Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


TYPE OF FERN - Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives Page 2 of 4

From Chapter 30 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1:-

"Genera Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia are a loosely related group of ferns, which include many species which are favourites of enthusiastic gardeners and fern specialists alike.

Habitat
The vast majority of these ferns grow as terrestrials but Rumohra adiantiformis can grow as a terrestrial or an epiphyte and a few species of Dryopteris are epiphytes. Most of these ferns commonly grow in wet, shady situations in forests and along stream banks. Hardy species from northern latitudes may be covered in snow during winter.

Cultivation

Uses
These ferns are excellent for gardens, ferneries, and containers. A few are suitable for indoor decoration. Some have colourful new fronds (Dryopteris erythrosora) or spectacular flushes of new fronds (Dryopteris wallichiana) and should be planted where these features can be appreciated. Many from cold regions are dormant over winter and may even be deciduous. A wide range of frond shape and dissection is available and they are ideal for filling gaps in a fernery. See Chapter 22 on housing for ferns from The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further details on fernery, lathe-house, shadehouse and bush-house.

Soil Types
Most of these ferns are adaptable to a variety of soils providing that drainage is unimpeded. Loams fortified with organic matter are particularly suitable. The majority prefer acid soils but some from limestone areas need a neutral to alkaline soil. See Chapter 9 - soils for ferns from The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further details.

Potting Mix
An open mix based on a well-structured loam and fortified with peat moss, milled pine bark or chopped tree-fern fibre is usually satisfactoy for their growth. Some may require limestone chips in their mix. Many species have a vigorous root system and can quickly fill a pot. Repotting for most species will be required annually. See Chapter 10 - The basics of fern nutrition from The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further details.

Watering
Ferns of this group like plenty of water while in active growth over spring and summer. Those species which are dormant over winter should be watered sparingly until new fronds appear. Some species like Blechnum, Doodia and Pteris may suffer frond sweating - a blackening of all or part of the fronds - if kept too wet during still, cool weather (sweating is much worse if the plants are crowded or overgrown with weeds).

Fertilizing
Fertilizers and manures are very beneficial to these ferns and promote strong healthy growth. Those in the ground can receive supplementary dressings at intervals during the growing season. A spring dressing on these species that become dormant will help a strong flush of new growth. Slow-release fertilizers incorporated into potting mixes help maintain growth. See chapter 11 - Fertilizers, manures and lime from The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further detils.

Situation
Species of Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia need protection from direct hot sun and like shade or perhaps filtered sun. In temperate regions like the UK a situation under deciduous trees (but not Beech which is antagonistic to Ferns) is ideal. Species from the tropics may be sensitive to cold, especially frosts.

Pests
Brown Scale and Fern Scale may kill fronds on species of Dryopteris, Cyrtomium and Tectaria. Passion Vine Hoppers can also damage developing fronds. "
See Chapter 13 - Fern Pests of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further details on control of fern pests."

The following ferns come from Chapter 30:-
 

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Some information from Some Hardy Ferns table in Rock Gardens How-to-plan and-plant-them including wall, paved, marsh and water gardens by A. Edwards in charge of the rock garden Kew. Published by Ward, Lock & Co., Limited in 1929.

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden, Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Dryopteris wallichiana

 

 

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives


Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown on surface of fine sandy peat under bell-glass in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants at potting or planting time. Hardy species by spores sown on surface of sandy soil in shady cold frame; division in April.

Suitable for

 

Stove, Greenhouse or hardy Fern.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water moderately Oct-Mar, freely afterwards. Temperature, Sep-Mar 55-60F (13-15C), Mar-Sep 65-75F (18-24C)
Culture of Greenhouse species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Position, well-drained pots, borders or rock gardens in shade. Pot or plant, February, March or April. Water moderately Oct-Feb, freely afterwards. Temperature, Oct-Mar 40-50F (5-10C), Mar-Oct 55-65F (13-18C). Culture of Hardy species: Soil, ordinary, light, rich. Position, shady borders or rock gardens. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather May-Sep. Top-dress annually with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. Protect in severe weather with bracken or litter. Do not remove dead fronds until April.

 

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Lastreopsis calantha

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Lastreopsis decomposita

Trim Shield Fern

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Lastreopsis hispida

Bristly Shield Fern

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Lastreopsis marginans

Glossy Shield Fern

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Lastreopsis microsora

Creeping Shield Fern

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Lastreopsis munita

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Lastreopsis tenera (Nephrodium tenerum ; Aspidium gardnerianum ; Ctenitis simozawae ;
C. tenera ; Dryopteris simozawae ;
D. tenera ; Lastreopsis simozawae)

Broad Shield Fern

Taiwan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka; Australia].

台湾节毛蕨

Plants 25-100 cm tall. Rhizomes creeping, ca. 0.5 cm in diam., covered with lanceolate scales. Sori terminal or subterminal on veins and usually near margins of pinna lobes.

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

Forests; 100-900 m.

lastreopsistenerapfigureefloras

Lastreopsis tenera. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 11 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Lastreopsis velutina
Velvety Shield Fern

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Matteuccia orientalis

 

东方荚果蕨

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By spores gathered just before the cases burst and sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould, cover with glass and keep moderately moist in a shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants Mar-Apr.

Suitable for

 

Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margin of pond. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady, cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, Mar or Apr. Water copiously Apr-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
 

 

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Matteuccia struthiopteris
(Syn. Matteuccia pennsylvanica, Pteretis struthiopteris, Pteretis nodulosa, Struthiopteris pennsylvanica)

Ostrich Fern, Shuttlecock Fern

Very hardy.
Zone 2

Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Japan, Korea, Russia; Europe, North America].

荚果蕨

Mid Green pinnate fronds taper at both ends and grow in a vase-like cluster around the robust rootstock.
Each cluster eventually develops a small trunk.

A vigorous fern which spreads by underground rhizomes, producng clusters of new fronds at intervals Flushes of new fronds are most decorative. Requires acid, loamy soil.

The sterile leaves are deciduous, but the fertile ones persist throughout the winter and shed their spores in early spring, sometimes over snow. Usually 1 or 2 new plants are produced each year from the stolons.

Matteuccia struthiopteris is one of ProblemSolver Plants for Heavy Shade.

Rhizome short and robust, erect, dark brown, stoloniferous, densely covered with brown scales; scales lanceolate, ca. 5 mm, membranous, entire, apex fibriform. Fronds tufted. Fertile lamina shorter than sterile lamina, pinnate, oblanceolate, 20-40 × 1-8 cm, gradually narrowed downward, lower pinnae much reduced; pinnae dark brown, linear-moniliform, hardened, much inrolled, concealing sori.

66 x 36
(165 x 90)

Spacing 24-30 (60-75)

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Large hardy deciduous fern. Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margin of pond. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady, cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, Mar or Apr. Water copiously Apr-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
Propagation: By spores gathered just before the cases burst and sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould, cover with glass and keep moderately moist in a shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants Mar-Apr.

Suitable for

Fern for Acid Soils

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Border and Foundation Ferns.

Ground Cover Ferns.

Outdoor Containers.

Ferns for Wet Soils

Grow in moist shade in a woodland garden, a damp border or at the edge of a pond.
Great at the front of the border, in containers or as ground cover under deciduous trees.
Used as a foundation planting around houses.

Mass in moist, shady woodland areas, wild gardens or wet areas near streams or ponds. Combines well with astilbes or hostas. Plant in conjunction with early spring wildflowers (e.g., trilliums, bloodroot, trout lilies or Dutchman's breeches) which will be well on the way toward dormancy by the time this fern reaches full size.

It will grow in full sun with constant moisture.

Clump-forming fern to grow in Part Shade and Full Shade in Medium to Wet soil.

Forests, valley wetlands, also cultivated as ornamentals; 100-3800 m

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Matteuccia struthiopteris, young plant, Hurum, Buskerud (Norway). By Bjoertvedt via Wikimedia Commons.

 

English: Matteuccia Struthiopteris in Ypäjä, Tavastia Proper, Finland
Suomi: Kotkansiiven pysty kasvutapa. Kuva Ypäjältä 29.5.2011.
By Urjanhai via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

Русский: Страусник обыкновенный. Спорофиллы и вайи. Россия, Савинский район Ивановской области.
English: Matteuccia struthiopteris. Fertile and sterile fronds. Savinsky district, Ivanovo Oblast, Russia
By Borealis55 via Wikimedia Commons

 

Matteuccia struthiopteris
Deutsch: Junge Farne im Zeitzgrund bei Stadtroda (Thüringen).
By Michael Sander via Wikimedia Commons

Plant Delights Nursery sells Matteuccia struthiopteris 'The King'

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Polystichum acrostichoides
(Nephrodium acrostichoides)

Christmas Fern, Dagger Fern

Very Hardy Species in Zone 3
USDA Zones 4a to 9b
United States of America

Polystichum - Wikipedia

Christmas fern grows in a circular form with all the leaves arising from a single point on the ground. It can form colonies but frequently grows singly or in twos or threes. The fronds grow from 30–80 cm long and 5–12 cm broad, divided into 20-35 pairs of leaflets or pinnae. Each pinna is typically 4 cm long and has a finely serrulate or spiny edge and is oblong to falcate in shape.

12-18 x 12-18
(30-45 x 30-45)

Spacing 12 (30)

Often used in Christmas floral arrangements because it is still attractive in December. It is a wonderful companion for spring blooming bulbs. Found in acidic to neutral soils on shaded slopes and well drained flats. The plant height varies from 1 to 2 feet (12-24 inches, 30-60 cms), and will gradually colonize an area even in poor soil. Christmas Fern is a top choice for gardens in Zones 3 through 9.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

The shield ferns of the genus Polystichum are small- to medium-sized terrestrial ferns commonly grown in temperate gardens. Many of the species are particularly attractive for their dark green, glossy, evergreen foliage. The plants are used in rock gardens, borders, or pots, and the larger species can be used as foundation plants or for background foliage. They are often slow to grow from spores.

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam in July and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Border and Foundation Ferns

Cold-hardy Fern

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns

Shade-Tolerant Fern

Cut Foliage

Drought Tolerant in dry or moist shade

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Grow in Rock Garden
 

Evergreen Fern

Grow in well-drained soil, in shade it can tolerate dry conditions. Clump-forming. Grow in Part Shade and Full Shade.

It is found in moist and shady habitats in woodlands, rocky slopes, and stream banks.

The fern can conserve soil and allay erosion of steep slopes. The fronds are semi-erect until the first hard frost, after which they recline to be prostrate and effectively hold in place abscised foliage of the duff layer of the sylvan floor, which enables the gradual decomposition of the abscised foliage into humus, which in turn further conserves soil.

Polystichumacrostichoidespfrondwikimediacommons
Polystichum acrostichoides is a wonderful, easy-to-grow, deer-resistant US native (Minnesota south to Florida) with sturdy, dark, evergreen fronds emanating from a central point, making a 2' (24 inches, 60 cms)wide clump...particularly effective when used in drifts. The fronds first emerge upright, then flatten with age. Christmas fern (known in PC circles as the Seasonal Holiday Fern) is one of the finest of all evergreen ferns and retains its attractive appearance all winter...simply superb for woodland gardens, especially those with deep shade areas!

Frond of Photograph of the Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Photo taken at the Tyler Arboretum where it was identified.
By Photo (c)2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Form of Photograph of the Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Photo taken at the Tyler Arboretum where it was identified. By Photo (c)2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

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Polystichum acrostichoides cultivars

Polystichum acrostichoides is one of the problem solver plants for
erosion control - Herbaceous Plants
.

Planning a garden for a shaded area that can flourish with a limited amount of additional water is a special challenge. Polystichum acrostichoides is one of 10 Best Plants for a Dry Shade Garden with Shrubs.

Polystichum acrostichoides is one of ProblemSolver Plants for Heavy Shade.

 

Polystichum acrostichoides 'Crispum' Ruffled Christmas Fern - Fronds with strongly-crisped margins.

Polystichum acrostichoides 'Cristatum' - (crested) has crested frond tips.

Polystichum acrostichoides 'Incisum' - Fronds with deeply-lacerated pinnae.

 

Polystichum acrostichoides is one of ProblemSolver Plants for Shallow, Rocky Soil.

Polystichum acrostichoides is one of Ground Cover Plants for Missouri Gardens.

Polystichum aculeatum (Polystichum lobatum, Polypodium aculeatum, Aspidium aculeatum)
Hard Shield Fern, Prickly Shield-fern

Very Hardy Species in Zone 4.
Is okay in Zones 5,6,7,8

Native to Europe. It is most abundant in upland regions of the British Isles and western France, where it benefits from the combination of mild winters and moist summers.

Stiff, leathery, glossy, dark green evergreen leaves. Young fronds may be light green and provide a pleasant contrast to the mature rosette. Plants are very hardy in a shady, moist situation and may benefit from the addition of lime to the soil.

This fern grows on steep or rocky woodland banks and hedgebanks, and is one which will be found almost throughout the British Isles.

24-36 x 20-40
(60-90 x 50-100) with time to ultimate height of 2-5 years.

Remove dead fronds before new ones unfurl in the spring.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam in Julyat 15-16°C (59-61°F) and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Hedge.
Cold-Hardy.
Basic or Limestone Soil.
Outdoor Containers.
Rock Garden and Walls.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, full sun spots. Plant in March. Water freely in dry weather.

Grow in cool, sheltered spot in rock garden

This free-growing Fern is found in hedge-banks.

It occurs in shady situations frequently in mountainous regions and often on limestone rocks.

It grows on steep slopes in deciduous woodlands. It is found in mountain limestone screes in the Jura and the alps, and on alpine and subalpine limestone cliffs.

Underplant roses and deciduous shrubs with this fern.

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Nederlands: Stijve naaldvaren sori
English: Polystichum aculeatum sori.
By Rasbak via Wikimedia Commons

English: Polystichum aculeatum, Allenbanks, Northumberland, UK; 04 May 2006. By MPF via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumaculeatumpforwikimediacommons

Polystichum aculeatum cultivars

Polystichum is a genus of about 260 species of ferns with a cosmopolitan distribution. The highest diversity is in eastern Asia, with about 120 species in China alone; the region from Mexico to Brazil has nearly 100 additional species; Africa (17 species), North America (15 species), and Europe (5 species) have much lower diversity. Polystichum species are terrestrial or rock-dwelling ferns of warm-temperate and montane-tropical regions (a few species grow in alpine regions).

"Hardy species of Polystichum do well under the shade of trees. A top dressing of leaf-soil is beneficial in autumn and the dead fronds, if left on, afford protection in winter. All require plenty of water all the year round.
The greenhouse and stove species do well in the sun as their leathery fronds give protection."
from Aspidium section via Polystichum entry of The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia by Richard Sudell, F.I.L.A., A.R.H.S. Published by Odhams Press Limited in 1932

 

Polystichum aculeatum 'Acutilobum' - segments narrow and sharply pointed.

Polystichum aculeatum 'Cambricum' - segments ovate or sickle-shaped with coarsely toothed margins.

 

Polystichum aculeatum 'Pulcherrimum' - a bautiful form with graceful silky fronds with the segments tailed. Sterile.

Polystichum aculeatum 'Pulcherrimum Gracillimum' - described as the most beautiful British Fern. Fronds are delicately divided and the segments end in slender almost hair-like divisions. Sterile.

Polystichum andersonii
Anderson's Holly Fern, Anderson's sword fern

Hardy Species in Zone 5(6)

Native to North America, Pacific Northwest. Found growing in the mountains from Alaska south to Oregon and east to Montana. In Zones 6-9.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and evergreen, bud-bearing leaves - see Section 9 - Propagation

It likes cool and drained soils, acidic and humusy, in the shade.

Over
36 x 36
(90 x 90)
in height by spread in 5 years

It occurs where vegetation is dense, such as moist spruce-fir forests, avalanche chutes, along streams, and shrub thickets.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Ferns for Acid Soils

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It is found in deep woods in the mountains.  Fronds grow to 100 cms (40 inches).   It has a conspicuously chaffy fiddlehead and leaf stalk.  Pinnae are deeply cut making it appear doubly pinnate.  Bulblets form at the base of pinnae near the tip and may grow into a new plant when the frond touches the ground!

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English: Polystichum andersonii in Arboretum Rogow, Poland
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

English: Polystichum andersonii in Arboretum Rogow, Poland
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

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Polystichum braunii
Braun's Holly Fern, Prickly Shield Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 3(4)

Suitable for Zones 4-9

Clump-forming rhizomes and dark green, shiny, evergreen fronds. The plants do best if placed in a cool site. The fiddleheads are particularly attractive because they are densely covered by silvery scales, which turn light brown with age.

Consider planting rhizome at an angle to help combat potential crown rot problems which most often occur in poorly drained soils.

12-29 x 12-23 (30-75 x 30-60)

Stalks or stems are covered in golden-brown scales that contrast nicely against the leaflets. Dense, upright and arching habit, the fronds arising from a single point, giving a formal appearance. Easy and reliable.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Accent Fern.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Ground Cover.
Woodland.
Outdoor Container.
Border and Foundation.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It grows in moist woodlands.  (Native to British Columbia, southern Alaska, the Idaho panhandle—Listed as threatened or endangered in several eastern U.S. states).

Excellent selection for shaded areas in the landscape, including borders, woodland gardens and wild gardens.

polystichumbrauniipsoriwikimediacommons

Polski: Polystichum braunii.
By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

Polski: Polystichum braunii
By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumbrauniipforwikimediacommons

Polystichum cystostegia (Polystichum cystostegium, Aspidium cystostegia, Dryopteris cystostegia)
Mountain Shield Fern, Alpine Shield Fern

A very hardy little fern from alpine regions.

Native to New Zealand

The stipes and rachises are covered with conspicuous, brown scales.

New Zealand Plant Conservation Network has publications - Our unique strength is in linking people interested in plant conservation with comprehensive, accessible and accurate information to support their efforts in promoting and conserving native plants. There is a library of books made by Network members using the website book-making facility.

12 x 20
(30 x 50)

This tough little fern is generally found growing in sheltered crevices amongst rocks where it spreads by a branching underground stem in some of the higher altitude rocky and stony places (boulderfields) of Mt Taranaki in North Island of New Zealand.
It has brownish-green fronds that die off in winter and reappear in November and December in New Zealand.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Wall.
Deciduous Fern.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Plants are very cold tolerant and are ideal for a rock garden.

Plant Citation from Plant Information Online of University of Minnesota - Alpine Gardener, The. vol 78, no. 1. (2010)   p 56   Parts Shown: Leaf   Photo

polystichumcystostegiapsoriwikimediacommons

Polystichum cystostegia (Hook.) J.B.Armstr.
This image by artist P. J. de Lange has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland Museum via Wikimedia Commons

English: Polystichum cystostegium by Peter de Lange via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumcystostegiapforwikimediacommons

Polystichum imbricans (Polystichum munitum var. imbricans, Aspidium munitum Kaulfuss var. imbricans ; Polystichum munitum (Kaulfuss) C. Presl subsp. imbricans)

Dwarf Western Sword Fern, Imbricate Sword Fern, Narrowleaf Sword Fern

Hardy in Zone 6.

It is native to western North America from British Columbia to Southern California

Ascending to erect rhizomes.
This fern produces several erect linear or lance-shaped leaves up to 80 centimeters long. Each leaf is made up of many narrow, overlapping, sometimes twisting leaflets each 2 to 4 centimeters long. The leaflets have toothed edges.

Photos

Stems ascending to erect. Leaves erect to arching back at tip, 2--8 dm; bulblets absent. Spores dark brown.

15 x
(37.5 x )

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Propagate by spores.

Ferns suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall.
Woodland.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It is a hardy fern for a shady, moist position.
It grows in dry rocky habitat in coastal and inland mountain ranges and foothills.

Transplants well and lends a look of lushness to the woodland garden. Looks best planted in groups or drifts in part shade.

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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Polystichum lentum (Aspidium lentum, Aspidium auriculatum var. lentum, Polystichum auriculatum var. lentum) Himalayan Holly Fern

Semi-hardy in Zone 7

Native to Tibet, China and Burma

This is the most inclusive list of possible species in the genus Polystichum; there are currently 343 names on the list, all of which have been recognized in at least one floristic or systematic work.

柔软耳蕨
rou ruan er jue

It forms an attractive sprawling rosette of slender, dark green fronds which are proliferous on the tip.
Evergreen. Fronds are 16-40 (40-100) long.

 

Temperate - Subtropical

Bright

spreading habit.

Sori 1-4 per lobe, up to 6 per auricle.

?

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Ferns suitable for

Hanging Basket.
Indoor Decoration. Rock Garden and Walls.
Woodland.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

It is common in the Himalayas growing on shady, humus-rich, rocky slopes. Grows easily in a variety of soils but likes shade.

On rocks in montane broad-leaved evergreen forests

item1d7a1

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

See illustration from Flora of China.

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Polystichum lonchitis (Polypodium lonchitis, Aspidium lonchitis, Dryopteris lonchitis)

Northern Holly Fern, polystic faux-lonchitis, The Holly Fern, Holly Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 3

Native to northern North America and Greenland.
It is native to much of the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to Alaska to Greenland and south into mountainous central North America.

Lonchitis is from the Greek logch meaning spear, referring to its spear-shaped leaves.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and dark green, evergreen fronds.
The plants are difficult to grow even in cool climates. It is seldom seen thriving under artificial treatment.

This is a true rock-Fern, occuring on the bleak mountains of Scotland and in the milder climate of Ireland, as well, rarely, in the north of England and Wales in 1929.

This fern produces several erect linear leaves up to 60 centimetres (24 in) long. Each leaf is made up of many lance-shaped to oblong leaflets up to 3 or 4 centimetres (1.2 or 1.6 in) long. The leaflets have toothed and often spiny edges.

10-24 x
(25-60 x )

 

This evergreen species is a calcicole, growing in well-drained, cool and moist positions at the base of cliffs, on rocky ledges, and particularly in stabilised boulder-scree. It also grows in deep grikes of limestone pavements.

The Rough Alpine Fern occurs only in mountainous districts in the UK, where it grows in crevices of rocks or on ledges of cliffs on basic or calcareous substrata. It will be found more abundant from Stirling to Cathness in Scotland.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam in July and kept close under glass cover. Sporelings establish easily in a loamy soil to which lime has been added.

The spiny spores of P . lonchitis are distinctive and distinguish this from dwarfed forms of other 1-pinnate species.

Greenland; Alta., B.C., Nfld., N.S., Ont., Que., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wis., Wyo.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Limestone or Basic Soils.
Rock Garden and Walls in scree slopes.
Woodland in coniferous woods

Hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, full sun or partially shady spots. Plant in April. Water freely in dry weather.

Grow on High and dry slopes. Plant in April

A rarely grown fern confined to mountainous regions. Plants resent moving and are very slow to establish following such disturbance.

They like shady, moist conditions and are very cold-hardy.

It grows in mountains, often in rock crevices, throughout much of the northern hemisphere.

It grows in moist, shady, rocky mountain habitat.

In rock crevices or at base of boulders, mostly in boreal and subalpine coniferous forests or alpine regions; 0--3200 m.

polystichumlonchitispsoriwikimediacommons1

Sori of Northern hollyfern (Polystichum lonchitis), Wood Fern family (Dryo-pteridaceae). Rocky slope between the Upper and Lower Red Pine Lakes. Red Pine Fork of the Little Cottonwood Canyon, Utah.
By Andrey Zharkikh from Salt Lake City, USA via Wikimedia Commons

English: Form of Polystichum lonchitis, Grandes Rousses, Vaujany, Dauphiné, French Alps
Français : Polystic en lance
By Meneerke bloem via Wikimedia Commons

More Photos

See illustration from Flora of North America.

polystichumlonchitispforwikimediacommons1

Polystichum longipaleatum (Aspidium aculeatum var. setosum, Polystichum aculeatum var. setosum)

In Eastern Asiatic Region

Broad-leaved forests, coniferous forests, bamboo forests, shrubs; 1100-2600 m. Guangxi (Damiao Shan, Longsheng), Guizhou, Hunan (Xinning), Sichuan, Xizang (Dinggyê, Mêdog), Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Nepal].

Zone 6-8

This is described in Ornamental Ferns of China
观赏蕨类
by Shi Lei. Hardcover published in 2002-01

A large fern of mountainous areas, prized for its spectacular flush of densely scaly fronds. The underside of the fronds is also covered with fine hair-like scales. Requires moist loamy soil and shady conditions.

Evergreen.

Fronds 50-120 cm (20-48 inch).

Sori (1 or)2-5 pairs per pinnule, in 1 row on each side of midrib, close to midrib, terminal on veinlets, small, exindusiate.

?

Polystichum longipaleatum (long scales), synonym Polystichum seto-sum, joins an illustrious group of shiny foliaged, showy evergreens that are garden worthy even as their botanical classification changes periodically. This Asian from China and the Himalayas has golden scaled, 6-in. (15-cm) stipes bearing bipinnate, broadly lanceolate, hairy 18-in. (45-cm) blades crowded with 40 pairs of linear pinnae. Introduce it to shade and rich soil in Zone 6 to 8 gardens, where it is well worthy of experimentation.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Woodland.
Border and Foundation Ferns among deciduous shrubs.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Habitat in Broad-leaved forests, coniferous forests, bamboo forests, shrubs.

item1c6a1

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

See illustration from Flora of China.

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Polystichum munitum (Aspidium munitum )

Western Sword Fern, Common Sword Fern

Hardy in Zone 7

Polystichum means many rows, referring to the arrangement of the spore cases on the undersides of the fronds.  Munitum means armed with teeth, referring to its toothed fronds.  Western Sword Fern is also known as Sword Holly Fern, Giant Holly Fern, Christmas Fern, Pineland Sword Fern, or Chamisso’s Shield Fern.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and evergreen fronds.This species does best in moist, cool climates and does not grow well in the eastern of Southeastern United States.

The species is native to the western United States, Canada, Alaska (Yukon), and Mexico (Guadalupe Island); it is naturalized in Europe.

Stems erect or ascending. Leaves arching, 5--18 dm; bulblets absent. Spores light yellow.

B.C.; Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., S.Dak., Wash.; Mexico on Guadalupe Island; naturalized in Europe.

35-47 x 23-47
(90-120 x 60-120)

The dark green fronds of this fern grow in a tight clump spreading out radially from a round base. Individual fronds live for 1.5 to 2.5 years and remain attached to the rhizome after withering.

Trim off dead fronds in early spring before new growth begins.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.
In cultivation, it also responds well to regular, light fertilizations. While this fern is a favored horticultural subject in western North America, it has proved difficult or impossible to cultivate satisfactorily in the eastern part of the continent.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Shade Tolerant.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Woodland.
Acid Soil.
Ground Cover. Outdoor Containers.
Accent.

Hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Terrestrial, forest floor, only occasionally on rock, in mesic coniferous to moist, mixed evergreen forests; 0--2200 m

The fronds are used by florists to include in vases.

Hardy fern for a shady, moist situation in the garden or fernery. Plants are quite cold tolerant.

The preferred habitat of this fern is the understory of moist coniferous woodlands at low elevations. It grows best in well-drained acidic soil of rich humus and small stones. It is very resilient and survives occasional droughts, but flourishes only with consistent moisture and light sunlight, and it prefers cool weather.

polystichummunitumfiddleheaddanakelleybressette

One of the most abundant ferns in the western flora (rivaled only by Pteridium ), Polystichum munitum also is of significant economic importance. Enormous quantities of leaves are gathered for backgrounds in funeral wreaths and other floral displays; the evergreen leaves keep well in cold storage and are exported to Europe. It is extensively used in landscaping, the trade being mainly in wild-collected plants.

Phenology: Fronds partially unroll their “fiddleheads” by late May; by late July the spores are near maturity.
Fiddleheads and

Form of
Polystichum munitum, Western Sword Fern. Photos courtesy of Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden, Dana Kelley Bressette, Nativeplants PNW.com

See illustration from Flora of North America.

polystichummunitumpfordanakelleybressette

Polystichum proliferum

Mother Shield Fern

Hardy in Zone 5

This species is native to Australia - New South Wales, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory and Tasmania.

Polystichum - from Greek poly, many and stichos, rows, referring to rows of sori.
proliferum - from Latin proli, offspring, fer – bearing, referring to the proliferous buds.

Erect rhizomes and dark green fronds that are evergreen in warmer climates. This species is easy to grow and can be propagated from the bulbils on the fronds - see Section 9 - Propagation

The rhizome and frond bases are covered in persistent scales which are glossy brown with pale edges. Fronds can reach up to 100 cm in length and 30 cm wide, are dark green when mature but lighter and paler when young.

52 x 36
(130 x 90)

It will occur in amongst boulders and at lower altitudes - in wet forests. The species typically favours gullies and creeks as well as the cooler/moister, southern and eastern facing aspects. Polystichum proliferum will however, occur in drier vegetation types such as coastal scrub and dry schelorphyll, due to its hardy characteristics such as the ability to tolerate salt-laden winds and poor soil quality.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Vegetative reproduction occurs when bulbils develop at end of the larger fronds grows into small plant. As the weight of the bulbil increases, the frond sags until the bulbil can take root in the soil underneath. It can then become the dominant ground cover

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy. Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Ground Cover.
Accent.
Border and Foundation.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

An attractive shield fern which grows in colonies, the fronds characteristically developing plantlets near the end which take root while still attached. Flushes of new fronds are covered with brown scales and are eye-catching.
Plants grow easily in a shady, moist situation and are also useful in a large pot.

polystichumproliferumpfrondwikimediacommons1

Fronds of Polystichum proliferum from Barrington Tops, photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard via Wikimedia Commons

Photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Australia) in January. This photo is from Gardenology.org and is available under CC-BY-SA 3.0 license via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumproliferumpforwikimediacommons1

Polystichum retroso-paleaceum (Polystichum aculeatum s var. retroso-paleaceum ;
P. tsingkan-shanense)

Japanese Sword Fern, Narrow Tassel Fern

Zones 5-8

retroso-paleaceum Epithet means "twisted back scales."

倒鳞耳蕨
dao lin er jue

Anhui (Haozhai, Jiuhua Shan), Hubei (Wudang Shan), Jiangxi (Jinggangshan, Lushan), Zhejiang (W Tianmu Shan) [Japan, Korea].

An attractive shield fern which grows in colonies, the fronds characteristically developing plantlets near the end which take root while still attached - see Section 9 - Propagation . Flushes of new fronds are scaly and interesting.

This species is native to Japan and Korea

Photos

Rhizome erect or ascending, short, densely covered with linear brown scales. Fronds 50-80 cm.
Sori (1-)4-6 pairs per pinnule, in 1 row on each side of midrib, medial, terminal on veinlets.

40-80 x 40-80
(100-200 x 100-200)

Rounded, overlapping pinnules give this fern a certain stoutness, which is complimented by its extremely furry golden scales running up the stipe and rachis.  They very reliably form a nice regular vase shape with their fronds gently arching outward.  Mature specimens are quite impressive when placed where they can be easily viewed from above, such as below a porch or balcony.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy. Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Evergreen plants are easily grown in a shady, moist garden position and are also ideal for a tub or large container.

Large populations grow in rich soil throughout forests in Korea and especially Japan.

New growth emerges early spring a bright green. Plant in afternoon to full shade in well drained moist soil.

polystichumretrosopaleaceumpfigureefloras

Polystichum retrosopaleaceum. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 11 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Polystichum richardii

Richard's Holly Fern, Black Shield Fern, Common Shield Fern, Pikopiko

Semi-hardy in Zone 7

Zones 8 (with protection) and 9 - it is only borderline hardy in Zone 8. For best results it needs serious protection or a life as an indoor plant.

Erect rhizomes and evergreen fronds that vary from dark bluish green to olive green.

The size of the fronds can be up to 50 by 25 centimetres (20 x 10 inches).

The species is native to New Zealand

12-24 x 20
(30-60 x 50)

 

A question I get asked many times is what flowering plants are suited for growing with ferns. There are a few choice plants, with elegant flowers with subtle shades that compliment ferns and grow well in shade. Here is a collection of plants that, in my opinion, go very well with ferns:-

Cyclamen

Dracunculus

Epimedium

Equisetum

Fritillaria

Omphaloides

Uvularia

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Easily grown in a shady or partial sun aspect in loamy soil. Looks particularly attractive when planted among rocks.

The common shield fern is found in dry places from the coast to lowland forest areas.

polystichumrichardiipsoriwikimediacommons

Polystichum richardii in Te Reinga Falls, Hawkes's Bay (New Zealand).
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

 

Polystichum richardii in Eastwoodhill Arboretum (New Zealand).
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumrichardiipforwikimediacommons

Polystichum setiferum (Polystichum angulare, Polypodium angulare, Aspidium angulare)

Soft Shield Fern, Soft Prickly Shield Fern, Angular-lobed Shield Fern

Hardy in Zone 6

This is one of the most graceful of all British native species.

Erect rhizomes and fronds that are evergreen in warmer climates. Many variants of this species from buds along the rachis - see Section 9 - Propagation . The plants do not like very high humidity.

This species is native to Europe. This forms a medium-sized clump of very soft-textured fronds, dark green in colour with a glossy finish. Plants perform best in soils that remain evenly moist, and slightly on the acidic side.

Height and Spread of
23-27 x 23-27
(60-70 x 60-70)

 

Graceful arching green fronds that droop at the tips as they unfurl showing lighter coloured undersides.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Hedge.
Acid Soil.
Accent Fern.
Ground Cover.
Cold-Hardy.
Evergreen.
Shade Tolerant. Outdoor Containers.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
Woodland.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It grows in hedge-banks and in lowland woods, preferring, like most of the larger Ferns, the presence of plenty of free (not stagnant) water.
It is also grows in pots and rock garden.

Remains evergreen in mild winter regions. Attractive as a specimen, massed, or in containers.

Grow in a rock garden or well-drained border.
It is perfect for semi-shade in good soil that doesn't become waterlogged yet still stays moist. These are ideal conditions for most evergreen ferns.

polystichumsetiferumpbudswikimediacommons1

Buds along the rachis of American Plant Food Company, 7405 River Road, Bethesda MD. Polystichum setiferum .
By David J. Stang. First published at ZipcodeZoo.com via Wikimedia Commons

Polystichum setiferum in botanical garden in Batumi
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumsetiferumpforwikimediacommons1

Polystichum setiferum cultivars

This is an extremely variable fern and over 300 cultivars have been selected by enthusiasts by 1987

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation:

Suitable for

 

Polystichum setiferum 'Acutilobum' - narrow fronds with sharply-pointed segments. Compact growth.

Polystichum setiferum 'Congestum' - Dwarf soft shield fern. It is suited for use in borders because of its small size. Upright dense fronds with overlapping segments. Compact growth to 8 inches (20 cm) tall. Fertile.

Polystichum setiferum 'Cristatum' - segments prominently crested.

Polystichum setiferum Divisilobum Group - Blades narrow; pinnae less foliaceous than those of the species pinnules narrowly ovate, apices acute, base oblique and eared. Large fronds are 3-4 times divided with finely cut segments.

Polystichum setiferum 'Foliosum' - fronds have a leafy appearance caused by numerous overlapping segments.

Polystichum setiferum Imbricatum Group - Parts less congested than 'Congestum', and fronds larger. It bears young plants on the stipes above the surface of the soil. It was found in Somersetshire.

 

Polystichum setiferum Multilobum Group - Resembles Divisilobum Group but with pinnules stouter, nearly rectangular, and not overlapping; some variants are bud-bearing - see Section 9 - Propagation .

Polystichum setiferum Plumoso-Divisilobum Group - Divided soft shield fern. This beautiful fern has a feathery, neatly three-dimensional aspect due to the spreading angle of the overlapping pinnae.Fronds divided into slender, mossy segments which are crowded or overlap each other. A very beautiful form.

Polystichum setiferum 'Polydactylum' - the segments end in divergent crests.

Polystichum setiferum 'Rotundatum' - the segments are almost circular. A crested form is also known.

Polystichum setiferum 'Trilobum' - Pinnules have the same shape as those of Divisilobum Group, but the distal half of the blade is a mass of branches. Fronds bud-bearing - see Section 9 - Propagation . A very distinct, compact plant.

Polystichum setiferum 'Tripinnatum' - erect finely-divided feathery fronds. Strong grower. Fertile.

Polystichum scopulinum (Aspidium aculeatum var. scopulinum ; Polystichum mohrioides var. scopulinum)

Western Holly Fern, Rock Sword Fern, polystic des rochers, Mountain Holly Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 4

It is native to much of western North America, and it is known from disjunct occurrences in eastern Canada, as well.

Polystichum scopulinum is widely distributed in the United States west of the 110th meridian, where it occurs in sporadic, usually small populations. The species is abundant only on montane serpentine outcrops.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and leathery, semi-evergreen fronds. This species is difficult to grow.

This fern produces several erect, narrowly lance-shaped leaves up to 50 centimeters (20 inches) in length. The leaves narrow near the bases. Each leaf is divided into many lance-shaped or oblong leaflets up to 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) long. The toothed leaflets are sometimes twisted on their axes and overlapping.

The species is native to western North America and Canada.

Stems ascending. Leaves erect, 1--3(--5) dm; bulblets absent. Spores brown.

20 x 12-40
(50 x 30-100)

 

Habitat in Moist rock crevices in subalpine zone, and moist rocks along rivers in the valleys.

Photos

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Sun-Tolerant.
Acid Soils.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Rock crevices and at base of boulders, serpentine to acidic substrates, usually exposed to full sun; 0--3500 m; B.C., Nfld., Que.; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo.

A small leathery fern suitable for planting among rocks.

It is found in dry coniferous forest or more commonly on cliffs and talus slopes.  It is more frequent east of the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains; it also grows in eastern Canada.

It grows in rocky habitat, often in full sun. It is widespread but mostly found in small populations, and is noted to be most abundant on serpentine soils - Soldiers Delight Natural Environmental Area in Baltimore County, Maryland, covers 1,900 acres of serpentine barren. The area has over 38 rare, threatened, or endangered plant species as well as rare insects, rocks and minerals.

polystichumscopulinumpfigurewikimediacommons

Fig. 35. Polystichum scopulinum from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons

Polystichum scopulinum by Sheri Hagwood. Bureau of Land Management. United States, ID, Bureau of Land Management Jarbidge Resource Area. August 1, 2006 via Wikimedia Commons

See Distribution Map from Flora of North America.

polystichumscopulinumpforwikimediacommons

Polystichum tsus-simense
Tsus-sima Holly Fern, Korean Rock Fern

Hardy in
Zones (5)6

A neat fern valued for its compact, spreading rosette. The fronds are fairly stiff and leathery and an interesting dark, purplish colour when young.

Native to China, Japan and Korea.

It forms a low mound of dark green fronds with black stems and delicate dark veining through the leaflets. New leaves have a purplish cast. Clumps may be divided after 4 to 5 years, in early spring. Trim off any tired looking fronds in spring, and they will soon be replaced by new ones. Tolerates summer heat and humidity.

6-12 x 12-16
(15-30 x 30-40)

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Evergreen.
Rock Garden and Wall.
Terrarium or Bottle Garden.
Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Makes an excellent pot plant and can also be grown in a shady position among rocks.

In cold regions this may be grown in a container and wintered indoors. Excellent for edging in the woodland, or in the shady rock garden.

Polystichum tsus-simense of eastern Asia, is commonly offered as a houseplant.

polystichumtsussimensepfrondwikimediacommons

Frond of Polystichum tsus-simense in Wellington Botanical Garden. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

Form of Polystichum tsus-simense. Specimen in the Atlanta Botanical Garden, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons with Multi-license GFDL, all CC-BY-SA permission.

polystichumtsussimensepforwikimediacommons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2