Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


TYPE OF FERN - Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) Page 2 of 3
"As a group these ferns grow in relatively drier situations than most other ferns. These ferns are ideal for regions with a warm climate where the atmosphere tends to be dry. They can be grown in other conditions, providing attention is given to their specific requirements.
Habitat
Ferns of this group grow in a great diversity of habitats. Some species occur in high rainfall climates but are restricted to specialized niches such as rainshadow areas, in exposed situations on skeletal soils, in crevices or on rock faces or in the thin layer of soil which covers a boulder. Most species are found in low rainfall regions and have adapted their growth cycle to match the rigours of the climate. Many of these are Resurrection Ferns (see page 6 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1.).
Uses
As a general rule the ferns grouped here do not revel when given the usuall fern requirements of shade, moisture and humidity. Their needs are for bright light, careful watering and low humidity. Some species grow well in pots but others are difficult to maintain and are better planted out in a suitable garden position. Most species blend in well with rocks. Ferns of this type may also grow well in a terrarium that is kept on the dry side or even left open (see page 184 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1.).
Their Habitat, Cultivation, Soil Types, Potting Mix, Watering, Fertilizing, Situation, Pests and Propagation details are given in
Chapter 35 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1."

The following ferns come from that chapter:-
 

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Some details from The standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture in 3 Volumes by L.H Bailey. Published by The Macmillan Company in 1939

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Pellaea ovata

Ovate-leaf Cliffbrake, Ovateleaf Cliffbrake, Flexuous cliff brake, Zigzag Cliff-Brake

United States (Texas), Central and South America, West Indies

Semi-hardy,
Zones 7b to 9b

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Latin: ovatus, egg-shaped or ovate, presumably in reference to the shape of the ultimate leaf segments.

A medium-sized fern with short-creeping rhizomes and lax fronds. Grows well under medium-high light in moist-dry, drained garden soil with coarse sand. Elongate triangular blades to 34 inches (84 cm) long and 12 (30) broad, mostly three-pinnate and gray-green.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

8-48 x
(20-120 x )

The attributes include its drought resistance and its tolerance of both alkaline soils and high temperatures. Cliff brake fern responds well to regular irrigation, but can thrive with neglect and occasional watering. We have observed that with even prolonged wilting, mature fronds of P. ovata revive with watering. Overwatering can kill cliff brake fern, and so it should not be placed with plants that have high water needs. Since the fern is tolerant of both full sun and moderate shade, it can be used throughout the landscape in most light environments, except dense shade. Because it also grows well in rich woodland soils, P. ovata should be adaptable to many landscape schemes.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Fern found on Limestone or Basic Soil.
Part-Shade-Tolerant Fern.
Heated Greenhouse in temperate regions.
Rock Garden, Hanging Basket, Outdoor Container with
Border and Foundation Fern, or Woodland in Texas, Central and South America.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

A large-growing species with a creeping, wiry rhizome, strongly zig-zagged fronds and oval to heart-shaped leathery, dark green segments. Best grown in the ground in a partial-sun situation. Needs well-drained to alkaline soil.

Occurs on rocky slopes and ledges at altitudes of 300-1700 m. Leaves often supported by surrounding vegetation, on a variety of substrates including granite and limestone.

Evergreen and Deer resistant. Found on rocky slopes and ledges in south Texas, Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos - See Distribution Map.

pellaeaovatapforwikimediacommons

Photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Australia) in January. This photo is from Gardenology.org and is available under CC-BY-SA 3.0 license, via Wikimedia Commons.

The label above may be correct, but where is the Pellaea ovata that looks like this image.

Pellaea paradoxa (Adiantum paradoxum)

Large-leaved Sickle Fern

Australia
It is a small hardy fern found north of Sydney in eastern Australia and Lord Howe Island.

Paradoxa from the Latin paradoxus (paradoxical) because the species was originally classified in the genus Adiantum, from which it differs by having continuous marginal sori.

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Fronds are usually curved, 4 to 9 cm long, and 1 to 4 cm wide. Leathery to touch and a dull green. Juvenile fronds may be heart shaped. The stalks are around 1 to 5 mm long. Sori appear in a band, usually 2 to 3 mm wide, at the edge of the underside of the fronds.

Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention.

Very young fronds have a single heart- shaped leaf.

4-24 x
(10-60)

 

Pellaea paradoxa 'Glowstar' will tolerate sub-zero temperatures for short periods if kept dry.
Grows in tall trees, away from the direct rays of the sun. Given their original sheltered habitat, these plants are best kept away from direct sunlight in your home as well. Keep the plants moist by watering them slightly twice a week, along the side of the plant. This helps prevent brown leaves and a bald centre. It is a good idea to spray the plants regularly. This small fern was first found in Eastern Australia. It was first described in 1810 by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown, in the book Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae. This book was the first attempt to comprehensively describe the newly discovered Australian flora. It contains over 2040 new types of plants.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Hanging Basket in Heated Greenhouse in temperate regions,
Hanging Basket,
Rock Garden and Woodlands in Tropical areas. Shade-tolerant Fern. Fern for Acid Soil.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

A creeping species which forms colonies in semi-shady situations, usually among rocks. The normal fronds are tall with leathery pinnae but the plants also frequently produce small, juvenile fronds which have a simple, rounded to heart-shaped lamina. This is an easily grown species although plants may be slow to settle down after dsturbance. Needs acid, humus-rich soil and part or filtered sun.

Often growing in or near rainforests in rocky crevices. But it may occasionally be seen in drier areas.

pellaeaparadoxapfruwikimediacommons

Fern West Head with sori, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Australia. Sori 2 - 3 mm wide. Likely to be Pellaea spp. possibly paradoxa. Date: 29 June 2011. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard via Wikimedia Commons.

Photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Australia) in January. This photo by Raffi Kojian is from Gardenology.org and is available under CC-BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

pellaeaparadoxapforwikimediacommons

See More photos with these book references on same webpage:-

  • Flora of Australia Volume 48: Ferns, Gymnosperms and Allied Groups,
  • Australian Ferns: Growing them Successfully by Calder Chaffey,
  • A Field Guide to Australian Ferns: Volume 1 by Calder Chaffey.

Pellaea rotundifolia (Platyloma rotundifolia)

Button Fern, New Zealand Cliff Brake

Semi-hardy, Zone 8; can tolerate temperatures as low as -7C (19F) for one week

New Zealand

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Zones 8 (with lots of protection) and 9.

This fern is native to New Zealand, Australia and Norfolk Island where it is most frequently found growing on limestone cliffs, rocky crevices and moist open forested areas, but is occasionally found in drier woodland areas. North of Zone 9, it is primarily grown as a house plant in hanging baskets or in ornamental containers on tables.
Genus name comes from the Greek word pellaios meaning dark in reference to the dark colored stalks.
Specific epithet from Latin means having rounded leaves in obvious reference to the shape of the leaflets.

 

Non-Toxic to Dogs,
Non-Toxic to Cats,
Non-Toxic to Horses

Fronds 6-12 (15-30) long, 1-2 (2.5-5) broad. Pinnate, very leathery.

Rhizome is creeping. The pinnate fronds arch and cascade in horizontal layers of shiny green round "buttons" of pinnae.

Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention.

6-18 x 4-20
(15-45 x 10-50)

A small-medium fern with short-medium-creeping rhizomes and fronds in a loose cluster. Grows well under medium to high light in moist-dry, well-drained garden soil with coarse sand. The plants are easy to grow and thrive indoors in the United States. Do not water until the soil is nearly dry.

It is a popular garden plant (in zones 8 and 9) and house plant, tolerating low temperatures but not freezing. It is an evergreen fern that can have more than 30 pairs of round, dark-green, leathery pinnae on fronds up to 18 in. (45 cm). It needs acidic and well-drained soil; it does not appreciate the moist, humid conditions that most ferns require so does well with minimal watering.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

House Fern.
Cold Hardy Fern.
Hanging Basket and
Heated Greenhouse or Outdoor Container in Spring/Summer in temperate regions, with
Rock Garden,
Border and Foundation Ferns, Outdoor Container, Hanging Basket and moist Woodland in New Zealand.
Acid Soil.
Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

Requires a moderately fertile, ericaceous, moist but well-drained soil in full sun with protection from hot midday sun, or partial shade. In frost prone areas protect the crown with a dry winter mulch.

Good basket fern.

Greenhouse fern.

Evergreen.

It is found in light scrub, dry forests and occasionally in moist rainforest habitats within New Zealand.
Extremely attractive addition to the indoor fern collection or patio displays in temperate Zone 9 gardens. It requires an acidic and well-drained grainy compost and, while it should not dry out, it is more likely to be lost by being overwatered. Give it good indirect light and occasional water.

A very popular fern both with enthusiasts and commercial growers, that is prized for its rosette of neat, dark green fronds with blunt to rounded segments. Excellent in a pot or among rocks in a shaded rock garden. Likes an acid, humus-rich soil and bright light. Popular in some countries as an indoor plant.

This fern has a prostrate habit and its long fronds will arch downwards if potted into a hanging basket. It also looks effective cascading from a shelf.

pellaearotundifoliapfigurewikimediacommons pellaearotundifoliapfruwikimediacommons

Pellaea aff. rotundifolia (G.Forst.) Hook by Cam Kilgour. This image has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland Museum. For details refer to the Commons project page, via Wikimedia Commons.

Pellaea rotundifolia in Eastwoodhill Arboretum (New Zealand). Date: 26 November 2017. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

pellaearotundifoliapforwikimediacommons

Usage on sv.wikipedia.org - Pellaea rotundifolia , Phipps Conservatory. Date March 2009. By myself (User:Piotrus). Permission (Reusing this file)Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2.5 and older versions (2.0 and 1. Via Wikimedia Commons.

Pellaea sagittata (Allosorus sagittatus, Pellaea sagittata var. sagittata, Platyloma sagittata,
Pteris sagittata)

Texas, Central and South America

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Fronds 15-75 cms (6-30 inches) tall, erect, straight or nearly so, stiff.

Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention.

8-32 x
(20-80 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Fern found on Limestone or Basic Soil.
Heated Greenhouse in temperate regions or Outdoor Container during summer.
Use as edging in Rock Garden and Border and Foundation Ferns in tropical regions.
Shade-tolerant fern.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

An interesting fern with light green, leathery fronds which have segments shaped like arrowheads. Plants need neutral to alkaline soils of free drainage and warm, airy conditions.

This is an edging plant species.

pellaeasagittatapfigurewikimediacommons

Usage on species.wikimedia.org • Pellaea sagittata. Die Farrnkräuter in kolorirten Abbildungen naturgetreu Erläutert und Beschrieben, By Kunze, Gustav, 1793-1851 via Wikimedia Commons.
See photos.

Pellaea ternifolia (Allosorus ternifolius
Cheilanthes ternifolia,
Notholaena ternifolia,
Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia,
Pellaea ternifolia var. ternifolia,
Pellaea weddelliana,
Platyloma ternifolia,
Pteris peruviana,
Pteris ternifolia) 

Trans-Pecos Cliffbrake

North, Central and South America, Hawaii

Tropical America

Latin: terni, in three’s, and folius, leaved, = with three leaves, in reference to the pinnae which are deeply divided into three portions.

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Leaves 6-12 inches (15-30) long on strong, dark chestnut stalks, narrow with 6-12 opposite pairs of pinnae; leaves closely rolled together.

Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention.

12-24 x
(30-60 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Acid Soil on igneous rock in Rock Garden in its native habitat.
Grow in Pot or Rock Garden inside Heated Greenhouse in Temperate regions.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

An attractive species with tall, slender, leathery fronds each with a few narrow leaflets which are grey-green and leathery. New fronds are glaucous. Plants need bright light, warmth and acid to neutral, freely-draining soil.

A small to medium fern with ascending, stout rhizomes and clustered fronds. Grows under high light in well-drained, moist-dry garden soil or potting mix.

Cliffs, rocky slopes, ledges, on igneous substrates; Native habitat in Trans-Pecos.

pellaeaternifoliapforwikimediacommons

Pellaea ternifolia (habit). Location: Maui, Near Puu o Pele Haleakala National Park. By Forest & Kim Starr via Wikimedia Commons

• Pellaea ternifolia (Kalamoho) Habit at Waiale Gulch, Maui, Hawaii. July 05, 2011. By Forest and Kim Starr via Wikimedia Commons.

See more photos.

See Distribution Map.

pellaeaternifoliapfolwikimediacommons

Pellaea viridis (Pellaea adiantoides, Pteris adiantoides, Pellaea hastata, Cheilanthes viridis)

Green Cliff Brake

Africa, Mauritius, Reunion. It is an invasive species in Australia.
Widespread in eastern and southern tropical Africa.

USDA Zones: 9a-10b, so needs heated greenhouse in temperate regions like the UK; instead of outside in the ground.

Pellaea are small rock-loving ferns thriving best on limestone rocks. Sori at the ends of free veins forming a mostly continuous marginal band around the segments and covered by the more or less changed margin of the segments. The species are perhaps 40 or more, widely scattered in many countries. Some of them are glasshouse subjects and others are hardy.

Semi-hardy.

viridis: green, alluding to the green colour of the fronds.

Fronds bipinnate and 18-24 inches (45-60 cms) long.

It has shiny stems, triangular, light green bipinnate leaves, 12-20 inches (30-50) long, and long, oval leaflets.

Sori in a narrow marginal line.
Very commonly used in small fern gardens in America and Canada in 1939.

Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention.

24 x
(60 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Hanging Basket in Heated Greenhouse and for Indoor Decoration in temperate region. In Rock Garden or Outdoor Container in Zones 9a-10b, in Basic or Limestone Soil and within rocks or margin of Woodland.
Cold-Hardy Fern.
 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

Makes a good room plant.

A delightful fern which forms a clump of bright green fronds. Plants look attractive in a pot or sheltered rock garden. They need soil of excellent drainage, warmth and strong light. Susceptible to slug damage. The addition of lime to the soil is frequently beneficial for this fern.

Grows well in moist-dry garden soil or potting mix in America.

Deer-resistant in North America.

Habitat in undergrowth and margins of evergreen forest, among rocks in woodland between 820 - 1900 m, and is Widespread in South Africa and east tropical Africa, also in Madagascar, Yemen, India, Cape Verde and Mascarene islands.

Evergreen desert fern.

Easy to grow fern in hanging basket in North America.

pellaeaviridispforwikimediacommons

Pellaea viridis Ferndale Park. Sydney NSW, Australia. Date: 15 May 2017. By Poyt448, Peter Woodard, via Wikimedia Commons.

Pellaea viridis cultivars

 

 

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

var. glauca - erect 3-pinnate fronds with smaller, often blue-green segments.

var. macrophylla - fronds 2 pinnate with large, coarse dark green segments.

item1c11a1

Plant Delights Nursery sells Pellaea viridis 'Cathcart',
Pellaea viridis 'McLear' and
Pellaea viridis 'Tiffendell'

item1a1k1a

Pellaea hastata (Pellaea calomelanos, Cheilanthes hastata)

Cliff Brake Fern, Hard Fern, Blue Rock Fern

Africa

Zones 8b-10b in America.

In crevices of sunny or slightly shaded rocks, or among boulders on slopes with scarce and open vegetation Altitude range: 700 - 1300 m.
Worldwide distribution: Throughout southern, central and eastern Africa as far as Sudan; also Madagascar, Comoro Isl., Mascarene Isl., northern India, northeastern Spain.

Bi- or tripinnate leathery fronds, 12-24 (30-60).

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

8-18 x 8-18
(20-45 x 20-45)

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

In temperate region, it requires
Acid Soil, and
Drier Soil within a
Rock Garden in
Hanging Basket within Heated Greenhouse and
Shade-Tolerant.
In tropical regions, it requires
Outdoor Container, or as a Border and Foundation Fern, in Acid Soil, Drier Soil and Shade-Tolerant.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

Makes a good room plant.

An interesting fern of semi-arid areas usually found growing among rocks. The form in cultivation has pinnate fronds, however, bipinnate forms are known in the wild. Segments are at right angles to the rachis, dark green and deltoid to triangular. Plants need an acid, loamy soil, bright light and adequate air movement.

Grow in Part Shade to full Shade with light or afternoon shade and well-drained moist soil.

pellaeahastatapforwikimediacommons

Pellaea calomelanos -
Deutsch: Farn - Südafrika, weite Verbreitung - z.T. als Heilmittel geraucht
English: Fern - wide spread over South Africa - can withstand droughts and will be found in extremly dry areas. By Uwe und Lukas via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Braam Youngplants is one of the biggest fern growers with customers all over the world. On this site you will find a comprehensive survey of available tropical and hardy ferns., including Pellaea hastata.
Braam Youngplants supplies 160 types, of which most of them are grown from spurs in Holland. After16 to 30 weeks the trays with small fern plants are delivered to the growers, who nurse the plant until it can be sold to the consumer.

Pellaea falcata (Platyloma falcata,
Pteris falcata , Allosorus falcatus ,
Pteris seticaulis)

Sickle Fern, Cliff Brake Fern, Australian Cliff Brake

Native habitat in India, New Zealand, Australia, Norfolk Island and New Caledonia

Semi-hardy,
Zone (7), 8

Pellaea: dark fern; from the greek pellos; dark leaf and leaf stalk
falcata: From the Latin falx 'scythe' or 'sickle', meaning sickle-shaped

Spear-shaped fronds, 6-15 (15-37.5) long, 1-2 (2.5-5) broad. Almost hardy in the UK.

It has a creeping rootstock, short, rather hairy stems, lanceolate, dark green pinnate leaves, 8-12 inch (20-30) long, with closely packed, sickle-shaped leaflets.

Sori in broad lines.

Spore bearing fronds may be found throughout the year.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

to 18 x
(45 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

PROPAGATION TECHNIQUE
Easy from fresh spores. Very fast growing and an excellent pot plant. Does well in a variety of soils, light levels and moisture regimes but intolerant of weeds.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Cold Hardy.
Indoor Decoration.
Shade Tolerant.

Coastal Districts and Outdoor Containers, as well as eucalyptus forest, rainforest (Woodland), Border and Foundation Fern and Rock Garden in native habitat.

Outdoor Containers during Summer, which are brought into heated greenhouse in winter elsewhere.

 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C) - Room temperatures from Jordan's Jungle in America - Room temperatures between 65-75ºF (18-24ºC) are ideal, and no lower than 55ºF (13ºC).

 

Herbarium evidence shows this species was once common on the volcanic cones of Auckland City, but due to targetted collection, the species has all but vanished from this area within the last forty years.

An interesting fern which grows in spreading colonies. Can be cultivated in shady or part shade situations in well-drained, loamy soil. Plants like plenty of water and can also be grown in pots.

A small-medium fern with dark green fronds in loose clusters from short- to medium-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under medium to high light in drained, moist-dry garden or potting mix. This species can withstand temperatures down to -7C (19F) for one week, if dry - Keep compost on the dry side but don't allow to dry out for too long.

It is a widespread and common plant, growing in eastern Australia. Often seen in on the coast and ranges in eucalyptus forest and rainforest. Occurring in Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. Also occurring on Lord Howe Island. It prefers ample water when grown indoors,and can take very bright light but not full sun. Fronds usually 37 to 105 cm long. Fronds with between 27 and 65 leaflets, sometimes more. These pinnae (fern leaflets) have a short stalk or no stalk, oblong to narrow-oblong in shape. 22 to 56 mm long, 5 to 12 mm wide.
Pellaea falcata is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in Australia.

HABITAT
Coastal in short scrub, on cliff faces and in open forest. Often on small islands, also inland on scoria and basalt rocks around Auckland City.

pellaeafalcatapforwikimediacommons

Pellaea falcata - Botanical specimen in the Balboa Park Botanical Building, Balboa Park, San Diego, California, USA. Date: 24 February 2013. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons. Note the curled edge under the top of the leaf is shown just above the centre of this photo and is the normal shape of each leaf.

Pellaea cordifolia (Pellaea cordata, Pellaea sagittata var. cordata)

Cliff Brake Fern, Heart-leaf Fern, Heart-leaf Cliffbrake, Silvery Moon Fern

Texas, Mexico

Latin: cordis, heart, and folius, leaved, = heart leaf

It has short, rounded to heart-shaped, light green segments.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

8-32 x
(20-80 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Colour in Fern Fronds.
Shade-tolerant.
Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soils in
Rock Garden or Outdoor Container in native habitat.

In cooler temperate regions like the UK, grow in
Terrarium or pot within
Heated Greenhouse or Conservatory

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

Sporulating in July-November.

It is a delicate-looking fern. It needs neutral to alkaline soils of free drainage and warm, airy conditions.

A medium-sized fern with short-creeping rhizomes and lax, bluish gray-green fronds. Grows well under high light in drained, moist-dry garden soil with coarse sand. The longer fronds tend to become tangled and will need support if grown upright.

Habitat in Canyons, cliffs, mountain slopes; Chinati Mts., Presidio Co. in America

Silvery Moon is a beautiful new Pellaea fern with a magnificent silvery sheen, grown in Australia. This stunning fern is suited to indoors, patios and garden beds. It needs to be kept moist in a well drained shady position and is an attractive, low maintenance, hardy plant. Avoid direct sunlight and fertilise regularly.

item1f1a1

See photos.

 

BOOM is a unique concept in garden and indoor plants.
BOOM is by Boomaroo, one of Australia's leading nurseries is renowned for its quality potted plants and seedlings.

item1a4a1a

Pellaea atropurpurea (Pellaea atropurpurea var. cristata,
Pteris atropurpurea)

Purple Rock Brake,
Cliff Brake Fern, Purple Cliff Brake, Purple-stem Cliffbrake

This is sufficiently hardy to grow outside in UK in sheltered rockeries if protected with litter or hand-light in winter.

North America

Zones 4-9

Very Hardy in Zone 4

Brake is an old word for fern, related to the word bracken.

Rhizome is short-creeping. The pinnate fronds are borne on dark purple-black stipes.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

8-18 x 12-24
(20-45 x 30-60)

The triangular leaves 10-12 inches (25-30 cms) long, are parted many times at the base, and widespread, lanceolate leaflets which turn from green to a bluish-green.

This fern produces clumps of widely arching fronds. They produce sori, which lack a true indusium, within the inrolled margins of the pinnae. It grows in the crevices of dry limestone cliffs, rocky slopes, crevices in alvars, and mortared walls.

Drought tolerant species that grows in rocky, limestone areas where there is little soil. It is evergreen and grows in an asymmetric clump.

It grows in full sun and is native to all but 8 states of the continental United States.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Spores produced June - September.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soil.
Drier Soil.
Rock Garden.
Outdoor Container.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Shade-Tolerant.
Sun-Tolerant.
Shallow dish in Heated Greenhouse.
Xerophytic Fern.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C).

 

This species can tolerate annual winter temperatures of -28 to -35C (-23 to -31F). In the wild this species grows on calcareous rocks such as dolomite and limestone. It resembles Pellaea glabella, with which it often grows, but can easily be distinguished by the hairy stipe and stalked pinnae and pinnules.

It is at home in limestone cliffs across central and midwestern North America, into Mexico and Central America.
It is suitable for a rock garden site with good drainage and a limestone substrate.

Evergreen

Grow in a shady, well-drained spot in the UK, in lime-rich soil. It is only evergreen when the winters are mild. Protect against heavy rain. Indoors the fern thrives in broad, shallow dishes or hanging baskets because of its shallow roots, even in fairly dark spots. It requires light, well-drained soil, rich in humus, e.g, equal parts of sand or vermiculite, leaf-mould or peat, and some lime. Keep relatively moist and do not allow the plant to dry out. Do not water the leaves directly - especially in winter - to prevent infections, and spray occasionally. Temperature 14-20C, in winter 12-15C. During the growing season, feed once every 2 or 3 weeks. Propagate by dividing in spring.

pellaeaatropurpureapforwikimediacommons

Pellaea atropurpurea (purple cliffbrake) foliage. Date: 20 July 2016. This image is Image Number 5550677 at Insect Images, a source for entomological images operated by The Bugwood Network at the University of Georgia and the USDA Forest Service. By Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org via Wikimedia Commons.

Frond forms of Pellaea atropurpurea. Date: July 2009. By Jaknouse via Wikimedia Commons.

More photos.
Yet more.
and.

 

Distribution Map in USA.

pellaeaatropurpureapfigurewikimediacommons

Pellaea andromedifolia (Pellaea andromedifolia var. pubescens, Pellaea andromedifolia var. rubens)

Coffee Fern, Coffeeberry Fern, Cliff Brake Fern, Coffee Cliffbrake

Native to United States (California and Oregon) and Mexico (Baja California).

Semi-hardy, Zone (7), 8; reportedly can endure temperatures as low as -13C (9F)

The common name alludes to the mature leaflets, which bear a resemblance to coffee beans.

The main rachis of the fronds of this fern is often zig-zagged. The segments are blunt, oblong in shape and dark green. Plants need an open, well-drained mixture of neutral to acid reaction, good light and air movement.

Leaves are 6-12 inches (15-30) long, 3-6 (7.5-15) wide.

Each segment may curl under along its edges. The leaves are green when new, then turn red, purplish, or brown.

Fronds are pale to bluish green but age to purplish or coffee brown.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

6-18 x 6-12
(15-45 x 15-30)

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable in UK and warm temperate regions for

Acid Soil.
Rock Garden.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil.
Woodlands.
Coastal Districts.
Sun-Tolerant.
Heated Greenhouse where external temperatures can be lower than -10C

 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

Difficult to establish and needs summer water the first year. After that they increase in size and vigor and are drought tolerant.

A small to medium fern with slender, creeping rhizomes and loosely clustered fronds. Grows under high light in well-drained, moist-dry garden soil with coarse sand.

Pellaea andromedifolia is found on dry Western facing sunny banks, in coastal, Mojave Desert, and California chaparral and woodlands habitats. It is able to take long periods without water, when it will shrivel and appear dead. Then shortly after rainfall new growth appears quickly from the ground. It is not crown forming, but spreading slowly and forming clumps.

Generally rocky or dry areas; Elevation: 30--1800 m. See Botanical Illustration on same page.

Communities for Pellaea andromedifolia: Chaparral, Mixed-evergreen Forest and Central Oak Woodland.

pellaeaandromedifoliapfor1wikimediacommons

Photo of Pellaea andromedifolia at the Regional Parks Botanic Garden, Berkeley, California. Date: April 2007. By Stan Shebs via Wikimedia Commons.

pellaeaandromedifoliapfor2wikimediacommons

Pellaea andromedifolia (Coffee Fern) - El Portal, Mariposa County, California. Date: 14 June 2012. By Sandy Rae via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Paraceterach reynoldsii (Notholaena (as Nothochlaena) reynoldsii); Grammitis reynoldsii ; Gymnogramma (as Gymnogramme) reynoldsii , Gymnogramma reynoldsii, Gymnogramme reynoldsii, Nothochlaena reynoldsii, Notholaena reynoldsii)

Mouse-ear Fern

Australia

Rhizome prostrate, long-creeping, scaly, the scales linear-subulate, margins pale-brown, centre black, thickened; fronds scattered, linear, to 30 cm long; stipe and rhachis a dark blackish brown, scaly, sometimes becoming glabrescent; pinnae orbicular or oblong, densely scaly especially on the undersurface; sori forming a broad submarginal continuous band, exindusiate, sporangia obscured by scales.

4-8 x
(10-20 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: See on right. Use 1 part loam to 1 part scoria for propagating mix.

Suitable for

Open Terrarium or
Fern for Indoor Decoration in temperate regions like the UK.

Resurrection Fern in a
Rock Garden with
Acid Soil or in
Outdoor Container for tropical regions.

Use well-drained acidic mix - including scoria, which is poor nutritionally to provide best chance of success. Plant must not be overpotted and will grow in a small pot for a number of seasons. Keep fern on the dry side and in temperate regions it should be kept as dry as possible over winter. Surface application of well-rotted animal manure is ideal in the spring. In tropical and subtropical regions a lightly shaded but dry situation is suitable.

This is a neat, Resurrection Fern which forms spreading colonies in the protection of acidic rocks. Fresh fronds are bright green with conspicuous brown scales on the upper surface. Plants grow fairly easily in a loamy, acid soil, in a situation exposed to some sun and with plenty of air movement. Also can be grown in a pot.

Amongst rocks in gully in Western Australia

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

See photo.

Another.

Again.

Seeds of South Australia - This database contains 143 families, 837 genera and 3,103 native species with 29,294 images (also with 400 introduced species).

item1a2d1a1

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Cheilanthes hispidula , Cheilanthes moluccana , Cheilosoria tenuifolia, Trichomanes tenuifolium ; Acrostichum tenue ;
Adiantum cicutifolium ; Cassebeera tenuifolia + others)

Lip Fern, Rock Fern, Curly Fern

New Zealand, Australia.

North India, Sri Lanka, South-East Asia, Polynesia.

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, S Hunan, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia, Oceania (including New Zealand)].

The genus name comes from the Greek cheilos, lip, and anthos, flower, referring to the curled pinnae margins that enclose the sori.

 

Vernacular names

• Narrow-leaved lip fern (En)

• Indonesia: paku jepun (Sundanese), paku alus (Moluccas), paku resam lumut (Bangka)

• Malaysia: resam lumut, resam padi, paku telur belangkas

• Philippines: pakong-roman (Tagalog)

• Thailand: chon phee (peninsular)

• Vietnam: thần mô lá mảnh.

薄叶碎米蕨
bao ye sui mi jue

The fronds are finely divided, with a lacy appearance and the new fronds are a fresh bright green.

Sori confined to distal portion of lobes, interrupted at segment bases.

Cheilanthes tenuifolia grows in all the dry parts of New South Wales. It has adapted itself to situations in which it may be absolutely dry for several months during each year, but as soon as rain comes it commences to grow immediately. The fern is not very large. It consists of a subterranean dorsiventral rhizome which occasionally branches and attains a considerable length. Stiff erect fronds rise above the surface of the soil here and there, usually in clumps. This is due to the fact that the fronds grow out from the rhizome much more quickly than the rhizome itself grows. Meanwhile, the fronds along the the older parts of the rhizome die, so that there remains a clump of leaves around the apex. There is a very efficient root system growing out from the rhizome, the main roots branching profusely and giving rise to a very extensive secondary root system. The roots are dark brown, and very thin and wiry.

Detrimental to cattle in New South Wales.

8-16 x
(20-40 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

 

A spore of C. tenuifolia germinates readily in culture; rhizoids emerge within 2 weeks after sowing. The prothallus reaches maturity about 6 months after germination of the spore and the gametophyte is cordate, about 1 cm long, glabrous, with a prominent midrib bearing rhizoids and sex organs. The midrib is 6-8 cells thick and the wing cells are uniformly thin-walled. Antheridia mostly globose, appearing superficially on the underside, occasionally on the margins, when the prothallus is about 2 mm wide (after about 40 days) and still one cell thick. The archegonial neck is composed of 6 tiers of cells and curved. Fertilization and formation of sporophytes occurs profusely in culture and generally only a single sporophyte develops per prothallus. The first juvenile leaf is entire, broadly cuneate to spatulate, with a single median vein dichotomizing equally once or twice, hairy especially on the margin. C. tenuifolia grows actively during the rainy season and becomes dormant in the dry season.

Spore germination instructions and seeds from Exotic Plants with worldwide shipping (shipping to circling space stations could cost more).

Suitable for

Tall Pot in Conservatory in temperate regions.
Rock Garden and Walls in the Tropics, with Drier Soil or in open Woodlands - suitable for Coastal regions as well.

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

The pots should be half-filled with crocks to ensure perfect drainage. Slugs are troublesome, unless the pots are stood upon crushed coke, or sifted ashes, over which the slugs do not like to crawl.

Add composted bark, charcoal, and humus to the basic mix. Tall narrow pots provide the best drainage for containerized plants.

Stove Fern.

A widely distributed species which grows actively during the monsoonal wet season and becomes dormant in the dry. A difficult subject to grow away from the tropics. Best tried in a partially protected situation outside.

This is a fern of open areas in the lowland in Singapore - on bare earthbanks, rock surfaces and even on old walls.

C. tenuifolia occurs often on unfertile, dry or humid, rocky ground in open forest areas, on old stone or earthen walls, sometimes amidst alang-alang ( Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel) or as a weed on ridges in plantations, sometimes gregariously, from sea-level up to 1500 m altitude. It is drought-resistant but also grows well in areas with abundant rainfall. In regions with a pronounced dry season the aboveground parts wither and the plant resumes growth after the first rains. It is often able to regenerate when the grassy vegetation in which it grows is mowed not too close to the ground.

On rocks in forests and along stream banks, roadsides, rice fields; 100-1000 m.

On rather dry clayey banks of paths in mixed forests at low altitudes in Thailand.

cheilanthestenuifoliapfigurewikimediacommons

Cheilanthes tenuifolia - botanical illustrations in Bibliotheca botanica. Stuttgart,E. Schweizerbart [etc.]1886-. biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47220674. From Biodiversity Heritage Library via Wikimedia Commons.

cheilanthestenuifoliapfornatureloveyou

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Lip Fern, Rock Fern) DSC07747 (09). Photo taken 13 June 2009. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

cheilanthestenuifoliapfrunatureloveyou

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Lip Fern, Rock Fern) DSC05720 (11). Spores containing bodies (sporangia) can be seen along the edge of the underside of the leaf (frond). Photo taken 13 June 2009. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

More photos from New Caledonia.

Paraceterach muelleri (Gymnopteris
muelleri)

Scaly Resurrection Fern

Australia - Paraceterach 
mulleri is native to Western Australia and can be found at the very northern end of the state.

The Rhizome grows along the ground for a little and the rest of the plant is almost standing upright. The Rhizome Scales are narrowly triangular with a length of 1.5mm, they have a thick black central band and pale thin, pliable borders.
The fronds (leaves) can range between 8 and 40cm in length.

4-12 x
(10-30 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.
Sori produced from Jun to Jul or Sep. Habitat - Red loam, clayey sand. Rock crevices, rock ledges, amongst sandstone rocks in sheltered vine thickets.

Suitable for

Terrarium in temperate regions.
Rock garden in Australia.
Resurrection Fern.

Expanded , fresh fronds of this fern are an attractive bright green, with the pinnae bearing numerous light brown papery scales. When dry, the fronds curl and become brown and brittle. Grows on rocky outcrops and is difficult to cultivate. Needs warm, dry, airy conditions, bright light, and a well-drained, humus-rich mixture.

Paraceterach 
muelleri grows in rock crevices, on granite rock ledges and often
shelters in vine thickets.

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

See photos, illustration and Distribution Maps.

item1a1d1a

Notholaena sinuata (Gymnogramme sinuata, Acrostichum sinuatum, Cheilanthes sinuata, Astrolepis sinuata)

Wavy Cloak Fern, Star-scaled Fern,
Wavyleaf Fern, or
Silver Wave Fern, or
Jimmy Fern

North America (Texas, Arizona), Mexico, Central and South America

The genus name comes from the Greek nothos, false, and chlaena, cloak, referring to the blade margins, which are not reflexed as in the similar genus Cheilanthes.

Fronds are slender with attractively lobed segments and are densely scaly.

"The narrow 6 to 18 inch upright fronds are tightly trimmed in chubby, starry-haired blue pinnae. By handsome contrast the stems are pinkish. In the wild, this evergreen wanders around in dryish gulches and on partially sunny hillsides. In the garden it needs a specially created similar habitat with good drainage and low moisture. In areas of high winter rainfall a container facing south and protected from the whims of weather under the eaves or similar “umbrella” of a building serves the need. Better yet a sheltered alpine house provides an ideal setting. Given the right conditions this is a very attractive addition to Zone 8" from Casa Flora who are based in Texas, North America.

8-28 x
(20-70 x )

 

It has been completely evergreen in our rockery. The leaf coloration is smoky grey to dusty sage-green on top, softly furred underneath in shades of gold & tan. Young fronds have glittery white scales. If looked at with a magnifying glass, these scales are distinctly star-shaped.
A scrubland or dry alpine fern, it typically grows underneath evergreen desert & semi-desert shrubs in rocky soil. Positioning it in a garden requires thought, for though it likes vastly more sun than any other fern, & could be regarded a full-sun plant, it does not like to have its roots overheated, so frequently grows between rocks so that its fronds are in the sun & its roots sheltered.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of fine sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 75-85F (24-29C) at any time; division at potting time

Suitable for

Terrarium in Conservatory within temperate districts.
Colour in Fern Fronds.

Limestone or Basic Soils,
Xerophytic Fern, Rock Garden in Drier Soil (dry) native habitat - in bright but indirect sunlight, except along cloudy coastal areas, where they may be planted in full sun.

See some of the entries in comparison pages under Astrolepis sinuata

 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. Fronds divided, upper surface green, under covered with white powder or scales. Height from 3 to 18 inches (7.5-45cm). First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and finely broken sandstone.
Position, pots in shady part of house. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Syringing not required.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C)
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). Notholaena bonariensis is impatient of water on fronds.

Stove Fern.

A hardy fern usually growing in gravelly soils in sunny or shady situations. Plants are tricky to grow requiring excellent drainage, bright light and adequate air movement. Water with care.

It prefers a well-drained soil kept on the drier side of moist. It must not rapidly fluctuate between wet and dry. The fronds should be kept free of water droplets resulting from condensation and overhead watering, although fog does not seem to bother some xerophytic ferns.

Dry rocky hillsides and canyon walls, Lower Sonoran Zone, central Arizona to western Oklahoma, Texas, Baja California, the West Indies, and southward to at least as far as Chile.

astrolepissinuatapfrondwikimediacommons1

Xerophytes should be planted with their crowns slightly above the soil. If using pots, make sure that the soil level is close to the rim in order to reduce the amount of water that could be caught in the pot during watering. A process known as double potting maintains uniform soil moisture over a longer time. The fern is planted in a porous clay pot, which in turn is planted in a larger clay pot, usually 5-7.5 cms (2-3 inches) wider than the first. The same soil mix is used in both pots.
Xerophytes can be successively grown in terrariums if the soil moisture is carefully monitored and the humidity not excessive. Soil water evaporates slowly in a terrarium, thus maintaining a more constant moisture level. In such a protected environment fronds may develop more fully than in nature.
Outdoors, xerophytes are often planted in trough gardens, among rocks, or on well-drained sites. Xerophytic ferns are extremely sensitive to overwatering and can die if overwatered only a few times, and so they should be planted away from plants that require more water. Whether in the ground or in pots, the plants should be watered early in the morning so that any water settling on the fronds will evaporate during the day.
Most xerophytic ferns go dormant during the summer in their native habitats. In cultivation, however, dormancy might not occur. In addition, many xerophytic ferns grow more slowly or go dormant as cool weather approaches. Dormant or slow-growing plants need less water.

Astrolepis sinuata at the University of California Botanical Garden, Berkeley, California. By Stan Shebs via Wikimedia Commons

 

Astrolepis sinuata - Botanical specimen in the Zilker Botanical Garden - Austin, Texas, USA. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons

 

See other photos.

astrolepissinuatapforwikimediacommons1

Notholaena standleyi (Cheilanthes standleyi, Cheilanthes hookeri ; Notholaena candida var. quinque-fidopalmata ; Notholaena hookeri ; Notholaena sulphurea var. quinqu-ifidopalmata ; Chrysochosma hookeri)

Cloak Fern, Star Cloak Fern, Standley's cloak fern, Northern Desert Star Cloakfern, Northern Desert Star

Native to the southwestern United States and Mexico.

The genus name comes from the Greek nothos, false, and chlaena, cloak, referring to the blade margins, which are not reflexed as in the similar genus Cheilanthes.

It has pentagonal blades densely covered with a whitish powder on the lower surface, and the hardly enrolled indusium is narrow.

An attractive fern with broad, dull green fronds with the undersurface covered with yellow or white waxy powder. In dry periods the fronds curl inwards to form a ball. Plants are clumping and look attractive among rocks. They need bright light, well-drained gravelly soils of a neutral to alkaline pH and plenty of air movement.

It is locally common in rock cracks and sheltered pockets under boulders in dry exposed sites.

4-12 x
(10-30 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of fine sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 75-85F (24-29C) at any time; division at potting time.

It takes 13 days to germinate and sporulates from late spring to fall. The spore is transported by air and water.

Suitable for

Terrarium in Conservatory in temperate regions.

Limestone or Basic Soils.
Xerophytic Fern. Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil in
Rock Garden with Sun-Tolerance in native habitat.

Herbaceous Stove Fern.

A small fern with compact rhizomes and fronds in a cluster. Requires high light in moist-dry, well-drained garden soil preferably mixed with coarse sand or gravel.

Notholaena standleyi is a perennial species that typically grows in desert regions at elevations from 300 to 2100 m. It is found on rocky hillsides, usually in the crevices created by limestone and granite boulders that provide the partial shade the plant prefers. During periods of drought, the frond may curl and become brown until water is available, an adaptation to the semi-arid environments it inhabits. At lower elevations, it sometimes grows alongside Notholaena californica.

notholaenastanleyipforwikimediacommons

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. Fronds divided, upper surface green, under covered with white powder or scales. Height from 3 to 18 inches (7.5-45cm). First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and finely broken sandstone.
Position, pots in shady part of house. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Syringing not required.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C)
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). Notholaena bonariensis is impatient of water on fronds.

Notholaena standleyi — Standley Cloak Fern. Substrate is highly weathered gneiss; At the Phoenix Mountains Preserve, Maricopa County, Arizona.
Date: 5 January 2008. By Mike via Wikimedia Commons.

Notholaena standleyi distribution in US. Date: 10 April 2012. By USDA via Wikimedia Commons.

See photos.

See Notholaena standleyi in the desert house at the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh

See dry foliage balls and green fronds from Eco Landscaping.

notholaenastanleyipfigurewikimediacommons

Xerophytes should be planted with their crowns slightly above the soil. If using pots, make sure that the soil level is close to the rim in order to reduce the amount of water that could be caught in the pot during watering. A process known as double potting maintains uniform soil moisture over a longer time. The fern is planted in a porous clay pot, which in turn is planted in a larger clay pot, usually 5-7.5 cms (2-3 inches) wider than the first. The same soil mix is used in both pots.
Xerophytes can be successively grown in terrariums if the soil moisture is carefully monitored and the humidity not excessive. Soil water evaporates slowly in a terrarium, thus maintaining a more constant moisture level. In such a protected environment fronds may develop more fully than in nature.
Outdoors, xerophytes are often planted in trough gardens, among rocks, or on well-drained sites. Xerophytic ferns are extremely sensitive to overwatering and can die if overwatered only a few times, and so they should be planted away from plants that require more water. Whether in the ground or in pots, the plants should be watered early in the morning so that any water settling on the fronds will evaporate during the day.
Most xerophytic ferns go dormant during the summer in their native habitats. In cultivation, however, dormancy might not occur. In addition, many xerophytic ferns grow more slowly or go dormant as cool weather approaches. Dormant or slow-growing plants need less water.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2