Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN - Grows on Rock (epilithic, epipetric) Page 1 of 2
epilithic - Fern growing on rocks.
epipetric - Fern growing on rocks.
Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks.

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Some details from The standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture in 3 Volumes by L.H Bailey. Published by The Macmillan Company in 1939

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden, Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com ,
Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Nephrolepis acutifolia (Isoloma lanuginosa, Lindsaea acutifolia, Lindsayoides acutifolia)
Creeping Sword Fern

Native of Tropical Africa and from southeastern Asia to Polynesia. Also occurs in Northern Australia.

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Leathery fronds, reddish scaly rachises and linear, marginal indusia. A large fern with short, stoloniferous rhizomes and fronds over 100cm long (36 inches).

40 x 5
(100 x 12.5)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Basket Fern.
Outdoor Containers in Tropics.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

Grows well under high light in moist, well-drained potting mix.

It may grow on rocks or as an epiphyte, favouring palms. Plants are rather cold sensitive but in the tropics can be grown in the garden or in containers.

Native Habitat : Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest; Secondary Rainforest; Coastal Forest; Freshwater Swamp Forest) in Singapore. In Singapore it may be grown in parks and gardens as well as in hanging baskets in Part Shade.

nephrolepisacutifoliapfrunatureloveyou

Nephrolepis acutifolia (Creeping Sword Fern) DSC09856 (12). Photo taken 24 September 2013. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

 

Nephrolepis acutifolia (Creeping Sword Fern) DSC09856 (12). Photo taken 24 September 2013. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

See other photos.

nephrolepisacutifoliapfornatureloveyou

Nephrolepis occidentalis (Nephrolepis undulata)
Annual Sword Fern

Central and South America, West Indies

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

 

8-24 x
(20-60 x )

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

 

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

A weak growing fern which apparently dies back annually to tubers. A plant consists of a few fronds which have a lax or weak habit and a slender, small rhizome. Appears to have been cultivated only on a limited scale.

Mostly terrestrial but also on rocks, on trees and sometimes in axils of palmleaves.

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Cheilanthes argentea
Silver Cloak Fern, Lip Fern

Eastern Asia, Northern India, Japan, China, Siberia

USDA Zone 5a

From the Greek cheilos (lip) and anthos (flower)

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

Loves a site where the roots can stay cool and moist down among rocks.

Fronds curl when stressed by drought, but unfurl when moisture returns.

4-8 x 4-6
(10-20 x 10-15)

Deer resistant.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.
The plants are easy to grow from spores.

It needs sharp drainage and lime to do well, winter wet would be the biggest danger for this fern.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soil.
Colour in Fern Fronds.

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

Herbaceous fern in Full Sun but prefers Part Shade.

A decorative dwarf fern with attractively-shaped fronds which are dark green on the surface and silvery on the underside from a covering of waxy powder. It is an easily grown species that requires plenty of light, looks attractive among rocks.

It is a cute little deer-resistant dryland fern that's a great choice for the rock garden, but good drainage is essential for success.

Excellent in walls and rockeries, the favoured locations for these ferns.

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Cheilanthes brownii (Cheilanthes vellea, Notholaena vellea)
Silver Cloak Fern, Woolly Cloak Fern

Native to Western Australia

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

The fronds are covered on both surfaces with a dense mat of woolly hairs.

4-10 x
(10-25 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil Fern.
Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

This is a fern of arid and semi-arid climates usually growing among rocks. Plants are attractive when planted among dark rocks in a sunny rock garden.

Rhizomatous, perennial, herb or (fern), 0.04-0.35 m high, blade 2(-3)-pinnate at the base, densely woolly-hairy; sori continuous along margin. Fl. Jan to Aug. Red sandy loam, yellow sand, brown clay. Rock crevices, amongst rocks, shallow soil near seepage areas.

From
The fern genus Cheilanthes in Australia
H Quirk, TC Chambers and M Regan
Australian Journal of Botany 31(5) 501 - 553
Published: 1983

"The fern genus Cheilanthes Sw. in Australia consists of 15 taxa. The range of variation of each species is discussed and the distribution presented in map form. Cheilanthes sieberi Kunze is recognized as having two subspecies, C. sieberi subsp. sieberi stat. nov, and C. sieberi subsp. pseudovellea Quirk & Chambers. Three long-overlooked species are now recognized and defined; they are C. nudiuscula (R.Br.) T. Moore, C. tenuissima Bailey and C. contigua Baker. Cheilanthes vellea (Aiton) F. Muell. is now recognized as C. brownii (R.Br.) Domin. The plant originally referred to as C. tenulfolia (Burm. f.) Sw. and previously regarded as extending from South-East Asia to the south coast of Australia is here recognized as two different species; the northern species extending from South-East Asia to northern Australia is regarded as C. tenuifolia (Burm. f.) Sw. s. str. and the isolated southern species as C. austrotenuifolia Quirk & Chambers."

See photos.

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Cheilanthes californica (Hypolepis californica, Adiantopsis californica)
California Lace Fern

California, Mexico

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

It has lacy fronds of an attractive fresh green.

Aspidotis californica has leaves that are thin and dissected into many triangular leaflets which are subdivided into small segments with curled teeth.
The leaf segments bear sori containing sporangia, with the edges of the leaves rolled under to create a false indusium over the sori.

2-6 x 2-4
(5-15 x 5-10)

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Acid Soil.
Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse.
Woodlands in California.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

Greenhouse Fern.

It occurs naturally on shaded, rock sites. In cultivation, it has proved tricky to maintain requiring a very porous, acid mixture, bright light but not sun, and ample air movement. Plants are susceptible to overwatering.

It grows in rock cracks and crevices in many types of habitat, including Chaparral, Yellow pine forest, Foothill oak woodland, and Valley grassland in California, USA.

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See Botanical Figure.

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Cheilanthes covillei
Bead Fern, Coville's lip fern

Southwestern United States - California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona. Mexico.

Semi-hardy,
Zones 7a-9b

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

Tends to be winter deciduous, but its stiff upright form and reflective undersides are smashing in the dryish shade garden. Grows slowly in part sun where soil is well drained. Drought tolerant but accepts some summer water. To 12 inches tall and wide. Frost hardy to 15 °F.

2-6 x 12
(5-15 x 30)

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Drier Soil Fern.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse.

 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A small evergreen fern with compact, short-creeping rhizomes and clustered fronds. Grows under high light in well-drained garden soil kept moist-dry to dry.
It grows on rocky cliffs and ledges, usually on igneous rocks.

A desert-inhabiting fern found naturally in mountainous areas. It forms small clumps of pleasantly divided fronds which are bright green on the surface and covered with white or brown scales on the underside. Plants need very good drainage, bright light and plenty of air movement. Watering must be done carefully so as to keep the fronds dry.

Deer Resistant. Dry soil when dormant.

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Cheilanthes covillei — Coville's lip fern. At the Regional Parks Botanic Garden, Berkeley, California. Taken April 2007 by User:Stan Shebs via Wikimedia Commons

Cheilanthes covillei—Coville's lip fern. Widespread throughout the deserts of Southwestern US and Baja California. Hides amongst the rocks. Photographed at Regional Parks Botanic Garden located in Tilden Regional Park near Berkeley, CA. By John Rusk from Berkeley, CA, United States of America via Wikimedia Commons

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Cheilanthes dalhousiae (Aleuritopteris leptolepis)
薄叶粉背蕨 bao ye fen bei jue

China, North India

Aleuritopteris leptolepis was long known to Asian botanists as A. dalhousiae, but the basionym Cheilanthes dalhousiae was typified by a mixed collection and was thus of ambiguous application; the name has been formally rejected preventing further use.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

8-12 x
(20-30 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Cold Hardy.
Terrarium.
Woodlands.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A delightful fern which forms clumps of erect, narrow-deltoid fronds, the segments coarsely toothed. It occurs at high altitudes and is apparently cold-hardy.

Rock crevices in forests; 1900-3500 m. SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines].

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Cheilanthes distans +
Bristly Cloak Fern, woolly cloak fern, woolly rock fern

Australia, New Zealand, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia

This small plant is native to various parts of Australia including Western Australia and New South Wales in the east. It is occasionally seen around Sydney in rocky exposed areas. The Bristly Cloak Fern grows in areas of high rainfall as well as the semi arid areas of inland Australia.

distans: distant (widely spaced female flowers).

Found in drier, exposed areas in the eastern parts of the North Island from the Bay of Islands the middle of the South Island of New Zealand.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

Fronds crowded, to 30 cm high, < 3 cm wide; stipe red-brown to dark brown, shiny, moderately to densely covered with lanceolate, entire brown scales; lamina narrow-lanceolate, 2-pinnate, upper surface sparsely hairy with simple whitish hairs, lower surface with scales only, golden-brown; ultimate segments sessile, 1–6 mm long and 1 mm wide.
Sori becoming confluent and continuous around the margins of the segments.

4-6 x
(10-15 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Minute spores are wind dispersed (Thorsen et al., 2009).

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Acid Soil.
Pot in Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Woodland.
Drier Soil Fern.
Ground Cover.
Cold Hardy.

 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A fairly easily grown species which forms clumps of slender fronds that are covered with bristly scales. Attractive in a pot or rock garden. Needs acid, humus-rich soil in a part shade situation.

It has a woolly appearance with small white hairs on the top side of the fronds, and a rusty brown underneath.

Grows on rocky hillsides in woodland or open forest in New South Wales, Australia.

Coastal to montane in dry, rocky habitats with only sparse or no vegetation cover. Often found growing with Asplenium flabellifolium, Cheilanthes sieberi subsp. sieberi and Pellaea calidirupium. More common in the drier eastern parts of the country of New Zealand.
Easily grown in a dry sunny site. An excellent pot plant. In ideal conditions it soon self establishes.

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Cheilanthes distans at UC Berkeley Botanical Garden, California, USA. Identified by sign. Date 31 March 2010. By Stickpen via Wikimedia Commons.

See other photos and Noosa's Publications.
 

Cheilanthes kuhnii (Hemionitis kuhnii, Aleuritopteris kuhnii)
Northern lipfern, Thin northern lipfern

China

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

New fronds are attractively scaly and mature fronds are covered with silvery powder on the underside.

8-12 x
(20-30 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Heated Greenhouse.
Terrarium.
Drier Soil Fern.
Woodland.

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A small fern forming erect clumps. Plants extend to high altitudes and are probably hardy in a temporate climate.

Rock crevices on dry slopes, forests; 1000-3500 m. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Japan, Korea, Russia].

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See Spore Photo.

Click on image files.

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Cheilanthes lasiophylla
Woolly Cloak Fern, Woolly Lip Fern
 

Australia - Endemic to Australia and more common in the drier western and central regions of the country. Restricted in Victoria to the north-west near the South Australian border and at two isolated localities in north-central Victoria.

USDA Zones 7a-10b

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

4-8 x
(10-20 x )

 

This Fern is growing in garden of Alison Evans ,who is a member of the British Pteridological Society.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil Fern.
Tolerates Full Sun.
Terrarium.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

This is a very hardy fern which adapts well to a dry climate, the fronds curling quickly in dry times and resurrecting within a few hours of rain. The narrow fronds are dark green above and have masses of brown hairs and scales on the underside. An attractive plant for a sunny rock garden.

On rocky outcrops and hills in inland arid regions in New South Wales in Australia.

Sandy loam, red clayey sand. On rocky slopes and in rock crevices in Western Australia.

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Cheilanthes lasiophylla frond lower. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons.

Cheilanthes lasiophylla frond. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons.

Cheilanthes lasiophylla habit. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons.

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Cheilanthes sieberi
Mulga Fern, Poison Rock Fern

Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

Makes a good groundcover or rockery plant in Australia - Paten Park Native Nursery is a not-for-profit, community organisation specialising in the indigenous plant species of south-east Queensland.
Our purpose is to protect and restore the ecological values of south-east Queensland habitats by returning locally indigenous plants to the landscape. 

4-20 x
(10-50 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Acid Soil.
Woodland in New South Wales.
Drier Soil Fern.
Shade-tolerant.
Sun-Tolerant.
Coastal Districts.
Ground Cover.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

It is a decorative species when planted among rocks in a sunny situation, in acid humus-rich loam.

This fern may grow up to 25 cm tall within Australia and New Zealand. It is a widespread plant, seen in a variety of different habitats: it occurs in arid areas as well as sites with over 1500 mm of annual average rainfall. In desert areas it grows in shaded rocky gullies. However, near the coast, it can grow in full sun in cracks of rocks, or in thin soils.
Excessive consumption of this fern can cause health issues for sheep and cattle .

Grows amongst rocks, widespread in open forest or woodland in New South Wales, Australia.

Sandy to clayey loams, gravel, laterite, granite. Rock crevices, slopes, outcrops, near waterfalls or streams, floodplains.

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Cheilanthes sieberi habit. Date 25 August 2011. By Mark Marathon via Wkimedia Commons. See other photos.
 

Cheilanthes tomentosa (Myripteris tomentosa)
Woolly Lip Fern

Hardy, Zones 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, where it grows on a variety of rock types.

It shrivels up into a brown curled mass and appears dead in periods of drought but will green up again in periods of moisture, this has earned it the name resurrection fern. The name lipfern derives from the fact that the sporecases are located at the margins of the leaves which give the leaves a lipped appearance.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

The lower surface is densely hairy with matted hairs and the upper surface with fine hairs.

Woolly lipfern typically grows in dry and rocky places such as high cliffs and crevices in substrate such as limestone or granite.

Rocky slopes and ledges, on a variety of substrates including limestone and granite in North America.

8-24 x 16
(20-60 x 40)

It should be grown in full to partial sun with its toes tucked under a rock or covered with a gravel mulch for best results. The blade is a smoky glaucous-green covered with a smattering of fine unbranched white hairs supported by a purplish-black framework. This charming wooly confection is quite at home next to agave, yuccas, sun-loving bulbs, and other grit and sun loving rock plants.

Ideal for planting in pots or borders ferns look great when left undisturbed where they can slowly spread and multiply. It falls under the desert fern species, so it's the ideal fern for sunny corners of the garden.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Sow spores at 16°C as soon as ripe. Division in spring is possible, but rhizomes resent disturbance.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Drier Soil Fern.
Terrarium.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse. Basic or Limestone Soils.
Tolerates Full Sun.
Tolerates Part Shade.
Outdoor Containers. Border and Foundation Ferns.
Xerophytic Fern.

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A small-medium fern with compact rhizomes and clustered fronds. Grows well under high light in well-drained, moist-dry to dry garden soil with sand. The plants usually bear attractive grey-green fronds. This species is relatively easy to grow.

An attractive species with brown woolly hairs on the stipes and grey to white woolly hairs on the fronds. These are especially noticeable on the undersurface. Can be tricky to grow needing very well-drained neutral to alkine soils, sun and plenty of air movement.

Will not tolerate winter wet. Grow in sharply-drained, gritty, humus-rich soil in full sun, with protection from winter rain. Otherwise grow under glass in full light, with low humidity and good ventilation, in a mix of equal parts loam-based potting compost and coarse grit plus 10 percent added charcoal, and water sparingly.

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Cheilanthes tomentosa (Woolly Lip Fern), growing in cultivation. Date 21 February 2010. By Megan Hansen via Wikimedia Commons.

Cheilanthes tomentosa from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons.

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Doryopteris concolor (Cheilanthes concolor, Doryopteris kirkii, Pellaea geraniifolia, Pteris concolor)
Oak-leaf Fern, Hand Fern

Central and South America, West Indies, Africa, Asia, Polynesia, Australia

concolor: coloured similarly; alluding to the almost uniform shade of green of both surfaces of the frond.

Its common name is the Hand Fern due to having fronds (large divided leaves) shaped like hands (Arab Times, 2011) and also the Oak Leaf Fern (Lockyer Valley Regional Council, n.d.) in Western Australia.

Rhizome erect to procumbent, up to 3 mm in diameter; rhizome scales dark-brown, linear, up to 3 mm in length, margins pale, entire. Fronds tufted, sometimes weakly dimorphic.

 

Doryopteris concolor is nowadays generally placed in the genus called Chelianthes (Spencer, 1995). According to Cook Islands Biodiversity Database (n.d.), Doryopteris concolor is commonly called the Cheilanthes fern in Cook Island (Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, n.d.).

Sori continuous along the margins of the lobules, brownish.

4-12 x
(10-30 x )

 

Doryopteris concolor is known as a resurrection fern. This is because its fronds curl inwards when they dry out. It is able to survive long periods of dry weather. The fern can completely dry out (known as desiccation) and when it becomes wet again the fronds resume their normal function in just a few hours (Bostock, n.d.). Doryopteris concolor has been recorded fertile from May to August (Smith, 1992). It has up to 12 fronds per plant, 64 spores per sporangium (Roux, 2003) and a root system which sets it in the ground. It has no dormant period and is known as epilithic, meaning it grows on the surface of rocks (Roux, 2003).

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation:
From spores and offset plantlets.

Suitable for

Acid Soil.
Rock Garden and Wall Fern where the temperature does not fall below 16° C (61° F) during the winter.
Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse in UK.
Woodland in tropical areas.
Terrarium.

Bright to semi- shady, no sunlight. The same indoor temperature all year round. Not below 16° C (61° F) during the winter. Keep evenly moist. In winter water less when temperatures are low. Sensitive to water-logging. Give low doses of fertilizer every four weeks from early spring to early autumn. Make sure ventilation is good. Repot in spring if necessary.

A fern with dark green, hand-shaped fronds. Forms a pleasant little clump and blends well with rocks. Needs wam, dry, airy conditions in well-drained, acid to neutral soil.

A small fern with erect rhizomes.

Habitat in Rock crevices, base of boulders, shaded earth banks in ravines in miombo woodland in Zimbabwe

It grows in montane areas (mountains or areas of high elevation). Landforms in which Doryopteris concolor inhabits includes in ravines, on earth mounds and at the base of boulders (Flora of Zambia, n.d.). It is a fern that establishes itself in deeply shaded leaf litter and on rocks in seasonally moist evergreen forests. It is an epilithic fern and lithophytic fern meaning it grows on rocks, frequently on limestone.  Sometimes it is found in sheltered damp areas of woodland or open forest but most commonly in rainforests. It thrives in moist soils (University of Connecticut, 2013), especially brown to red loam, and grows best in high humidity.

doryopterisconcolorpforwikimediacommons

Doryopteris concolor - Young fronds of an Oak-leaf fern in Krantzkloof Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal. Date: 4 June 2013. By JMK via Wikimedia Commons.

Doryopteris ludens (Dryopteris wallichii)
Chinese Name : 戟叶黑心蕨

Peninsular Malaysia with northern India to southern China.
Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Southern Yunnan), India,  Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam.

The Tropical Fern & Exotic Plant Society is based in South Florida.
Our dedicated individual members collect and cultivate tropical ferns & exotic plants. Currently, this site deals with subtropical and tropical ferns that are grown in the South Florida area.

It has dimorphic leaves; the leaves change shape.

It has a creeping rhizome and spaced fronds, the fertile ones of which are taller and more deeply lobed. Fronds are dark green and leathery and are carried on wiry black stems.

Able to tolerate short spells of dryness at the root zone if there is high humidity; planting media/ soil should be moist, but not soggy or wet continually as this can cause the plant to rot.

12 x
(30 x )

 

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Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation:
From spores and offset plantlets.

Suitable for

Containers or Hanging Baskets in Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse in the UK.
Shade-Tolerant.
Drier Soil Fern.
Basic or Limestone Soils.
Rock Garden and Wall Fern where the temperature does not fall below 16° C (61° F) during the winter.
 

Bright to semi- shady, no sunlight. The same indoor temperature all year round. Not below 16° C (61° F) during the winter. Keep evenly moist. In winter water less when temperatures are low. Sensitive to water-logging. Give low doses of fertilizer every four weeks from early spring to early autumn. Make sure ventilation is good. Repot in spring if necessary.

Best to keep above 50 degrees F (10 degrees C).

This small fern is suitable for containers or hanging baskets in shade.

A small-medium fern with slender, long-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under medium light in moist potting mix.

Plants like warm, dry, airy conditions and a well-drained, alkaline soil mix.

Grows on limestone.

The perennials prefer a half-shady situation on moderately moist soil. The substrate should be gritty loam. They tolerate temperatures only above at least 1°C (USDA zone 10).

Grows on Limestone rocks by streams in forests; 400-1000 m.

doryopterisludenspfor1wikimediacommons

Doryopteris ludens - Botanical specimen in Saigon Zoo and Botanical Gardens - Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Doryopteris ludens - Botanical specimen in the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens - Sarasota, Florida, USA. Date: 20 March 2017. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons.

See more photos.

doryopterisludenspfor2wikimediacommons

Doryopteris pedata
Hand Fern, Digit Fern

Tropical Fen from West Indies, Central and South America.

Fronds are very variable, young, sterile fronds are maple shaped. Mature fertile fronds are deeply lobed and palmate.

The leaves can extend to about 30cm long and these are deeply lobed. They have a deep brown rim which matches the colour of the stems and leaf veins.

Fronds are variable and of two different shapes. The, young, sterile fronds look rather like a maple leaf, whilst the mature fertile fronds are deeply lobed and palmate.

20 x 12
(50 x 30)

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation:
From spores and offset plantlets.


Breeder buds (bulbils) grow on the leaves where the leaf emerges from the stalk. These develop into tiny plantlets.

Suitable for

Terrrarium.
Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse.
Indoor Decoration.
Shade-Tolerant in pot outdoors during summer in UK.
Basic or Limestone Soils.

Grow in a 12cm (5 inch) pot with open compost with reasonably good drainage and out of direct sunlight.

Bright to semi- shady, no sunlight. The same indoor temperature all year round. Not below 16° C (61° F) during the winter. Keep evenly moist. In winter water less when temperatures are low. Sensitive to water-logging. Give low doses of fertilizer every four weeks from early spring to early autumn. Make sure ventilation is good. Repot in spring if necessary.

Not frost hardy, height to 50cm. Suitable as a terrarium, conservatory or house plant. Very eye catching and attractive evergreen fern. Requires a good open compost with reasonably good drainage.

Suitable for a sheltered, shady position outdoors during summer, and a shady position indoors. Particularly suitable for a terrarium.

Grows on rocks.

This a tough fern which resents coddling and prefers warm, airy, airy conditions in bright light. Drainage must be excellent and the addition of lime may be beneficial.

doryopterispedatapfolwikimediacommons

Doryopteris pedata - Botanischer Garten Leipzig. Date: 26 March 2010. By Tubifex - Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-3.0 and older versions (2.5, 2.0 and 1.0) via Wikimedia Commons.

Doryopteris pedata - Botanischer Garten Leipzig. Date: 26 March 2010. By Tubifex - Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-3.0 and older versions (2.5, 2.0 and 1.0) via Wikimedia Commons.

doryopterispedatapforwikimediacommons

Gymnopteris marantae (Cheilanthes marantae, Paraceterach marantae, Acrostichum marantae, Para-gymnopteris marantae)

European golden-haired bare fern

Africa, Southern Europe, Syria, Northern India, Canary Islands.

The undersides of the fronds are covered in rusty red scales, which add to its ornamental appeal.

The lateral veins are bifurcated, and the sporangia group is placed along the upper part of the small veins, covering the scales, without a cover.

4-10 x
(10-25 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation:
From spores. Use a coarse sowing mixture with a nuetral to alkaline pH (7-8.5). Mixes containing a preponerance of scoria or fly ash are particularly suitable.

Suitable for

Terrarium or Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse for Temperate regions;
Grow outdoors in tropical climates in Rock Garden.
Colour in Fen Fronds.
Shade-Tolerant.
Scree in tropical woodland.

Keep the terrarium on the dry side or even left open.

A very drought-tolerant little fern. Best grown in a rock pocket exposed to partial or filtered sun. Likes air movement and must not be overwatered.

In temperate regions it should be kept as dry as possible over winter.

It grows in the dry stone seams under the forest, at an altitude of 1800-4200 meters.

gymnopterismarantaepfor1efloras

Gymnopteris marantae. Photo by David E. Boufford - Photos by The Biodiversity of the Hangduan Mountains Project. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 28 April 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. The underside of the leaves.

Gymnopteris marantae. Photo by David E. Boufford - Photos by The Biodiversity of the Hangduan Mountains Project. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 28 April 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

gymnopterismarantaepfor2efloras

See photos.

Welcome to the garden plant network! The Garden Plant Network is the website of Landscape Network. The goal is to collect common garden plants in southern China and northern China. Centering on the garden plant library and plant illustration library, there are 4,900 garden plants, 90,517 plant illustrations, 17,404 plant encyclopedias, and 56,390 plant pictures.

Gymnopteris vestita (Hemionitis vestita, Gymno-gramma vestita, Syngramma vestita)
Mouse-ear Fern

North India, Southwest China.

Rhizome short creeping, bearing closely spaced fronds, densely covered with both scales and hairs; scales linear, about 0.1 mm broad, brown, like hairs: hairs downy, brown to paler, up to 5 mm long. Sori dispersed along veins, naked.

2-6 x
(5-15 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation:
From spores. Use a coarse sowing mixture with a nuetral to alkaline pH (7-8.5). Mixes containing a preponerance of scoria or fly ash are particularly suitable.

Suitable for

Colour in Fern Fronds.
Rock Garden and Wall Fern in tropical regions.

An interesting dwarf fern which forms a small tussock of narrow, wiry fronds which have rounded to ovate pinnae, dark green above and covered with rusty to silvery hairs beneath. Plants may be somewhat tricky to grow. They require excellent drainage and good light.

In temperate regions it should be kept as dry as possible over winter.

In rock crevices at about 2000 m alt. in limestone areas of Doi Chiang Dao.

gymnopterisvestitiapforefloras

Gymnopteris vestita. Photo by David E. Boufford - Photos by The Biodiversity of the Hangduan Mountains Project. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 28 April 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Gymnopteris vestita. Photo by Susan Kelley - Photos by The Biodiversity of the Hangduan Mountains Project. This shows the hairy underside of the leaves with black sori.

gymnopterisvestitiapfuefloras

Pellaea ovata

Ovate-leaf Cliffbrake, Ovateleaf Cliffbrake, Flexuous cliff brake, Zigzag Cliff-Brake

United States (Texas), Central and South America, West Indies

Semi-hardy,
Zones 7b to 9b

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Latin: ovatus, egg-shaped or ovate, presumably in reference to the shape of the ultimate leaf segments.

A medium-sized fern with short-creeping rhizomes and lax fronds. Grows well under medium-high light in moist-dry, drained garden soil with coarse sand. Elongate triangular blades to 34 inches (84 cm) long and 12 (30) broad, mostly three-pinnate and gray-green.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

8-48 x
(20-120 x )

The attributes include its drought resistance and its tolerance of both alkaline soils and high temperatures. Cliff brake fern responds well to regular irrigation, but can thrive with neglect and occasional watering. We have observed that with even prolonged wilting, mature fronds of P. ovata revive with watering. Overwatering can kill cliff brake fern, and so it should not be placed with plants that have high water needs. Since the fern is tolerant of both full sun and moderate shade, it can be used throughout the landscape in most light environments, except dense shade. Because it also grows well in rich woodland soils, P. ovata should be adaptable to many landscape schemes.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Fern found on Limestone or Basic Soil.
Part-Shade-Tolerant Fern.
Heated Greenhouse in temperate regions.
Rock Garden, Hanging Basket, Outdoor Container with
Border and Foundation Fern, or Woodland in Texas, Central and South America.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

A large-growing species with a creeping, wiry rhizome, strongly zig-zagged fronds and oval to heart-shaped leathery, dark green segments. Best grown in the ground in a partial-sun situation. Needs well-drained to alkaline soil.

Occurs on rocky slopes and ledges at altitudes of 300-1700 m. Leaves often supported by surrounding vegetation, on a variety of substrates including granite and limestone.

Evergreen and Deer resistant. Found on rocky slopes and ledges in south Texas, Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos - See Distribution Map.

pellaeaovatapforwikimediacommons

Photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Australia) in January. This photo is from Gardenology.org and is available under CC-BY-SA 3.0 license, via Wikimedia Commons.

The label above may be correct, but where is the Pellaea ovata that looks like this image.

Pellaea rotundifolia (Platyloma rotundifolia)

Button Fern, New Zealand Cliff Brake

Semi-hardy, Zone 8; can tolerate temperatures as low as -7C (19F) for one week

New Zealand

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Zones 8 (with lots of protection) and 9.

This fern is native to New Zealand, Australia and Norfolk Island where it is most frequently found growing on limestone cliffs, rocky crevices and moist open forested areas, but is occasionally found in drier woodland areas. North of Zone 9, it is primarily grown as a house plant in hanging baskets or in ornamental containers on tables.
Genus name comes from the Greek word pellaios meaning dark in reference to the dark colored stalks.
Specific epithet from Latin means having rounded leaves in obvious reference to the shape of the leaflets.

 

Non-Toxic to Dogs,
Non-Toxic to Cats,
Non-Toxic to Horses

Fronds 6-12 (15-30) long, 1-2 (2.5-5) broad. Pinnate, very leathery.

Rhizome is creeping. The pinnate fronds arch and cascade in horizontal layers of shiny green round "buttons" of pinnae.

Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention.

6-18 x 4-20
(15-45 x 10-50)

A small-medium fern with short-medium-creeping rhizomes and fronds in a loose cluster. Grows well under medium to high light in moist-dry, well-drained garden soil with coarse sand. The plants are easy to grow and thrive indoors in the United States. Do not water until the soil is nearly dry.

It is a popular garden plant (in zones 8 and 9) and house plant, tolerating low temperatures but not freezing. It is an evergreen fern that can have more than 30 pairs of round, dark-green, leathery pinnae on fronds up to 18 in. (45 cm). It needs acidic and well-drained soil; it does not appreciate the moist, humid conditions that most ferns require so does well with minimal watering.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

House Fern.
Cold Hardy Fern.
Hanging Basket and
Heated Greenhouse or Outdoor Container in Spring/Summer in temperate regions, with
Rock Garden,
Border and Foundation Ferns, Outdoor Container, Hanging Basket and moist Woodland in New Zealand.
Acid Soil.
Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

Requires a moderately fertile, ericaceous, moist but well-drained soil in full sun with protection from hot midday sun, or partial shade. In frost prone areas protect the crown with a dry winter mulch.

Good basket fern.

Greenhouse fern.

Evergreen.

It is found in light scrub, dry forests and occasionally in moist rainforest habitats within New Zealand.
Extremely attractive addition to the indoor fern collection or patio displays in temperate Zone 9 gardens. It requires an acidic and well-drained grainy compost and, while it should not dry out, it is more likely to be lost by being overwatered. Give it good indirect light and occasional water.

A very popular fern both with enthusiasts and commercial growers, that is prized for its rosette of neat, dark green fronds with blunt to rounded segments. Excellent in a pot or among rocks in a shaded rock garden. Likes an acid, humus-rich soil and bright light. Popular in some countries as an indoor plant.

This fern has a prostrate habit and its long fronds will arch downwards if potted into a hanging basket. It also looks effective cascading from a shelf.

pellaearotundifoliapfigurewikimediacommons pellaearotundifoliapfruwikimediacommons

Pellaea aff. rotundifolia (G.Forst.) Hook by Cam Kilgour. This image has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland Museum. For details refer to the Commons project page, via Wikimedia Commons.

Pellaea rotundifolia in Eastwoodhill Arboretum (New Zealand). Date: 26 November 2017. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

pellaearotundifoliapforwikimediacommons

Usage on sv.wikipedia.org - Pellaea rotundifolia , Phipps Conservatory. Date March 2009. By myself (User:Piotrus). Permission (Reusing this file)Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2.5 and older versions (2.0 and 1. Via Wikimedia Commons.

Pellaea ternifolia (Allosorus ternifolius
Cheilanthes ternifolia,
Notholaena ternifolia,
Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia,
Pellaea ternifolia var. ternifolia,
Pellaea weddelliana,
Platyloma ternifolia,
Pteris peruviana,
Pteris ternifolia) 

Trans-Pecos Cliffbrake

North, Central and South America, Hawaii

Tropical America

Latin: terni, in three’s, and folius, leaved, = with three leaves, in reference to the pinnae which are deeply divided into three portions.

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Leaves 6-12 inches (15-30) long on strong, dark chestnut stalks, narrow with 6-12 opposite pairs of pinnae; leaves closely rolled together.

Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention.

12-24 x
(30-60 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Acid Soil on igneous rock in Rock Garden in its native habitat.
Grow in Pot or Rock Garden inside Heated Greenhouse in Temperate regions.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

An attractive species with tall, slender, leathery fronds each with a few narrow leaflets which are grey-green and leathery. New fronds are glaucous. Plants need bright light, warmth and acid to neutral, freely-draining soil.

A small to medium fern with ascending, stout rhizomes and clustered fronds. Grows under high light in well-drained, moist-dry garden soil or potting mix.

Cliffs, rocky slopes, ledges, on igneous substrates; Native habitat in Trans-Pecos.

pellaeaternifoliapforwikimediacommons

Pellaea ternifolia (habit). Location: Maui, Near Puu o Pele Haleakala National Park. By Forest & Kim Starr via Wikimedia Commons

• Pellaea ternifolia (Kalamoho) Habit at Waiale Gulch, Maui, Hawaii. July 05, 2011. By Forest and Kim Starr via Wikimedia Commons.

See more photos.

See Distribution Map.

pellaeaternifoliapfolwikimediacommons

Pellaea falcata (Platyloma falcata,
Pteris falcata , Allosorus falcatus ,
Pteris seticaulis)

Sickle Fern, Cliff Brake Fern, Australian Cliff Brake

Native habitat in India, New Zealand, Australia, Norfolk Island and New Caledonia

Semi-hardy,
Zone (7), 8

Pellaea: dark fern; from the greek pellos; dark leaf and leaf stalk
falcata: From the Latin falx 'scythe' or 'sickle', meaning sickle-shaped

Spear-shaped fronds, 6-15 (15-37.5) long, 1-2 (2.5-5) broad. Almost hardy in the UK.

It has a creeping rootstock, short, rather hairy stems, lanceolate, dark green pinnate leaves, 8-12 inch (20-30) long, with closely packed, sickle-shaped leaflets.

Sori in broad lines.

Spore bearing fronds may be found throughout the year.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

to 18 x
(45 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

PROPAGATION TECHNIQUE
Easy from fresh spores. Very fast growing and an excellent pot plant. Does well in a variety of soils, light levels and moisture regimes but intolerant of weeds.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Cold Hardy.
Indoor Decoration.
Shade Tolerant.

Coastal Districts and Outdoor Containers, as well as eucalyptus forest, rainforest (Woodland), Border and Foundation Fern and Rock Garden in native habitat.

Outdoor Containers during Summer, which are brought into heated greenhouse in winter elsewhere.

 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C) - Room temperatures from Jordan's Jungle in America - Room temperatures between 65-75ºF (18-24ºC) are ideal, and no lower than 55ºF (13ºC).

 

Herbarium evidence shows this species was once common on the volcanic cones of Auckland City, but due to targetted collection, the species has all but vanished from this area within the last forty years.

An interesting fern which grows in spreading colonies. Can be cultivated in shady or part shade situations in well-drained, loamy soil. Plants like plenty of water and can also be grown in pots.

A small-medium fern with dark green fronds in loose clusters from short- to medium-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under medium to high light in drained, moist-dry garden or potting mix. This species can withstand temperatures down to -7C (19F) for one week, if dry - Keep compost on the dry side but don't allow to dry out for too long.

It is a widespread and common plant, growing in eastern Australia. Often seen in on the coast and ranges in eucalyptus forest and rainforest. Occurring in Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. Also occurring on Lord Howe Island. It prefers ample water when grown indoors,and can take very bright light but not full sun. Fronds usually 37 to 105 cm long. Fronds with between 27 and 65 leaflets, sometimes more. These pinnae (fern leaflets) have a short stalk or no stalk, oblong to narrow-oblong in shape. 22 to 56 mm long, 5 to 12 mm wide.
Pellaea falcata is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in Australia.

HABITAT
Coastal in short scrub, on cliff faces and in open forest. Often on small islands, also inland on scoria and basalt rocks around Auckland City.

pellaeafalcatapforwikimediacommons

Pellaea falcata - Botanical specimen in the Balboa Park Botanical Building, Balboa Park, San Diego, California, USA. Date: 24 February 2013. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons. Note the curled edge under the top of the leaf is shown just above the centre of this photo and is the normal shape of each leaf.

Paraceterach reynoldsii (Notholaena (as Nothochlaena) reynoldsii); Grammitis reynoldsii ; Gymnogramma (as Gymnogramme) reynoldsii , Gymnogramma reynoldsii, Gymnogramme reynoldsii, Nothochlaena reynoldsii, Notholaena reynoldsii)

Mouse-ear Fern

Australia

Rhizome prostrate, long-creeping, scaly, the scales linear-subulate, margins pale-brown, centre black, thickened; fronds scattered, linear, to 30 cm long; stipe and rhachis a dark blackish brown, scaly, sometimes becoming glabrescent; pinnae orbicular or oblong, densely scaly especially on the undersurface; sori forming a broad submarginal continuous band, exindusiate, sporangia obscured by scales.

4-8 x
(10-20 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: See on right. Use 1 part loam to 1 part scoria for propagating mix.

Suitable for

Open Terrarium or
Fern for Indoor Decoration in temperate regions like the UK.

Resurrection Fern in a
Rock Garden with
Acid Soil or in
Outdoor Container for tropical regions.

Use well-drained acidic mix - including scoria, which is poor nutritionally to provide best chance of success. Plant must not be overpotted and will grow in a small pot for a number of seasons. Keep fern on the dry side and in temperate regions it should be kept as dry as possible over winter. Surface application of well-rotted animal manure is ideal in the spring. In tropical and subtropical regions a lightly shaded but dry situation is suitable.

This is a neat, Resurrection Fern which forms spreading colonies in the protection of acidic rocks. Fresh fronds are bright green with conspicuous brown scales on the upper surface. Plants grow fairly easily in a loamy, acid soil, in a situation exposed to some sun and with plenty of air movement. Also can be grown in a pot.

Amongst rocks in gully in Western Australia

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

See photo.

Another.

Again.

Seeds of South Australia - This database contains 143 families, 837 genera and 3,103 native species with 29,294 images (also with 400 introduced species).

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

The remarkable sex life of ferns:-

  • Formation of spores in the capsule (sporangia) underneath a fertile leaf.
  • When they are ripe, the millions of spores are thrown out by the sporangia when it bursts open.
  • A spore that lands on good soil (moist and light) produces a prothallium (of approximately 6mm) onto which male and female organs develop. The spermatozoa from the male organ swim across moisture to fertilise the eggs.
  • On the prothallium the impregnated egg creates a new plant which takes root; the first leaves have an aberrant shape.

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2