Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN as Outdoor Fern for Southern Florida and Hawaii
"This area includes mostly Zones 10 and 11. Tropical species are favoured here, but a wide range of ferns are adapted to the climate of Southern Florida and Hawaii, except those ferns that like cool summers or need cold temperatures to break dormancy. The occasional cold spells may require moving the more tender species to protected areas." from Chapter 9 of Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Adiantum trapeziforme (Adiantum formosissimum, Adiantum rhomboideum, Adiantum eminens, Adiantum trapeziformer oblongatum)

Diamond maidenhair Fern, Giant Maidenhair Fern

Tender in
Zone 12-13

Native to Central America, Mexico and the West Indies.

It has triangular blades up to four-pinnate, with a terminal pinna similar to the lateral ones.

40 x 40
(100 x 100)

Maidenhair Fern

Stove Species Fern type.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand, charcoal. Pot, March. Water moderately Sep-Mar, freely afterwards. Position, shady at all times. Plant hardy species in April in equal parts peat and loam, in shady position. Temperature, stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit (21-27 degrees Centigrade); greenhouse species, Sep-Mar 50-55 degrees Fahrenheit (10-13 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade). Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Sun-tolerant Fern.

Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soils.

Ferns for Hanging Baskets

Grows in moist potting mix.
A very large and attractive maidenhair which is commonly grown in the tropics, where it may readily naturalize itself in gardens and the ferneries. Because of its large size; plants are best grown in the ground. Will tolerate considerable sun and likes neutral to alkaline soils.

Evergreen but deciduous in cooler climates. Can be grown in both pots and hanging baskets in Australia. A little mist spraying each week to increase humidity will be beneficial in summer. The soil needs to be moist humus rich and well drained. Fertilise with a little liquid seaweed fertiliser in spring and again in mid summer.

Other germination instructions.

Adiantumtrapeziformepforwikimediacommons

Picture of Adiantum trapeziforme. By Oeropium via Wkimedia Commons.

Ferns Of The World VS. WORLDWIDE DIVERSITY

Families

98.04%

Based on an estimate of 51 families worldwide. Total number of families on the Ferns Of The World website = 50.

 

Genera

78.04%

Based on an estimate of 337 genera worldwide. Total number of genera on the Ferns Of The World website = 263.

 

species

8.68%

Based on an estimate of 11,916 species worldwide. Total number of species on the Ferns Of The World website = 1034.

Aglaomorpha coronans
(Pseudodrynaria coronans, Drynaria coronans, Phymatodes coronans, Pleopeltis coronans, Polypodium coronans)

Crowning Bear's Claw Fern, Santa Rosa Fern, Basket Fern

Semi-tender or hardier
Zone 10 (coldest zone where hardy) -11

Native to Bangladesh, India, China, Taiwan, southeastern Asia, Malaysia, and the Ryuku Islands of Japan.

Aglaomorpha is from the Greek aglaos (bright, pleasing) and morphe (shape)

Deep green ornately lobed outarching "fronds" with sing like basal oak leaf pattern anchored on large sienna pelted showy rhizomes.  Very sturdy and reliable.

 

 

This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Clayton, California

Hayward, California

Long Beach, California

Stockton, California

Brandon, Florida

36-48 x
(90-120 x )

Spacing 72-96 (180-240)

Staghorn Ferns

Requires consistently moist soil; do not let dry out between waterings.

Always makes an impressive basket fern when well grown. Does best in very couarse, porous epiphyt potting mix and allow it getting fairly dry between watering.

"On rather dry or mossy rocks or on tree trunks in open places or in dense forests, not so rare at medium altitudes throughout Thailand." from Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia

Suitable for

Tropical - in Denver Botanic Garden - Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse

Fern for Acid Soil: 5.6-6.0 pH

Basket Ferns

Best grown in well-drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss. The species is easy to grow and thrives in both humid and drier environments. It can be cultivated in the ground - if given sufficient drainage by using a coarse medium - and in hanging baskets. They collect falling leaves and other organic debris that eventually decay to provide a soil for the roots. The dry, papery texture of this humus-collecting leaf-base resists decay.

Though large, they are suitable as indoor plants because they tolerate low humidity and irregular watering.

 

Glasshouse Works has photos of this fern.

 

The perennials prefer a shady situation on moist soil. They tolerate temperatures only above at least 1°C (USDA zone 10).

Germination Instructions from Exotic Plants.

 

 

Asplenium nidus and relatives

 

 

 

 

 

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Davallia, many species

 

 

 

 

 

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Microsorum grossum

 

 

 

 

 

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Microsorum punctatum

 

 

 

 

 

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Nephrolepis falcata (Nephrolepis gibbosum, Nephrolepis gibbosa, Nephrolepis biserratum var. furcans, Nephrolepis falcata 'Furcans', Nephrolepis biserrata 'Furcans', Nephrolepis falcata, Nephrolepis biserrata var. furcans, Nephrolepis falcata f. furcans)
Weeping Sword Fern, Fishtail Fern, Fishtail Sword Fern, Broad Sword Fern, Macho Fern, Forked Giant Sword Fern, Chinese Name: 叉葉尖羊齒

Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia

Tender

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Long, strongly-weeping fronds.

 

Sub-erect fern, with drooping fronds, can grow up to 50 - 90 cm tall and 45 - 60 cm wide.

Foliage - Light green fronds, measuring about 80 - 150 cm long and 5 - 10 cm wide, stipe measuring about 10 - 25 cm long, most pinnae with central division to give 2 short tips and giving a "fish tail appearance".

Reproductive Parts (non-flowering plant): Sori round and arranged submarginal, indusia kidney-shaped with narrow sinus.

40-100 x
(100-250 x )

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory and Warm Greenhouse. Hanging Basket.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

A large fern with erect, stoloniferous rhizomes and erect or pendulous, long fronds. Grows well under medium to high light in moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss.

Plants are excellent for a large basket and grow vigorously, quickly developing into an attractive specimen. They like plenty of light but should be protected from direct sun.

Prefers part shade in moist, well-drained soil in Singapore within gardens and indoors.

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Location taken: the New York Botanical Garden. Names: Classification: Plantae > Magnoliophyta > Filicopsida > Filicales > Davalliaceae > Neprolepis > Neprolepis falcata.
Date: 30 March 2006.
Photo by David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons.

Nephrolepis falcata - Español: Jardín Botánico Faustino Miranda, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México. Date: 22 January 2015. By Consultaplantas via Wikimedia Commons.

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Platycerium bifurcatum and cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

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Selaginella, many tropical species

 

 

 

 

 

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Acrostichum aureum
Leather fern, coastal leather fern, Golden Leather Fern, Swamp fern, Mangrove Fern

Tender,
thrives in Zone (9)10

The leaves are glossy, broad and pinnate, the pinnae being dark green, leathery, alternate and widely spaced.

40-160 x (100-400 x )

Miscellaneous

Aquatic

Bog or Wet-Soil Fern

Brackish Water in Coastal District

Stove evergreen ferns found in tropical swamps. Use within pot in Heated Conservatory
or outside in Tropical Areas i.e. Zones 10,11 like Southern Florida, Hawaii.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam and leafmould, sand and charcoal. Pot in February or March. Water freely, spring and summer, moderately other times. Temperature March-September 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit (21-30 degrees Centigrade), September to March 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit (15-18 degrees Centigrade).

A very large fern with erect rhizomes and fronds in clusters. Best grown under high light in garden soil or potting mix kept constantly wet. It can grow with its stems submerged but is typically found rooting in mud with the foliage held above water. It grows natively in brackish water but can be cultivated in fresh water.

It occurs throughout the tropical regions of the world.
A coarse fern which forms large clumps in wet soils. It is usually familiar in coastal districts and often grows in brackish water behind the mangroves. Large plants generally resent disturbance; small specimens adapt to cultivation easily. They all require bright light and plenty of moisture.

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Frond of Acrostichum aureum; (hakato) near a Tongan creek.
By Tau'olunga via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Form of Acrostichum aureum L.
English: Golden Leather Fern at Rio Suarez in Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica. By Hans Hillewaert via Wikimedia Commons.

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Ceratopteris thalictroides
(Acrostichum thalictroides, Ceratopteris froesii, Ceratopteris gaudichaudii, Ceratopteris siliquosa )
Water Fern, Pod Fern, Oriental Water Fern, Water Sprite, Indian Fern, Water Hornfern, Water Elk's Horn

Tender in Zone 9

It is found throughout the tropics of the world, except Africa. Tropical America - Florida.

The name comes from the Greek keras, horn, and pteris, fern, alluding to the antler-like fertile leaves.

 

AC Tropical Fish (Aquatic Community.com, Aquatic Community) was founded in 2004 as a resource and meeting place for tropical aquarium fish keepers. It has since then grown into a comprehensive aquarium portal featuring information not only about tropical freshwater fish but also about all other types of aquarium fish.

Buds tend to grow on dying fronds.

The bright green, finely-cut, fertile leaves are erect and are produced above water. In Asia the foliage of this species is used in salads and is said to have a peppery taste. This genus has the distinction of having the fastest life cycle of any fern. The plants can take as little as 1 month to go from spores to mature, spore-bearing plants, though 3 or 4 months is more typical. The plants live about 1 year and are usuually perpetuated by the numerous buds that form on the blade surface, typically in margins of the sinuses. The buds detach and float away from the parent plant.

It can provide useful shade to shyer fish and small fry. The dense roots are said to take nutrients out of the water helping to prevent the growth of algae.
Small adventitious plantlets are grown on the mother plant and are then released when ready.
In small open aquariums it can grow out of the aquarium and form beautiful surface leaves.

30 x
(75 x )

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: Mature plants can be propagated by division of the rhizome, which may be allowed to float or, if grown submerged, held in place by coarse gravel. If plants are to be rooted in mud, garden soil with little organic matter will do. Some growers recommend a mixture of about half peat and half sand mixed with 10% top soil. Plants that are rooted in mud need their fronds kept moist. Temperatures must be maintained close to 27C (80F) for good growth. The plants and buds decline when temperatures are below 20C (68F), and if lost, new plants must be started from spores.

Propagation: By spores sown in February on surface of compost in pan or water as for culture in next column, vivaparous forms increased by pegging down leaves into soft mud, detaching later.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Fern for Acid Soils.
Fern for Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Stove aquatic fern that is usually only of annual duration, but when carefully grown may be a biennial.

Culture: Soil, sifted loam and charcoal with a little leaf-mould. Position, in pots or pans submerged to rim in tank of water for floating kinds, submerged kinds in aquarium compost. Plant, spring or summer. All need subdued light, moist, warm atmosphere. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September, about 75F (24C).

It grows best in soil with a pH reading of 5-9 and in very high amounts of light. It usually grows quickly.
This plant normally grows fast, but the addition of CO2 (CO2  concentrations of under 20 mg/l are sufficient) may be necessary to promote growth.

Grows in wet garden soil. Typically, the plants root in mud.

It succeeds best in a pot of good loam, wholly submerged in a tank of warm water in a stove house. It produces spores freely, or may be propagated by the young plants that form on all the fronds.

Swampy areas, swamp forests, sago (Metroxylon) swamps, marshes, natural and man-made ponds, mostly in stagnant water bodies or in still pockets along slow flowing rivers, full sun to moderate shade, from sea level to 1300 m, but mostly less than 500 m altitude. Sometimes massed on or around logs or other floating vegetation, once recorded in a fresh-water mangrove (Sonneratia) growing among the finger-like pneumatophores.
It is widely used as an aquarium plant, and is prized for its versatility, being used both as a floating plant and a plant that can be rooted in the substrate.

"The water temperature should ideally be kept above 20 degrees C." from the Aquatic Community.

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English: Foliage of Ceratopteris thalictroides
日本語: ミズワラビ By Show_ryu via Wikimedia Commons

Figure: Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas, insbesondere seiner tropischen Gebiete : Grundzge der Pflanzen-verbreitung im Afrika und die Charak-terpflanzen Afrikas. Ceratopteris thalictroides. By Engler, Adolf, 1844-1930 via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

English: Two floating aquatic fern: Salvinia minima (right) and Ceratopteris thalictroides (left) floating in aquarium. Identified by user Le.Loup.Gris.
Español: Dos helechos acuáticos flotantes: Salvinia minima (derecha) y Ceratopteris thalictroides (izquierda) flotando en acuario.By Pristigaster via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2