila rebeccae

 

Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium caudatum
Asplenium flaccidum, has drooping fronds, very graceful
Asplenium lucidum, a handsome variety, with bright green glossy foliage
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Balantium culcita
Blechnum platyptera, a small Tree-Fern, of very fine appearance
Brainea insignis
Cheilanthes tomentosa
Cibotium barometz, a large growing species, of handsome appearance

 

Davallia canariensis pulchella
Davallia mariesii, a beautiful variety, with finely-cut fronds
Davallia tenuifolia
Davallia tyermannii
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Diplazium shepherdii
Diplazium thwaitesii
Doodia caudata
Doodia media crispa cristata
Hypolepis bergenia

 

Lastrea aristata variegata
Lastrea fragrans, the (Violet-scented Fern), a pretty dwarf species
Leucostegia chaerophylla
Lomaria ciliata, a miniature Tree-Fern
Lomaria gibba, a handsome small Tree-Fern
Lygodium scandens, a very pretty Climbing Fern, evergreen, has light green foliage and is of free growth
Nephrodium molle corymbiferum
Niphobolus longua corymbifera, a distinct, dwarf, heavily-crested variety, foliage very leathery
Nothocloena newberryii, distinct and beautiful, foliage covered with silvery-white hairs

 

Nothocloena sinuata, very pretty, long, narrow drooping fronds, silvery underneath
Osmunda palustris, a pretty, evergreen Royal Fern
Pellaea ternifolia, fronds narrow, very glaucous
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris cretica alba lineata, prettily variegated
Pteris cretica magnifica, heavily crested
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata cristata plumosa, has dense drooping foliage
Pteris serrulata major, a large variety of the Ribbon Fern
Pteris serrulata major cristata, a large variety, crested
Pteris tremula crispa

 

12
basket ferns for warm greenhouse

 

Adiantum assimile, a beautiful variety, its underground rhizomes spread throughout the basket and produce on all sides a mass of lovely pale-green foliage
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps, a crested variety of the common Maidenhair, distinct and handsome
Adiantum gracillimum, foliage exceedingly fine, and, when young, has a lovely tint

 

Adiantum palmatum, a very beautiul variety, with gracefully-drooping fronds
Adiantum williamsii

 

Asplenium flaccidum, fronds drooping and graceful
Asplenium longissimum, produces pendent fronds 72 inches (180 cms) long, and makes a handsome specimen

 

Blechnum glandulosum
Davallia dissecta elegans

 

Davallia mooreana, has large frondsa of fine appearance
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana, a lovely variety, with graceful light foliage
Microlepia hirta cristata, has large, pale-green, heavily-crested fronds

 

12
warm greenhouse ferns for blocks of cork suspended

 

Adiantum assimile cristatum
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum aemulum

 

Adiantum fragrant-issimum
Adiantum setulosum

 

Davallia tyermannii
Nephrolepis pectinata

 

Oleandra nodosa
Pellaea ternifolia

 

Platycerium willinckii
Pteris serrulata hendersonii
Pteris serrulata plumosa

 

50
warm greenhouse ferns for rockwork

 

Adiantum decorum
Adiantum formosum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Asplenium praemorsum
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Blechnum atherstonii
Blechnum polypodiodes
Cibotium barometz

 

Davallia canariensis
Davallia mooreana
Davallia tenuifolia
Davallia tenuifolia stricta
Dennstaedtia davallioides
Diplazium dilatatum
Drynaria pustulata
Hypolepis repens
Lastrea dissecta
Lastrea frondosa

 

Lastrea patens superba
Lastrea richardsii multifida
Lepicystis sepulta
Lepicystis squamata
Leucostegia immersa
Litobrochia vespertilionis
Lomaria gibba
Microlepia hirta cristata
Microlepia platyphilla, a large handsome species
Microlepia strigosa

 

Nephrodium molle
Niphobulus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Osmunda palustris
Phegopteris trichodes
Polypodium billardierii
Polystichum capense
Pteris argyrea
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris longifolia
Pteris longifolia nobilis
Pteris scaberula
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata
Pteris tremula
Pteris umbrosa
Todea africana

 

25
warm greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum assimile
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum colpodes
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps

 

Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum pentaphyllum
Adiantum pubescens
Adiantum setulosum
Asplenium colensoii

 

Asplenium flaccidum
Blechnum glandulosum
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia mooreana
Davallia tyermannii
 

 

Osmunda palustris
Pellaea ternifolia
Platycerium alcicorne
Polypodium billardierii
Polystichum mucronatum

 

Pteris semipinnata
Selaginella caulescens argentea
Selaginella martensii
Selaginella pubescens
Selaginella stolonifera

 

25
warm greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum elegans
Adiantum decorum

 

Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Adiantum williamsii
Davallia bullata

 

Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia mariesii
Davallia tyermannii
 

 

Leucostegia immersa
Nephrodium molle
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda palustris
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris tremula
Selaginella pubescens

 

12
selaginellas for warm greenhouse

 

Selaginella caulescens argentea
Selaginella delicatissima
Selaginella densa

 

Selaginella divaricata
Selaginella involvens

 

Selaginella japonica
Selaginella kraussiana

 

Selaginella kraussiana aurea
Selaginella kraussiana variegata

 

Selaginella martensii
Selaginella pubescens
Selaginella variabilis

 

50
cool greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum affine
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum formosum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Adiantum williamsii
Alsophila excelsa

 

Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium hemionitis
Asplenium lucidum
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Athyrium laxum
Cheilanthes clevelandii
Cheilanthes gracillima
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Cyrtomium falcatum
Davallia bullata

 

Davallia mariesii
Dicksonia antartica
Dicksonia squarrosa
Doodia aspera
Doodia aspera multifida
Gleichenia dicarpa
Gleichenia flabellata
Gleichenia spelunciae
Gymnogramma triangularis
Lastrea erythrosora

 

Lastrea fragrans
Leucostegia immersa
Lomaria attenuata
Lomaria falcata bipinnatifida
Lomaria fluviatilis
Lygodium japonica
Microlepia platyphylla
Nephrodium molle
Nephrodium molle corymbiferum
Nothocloena lanuginosa

 

Nothocloena newberryi
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Platyloma cordata
Polystichum concavum
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris cretica
Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia crispa


A second 50
cool greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum chilense
Adiantum digitatum
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum venustum
Aleuritopteris mexicana
Anemidictyon pyllitides
Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium hemionitsis cristatum
Asplenium monanthemum

 

Blechnum atherstonii
Cheilanthes fragrans
Davallia mariesii cristata
Davallia novae zealandiae
Dictyogramma japonica
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Gleichenia dicarpa longipinnata
Gleichenia semivestita
Hypolepis distans
Lastrea glabella

 

Lastrea opaca
Lomaria banksii
Lomaria discolor
Lomaria pumila
Lomariopsis heteromorpha
Lygodium palmatum
Microlepia strigosa
Mohria thurifraga
Nephrodium sangwellii
Niphobolus lingua

 

Nothocloena cretacea
Nothocloena marantae
Nothocloena sinuata
Osmunda palustris
Pellaea andromedaefolia
Pellaea ornithopus
Polypodium hastatum
Polypodium incanum
Polypodium scoulerii
Polystichum tsus-simense

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris longifolia
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata
Pteris tremula
Todea africana
Woodsia mollis
Woodwardia radicans burgessiana
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
basket ferns for cool greenhouse

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum assimile
Adiantum decorum

 

Elechum polypodioides
Leucostegia immersa

 

Osmunda palustris
Platycerium alcicorne

 

Pteris cretica
Pteris cretica cristata

 

Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
ferns for cork blocks in cool greenhouse

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Cheilanthes elegans

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii

 

Davallia mariesii cristata
Hypolepis distans

 

Pellaea ternifolia
Polystichum triangularum laxum

 

Pteris cretica magnifica
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

25
cool greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiatum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum decorum

 

Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum venustum
Adiantum williamsii
Blechnum polypodioides
Cyrtomium caryotidium

 

Cyrtomum falcatum
Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii
Diplazium thwaitesii
Drynaria pustulata

 

Niphobolus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum triangulum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris scaberula
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Selaginella martensii

 

12
cool greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum mariesii

 

Adiantum pacottii
Adiantum pedatum

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii

 

Onychium japonicum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

12
cool greenhouse selaginellas

 

Selaginella brownii
Selaginella denticulata
Selaginella douglassii

 

Selaginella involvens
Selaginella japonica

 

Selaginella kraussiana
Selaginella kraussiana aurea

 

Selaginella kraussiana variegata
Selaginella martensii

 

Selaginella oregana
Selaginella poulterii
Selaginella pubescens

 

50
cold greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum affine
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum capillus veneris daphnites
Adiantum emarginatum
Adiantum pedatum
Aspidium cristatum floridanum
Asplenium angustifolium
Asplenium fissum
Asplenium fontanum
Athyrium goringianum pictum

 

Botrychium virginicum
Camptosorus rhizophyllus
Cyrtomium falcatum
Cyrtomium fortunei
Cystopteris bulbifera
Davallia mariesii
Dennstaedtia punctilobus
Dicksonia antartica
Dictyogramma japonica
Gymnogramma triangularis

 

Lastrea atrata
Lastrea decurrens
Lastrea fragrans
Lastrea opaca
Lastrea proligica
Lastrea sieboldii
Lomaria chilensis
Lomaria crenulata
Lomaria pumila
Lygodium japonicum

 

Lygodium palmatum
Niphobolus lingua
Onoclea sensibilis
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Osmunda palustris
Pellaea atropurpurea
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum concavum
Polystichum proliferum

 

Polystichum setosum
Polystichum triangulum laxum
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris scaerula
Struthiopteris germanica
Todea africana
Woodsia ilvensis
Woodsia obtusa
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

A second 50
cold greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Aspidium juglanifolium
Aspidium pilosum
Asplenium adulterinum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium seelosii
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii cristata

 

Davallia novae zealandiae
Dicksonia squarrosa
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Lastrea frondosa
Lomaria alpina
Platyloma falcata
Platyloma rotundifolia
Struthiopteris pennsylvanica recurva
Woodsia polystichoides veitchii
Woodwardia japonica

 

Woodwardia radicans crispa
Allosorus acrostichoides
Aspidium nevadense
Aspidium nevadense
Aspidium rigidum argutum
Lastrea goldiana
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda claytoniana
Osmunda gracilis
Polystichum munitum

The following are British:
Asplenium lanceolatum
Asplenium marinum
Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichomanes confluens
Asplenium trichomanes incisum
Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina edwardsii
Athyrium filix-femina kalothrix

The following are still British:

Athyrium filix-femina frizellae
Athyrium filix-femina plumosum elegans
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae
Blechnum spicant cristatum
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare trichomanoides
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum fimbriatum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo marginatum

 

12
basket ferns for cold greenhouse

 

Adiantum pedatum
Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina victorie

 

Osmunda palustris
Polystichum angulare

 

Polystichum angulare divisilobum acutum
Polystichum angulare divislobum decorum

 

Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum angulare venustum

 

Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans burgessiana
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

25
cold greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium marinum
Latrea aemula

 

Lastrea prolifica
Lastrea sieboldii
Polybodium falcatum
Polypodium vulgare
Polypodium vulgare cambricum

 

Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polypodium vulgare trichomanoides
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum angulare

 

Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare divisilobum
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum munitum
Polystichum setosum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Selaginella oregana
Woodwardia radicans
Wodwardia radicans cristata

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
cold greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris

 

Adiantum pedatum

 

Asplenium adiantum nigrum

 

Onychium japonicum

 

Polystichum angulare
Polystichum angulare bayliae

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
selaginellas for cold greenhouse

 

Selaginella denticulata

 

Selaginella japonica

 

Selaginella kraussiana

 

Selaginella kraussians aurea

 

Selaginella kraussiana variegata
Selaginella oregana

 

25
filmy ferns for cool greenhouse

In order to have Filmy Ferns in the greatest perfection, they should be in a very close, damp atmosphere; therefore, unless the house is such as to provide this, they should be enclosed in a frame, or placed under glass shades

 

Hymenophyllum aeruginosum, a beautiful variety, having a soft, downy appearance
Hyemenopyllum caudiculatum, has long tapering fronds, very pretty
Hymenophyllum chiloense, dwarf in habit, small fronds
Hymenophyllum crispatum, fronds 6 inchs (15 cms) long, erect, light green, crispy in appearance
Hymenophyllum demissum, light, graceful fronds, 9 inches (22.5 cms) in length

 

Hymenophyllum demissum nitens, smaller than the preceeding, compact, and very pretty
Hymenophyllum flexuosum, a beautiful variety, fronds 6-9 inches (15-22.5 cms) long, crimpy
Todea fraserii, very handsome, large, light green arching fronds
Todea grandipinnula, a splendid variety, with massive foliage, very pellucid
Todea pellucida, a free-growing species, produces fronds 24 inches (60 cms) long

 

Todea superba, a most beautiful species, the fronds thick, mossy, cut into fine segments
Todea wilkesiana, a handsome species, which forms a thin stem and becomes a Tree-Fern
Trichomanes alabamensis, a dwarf and pretty species
Trichomanes angustatum, fronds 4 inches (10 cms) long, cut into fine hair-like segments
Trichomanes auriculatum, a beautiful species, with drooping fronds 6 inches (15 cms) long, deeply lobed
 

 

Trichomanes luschnathianum, resembles the preceeding, but is more cut
Trichomanes maximum, produces large handsome fronds
Trichomanes radicans (the "Killarney Fern"), has triangular fronds, several times divided, very beautiful
Trichomanes radicans andrewsii
Trichomanes radicans crispum
 

 

Trichomanes radicans dilatatum
Trichomanes radicans dissectum, 4 varieties of the "Killarney Fern", with various distinct characteristics
Trichomanes reniforme (the New Zealand Kidney Fern), a beautiful species, with kidney-shaped fronds
Trichomanes trichoidium, a lovely species, fronds 4 inches (10 cms) long, cut into hair-like segments
Trichomanes venosum, a dwarf and pretty species

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
filmy ferns for cold greenhouse

 

Hymenopyllum demissum

 

Hymenophyllum demissum nitens

 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense

 

Hymenophyllum wilsonii

 

Todea pellucida
Todea superba
Although these 6 will bear a few degrees of frost, it is advisable to protect them, so as to keep the frost from them.

 

12
stove ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cardiochlaena
Adiantum farleyense
Adiantum trapeziforme

 

Asplenium australasicum
Asplenium longissimum

 

Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Goniophlebium subauriculatum
 

 

Gymnogramma chrysophylla
Gymnogramma peruviana argyrophylla

 

Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis rufescens tripinnatifida
Platycerium grande

 

A second 12
stove ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum flemingii
Adiantum fragrantissimum
Adiantum lathomii

 

Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Asplenium laxum pumilum

 

Davallia fijiensis
Gymnogramma schizopylla gloriosa

 

Nephrolepis davallioides
Phlebodium aureum

 

Phegopteris effusus
Platycerium stemmaria
Stenochloena scandens

 

12
greenhouse ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum williamsii

 

Davallia mooreana
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana

 

Davallia tyermannii
Gleichenia flabellata

 

Gleichenia rupestris
Gleichenia spelinciae

 

Lomaria gibba
Microlepia hirta cristata
Woodwardia radicans

 

A second 12
greenhouse ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum pedatum

 

Adiantum veitchii
Blechnum platyptera

 

Brainea insignis
Davallia bullata

 

Gleichenia dicarpa longipinnata
Gleichenia mendellii

 

Gleichenia semivestita
Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
hardy exotic ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum pedatum
Cyrtomium falcatum fensomii
Lomaria chilensis

 

Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea

 

Osmunda claytonia
Osmunda gracilis

 

Polystichum braunii
Polystichum proliferum

 

Polystichum munitum
Struthiopteris germanica
Struthiopteris orientalis

 

12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Asplenium germanicum
Asplenium lanceolatum microdon

 

Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichmanes confluens

 

Asplenium trichomanes cristatum
Asplenium trichomanes incisum

 

Athyrium filix-foemina edwardsii
Blechnum spicant cristatum

 

Blechnum spicant plumosum(serratum, Airey's No. 1)
Blechnum spicant trinervo coronans
Polypodium vulgare trichmanoides

 

A second 12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Asplenium marinum plumosum
Athyrium filix-femina crispum
Athyrium filix-femina veroniae cristatum

 

Blechnum spicant manderii
Lastrea montana congesta

 

Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum

 

Polypodium vulgar cristatum
Polystichum lonchitis

 

Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum

 

A third 12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Asplenium marinum
Blechnum spicant lineare

 

Ceterach officinarum crenatum
Cystopteris regia (alpina)

 

Cystopteris montana
Polypodium vulgare pulcherrimum

 

Polypodium vulgare grandiceps
Lastrea montana ramo-coronans

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas ramulosissima
Scolopendrium vulgare conglomeratum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum

 

12
british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina acrocladon
Athyrium filix-femina kalothrix
Athyrium flix-femina plumosum

 

Athyrium filix-femina plumosum elegans
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae

 

Lastrea filix-mas fluctuosa
Lastrea filix-mas grandiceps

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata
Lastrea pseudo-mas ramosissima

 

Osmunda regalis cristata
Polystichum angulare plumosum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum fimbriatum

 

A second 12
british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina craigii
Athyrium filix-femina fieldae

 

Athyrium filix-femina setigerum
Athyrium filix-femina todeoides

 

Lastrea filix-mas bollandiae
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata angustata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum majus

 

A third
12 british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina frizellae
Athyrium filix-femina glomeratum
Athyrium grantae

 

Athyrium filix-femina pritchardii
Athyrium filix-femina ramo-cristatum

 

Osmunda regalis
Polystichum angulare cristato-gracile

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare divisilobum decorum

 

Polystichum angulare grandiceps
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum stablerae

 

Ferns suitable for cultivation in
dwelling-houses

 

Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Davallia canariensis
Cyrtomium falcatum

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Nephrodium molle
Nephrolepis exaltata
Platycerium alcicorne
Polystichum setosum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica magnifica
Pteris cretica nobilis
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata

 

Pteris ouvrardii
Pteris tremula
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare proliferum densum
Polystichum munitum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps

Where there is no gas the following may be cultivated:-
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum williamsii

 

Ferns suitable for fern stands

As the stands are usually small, it is a good plan to have 1 nice sized Fern in the centre, and either a carpet of Selaginella or a few Dwarf Ferns planted round it

 

The following are all small-growing kinds.

Those with (c) affixed are suitable for planting in the centre

 

Adiantum capillus veneris (c)
Adiantum capillus veneris grande (c)
Adiantum capillus veneris o'brienianum (c)
Adiantum hispidulum tenellum
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum setulosum
Asplenium inaequale (c)

 

Asplenium obtusilobum
Asplenium fernandezianum
Asplenium fontanum
Asplenium monanthemum (c)
Asplenium praemossum laceratum (c)
Asplenium resectum
Asplenium rutaefolium (c)

 

Asplenium tenullum
Anapeltis nitida
Davallia alpina
Doodia caudata
Lomaria alpina
Pteris internata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

Selaginella amoena
Selaginella brownii
Selaginella divaricata
Selaginella emiliana
Selaginella japonica
Selaginella kraussiana
Selaginella kraussiana aurea (golden)
Selaginella kraussiana variegata (silvery)
Selaginella martensii

 

 

British varieties:

 

Asplenium marinum
Asplenium nigrum

 

Asplenium trichomanes
Polystichum angulare bayliae (c)

 

Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum (c)

 

Scolopendrium vulgare densum

 

 

Filmy Ferns:

 

Hymenophyllum demissum (c)
Hymenophyllum demissum nitens

 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense
Hymenopyllum wilsonii

 

Trichomanes alabamensis
Trichomanes angustatum

 

Trichomanes radicans (c)
Trichomanes reniforme (c)
Trichomanes venosum

 

Ferns suitable for wardian or fern cases

 

All those named as suitable for Fern stands, also

 

Adiantum affine
Adiantum mariesii
Arthropteris oblitera
Asplenium attenuatum
Asplenium fragrans
Asplenium hemionitis
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium zeylanicum
Blechnum gracile

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia canariensis
Davallia canariensis pulchella
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia novae zealandiae
Davallia pentaphylla
Doodia amoena
Doodia media crispa cristata
Drynaria pustulata

 

Niphobolus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Phlebodium venosum
Polypodium adnascens
Polypodium billardierii
Polypodium scoulerii
Polystichum setosum
Pteris cretica and its varieties
Pteris internata

 

Pteris serrulata and its varieties
Rhidopteris pelata
Selaginella caulescens
Selaginella gracilis
Selaginella grandis
Selaginella umbrosa
Selaginella victoriae
Selaginella pubescens

 

 

British varieties:

 

Lastrea filix-mas cristata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare grandiceps
Polystichum angulare perserratum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum
Scolopendrium laceratum
 

 

Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum

 

 

Filmy Ferns -
Those recommended for Fern stands also:

 

Hymenophyllum aeruginosum
Hymenophyllum caudiculatum
Hymenophyllum chiloense
Hymenophyllum flexuosum

 

Hymenophyllum pectinatum
Todea grandipinnula
Todea pellucida
Todaea superba
 

 

Trichomanes auriculatum
Trichomanes exsectum
Trichomanes humile
Trichomanes maximum

 

Trichomanes maximum umbrosum
Trichomanes radicans and its varieties
Trichomanes rigidum
Trichomanes trichoidium

 

Ferns suitable for window cases

The Ferns here named are hardy enough to bear a few degrees of frost without injury, but means should be taken to keep the frost from them, so as to preserve their foliage as perfect as possible

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium fontanum
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium trichomanes
Athyrium filix-femina edwardsii
Athyrium filix-femina vernoniae cristatum
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae

 

Athrium goringianum pictum
Blechnum spicant cristatum
Blechnum spicant trinervo coronans
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Cyrtomium falcatum
Cyrtomium fortuneii
Cystopteris bulbifera

 

Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Lastrea atrata
Lastrea decurrens
Lastrea fragrans
Lastrea opaca
Lastrea prolifica
Lastrea sieboldii
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa cristata
Lomaria alpina
Lygodium japonicum
Niphobolus lingua

 

Onoclea sensibilis
Onychium japonicum
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polypodium vulgare grandiceps
Polystichum acrostichoides

 

Polystichum braunii
Polystichum munitum
Polystichum setosum
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare gracile
Polystichum grandiceps
Pteris cretica
Pteris longifolia
Scolopendrium vulgare capitatum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum
Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum
Todea africana

 

Ferns for window boxes

 

12 dwarf:

 

Allosorus crispus
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium trichomanes

 

Asplenium viride
Blechnum spicant
Ceterach officinarum

 

Cystopteris fragilis
Polypodium calcareum
Polypodium dryopteris

 

Polypodium phegopteris
Polypodium vulgare
Polystichum onchitis

 

 

12 medium size:

 

Aspidium rigidum argutum
Lastrea aemula
Lastrea intermedia

 

Lastrea marginale
Lastrea rigida
Lastrea spinulosa

 

Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum braunii
Scolopendrium vulgare

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Woodwardia angustifolia

 

 

12 large size:

 

Athyrium filix femina
Athyrium filix femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix femina fieldiae

 

Lastrea dilatata
Lastrea filixmas
Lastrea filixmas fluctuosa

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Lastrea montana
Osmunda gracilis

 

Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum angulare
Polystichum munitum

 

Tree-ferns for greenhouses

 

Large-growing species:

 

Alsophila australis
Alsophila excelsa
Alsophila rebeccae
 

 

Cibotium regale
Cibotium schiedii
Cibotium spectabile
 

 

Cyathea dealbata (the New Zealand Silver Tree-Fern)
Cyathea medularis
Cyathea princeps

 

Dicksonia antarctica
Dicksonia fibrosa
Dicksonia squarrosa

 

 

Smaller-growing species:

 

Blechnum braziliense
Blechnum corcovadense
Blechnum platyptera

 

Lomaria attenuata
Lomaria ciliata
Lomaria discolor

 

Lomaria falcata
Lomaria falcata bipinnatifida
Lomaria gibba

 

Lomaria gibba tincta
Lomaria l'herminierii (very dwarf)
Sadleria cyatheoides

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Dwarf species and varieties growing from 4 inches to 12 inches (10-30 cms) in height

 

North American:

 

Allosorus acrostichoides
Aspidium nevadense

 

Asplenium ebeneum
Cystopteri bulbifera

 

Lomaria alpina
Phegopteris hexagonoptera

 

Woodsia ilvensis
Woodsia obtusa
Woodwardia angustifolia

 

 

British:

 

Allosorus crispus (Parsley Fern)
Asplenium adiantum nigrum (the Black Maidenhair Spleenwort)
Asplenium ruta-muria (the Rue-leafed Spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (the Green-stemmed Spleenwort)
Athyrium filix femina crispum
Athyrium filix femina edwardsii

 

Athyrium filix femina findlayanum
Athyrium filix femina frizellae
Athyrium filix femina minimum
Athyrium filix femina vernoniae
Athyrium filix femina vernoniae cristatum
Blechnum spicant (the Hard Fern)
Blechnum spicant imbricatum
Ceterach offinarum (the Scaly Spleenwort)
Ceterach officinarum crenatum
Cystopteris fragilis (the Brittle Bladder Fern)

 

Cystopteris fragilis dickiena
Cystopteris montana (the Mountain Bladder Fern)
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa cristata
Lastrea rigida (the Rigid Buckler Fern)
Polypodium dryopteris (the Oak Fern)
Polypodium phegopteris (the Beech Fern)
Polypodium robertianum (syn. calcareum, the Limestone Polypody)

 

Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare parvissimum
Polystichum angulare proliferum densum
Polystichum lonchitis (the Holly Fern)
Scolopendrium vulgare (the Hartstongue Fern)
Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare densum
Scolopendrium vulgare digitatum
Scolopendrium vulgare endivaefolium
Scolopendrium vulgare fissum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare marginatum tenuae
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Medium-sized species and varieties which grow from 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cms) in height

 

North American:

 

Aspidium cristatum
Aspidium noveboracense
Aspidium argutum
 

 

Asplenium thelypterioides
Dennstaedtia punctilobula
Lastrea intermedia

 

Lastrea marginale
Onoclea sensibilis
Polystichum acrostichoides

 

Polystichum braunii
Woodwardia virginica
Struthiopteris germanica (European)

 

 

British:

 

Athyrium filix femina capitatum
Athyrium filix femina cristatum
Athyrium filix femina fieldae
Athyrium filix femina frizellae cristatum
Athyrium filix femina irdlestoneii
Athyrium filix femina kilmoryensis
Athyrium filix femina mooreii
Athyrium filix femina polydactylum
Athyrium filix femina princeps
Athyrium filix femina pulcherrimum

 

Athyrium filix femina smithii
Athyrium filix femina stipatum
Lastrea aemula (the Hay-scented Fern)
Lastrea dilatata cristato-gracile
Lastrea dilatata lepidota
Lastrea filix-mas fluctuosa
Lastrea pseudo-mas crouchii
Lastrea montana (the Mountain Buckler Fern, syn Lastrea oreopteris)

 

Lastrea thelypteris (the Marsh Fern)
Polypodium alpestre
Polypodium alpestre flexile
Polypodium vulgare auritum
Polypodium vulgare cambricum (the Welsh Polypody)
Polypodium vulgare crenatum
Polypodium vulgare semilacerum (the Irish Polypody)
Polystichum aculeatum (the hard Prickly Shield Fern)
Polystichum angulare acutilobum
 

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare divisilobum acutum
Polystichum angulare grandidens
Polystichum angulare imbricatum
Polystichum angulare lineare
Polystichum angulare perserratum
Polystichum angulare polydactylum
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum angulare proliferum wollastonii
Polystichum angulare rotundatum
Polystichum angulare wakeleyanum
Scolopendrium vulgare captatum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare multifidum

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Large species and varieties growing 24 inches (60 cms) high and upwards

 

North American:

 

Aspidium cristatum clintonianum
Aspidium spinulosum bootii
Athyrium michauxii
Lastrea goldiana

 

Osmunda cinnamomea, produces its fertile fronds in the centre of the plant, entirely distinct from the barren; the spore cases, when matured are cinnamon-coloured and very attractive

 

Osmunda claytonia (syn Osmunda interrupta), a very beautiful species

 

Osmunda gracilis
Polystichum munitum
Struthiopteris pennsylvanica
Lomaria chilensis (Chilean species)

 

 

British:

 

Athyrium filix femina corymbiferum, a handsome crested variety
Athyrium filix femina craigii
Athyrium filix femina elworthii
Athyrium felix femina glomeratum
Athyrium filix femina grantae
Athyrium filix femina howardae
Athyrium filix femina multifidum
Athyrium fiix femina plumosum, a beautiful variety, with large graceful fronds
Athyrium filix femina pritchardii, a curious variety, with long narrow cruciate fronds
Athyrium filix femina ramo cristatum
Athyrium filix femina rheticum deflexum, pinnules curiously reflexed

 

Athrium filix femina setigerum, a very beautiful variety, the fronds having a bristly appearance
Athyrium filix femina thyssanotum
Athyrium filix femina todeoides
Lastrea dilatata (the Broad Buckler Fern)
Lastrea dilatata crispato cristata, a pretty variety, with crisp-looking and crested fronds
Lastrea filixmas barnesii
Lastrea filixmas bollandiae
Lastrea filixmas cronkleyense
Lastrea filixmas digitato jonesii
Lastrea filixmas grandiceps, very heavily crested
Lastrea filixmas ingramii
Lastrea filixmas iveryana
Lastrea filixmas lineare
Lastrea filixmas abbreviata cristata barnesii, a very distinct and pretty variety

 

Lastrea pseudomas cristata, a handsome variety, finely crested
Lastrea pseudomas cristata angustata, fronds narrow, crimpy, and crested, a distinct variety
Lastrea pseudomas pinderii
Lastrea pseudomas polydactyla, an ornamental crested variety
Lastrea spinulosa (the Spiny Buckler Fern),
Osmunda regalis (the Royal Fern), one of the largest British Ferns - in a congenial position the fronds often attain a height of 6 feet = 72 inches = 180 cms
Osmunda regalis cristata, a very handsome crested variety, of large growth and pleasing appearance

 

Polystichum angulare (the soft Prickly Shield Fern)
Polystichum angulare cristato gracile
Polystichum angulare divisilobum
Polystichum angulare multilobum (syn. Polystichum angulare venustum), a beautiful variety
Polystichum angulare proliferum crawfordianum
Pteris aquilina (the Brake Fern, or Bracken), grows to a large size when planted in a damp, shaded, and sheltered position
Pteris aquilina congesta, a peculiarly congested form
Pteris aquilina cristata, a crested variety of distinct appearance

 

Specially choice species and varieties

 

North American:

 

Lastrea fragrans, a dwarf, compact, pretty species, well named "The Violet-scented Fern"

 

Polystichum acrostichoides grandiceps, a heavily-crested variety, sturdy and compact in habit

 

Woodsia glabella

 

 

 

British:

Asplenium

 

adiantum nigrum acutumm, fronds lighter in texture, larger, and more pointed than the species

 

nigrum grandiceps, bears a comparitively large crest at the apex of each frond

 

Germanicum (syn. alternifolium, the Alternate-leaved Spleenwort)

 

septentrionale (the Forked Spleenwort)

 

 

Among these Lady Ferns there are some of the most beautiful Ferns in cultivation, and they will bear comparison with any of the Exotics. Their beauty is most ighly developed when cultivated in a cold greenhouse.

Athyrium filix femina

 

acrocladon, fronds much branched, and densely crested, is of compact habit, and very distinct...
caudigerum, fronds long, narrow, and peculiarly congested...
conglomeratum, a nice compact variety, heavily crested...
cristulatum, a pretty, dwarf, crested variety...

 

curtum multifidum, a dwarf variety, narrow fronds, crested, specially neat in appearance...
frizellae coronare, a most beautiful variety of the frizellaea section, fronds very narrow, and surmounted by a large round yet light-looking crest...
frizellae gracile, fronds narrow, slender, graceful, divided into two near the bottom...
ramo-cristatum, a very pretty variety, fronds branched and crested...

 

gemmatum, very beautiful, fronds 24 inches (60 cms) long, rather narrow, each pinna and the frond at the tip bearing crisp crests... girdlestoneii cristatum, a handsome depauperated crested form, light and graceful...
Kalothrix, a lovely variety, the foliage very thin in texture, delicate green in colour, finely cut and possessing quite a Filmy-Fern appearance...
plumosum elegans, a most beautiful variety, the fronds, 18-24 inches (45-60 cms) in length, very pale green, cut into exceedingly fine segments...

 

plumosum multifidum, exceedingly pretty, the fronds light green, finely divided, plumose, and heavily crested...
regale, a variety of very handsome appearance, the fronds erect in habit, feathery, and crested...
regale, a variety of very handsome appearance, the fronds erect in habit, feathery, and crested...
setigerum capitatum, a dwarf variety, possessing the bristly character of setigerum, and bearing a small dense crest at the apex of each frond...
setigerum percistatum, a strikingly beautiful variety, cristate throughout the whole frond, the crests at the tips of the pinnae and the end of the frond all arranged in regular order...
victoriae, often styled "The Queen of the Lady Ferns, is certainly unique. Its fronds attain a length of 3 feet = 36 inches = 90 cms; the pinnae arranged along the midrib are very narrow, crested, and in pairs on each side of the stem.They branch at an angle of 45 degrees, one upwards, the other downwards, so that there is a continual series of crossing pinnae from bottom to top, forming a delicate lattice-work of green frondage. The apex of each frond is crested, the plant has a symetrical graceful habit, ad is very beautiful...

 

 

Blechnum spicant

 

concinnum, very narrow crimpy fronds...
cristatum, a pretty crested variety...

 

lineare, fronds long and very narrow, being regularly contracted and neat in appearance...maunderii, a densely ramose, crested variety, grows like a green ball...

 

plumosum (syn. Blechnum spicant serratum, Airey's No. 1), a beautiful variety, with deeply-serrated and sometimes tripinnate fronds, which aatain a length of 18 inches (45 cms)...

 

trinervo-coronans, a very pretty crested variety, one of the nicest of the genus...

 

 

Cystopteris

 

alpina (the Alpine Bladder Fern, syn. Cystopteris regia), a handsome species, fronds finely cut...

 

 

 

 

 

Lastrea

 

dilatata spectabile, a dwarf and very pretty variety, the fronds finely and distinctly cut...

 

pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata (syn. Lastrea pseudo-mas plumosissima), a very handsome variety, fimbriated, crested, much lighter in appearance than the old cristata, compact in habit, graceful, and makes a very pretty specimen...

 

pseudo-mas ramosissima, a distinct variety, much branched and crested...

 

montana coronans, a beautiful variety, fronds narrow, crested, and compact in habit...
montana ramo-coronans, similar to the preceeding, but the fronds branched and the whole appearance of the plant more pleasing...

 

 

Polypodium vulgare

 

cambricum prestonii, a beautiful plumose form of the Welsh Polypody...

 

grandiceps, a heavily crested and a very handsome variety...

 

multifido-cristatum, fronds much branched and crested...

 

trichomanoides, fronds dense, cut into numberless fine segments, light green, and very pretty...

 

 

Polystichum angulare

 

congestum, dense, overlapping foliage...
divisilobum decorum, produces large, broad, drooping fronds, divided into small pinnules...
divisilobum laxum, a very handsome variety, finely divided and graceful...

 

divisilobum plumosum, one of the most beautiful Ferns in cultivation, the fronds long, very broad at the base, pinnules densely overlapping, producing a moss-like appearance, finely cut, and elegant in the extreme...

 

foliosa crispum, fronds dense, foliose, and crisp in appearance...
foliosa multifidum, a pretty variety, fronds very leafy, crested...
gracile, a very pretty graceful variety...

 

grandiceps, erect in habit, narrow fronds, bearing a dense crest, very handsome...
pateyii, a plumose form of considerable beauty...
plumosum, a large and exceedingly handsome plumose variety, makes a grand specimen...
plumosa divisilobum gracile, very beautiful, finely cut, and graceful...

 

Scolopendrium vulgare

 

crispum fimbriatum, a very beautiful variety, with large, deeply-frilled fronds, fimbriated and dense - one of the most lovely of this family...

 

crispum robustum, a large and exceedingly handsome form of this pretty variety...

 

crispum willsii, a specially pretty broad-fronted variety...

 

ramo-cristatum majus (Jones), a densely-branched and crested variety, of fine appearance....
ramo-marginatum, a very pretty crested variety, distinct and attractive...

 

Of Hardy Ferns, the following are
Evergreen
when protected from the frost

 

Adiantum capillus veneris and its varieties
Aspidium (in part)

 

Asplenium (in part)
Blechnum

 

Ceterach
hymenophyllum
Lastrea (in part)

 

Polypodium (nearly all)
Polystichum
Scolopendrium

 

Deciduous

 

Adiantum pedatum
Allosorus
Aspidium (in part)
Asplenium (in part)

 

Athyrium
Botrychium
Cystopteris
Dennstaedtia

 

Onoclea
Ophioglossum
Osmunda
Phegopteris

 

Polypodium (in part)
Pteris
Struthiopteris
Woodsia
Woodwardia

 

The species and varieties enumerated in the preceeding sections are suitable for borders, beds, or rock ferneries, but the varieties should be selected according to the space at disposal for their development.