Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN - Grows on Rock (epilithic, epipetric) Page 2 of 2
epilithic - Fern growing on rocks.
epipetric - Fern growing on rocks.
Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Some details from The standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture in 3 Volumes by L.H Bailey. Published by The Macmillan Company in 1939

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden, Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com ,
Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Pellaea atropurpurea (Pellaea atropurpurea var. cristata,
Pteris atropurpurea)

Purple Rock Brake,
Cliff Brake Fern, Purple Cliff Brake, Purple-stem Cliffbrake

This is sufficiently hardy to grow outside in UK in sheltered rockeries if protected with litter or hand-light in winter.

North America

Zones 4-9

Very Hardy in Zone 4

Brake is an old word for fern, related to the word bracken.

Rhizome is short-creeping. The pinnate fronds are borne on dark purple-black stipes.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

8-18 x 12-24
(20-45 x 30-60)

The triangular leaves 10-12 inches (25-30 cms) long, are parted many times at the base, and widespread, lanceolate leaflets which turn from green to a bluish-green.

This fern produces clumps of widely arching fronds. They produce sori, which lack a true indusium, within the inrolled margins of the pinnae. It grows in the crevices of dry limestone cliffs, rocky slopes, crevices in alvars, and mortared walls.

Drought tolerant species that grows in rocky, limestone areas where there is little soil. It is evergreen and grows in an asymmetric clump.

It grows in full sun and is native to all but 8 states of the continental United States.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Spores produced June - September.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soil.
Drier Soil.
Rock Garden.
Outdoor Container.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Shade-Tolerant.
Sun-Tolerant.
Shallow dish in Heated Greenhouse.
Xerophytic Fern.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C).

 

This species can tolerate annual winter temperatures of -28 to -35C (-23 to -31F). In the wild this species grows on calcareous rocks such as dolomite and limestone. It resembles Pellaea glabella, with which it often grows, but can easily be distinguished by the hairy stipe and stalked pinnae and pinnules.

It is at home in limestone cliffs across central and midwestern North America, into Mexico and Central America.
It is suitable for a rock garden site with good drainage and a limestone substrate.

Evergreen

Grow in a shady, well-drained spot in the UK, in lime-rich soil. It is only evergreen when the winters are mild. Protect against heavy rain. Indoors the fern thrives in broad, shallow dishes or hanging baskets because of its shallow roots, even in fairly dark spots. It requires light, well-drained soil, rich in humus, e.g, equal parts of sand or vermiculite, leaf-mould or peat, and some lime. Keep relatively moist and do not allow the plant to dry out. Do not water the leaves directly - especially in winter - to prevent infections, and spray occasionally. Temperature 14-20C, in winter 12-15C. During the growing season, feed once every 2 or 3 weeks. Propagate by dividing in spring.

pellaeaatropurpureapforwikimediacommons1

Pellaea atropurpurea (purple cliffbrake) foliage. Date: 20 July 2016. This image is Image Number 5550677 at Insect Images, a source for entomological images operated by The Bugwood Network at the University of Georgia and the USDA Forest Service. By Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org via Wikimedia Commons.

Frond forms of Pellaea atropurpurea. Date: July 2009. By Jaknouse via Wikimedia Commons.

More photos.
Yet more.
and.

 

Distribution Map in USA.

pellaeaatropurpureapfigurewikimediacommons

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Cheilanthes hispidula , Cheilanthes moluccana , Cheilosoria tenuifolia, Trichomanes tenuifolium ; Acrostichum tenue ;
Adiantum cicutifolium ; Cassebeera tenuifolia + others)

Lip Fern, Rock Fern, Curly Fern

New Zealand, Australia.

North India, Sri Lanka, South-East Asia, Polynesia.

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, S Hunan, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia, Oceania (including New Zealand)].

The genus name comes from the Greek cheilos, lip, and anthos, flower, referring to the curled pinnae margins that enclose the sori.

 

Vernacular names

• Narrow-leaved lip fern (En)

• Indonesia: paku jepun (Sundanese), paku alus (Moluccas), paku resam lumut (Bangka)

• Malaysia: resam lumut, resam padi, paku telur belangkas

• Philippines: pakong-roman (Tagalog)

• Thailand: chon phee (peninsular)

• Vietnam: thần mô lá mảnh.

薄叶碎米蕨
bao ye sui mi jue

The fronds are finely divided, with a lacy appearance and the new fronds are a fresh bright green.

Sori confined to distal portion of lobes, interrupted at segment bases.

Cheilanthes tenuifolia grows in all the dry parts of New South Wales. It has adapted itself to situations in which it may be absolutely dry for several months during each year, but as soon as rain comes it commences to grow immediately. The fern is not very large. It consists of a subterranean dorsiventral rhizome which occasionally branches and attains a considerable length. Stiff erect fronds rise above the surface of the soil here and there, usually in clumps. This is due to the fact that the fronds grow out from the rhizome much more quickly than the rhizome itself grows. Meanwhile, the fronds along the the older parts of the rhizome die, so that there remains a clump of leaves around the apex. There is a very efficient root system growing out from the rhizome, the main roots branching profusely and giving rise to a very extensive secondary root system. The roots are dark brown, and very thin and wiry.

Detrimental to cattle in New South Wales.

8-16 x
(20-40 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

 

A spore of C. tenuifolia germinates readily in culture; rhizoids emerge within 2 weeks after sowing. The prothallus reaches maturity about 6 months after germination of the spore and the gametophyte is cordate, about 1 cm long, glabrous, with a prominent midrib bearing rhizoids and sex organs. The midrib is 6-8 cells thick and the wing cells are uniformly thin-walled. Antheridia mostly globose, appearing superficially on the underside, occasionally on the margins, when the prothallus is about 2 mm wide (after about 40 days) and still one cell thick. The archegonial neck is composed of 6 tiers of cells and curved. Fertilization and formation of sporophytes occurs profusely in culture and generally only a single sporophyte develops per prothallus. The first juvenile leaf is entire, broadly cuneate to spatulate, with a single median vein dichotomizing equally once or twice, hairy especially on the margin. C. tenuifolia grows actively during the rainy season and becomes dormant in the dry season.

Spore germination instructions and seeds from Exotic Plants with worldwide shipping (shipping to circling space stations could cost more).

Suitable for

Tall Pot in Conservatory in temperate regions.
Rock Garden and Walls in the Tropics, with Drier Soil or in open Woodlands - suitable for Coastal regions as well.

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

The pots should be half-filled with crocks to ensure perfect drainage. Slugs are troublesome, unless the pots are stood upon crushed coke, or sifted ashes, over which the slugs do not like to crawl.

Add composted bark, charcoal, and humus to the basic mix. Tall narrow pots provide the best drainage for containerized plants.

Stove Fern.

A widely distributed species which grows actively during the monsoonal wet season and becomes dormant in the dry. A difficult subject to grow away from the tropics. Best tried in a partially protected situation outside.

This is a fern of open areas in the lowland in Singapore - on bare earthbanks, rock surfaces and even on old walls.

C. tenuifolia occurs often on unfertile, dry or humid, rocky ground in open forest areas, on old stone or earthen walls, sometimes amidst alang-alang ( Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel) or as a weed on ridges in plantations, sometimes gregariously, from sea-level up to 1500 m altitude. It is drought-resistant but also grows well in areas with abundant rainfall. In regions with a pronounced dry season the aboveground parts wither and the plant resumes growth after the first rains. It is often able to regenerate when the grassy vegetation in which it grows is mowed not too close to the ground.

On rocks in forests and along stream banks, roadsides, rice fields; 100-1000 m.

On rather dry clayey banks of paths in mixed forests at low altitudes in Thailand.

cheilanthestenuifoliapfigurewikimediacommons

Cheilanthes tenuifolia - botanical illustrations in Bibliotheca botanica. Stuttgart,E. Schweizerbart [etc.]1886-. biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47220674. From Biodiversity Heritage Library via Wikimedia Commons.

cheilanthestenuifoliapfornatureloveyou

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Lip Fern, Rock Fern) DSC07747 (09). Photo taken 13 June 2009. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

cheilanthestenuifoliapfrunatureloveyou

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Lip Fern, Rock Fern) DSC05720 (11). Spores containing bodies (sporangia) can be seen along the edge of the underside of the leaf (frond). Photo taken 13 June 2009. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

More photos from New Caledonia.

Paraceterach muelleri (Gymnopteris
muelleri)

Scaly Resurrection Fern

Australia - Paraceterach 
mulleri is native to Western Australia and can be found at the very northern end of the state.

The Rhizome grows along the ground for a little and the rest of the plant is almost standing upright. The Rhizome Scales are narrowly triangular with a length of 1.5mm, they have a thick black central band and pale thin, pliable borders.
The fronds (leaves) can range between 8 and 40cm in length.

4-12 x
(10-30 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.
Sori produced from Jun to Jul or Sep. Habitat - Red loam, clayey sand. Rock crevices, rock ledges, amongst sandstone rocks in sheltered vine thickets.

Suitable for

Terrarium in temperate regions.
Rock garden in Australia.
Resurrection Fern.

Expanded , fresh fronds of this fern are an attractive bright green, with the pinnae bearing numerous light brown papery scales. When dry, the fronds curl and become brown and brittle. Grows on rocky outcrops and is difficult to cultivate. Needs warm, dry, airy conditions, bright light, and a well-drained, humus-rich mixture.

Paraceterach 
muelleri grows in rock crevices, on granite rock ledges and often
shelters in vine thickets.

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

See photos, illustration and Distribution Maps.

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Notholaena standleyi (Cheilanthes standleyi, Cheilanthes hookeri ; Notholaena candida var. quinque-fidopalmata ; Notholaena hookeri ; Notholaena sulphurea var. quinqu-ifidopalmata ; Chrysochosma hookeri)

Cloak Fern, Star Cloak Fern, Standley's cloak fern, Northern Desert Star Cloakfern, Northern Desert Star

Native to the southwestern United States and Mexico.

The genus name comes from the Greek nothos, false, and chlaena, cloak, referring to the blade margins, which are not reflexed as in the similar genus Cheilanthes.

It has pentagonal blades densely covered with a whitish powder on the lower surface, and the hardly enrolled indusium is narrow.

An attractive fern with broad, dull green fronds with the undersurface covered with yellow or white waxy powder. In dry periods the fronds curl inwards to form a ball. Plants are clumping and look attractive among rocks. They need bright light, well-drained gravelly soils of a neutral to alkaline pH and plenty of air movement.

It is locally common in rock cracks and sheltered pockets under boulders in dry exposed sites.

4-12 x
(10-30 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of fine sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 75-85F (24-29C) at any time; division at potting time.

It takes 13 days to germinate and sporulates from late spring to fall. The spore is transported by air and water.

Suitable for

Terrarium in Conservatory in temperate regions.

Limestone or Basic Soils.
Xerophytic Fern. Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil in
Rock Garden with Sun-Tolerance in native habitat.

Herbaceous Stove Fern.

A small fern with compact rhizomes and fronds in a cluster. Requires high light in moist-dry, well-drained garden soil preferably mixed with coarse sand or gravel.

Notholaena standleyi is a perennial species that typically grows in desert regions at elevations from 300 to 2100 m. It is found on rocky hillsides, usually in the crevices created by limestone and granite boulders that provide the partial shade the plant prefers. During periods of drought, the frond may curl and become brown until water is available, an adaptation to the semi-arid environments it inhabits. At lower elevations, it sometimes grows alongside Notholaena californica.

notholaenastanleyipforwikimediacommons1

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. Fronds divided, upper surface green, under covered with white powder or scales. Height from 3 to 18 inches (7.5-45cm). First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and finely broken sandstone.
Position, pots in shady part of house. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Syringing not required.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C)
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). Notholaena bonariensis is impatient of water on fronds.

Notholaena standleyi — Standley Cloak Fern. Substrate is highly weathered gneiss; At the Phoenix Mountains Preserve, Maricopa County, Arizona.
Date: 5 January 2008. By Mike via Wikimedia Commons.

Notholaena standleyi distribution in US. Date: 10 April 2012. By USDA via Wikimedia Commons.

See photos.

See Notholaena standleyi in the desert house at the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh

See dry foliage balls and green fronds from Eco Landscaping.

notholaenastanleyipfigurewikimediacommons

Xerophytes should be planted with their crowns slightly above the soil. If using pots, make sure that the soil level is close to the rim in order to reduce the amount of water that could be caught in the pot during watering. A process known as double potting maintains uniform soil moisture over a longer time. The fern is planted in a porous clay pot, which in turn is planted in a larger clay pot, usually 5-7.5 cms (2-3 inches) wider than the first. The same soil mix is used in both pots.
Xerophytes can be successively grown in terrariums if the soil moisture is carefully monitored and the humidity not excessive. Soil water evaporates slowly in a terrarium, thus maintaining a more constant moisture level. In such a protected environment fronds may develop more fully than in nature.
Outdoors, xerophytes are often planted in trough gardens, among rocks, or on well-drained sites. Xerophytic ferns are extremely sensitive to overwatering and can die if overwatered only a few times, and so they should be planted away from plants that require more water. Whether in the ground or in pots, the plants should be watered early in the morning so that any water settling on the fronds will evaporate during the day.
Most xerophytic ferns go dormant during the summer in their native habitats. In cultivation, however, dormancy might not occur. In addition, many xerophytic ferns grow more slowly or go dormant as cool weather approaches. Dormant or slow-growing plants need less water.

Pleurosorus rutifolius (Gymnogramma alpina ; Gymnogramma rutaefolia ; Gymnogramma pozoi var. rutaefolia ; Ceterach rutaefolium ; Grammitis rutaefolia , Asplenium subglandulosum subsp. subglandulosum )

Blanket Fern

Australia, New Zealand

 

Temperate-Subtropical

Dry

Rhizome covered with purplish brown scales and old stipe bases.
Fronds few to several, erect, 1-pinnate with most pinnae pinnatifid, usually 5–15 cm long, densely covered with silvery to reddish brown non-glandular hairs; pinnae 3–8 pairs, dark green, asymmetric, fan-shaped, irregularly notched or lobed.
Sori in radiating lines along veins, confluent and brown with age.

2-7 x 4
(4-18 x 10)

Small erect tufted fern on a short scaly underground stem (rhizome).
Oblong, blunt, dark green once-divided fronds, irregularly lobed or notched fan-shaped segments 4-20mm long in 3-8 almost opposite pairs. Densely covered in clear to rusty hairs. Hairy green stem shorter than frond, scales tufted at base, scattered above.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

In a terrarium set it up with a stony potting mix (See further details on potting mixes in Chapter 20 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1) and keep on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods).

Suitable for

Terrarium in temperate regions.
Xeriphytic Fern.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Outdoor Containers or
Rock Garden
in open areas or Woodland within native habitat.

Dry well drained soil in rock crevices and gorges associated with woodland. Full sun. Plants will shrivel in extreme dryness and become brown, reviving and regreening after rain. Plants are softer, greener and less hairy in sheltered positions.
An attractive little fern planted amongst rocks in dry areas with lower humidity. Do not like overwatering. Suitable for pots if kept in an open position in Australia.

A hardy fern which grows in open situations with its roots in the shelter of rocks, in crevices etc. It is an appealing little fern usually found in colonies. Plants can be grown in a small pot but must not be overwatered and resent stale, humid conditions. Best in a sheltered situation in rocks.

Widespread, on hillsides, often growing in the shelter of rocks, chiefly in dry areas and exposed situations in New South Wales, Australia

item1d11a1a1

See photos.

It is always found in rock crevices in Canberra, Australia.

 

Pleuro = side and sorus = heap, referring to the spores along the veins on the underside of the fronds; rutifolius = wrinkled leaves.

item1a2k1a1a

Davallia denticulata (Davallia elegans plus others)

Rabbit's Foot Fern, Paku Tertutup, Toothed davallia

Chinese Name :
假脉骨碎补, 兔脚芒

Hainan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia, Indian Ocean islands, Pacific islands]

A widely distributed species usually found in exposed situations. This fern grows as an epiphyte (epiphyte - A plant growing on another plant but not attached parasitically), also frequently among rocks and often as a terrestrial (terrestrial - growing on the ground) in sandy soil with the rhizomes deeply buried.

Rootstock clothed with woolly fibers: leaves 9-15 inches (22.5-37.5 cms) wide, with the main rachis slightly winged toward the apex; indusia, several to a segment, with the sharp teeth projecting beyond the cups.

Sori separate, several per segment, at forking point of veins.

24-40 x
(60-100 x )

Grows well under medium light in moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss with good drainage.

On dry rocks or on tree trunks in evergreen forests or half-shaded places at altitudes below 200 m, or rarely 500 m in Thailand.

It grows on big trees, partially sheltered by the canopy. It occurs locally in Pulau Ubin (Chek Jawa), Pulau Tekong and many other forested and urban sites. It can be propagated by spores or division of the rhizomes in Singapore.

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in a Conservatory in UK.
In Old World Tropics grow on rocks or cork in
Rock Garden or on trees in Woodland as a Shade-Tolerant Fern.
Can be grown in Coastal areas on Limestone or Basic Soils.
Epiphytic and Epilithic.

 

Stove evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
 

Stove Evergreen Fern.

Plants grow readily in a pot or in the ground but the fronds are deciduous during the winter in its native habitats.

Epiphytic on many different species of trees and in different types of forests including mangrove or on solitary trees, epilithic on granite, limestone, or sandstone, terrestrial on different kinds of soil; sea level to 2200 m. Only the typical variety (Davallia denticulata var. denticulata) occurs in China.

Often seen as a lithophyte (Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks ) or epiphyte in different forest types. It may lose all its fronds in dry periods.

item1c11a1a1

Davallia, commemorating Edmond Davall, an English-born Swiss botanist from the 18th century; Latin denticulata, finely toothed, referring to the rhizome scales with short spreading curved teeth.

 

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia divaricata (Araiostegia divaricata;
A. divaricata var. formosana; Davallia amabilis; D. austrosinica;
D. divaricata var. orientale;
D. formosana;
D. orientalis; Wibelia divaricata; W. formosana)

大叶骨碎补 da ye gu sui bu

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Pacific islands (Solomon Islands)].

A very attractive davallia prized for its large, finely-divided, deep green fronds and its rhizomes covered with coarse, dark-coloured, spreading scales. New fronds are red to crimson.

Rootstock with linear rusty scales: leaves tri-pinnatifid, sometimes 2' (24 inches, 60 cms) broad, with deltoid segments cut into linear-oblong lobes; sori at some distance from the edge.

24-48 x
(60-120 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern as Basket Fern in Conservatory in UK.
Grow in woodland in native habitat.

 

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species:Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

Makes an excellent basket plant and can be developed into a large specimen.

Generally epiphytic, sometimes epilithic on limestone, rarely terrestrial, mostly in dense forests, sometimes on dry places; sea level to 1900 m.

item1d11a1

 

 

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia denticulata (Davallia elegans plus others)

Rabbit's Foot Fern, Paku Tertutup, Toothed davallia

Chinese Name :
假脉骨碎补, 兔脚芒

Hainan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia, Indian Ocean islands, Pacific islands]

A widely distributed species usually found in exposed situations. This fern grows as an epiphyte (epiphyte - A plant growing on another plant but not attached parasitically), also frequently among rocks and often as a terrestrial (terrestrial - growing on the ground) in sandy soil with the rhizomes deeply buried.

Rootstock clothed with woolly fibers: leaves 9-15 inches (22.5-37.5 cms) wide, with the main rachis slightly winged toward the apex; indusia, several to a segment, with the sharp teeth projecting beyond the cups.

Sori separate, several per segment, at forking point of veins.

24-40 x
(60-100 x )

Grows well under medium light in moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss with good drainage.

On dry rocks or on tree trunks in evergreen forests or half-shaded places at altitudes below 200 m, or rarely 500 m in Thailand.

It grows on big trees, partially sheltered by the canopy. It occurs locally in Pulau Ubin (Chek Jawa), Pulau Tekong and many other forested and urban sites. It can be propagated by spores or division of the rhizomes in Singapore.

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in a Conservatory in UK.
In Old World Tropics grow on rocks or cork in
Rock Garden or on trees in Woodland as a Shade-Tolerant Fern.
Can be grown in Coastal areas.
Epiphytic and Epilithic.

 

Stove evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
 

Stove Evergreen Fern.

Plants grow readily in a pot or in the ground but the fronds are deciduous during the winter in its native habitats.

Epiphytic on many different species of trees and in different types of forests including mangrove or on solitary trees, epilithic on granite, limestone, or sandstone, terrestrial on different kinds of soil; sea level to 2200 m. Only the typical variety (Davallia denticulata var. denticulata) occurs in China.

Often seen as a lithophyte (Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks ) or epiphyte in different forest types. It may lose all its fronds in dry periods.

item1c11a1a

Davallia, commemorating Edmond Davall, an English-born Swiss botanist from the 18th century; Latin denticulata, finely toothed, referring to the rhizome scales with short spreading curved teeth.

 

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia embolostegia (Wibelia embolostegia)

Haresfoot fern

Native to Philippines and Borneo

A delighful fern with large, light green fronds which are produced in abundance from the spreading rhizome. The young tips of the rhizomes are covered with conspicuous, tangled, reddish-brown scales.
Each frond is quite long-lived.

Sori separate, often single on a segment at the bending point of a vein.

32-48 x
(80-120 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

House Fern in Trough, Hanging Basket or Terrarium in Conservatory in the UK.
In trough or outside container by waterfall, pond or river in native habitat.
Epiphytic and lithophytic.

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

Can be grown in a large container or basket in well-drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss. It needs heat and humidity to grow well.

Epiphytic, rarely lithophytic, in evergreen forest in Thailand.

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species:Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

 

 

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia pyxidata (Davallia solida var. pyxidata)

Australian Hare's-foot Fern, Australian davallia, Hare's foot fern

Zones 8-9

Australia - Endemic and relatively common in coastal eastern Australia, with scattered occurrences in inland forests (Qld, N.S.W.) and an isolated southernmost locality in the Grampian Ranges, Victoria.

An easily grown fern with woody, erect or spreading rhizomes and leathery, dark green fronds. Juvenile or sterile fronds may be coarsely-divided, while fertile fronds are much finer.

Rootstock clothed with pale brown linear scales: leaf-blades tri-quadripinnatifid, 6-9 inches (15-22.5 cms) broad, with oblong segments; sori with a broad space outside, which is extended into a horn-like projection.

Can grow in cool areas of Australia.

12-32 x 40
(30-80 x 100)

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in a Trough or in a Hanging Basket within a Heated Greenhouse or in Outdoors Container as bedding plant among rocks in a Rock Garden (bring inside during a very cold winter) within the UK.
Grow in Hanging Basket, Rock Garden in crevices of the rock as an epilithic in or near rainforest areas outside in Coastal Districts of native habitat.

 

Greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

Can be grown in a pot or basket or among rocks in the garden.

A small-medium fern with medium- to long-creeping rhizomes. Best grown under medium-high light in well-drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss. The plants are sometimes used as bedding plants. The stiff, upward-growing rhizomes do not make for a good basket plant.

An ideal species for growing in hanging baskets on the veranda in South Africa. It bears attractive, feathery, dark green leaves. Tuck several plants into the perimeter of a coir-lined basket to form a round ball of feathery fronds. Fill the basket with a mixture of compost and acid compost and keep the coir moist. Mist-spray the fronds with water in hot, dry weather.

davalliapyxidatapfruwikimediacommons

It is a variety of fern that occurs in eastern Australia and is usually identified as a lithophyte or epiphyte in or near rainforest areas. However, it may also be seen in a few locations west of the Great Dividing Range. Listed as vulnerable in Victoria, occurring in the Grampians.
Most often seen growing from cracks in rocks. But it can also be seen growing in "baskets" formed by other epiphytic ferns such as those in the genera Platycerium and Asplenium. The name "hare's foot" comes from the furry exposed rhizomes. The former specific epithet pyxidata is from Greek, and it refers to a "box", as the sori are partially encased by the frond.

In Victoria known only from crevices of exposed sandstone cliffs in the Black Range (west of the Grampians). The fronds of the Victorian specimens are less than 20 cm tall (they can reach 60 cm elsewhere).
During drought, Davallia solida var. pyxidata sheds fronds from its thick scaly rhizome.

Fern West Head underside sori, likely to be Davallia solida var. pyxidata. Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Australia.. Date: 29 June 2011. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard via Wikimedia Commons.

Hares foot on Hawkesbury Sandstone. West Head, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Australia. Fern is likely to be Davallia solida var. pyxidata. Date: 29 June 2011. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard via Wikimedia Commons.

 

See other photos.

davalliapyxidatapfolwikimediacommons

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia solida (Trichomanes solidum;
Davallia solida var. latifolia;
D. solida var. ornata;
D. subsolida; Humata solida; Stenolobus solidus + others with their occurrences throughout world)

CHAMORRO: Pugua 'machena.
CHINESE: 阔叶骨碎补 kuo ye gu sui bu
PALAU: Luukbedaoch.
Ornate leafs used for floral decorations in fiestas and religious rituals.


Giant Hare's-foot, Polynesian davallia.

Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam (Tonkin); Pacific islands.

A handsome fern, with large feathery fronds that are usually dark green and shiny. These are coarsely-divided and are often a dark purple when young. The thick rhizomes grow stiffly away from the compost.

There is considerable range in the degree of frond division.

Rootstock clothed with adpressed scales or fibers: leaves 1-2 feet (12-24 inches, 30-60 cms) long, 12-15 inches (30-37.5 cms) wide, the center of the apex broad and undivided; segments broad and slightly cut; indusia marginal.

Sori terminal on veinlets, at margin of ultimate segments; involucre cup-shaped, up to 1.5 mm long, about twice as long as wide.

24-48 x
(60-120 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for


House Fern on cork or rock in a Trough or in a Hanging Basket within a Conservatory in the UK.
Grow on rock or tree trunks in native habitat.
Epilithic on rocks and Epiphytic on tree trunks or cork.
Shade-Tolerant Fern.
Coastal Districts. Use Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Limestone or Basic Soils.

 

Stove evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
 

Stove Evergreen Fern.

Makes an attractive basket plant.

Epiphytic, epilithic on different kinds of rocks, or terrestrial on different kinds of soils, in exposed places or in deep shade, from open rocky places and savannas to primary rain forests; sea level to 1500 m. Davallia solida is a widespread species and generally is easily recognizable by the black rhizome, which bears hairy scales that soon fall off leaving only the bases.

It has medium- to longer creeping rhizomes and grows well under medium light in potting mix or uncut moss kept moist-dry and given good drainage.

On tree trunks or on rocks in half-shaded places or in some dense evergreen forests at altitudes below 300 m in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia.

davalliasolidapforwikimediacommons

Davalia solida. By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia tasmanii

Tasman's davallia, Three Kings davallia

Three Kings Islands and Tasmania (Endemic to New Zealand)

Plants grow readily in temperate regions, but do not thrive in hotter climates.

 

Distinguishing features of
Davallia canariensis,
D. solida, and the New Zealand taxa D. tasmanii subsp. cristata and
D. tasmanii subsp. tasmanii.

It is a handsome species with its closely placed, finely-divided leathery fronds.

8-20 x 20
(20-50 x 50)

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

It grows well in dry place and the growth is very slow. It can grow from spores and rooted pieces.

Each group of sporangia (a sorus) is inside a distinctive pouch-like covering (indusium) making this an easy fern to identify.
Plant form: creeping with fronds up to 200 mm long.

Suitable for

House Fern in Trough or Hanging Basket within Conservatory.
Slowly growing.
Drier Soil.
Cold Hardy.
Use as Ground Cover, an
Epilithic in a
Rock Garden, and can be grown in
Coastal Districts at the front of the border in Full Sun or in an Outdoor Container in the UK.

 

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

A very hardy and cold-resistant fern which can be grown as a ground cover among rocks or in a basket.

Likes very dry conditions. Good pot plant. Slow growing.

Davallia tasmanii is primarily a terrestrial species found on rocky banks, rock outcrops and scree slopes in exposed situations or under coastal scrub. Occasionally it is also found as an epiphyte.

Grow Davallia tasmanii in well-drained soil or compost. It does well in containers, even when root-bound, and resents root disturbance. It’s ideal for growing as part of a permanent container display in a sunny spot. Frost tender, you may need to move it undercover for winter in the UK.

See photos.

davalliatasmaniapforwikimediacommons

Davallia tasmania, Auckland Winter Garden, Fernery. Date: 22 November 2011. By Andy king50 via Wikimedia Commons.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.
 

Davallia tricho-manoides +
(Davallia dissecta, Davallia bullata;
D. cylindrica;
D. mariesii;
D. mariesii var. stenolepis;
D. petelotii;
D. stenolepis;
D. trichomanoides var. bullata; Trogostolon yunnanensis)

Hare's-foot or Squirrel's-foot Fern, black rabbit's foot fern

骨碎补 gu sui bu

Malaysia, New Guinea, Indonesia

 

Temperate -
Semi-tropical

Valued for its neat habit, refreshing lacy fronds and interesting furry rhizomes which wander at will.

Plants are deciduous for a short period but new fronds are quickly produced. In the typical form, the rhizome scales are yellowish-brown and in forma barbata they are reddish-brown and the frond margins are less deeply incised. The variety lorrainii has dark-coloured rhizome scales and sparser fronds than other forms.

Can grow in cool areas in native districts.

A tender, clump-forming, spreading, deciduous fern. Davallia trichomanoides will reach a height of 0.45m and a spread of 0.3m after 5-10 years.
Under glass, grow in equal mix leaf mould or peat substitute, moss, bark, sharp sand, charcoal, & pine needles in high humidity & bright indirect light. In growth, water moderately & mist daily. Outdoors, grow in moist, open soil in part shade. Indoor heated (H1), Tender in frost (H3).
USDA zones 11, 10, 9

8-16 x
(20-40 x )

Glass Box Tropicals was created in 2012 in order to provide terrarium hobbyists with an increasingly vast assortment of plants suited for use with poison dart frogs. In addition to growing many of the plants that we offer, we also work with select commercial nurseries in the United States of America and abroad. As Glass Box Tropicals has grown, we have also begun to offer a wide array of other supplies commonly needed when growing plants, building and maintaining terrariums, culturing and caring for microfauna, and caring for poison dart frogs and other terrarium inhabitants. Many of the products we now offer are sourced from all over the world in order to aid you in building your personal rainforest. We are located in Lansing, Michigan and are currently an online store only.

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in Trough Garden or Terrarium in the UK.
Hanging Basket in Conservatory in UK.
Grow in rock garden or on tree trunks in the shade in native habitat and USDA zones 10 and 11.
Epiphytic and Epilithic.
Shade-tolerant.
Drier Soil.
Cold-hardy.
Ground Cover.

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

A popular fern with fern enthusiasts and general gardeners alike.

Excellent for baskets or pots.

Epiphytic and epilithic on different kinds of rocks, mostly in wet places, sometimes on dry, exposed places; 100-3500 m.

Partial or full shade is required for the growth of it. It can survive in dryness.

Davallia trichomanoides is one of the more commonly used ferns in a terrarium. This is due to its ability to be grown both terrestrially and epiphytically. Additionally, the fuzzy brown to black rhizomes also draw many customers to this plant. When grown in a terrarium, this species will generally have fronds about 8” (20 cm) in length and 3-5” (8.75 cm) in width. As it grows, the rhizomes will slowly spread sprouting up new leaves as they go.

davalliatrichomanoidespforwikimediacommons

Davallia trichomanoides at Garfield Park Conservatory. Date: 2 September 2016. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Humata griffithiana (Davallia griffithiana, Davallia henryana ;
D. platylepis ;
D. tyermanii ; Humata griffithiana var. tyermanii ;
H. henryana ;
H. platylepis ;
H. tyermanii ; Leucostegia griffithiana )

Bear's Foot Fern, White Rabbit Foot Fern

USDA Zones 8a-10b

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India (Assam, Manipur), Japan (Okinawa), Laos, Myanmar (Kengtung), Vietnam (Tonkin)].

Semi-tender

Humata henryana,
H. platylepis, and H. tyermanii were treated as separate species in FRPS (6(1): 194-197. 1999), but comparisons of the types of Davallia henryana,
D. platylepis, and H. tyermanii suggest that they all belong to the same species,
H. griffithiana.

Rhizome 2-6mm in diameter.

Sori separate, borne several or single on a segment, at forking point of veins.

6-8 x 24
(15-20 x 60)

 

Humata is Latin for of the earth; referring to the creeping habit of the rhizomes.

 

This native of the Canary Islands is named for the white fuzzy rhizomes produced by the plant that will travel along the ground and curve over the edge of a pot. Fronds are soft and dark green. Great to use in plantings for colour and texture. More cold hardy than other tropicals and can withstand zone 8 winters (mulch recommended). Mature size of 1 to 2 feet (30-60 cms). Excellent and versatile as it can be used in dish gardens, pots, hanging baskets or in landscape settings. Also makes a good houseplant.

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By division of rhizomes in February or March.

 

The hairy rootstocks will grow over the edges of the pot on all sides. This fern requires a light spot protected from the sun, moist soil rich in humus, e.g., a mixture of potting compost, sharp sand, peat or leaf-mould and some vermiculite. The soil must not be too moist or the rootstocks will turn brown, temperature by day 21-26 C, at night 10-15C. Feed once a month (half concentration). Repot once every 2/3 years when the soil has been exhausted.

Suitable for

House Fern or Hanging Basket in Conservatory within UK. Outdoor Container. Bring inside during winter to keep it dry.
Slow-growing.
Woodland.
Grows on Rock (epilithic) and
on tree trunks (epiphyte) in Woodland, in
Coastal Districts and is Shade-Tolerant within native habitats.
 

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns, formerly included in the genus Davallia.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
 

Stove Evergreen Fern.
 

Plants are easily grown and are suitable for baskets or pots.

A small to medium fern with medium- to long-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under medium light in drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss. It is slow growing.

Found in wet forests, climbing on tree trunks or rocks in Macau.

Wet forests, climbing on tree trunks or rocks; near sea level to 2200 m in China.

Needs to be dry in winter.
Grows in Bright Shade to Full Shade.

humatatyermaniipforwikimediacommons

Humata tyermanii. Plant specimen in the Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Hong Kong. Date: 20 February 2011. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons. This is also Humata griffithiana.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

The remarkable sex life of ferns:-

  • Formation of spores in the capsule (sporangia) underneath a fertile leaf.
  • When they are ripe, the millions of spores are thrown out by the sporangia when it bursts open.
  • A spore that lands on good soil (moist and light) produces a prothallium (of approximately 6mm) onto which male and female organs develop. The spermatozoa from the male organ swim across moisture to fertilise the eggs.
  • On the prothallium the impregnated egg creates a new plant which takes root; the first leaves have an aberrant shape.

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2