Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


TYPE OF FERN - Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria) Page 1 of 4
Fern Names from
Chapter 42 - Miscellaneous Ferns of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1.

The following ferns come from that chapter:-

 

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden, Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Acrostichum aureum (Acrostichum inaequale ; Chrysodium aureum ;
C. inaequale ;
C. vulgare)
Leather fern, coastal leather fern, Golden Leather Fern, Swamp fern, Mangrove Fern

Tender,
thrives in Zone (9)10

Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan (Hualian, Pingdong), Yunnan [pantropical].

卤蕨

The leaves are glossy, broad and pinnate, the pinnae being dark green, leathery, alternate and widely spaced.

Plants 1-2 m tall. Rhizome erect; scales dark brown to black, broadly lanceolate.

Coastal areas, often in mangrove swamps; near sea level to 100 m.

40-160 x (100-400 x )

Miscellaneous Ferns

Propagation: By division of roots at potting time or by spores in spring.

 

The genus Acrostichum includes bold-looking ferns with large ercet fronds up to 400cm (160 inches) tall. Although the plants grow tall in the wild, they tend to be shorter in cultivation. In tropical climares or large indoor spaces with adequate light, they can be grown in ponds or in pots kept wet or set in water. Acrostichum is subject to damage by scale insects and slugs. The genus occurs throughout the tropics, thriving primarily in mangroves and brackish marshes.

Suitable for

Aquatic

Bog or Wet-Soil Fern

Brackish Water in Coastal District

Stove evergreen ferns found in tropical swamps. Use within pot in Heated Conservatory
or outside in Tropical Areas i.e. Zones 10, 11 like Southern Florida, Hawaii.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam and leafmould, sand and charcoal. Pot in February or March. Water freely, spring and summer, moderately other times. Temperature March-September 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit (21-30 degrees Centigrade), September to March 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit (15-18 degrees Centigrade).

A very large fern with erect rhizomes and fronds in clusters. Best grown under high light in garden soil or potting mix kept constantly wet. It can grow with its stems submerged but is typically found rooting in mud with the foliage held above water. It grows natively in brackish water but can be cultivated in fresh water.

It occurs throughout the tropical regions of the world.
A coarse fern which forms large clumps in wet soils. It is usually familiar in coastal districts and often grows in brackish water behind the mangroves. Large plants generally resent disturbance; small specimens adapt to cultivation easily. They all require bright light and plenty of moisture.

Increasing greatly with age.

Acrostichumaureumpfrondwikimediacommons

Frond of Acrostichum aureum; (hakato) near a Tongan creek.
By Tau'olunga via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Form of Acrostichum aureum L.
English: Golden Leather Fern at Rio Suarez in Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica. By Hans Hillewaert via Wikimedia Commons.

Acrostichumaureumpforwikimediacommons

Acrostichum danaeifolium (Acrostichum excelsum, Acrostichum lomarioides)
Giant Leather Fern

Tropics

Stems usually erect, infrequently branched. Leaves ascending or erect, 1.5--5 m × 15--60 cm.
Sporangia spread over abaxial surface of fertile pinnae; paraphyses stalked, ending with horizontally extended, smooth or little-lobed cell. Spores (44--)54(--72) µm diam., surface minutely roughened with small projecting papillae.

Fronds erect to 60 inches (150 cms) and over

Miscellaneous Ferns

 

Propagation: By division of roots at potting time or by spores in spring.

The genus Acrostichum includes bold-looking ferns with large ercet fronds up to 400cm (160 inches) tall. Although the plants grow tall in the wild, they tend to be shorter in cultivation. In tropical climares or large indoor spaces with adequate light, they can be grown in ponds or in pots kept wet or set in water. Acrostichum is subject to damage by scale insects and slugs. The genus occurs throughout the tropics, thriving primarily in mangroves and brackish marshes.

Suitable for

 

Stove evergreen ferns found in tropical swamps. Use within pot in Heated Conservatory
or outside in Tropical Areas i.e. Zones 10,11 like Southern Florida, Hawaii.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam and leafmould, sand and charcoal. Pot in February or March. Water freely, spring and summer, moderately other times. Temperature March-September 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit (21-30 degrees Centigrade), September to March 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit (15-18 degrees Centigrade).

Somewhat saline to freshwater swamps, canal and pond margins, commonly in sinkholes in hammocks, disturbed marl sites, inland to coastal regions.

These species frequently can be distinguished by the distribution of pinnae, the distribution of fertile pinnae, the shape of the costal areoles, and the structure of the paraphyses. In parts of Florida, their distributions are contiguous and abruptly separated by habitat. Acrosticum aureum is more frequently found in coastal shaded areas, in saline black-mangrove communities, and in the southern and southwestern parts of the state. Acrostichum danaeifolium grows vigorously in full sun and is common and widely distributed in Florida, where it has been collected in virtually every county throughout the southern two-thirds of the state.

acrostichumdanaefoliumpfruwikimediacommons

Giant-Leather-Fern-sori - Found in Everglades National Park on 10 April 2011. By Homer Edward Price, via Wikimedia Commons.

Location taken: the New York Botanical Garden. Names: Acrostichum danaefolium Langsd. & Fischer, Giant Leather Fer Classification: Plantae > Pteridophyta > Polypodiopsida > Polypodiales > Pteridaceae > Acrostichum > Acrostichum danaefolium. Date 30 March 2006. Photo by David J. Stang, via Wikimedia Commons.

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Acrostichum speciosum
Mangrove Fern

Hainan (Wenchang) [Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam; tropical Asia, Australia].

尖叶卤蕨

Plants 1-1.5 m tall. Rhizome scales dark brown to black, broadly lanceolate, ca. 1 × 0.2-0.3 cm.

 

Miscellaneous Ferns

Propagation: By division of roots at potting time or by spores in spring.

 

The genus Acrostichum includes bold-looking ferns with large ercet fronds up to 400cm (160 inches) tall. Although the plants grow tall in the wild, they tend to be shorter in cultivation. In tropical climares or large indoor spaces with adequate light, they can be grown in ponds or in pots kept wet or set in water. Acrostichum is subject to damage by scale insects and slugs. The genus occurs throughout the tropics, thriving primarily in mangroves and brackish marshes.

Suitable for

 

Stove evergreen ferns found in tropical swamps. Use within pot in Heated Conservatory
or outside in Tropical Areas i.e. Zones 10,11 like Southern Florida, Hawaii.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam and leafmould, sand and charcoal. Pot in February or March. Water freely, spring and summer, moderately other times. Temperature March-September 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit (21-30 degrees Centigrade), September to March 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit (15-18 degrees Centigrade).

Mangrove swamps; near sea level.

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Acrostichum speciosum Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Date: 19 October 2011. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard, via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Actiniopteris semiflabellata (Actiniopteris semiflabella)
Eyelash Fern

From Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, North India

Tropical - Semitropical

Excellent

Tender to semi-tender.

Its name comes from the Greek aktis, ray, and pteris, fern, alluding to the radiating segments of the blade.

An unusual fern with spreading, segmented fronds which resemble the sterile leaves of Schizaea dichotoma (Fan Fern).

2-8 x 6-8
(5-20 x 15-20)

Actiniopteris is a small genus of stove ferns that thrive in a compost of sandy loam and peat with charcoal, and plentiful crocks to ensure good drainage. They require a winter temperature of 60F (15C). Repot in February or March.

Xerophytic Ferns and Miscellaneous Ferns

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Terrarium.
Trough in Outdoor Containers in desert area.
Trough in Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, charcoal, potsherds, and silver sand. Pot in February or March . Good drainage and clean pots essential. Water moderately all seasons and keep atmosphere moist.
Temperature, March to September 70-80F (21-27C); September to March 60-70F (15-21C) for Actiniopteris australis (Actiniopteris radiata), 3 inches (7.5 cm) high from India, requires stove treatment.

It is a clumping species which grows in rock crevices in dry to arid climates. It is somewhat tricky to grow requiring a coarse open mixture and a fairly small pot. Plants should be watered profusely while they are in growth and sparingly when they are dormant. It is reported to succeed well in conditions similar to those in a terrarium.

It seems to prefer moderately humid conditions, but excessive moisture around their roots should be avoided.

Crevices in limestone, granite and lava rocks in open bushland and woodland, also dry evergreen forest and derived scrub.

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See photos.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Anemia adiantifolia (Osmunda adiantifolia)
Pine Fern

Tropical America

Fla.; Mexico; West Indies in the Antilles, Trinidad; Central America; South America to Ecuador and Brazil.

Stems ca. 2 mm diam. Leaves partially dimorphic (sporangia limited to proximal pair of pinnae).
Spores with ridges ± parallel, distant.

12-18 x
(30-45 x )

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

 

Stove Fern. First introduced late eighteenth century. Some authorities use the name Anemidictyon in place of Anemia.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould, sand and charcoal. Position, shady, moist; useful for wardian cases. Pot, February, March. Water freely spring and summer, moderately other times.
Temperature, Stove species, March to September 70-85F (21-30C), September to March 60-65F (15-18C).

Stove Species.

Terrestrial on open to lightly shaded, rocky slopes and in hammocks and pine woods, often on limestone; 0--30 m

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Pine Fern found in Everglades National Park. Date: 13 January 2011. By Homer Edward Price, via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Anemia mexicana
Flowering Fern

Tex.; n Mexico.

Stems ca. 2 mm diam. Leaves partially dimorphic (sporangia limited to proximal pair of pinnae),
Spores with ridges parallel and closely placed.

 

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

 

Stove and Greenhouse Fern. First introduced late eighteenth century. Some authorities use the name Anemidictyon in place of Anemia.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould, sand and charcoal. Position, shady, moist; useful for wardian cases. Pot, February, March. Water freely spring and summer, moderately other times.
Temperature, Stove species, March to September 70-85F (21-30C), September to March 60-65F (15-18C); Greenhouse species, March to September 55-60F (13-15C), September to March 45-50F (7-10C).

Lightly shaded limestone outcrops of the Edwards Plateau; 400--500 m

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Anemia mexicana specimen in the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg, Munich, Germany. Date: 2 May 2011. By Daderot, via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Anemia phyllitidis

Cuba, Peru

 

12 x
(30 x )

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse Fern. First introduced late eighteenth century. Some authorities use the name Anemidictyon in place of Anemia.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould, sand and charcoal. Position, shady, moist; useful for wardian cases. Pot, February, March. Water freely spring and summer, moderately other times.
Temperature, Greenhouse species, March to September 55-60F (13-15C), September to March 45-50F (7-10C).

Greenhouse Species.

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Anemia phyllitidis specimen in the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg, Munich, Germany. Date: 2 May 2011. By Daderot, via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Blotiella natalensis

 

 

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: See instructions on right

Suitable for

 

Stove, Greenhouse, Hardy Fern.

 

blotiellanatalensispfruwikimediacommons

Sori of Blotiella natalensis, marginal in sinuses between lobes, in Iphithi Nature Reserve, Gillitts. Date: 4 June 2014. By JMK, via Wikimedia Commons.

Habit of Blotiella natalensis in Iphithi Nature Reserve, Gillitts. Date: 4 June 2014. By JMK, via Wikimedia Commons.

blotiellanatalensispforwikimediacommons

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Christella dentata (Cyclosorus dentatus Dryopteris dentata Nephrodium dentatum Thelypteris dentata
Polypodium dentatum)

野小毛蕨

 

 

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: See instructions on right

Suitable for

 

Stove, Greenhouse, Hardy Fern.

 

christelladentatapforwikimediacommons

Christella dentata, at Chatswood West. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard, via Wikimedia Commons.
Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Christella parasitica (Polypodium parasiticum Aspidium parasiticum Aspidium parasiticum Christella parasitica Cyclosorus parasitica Cyclosorus parasiticus Dryopteris parasitica Nephrodium parasiticum Nephrodium parasiticum Thelypteris parasitica Thelypteris parasitica Thelypteris parasitica )

 

 

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: See instructions on right

Suitable for

 

Stove, Greenhouse, Hardy Fern.

 

christellaparasiticapfolwikimediacommons

Christella parasitica (frond). Location: Maui, Makawao Forest Reserve. Date: 20 June 2004. By Forest & Kim Starr with permission - http://www.starrenvironmental.com/imageusepolicy/ , via Wikimedia Commons.
Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Coniogramme intermedia

Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Vietnam].

普通凤了蕨
pu tong feng liao jue

Plants 60-120 cm tall.
Sori extending close to lamina margin.

 

Miscellaneous Ferns

Propagation: By spores; division.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse evergreen fern.
Culture: Compost, 1 part fibrous peat, 1 part leaf-mould and loam, 1 part silver sand, charcoal and coarsely ground bones. Position, well-drained pots. Pot, February or March.
Temperature, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).

Forests, grasslands, streamsides; 300-2800 m.

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Plant Delights Nursery sells Coniogramme intermedia 'Shishi' and
Coniogramme intermedia 'Yoroi Musha'.

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Coniogramme japonica (Gymnogramma japonica, Hemionitis japonica ; Coniogramme ankangensis ;
C. centrochinensis ; C. gracilis ;
C. japonica subsp. gracilis ; C. japonica var. gracilis ; Dictyogramme japonica)

Bamboo Fern, Japanese Bamboo Fern

Japan, Formosa.
Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan (including Ryukyu Islands), Korea].

凤了蕨
feng liao jue

Lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 8-15 × 1.5-3.5 cm, stalked or distal pinnules sessile, base cuneate, rounded, or rarely cordate.
Sori extending nearly to lamina margin.

Fronds to
24 inches (60 cms) long and
12 inches (30 cms) wide, finely toothed

Miscellaneous Ferns

Propagation: By spores; division.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse evergreen fern.
Culture: Compost, 1 part fibrous peat, 1 part leaf-mould and loam, 1 part silver sand, charcoal and coarsely ground bones. Position, well-drained pots. Pot, February or March.
Temperature, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).

Forests, shaded wet soil in ravines; 100-2000 m.

Coniogramme japonica has long been one of the most admired and requested ferns from our garden (Juniper Level Botanic Garden, NC, USA). Japanese bamboo fern is a unique bold-textured fern with upright, 2' - 24 inches = 60 cms - tall, dark green, plastic-feeling fronds, emerging from a slowly spreading rhizome. For us, our 10-year-old clump of Coniogramme japonica is 3' wide. Where we have seen this growing in the wild, bamboo fern seems to prefer a moist to slightly moist woodland soil...very easy to grow in USDA Zones 7b to 9b, at least; in Light Shade to Shade.

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Coniogramme japonica in the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. Date: 4 September 2016> By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz, via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Coniogramme crispa
Parsley Fern

 

 

Miscellaneous Ferns

Propagation: By spores; division.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse evergreen fern.
Culture: Compost, 1 part fibrous peat, 1 part leaf-mould and loam, 1 part silver sand, charcoal and coarsely ground bones. Position, well-drained pots. Pot, February or March.
Temperature, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).

 

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Ctenitis sloanei (Polypodium sloanei )
Florida Tree Fern, Red-hair Comb Fern

Fla.; s Mexico; West Indies in Antilles, Trinidad; Central America; South America in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

The names Ctenitis ampla (Humboldt & Bonpland ex Willdenow) Ching and Dryopteris ampla (Humboldt & Bonpland ex Willdenow) Kuntze have been misapplied to this taxon. Ctenitis sloanei and C . submarginalis both have numerous scales at the base of the petiole; in C . sloanei , however, the scales form a large, conspicuous, tangled tuft.

Sori medial to inframedial; indusia present but soon deciduous and therefore appearing absent.

 

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: See instructions on right

Suitable for

 

Stove, Greenhouse, Hardy Fern.

Wooded limestone ledges, hammocks, cypress swamps; 0 m

ctenitissloaneipforwikimediacommons

Location taken: Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, FL USA. Names: Ctenitis sloanei (Poepp. ex Spreng.) C. V. Morton, Florida Lacefern, Florida Tree Fern, Red-Hair Comb Fer Classification: Plantae > Pteridophyta > Polypodiopsida > Polypodiales > Dryopteridaceae > Ctenitis > Ctenitis sloanei. Date: 16 February 2007. Photo by David J. Stang, via Wikimedia Commons.
Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Cyclosorus interruptus (Pteris interrupta ; Aspidium gongylodes ;
A. unitum (Linnaeus) Swartz var. glabrum ;
A. unitum var. hirsutum ; Cyclosorus gongylodes ;
C. gongylodes var. glaber ;
C. gongylodes var. hirsutus ; Dryopteris gongylodes ;
D. gongylodes var. hirsuta ;
D. interrupta ; Nephrodium gongylodes ; Thelypteris gongylodes ;
T. interrupta)

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Jiangxi, Taiwan, S Yunnan [throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world].

毛蕨
mao jue

 

According to recent molecular study by Smith and Cranfill (Amer. Fern J. 92(2): 131-149. 2002), Cyclosorus interruptus is distantly related to other species in this genus but is quite close to Ampelopteris prolifera. This relationship requires further study.

Plants 40-100 cm tall. Rhizomes long creeping, black, including bases of stipes with sparse ovate-lanceolate scales. Fronds distant.
Sori orbicular, medial to submarginal, proximal 1 or 2 pairs of veins sterile; indusia sparsely hairy. Sporangia bearing spherical reddish orange glands on stalks. Spores sparsely minutely echinulate.

 

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: See instructions on right

Suitable for

 

Stove, Greenhouse, Hardy Fern.

Swamps, wetlands; near sea level to 500 m.

cyclosorusinterruptuspfoljuvenilewikimediacommons

 

cyclosorusinterruptuspfruwikimediacommons

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Neke or Willdenow's maiden fern Thely pteridaceae Indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands Oʻahu (Cultivated)
NPH00006 nativeplants. hawaii.edu/ plant/view/Cyclosorus_ interruptus. Date 7 November 2008. By David Eickhoff from Pearl City, Hawaii, USA, via Wikimedia Commons.

日本語: Cyclosorus interruptus:テツホシダ
2015/08/25
沖縄本島:Okinawa Island, Japan. Date: 28 August 2015. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.

Cyclosorus interruptus, frond-detail - Afrikaans: Hottentotvaring, detail van die pinna se ondersy, in Iphithi Natuurreservaat, KwaZoeloe-Natal
English: Swamp shield-fern, detail of the underside of a pinna, at Iphithi Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal. Date 4 June 2014. By JMK, via Wikimedia Commons.

Cyclosorus interruptus (Neke). Habit at Makamakaole, Maui, Hawaii. September 24, 2011. By Forest and Kim Starr, via Wikimedia Commons.

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Didymochlaena truncatula (Didymochlaena lunulata)
Tree Maidenhair Fern

Tropics

Native of Bolivia - Region: andes, lowlands.
Elevation: 0-500, 500-1000, 1000-1500

 

 

Miscellaneous Ferns

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat under bell-glass in
temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse Fern. First introduced mid-nineteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February or March. Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greehouse. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September higher with heat, shade and ventilation.

Tree-like habit.

Vegetation: yungas, rain.

didymochlaenatruncatulapforwikimediacommons

Didymochlaena truncatula. Plant specimen in the Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Hong Kong. Date: 20 February 2011. By Daderot, via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Dipteris conjugata (Phymatodes conjugata)

Hainan, Taiwan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan (S Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Pacific islands].

双扇蕨

Rhizome to ca. 1 cm in diam., covered with hairlike scales; scales reddish brown, narrow, to 1.2 cm, stiff.
 

 

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: See instructions on right

Suitable for

 

Stove, Greenhouse, Hardy Fern.

Terrestrial in clearings, ridges, forest margins; 500-1200 m.

dipterisconjugatapfoljuvwikimediacommons

 

dipterisconjugatapfruwikimediacommons

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Fern (Dipteris conjugata) - I found the flora as we climbed Mount Kinabalu fascinating, observing the change in biota as we rose in elevation into the cloud forest and above was so interesting.. Date: 9 January 2012. By Thomas Brown, via Wikimedia Commons.
Juvenile foliage.

Dipteris conjugata (Dipteridaceae) Japanese name: Yaburega saurabosi:ヤブレガサウラボシ
Date;2009,08.10; Iriomote Island, Okinawa prefecture, Japan. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.
Sori.

Dipteris conjugata (Dipteridaceae) Japanese name: Yaburega saurabosi:ヤブレガサウラボシ
Date;2009,08.10; Iriomote Island, Okinawa prefecture, Japan. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.
Mature foliage.

dipterisconjugatapfor1wikimediacommons

 

dipterisconjugatapfor2wikimediacommons

Dipteris conjugata (Dipteridaceae) Japanese name: Yaburega saurabosi:ヤブレガサウラボシ
Date;2009,08.10; Iriomote Island, Okinawa prefecture, Japan. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.
Young foliage.

Elaphoglossum callifolium

 

锐头舌蕨

 

 

Miscellaneous Ferns
(Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: By division of roots at potting time or by spores in spring.

Suitable for

House Fern.

 

Stove or Greenhouse evergreen fern found in tropical swamps. It was formerly included in the genus Acrostichum. Use within pot in Heated Conservatory
or outside in Tropical Areas i.e. Zones 10,11 like Southern Florida, Hawaii.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam and leafmould, sand and charcoal. Pot in February or March. Water freely, spring and summer, moderately other times. Temperature March-September 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit (21-30 degrees Centigrade), September to March 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit (15-18 degrees Centigrade).

 

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Elaphoglossum crinitum
Elephant Ear Fern

West Indies

 

4-18 x
(10-45 x )

Miscellaneous Ferns
(Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: By division of roots at potting time or by spores in spring.

Suitable for

House Fern.

 

Stove evergreen fern found in tropical swamps. It was formerly included in the genus Acrostichum. Use within pot in Heated Conservatory
or outside in Tropical Areas i.e. Zones 10,11 like Southern Florida, Hawaii.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam and leafmould, sand and charcoal. Pot in February or March. Water freely, spring and summer, moderately other times. Temperature March-September 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit (21-30 degrees Centigrade), September to March 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit (15-18 degrees Centigrade).

 

elaphoglossumcrinitumpfor1wikimediacommons

Elaphoglossum crinitum - from Jardin des serres d'Auteuil. Date: 14 May 2016. By Jungle Rebel from Brussels, Belgium, via Wikimedia Commons.

Elaphoglossum crinitum - Botanical specimen in Wilhelma Zoo - Stuttgart, Germany. Date: 5 December 2015. By Daderot, via Wikimedia Commons.

elaphoglossumcrinitumpfor2wikimediacommons

Equisetum scirpoides
Dwarf Scouring Rush

 

 

Miscellaneous Ferns
(Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: By division of rootstocks in March or April.

Suitable for

 

Horsetail, Fox-tailed Asparagus. Hardy deciduous herbaceous perennials. Leaves, green, narrow, rush-like.
Culture: Soil, ordinary. Position, bogs, margins of ponds, moist shady corners, or in pots in a cool shady greenhouse. Plant or pot, April. Water plants in pots freely while growing, moderately at other times.

 

equisetumscirpoidespfigurewikimediacommons

Fig. 99. Equisetum scirpoides from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown, via Wikimedia Commons.

Equisetum scirpoides. Date 21 July 2014. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz, via Wikimedia Commons.

equisetumscirpoidespforwikimediacommons

Gymnocarpium dryopteris (Polypodium dryopteris ; Aspidium dryopteris ; Carpogymnia dryopteris ; Dryopteris linnaeana ; Lastrea dryopteris)
Oak Fern

Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Japan, Korea; Europe, North America].

欧洲羽节蕨

Rhizomes slender, creeping, black, shiny, apex clothed with brown ovate-lanceolate scales. Fronds distant.
Sori small, exindusiate, orbicular, abaxial on veins. Spore wall surface rugate, foveolate.

 

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)

Propagation: See instructions on right

Suitable for

 

Stove, Greenhouse, Hardy Fern.

Damp areas in coniferous forests; 300-2900 m.

gymnocarpiumdryopterispfruwikimediacommons

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Gymnocarpium dryopteris - Common Oak Fern, Northern Oak Fern. Date: 17 August 2009. By Walter Siegmund, via Wikimedia Commons.
Sori.

Gymnocarpium dryopteris 2. Date 14 June 2004. By Superior National Forest, via Wikimedia Commons.

gymnocarpiumdryopterispforwikimediacommons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2