Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN as Rock Garden and Wall Ferns Page 4 of 5
"Many ferns can be grown among rocks, but rock walls or rock gardens are traditionally planted with small to medium-small ferns. The rock background allows these ferns to be more more easily seen yet safely tucked away to avoid being stepped on or overly shaded by rapidly growing plants.
Ideally, some of the rocks should be limestone so that lime-loving ferns can be grown. If limestone cannot be found, lime can be added to the soil mixes (see Chapter 5 of
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran).
Using the proper soil before setting the rocks in place avoids future growth problems. The ferns should be firmly planted with a loam or potting mix in an area between the rocks that is a few inches (a few centimetres) wide and deep and has good drainage. Some ferns will need additions of coarse sand. Small rocks added during planting will help secure the fern and soil in place. Protect the surface soil against erosion by firming it and placing gravel or a few small stones on top of it. Generally, temperate species of rock ferns adapt poorly to warm-climate gardens. Where rainfall is moderate to sparse, xerophytic ferns do well in rock plantings (see "Xerophytic Ferns" in Chapter 10). Alsee "Trough Gardens" in Chapter 10. Kaye (Hardy Ferns. Published by Faber and Faber, London in 1968 - See Literature Cited pages in
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran) provides further details on planting hardy ferns in rock gardens. Some suitable ferns for rock gardens are:-" from Chapter 9 of Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks.

USE OF FERN as Ferns for Rock Garden in the UK from Ferns for Home and Garden Flowers & Plants. Published by Magna Books in 1995. ISBN 1 85422 888 9. Design and text of plan, planting plan, flowering and colour scheme: Bureau Willemien Dijkshoorn BNT, Amsterdam:-

  • Asplenium
  • Blechnum
  • Ceterach
  • Cheilanthes
  • Cystopteris
  • Gymnocarpium
  • Pellaea
  • Phyllitis
  • Polypodium
  • Polystichum
  • Woodsia

     

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Some details from The standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture in 3 Volumes by L.H Bailey. Published by The Macmillan Company in 1939

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com ,
Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Cheilanthes hispidula , Cheilanthes moluccana , Cheilosoria tenuifolia, Trichomanes tenuifolium ; Acrostichum tenue ;
Adiantum cicutifolium ; Cassebeera tenuifolia + others)

Lip Fern, Rock Fern, Curly Fern

New Zealand, Australia.

North India, Sri Lanka, South-East Asia, Polynesia.

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, S Hunan, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia, Oceania (including New Zealand)].

The genus name comes from the Greek cheilos, lip, and anthos, flower, referring to the curled pinnae margins that enclose the sori.

 

Vernacular names

• Narrow-leaved lip fern (En)

• Indonesia: paku jepun (Sundanese), paku alus (Moluccas), paku resam lumut (Bangka)

• Malaysia: resam lumut, resam padi, paku telur belangkas

• Philippines: pakong-roman (Tagalog)

• Thailand: chon phee (peninsular)

• Vietnam: thần mô lá mảnh.

薄叶碎米蕨
bao ye sui mi jue

The fronds are finely divided, with a lacy appearance and the new fronds are a fresh bright green.

Sori confined to distal portion of lobes, interrupted at segment bases.

Cheilanthes tenuifolia grows in all the dry parts of New South Wales. It has adapted itself to situations in which it may be absolutely dry for several months during each year, but as soon as rain comes it commences to grow immediately. The fern is not very large. It consists of a subterranean dorsiventral rhizome which occasionally branches and attains a considerable length. Stiff erect fronds rise above the surface of the soil here and there, usually in clumps. This is due to the fact that the fronds grow out from the rhizome much more quickly than the rhizome itself grows. Meanwhile, the fronds along the the older parts of the rhizome die, so that there remains a clump of leaves around the apex. There is a very efficient root system growing out from the rhizome, the main roots branching profusely and giving rise to a very extensive secondary root system. The roots are dark brown, and very thin and wiry.

Detrimental to cattle in New South Wales.

8-16 x
(20-40 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

 

A spore of C. tenuifolia germinates readily in culture; rhizoids emerge within 2 weeks after sowing. The prothallus reaches maturity about 6 months after germination of the spore and the gametophyte is cordate, about 1 cm long, glabrous, with a prominent midrib bearing rhizoids and sex organs. The midrib is 6-8 cells thick and the wing cells are uniformly thin-walled. Antheridia mostly globose, appearing superficially on the underside, occasionally on the margins, when the prothallus is about 2 mm wide (after about 40 days) and still one cell thick. The archegonial neck is composed of 6 tiers of cells and curved. Fertilization and formation of sporophytes occurs profusely in culture and generally only a single sporophyte develops per prothallus. The first juvenile leaf is entire, broadly cuneate to spatulate, with a single median vein dichotomizing equally once or twice, hairy especially on the margin. C. tenuifolia grows actively during the rainy season and becomes dormant in the dry season.

Spore germination instructions and seeds from Exotic Plants with worldwide shipping (shipping to circling space stations could cost more).

Suitable for

Tall Pot in Conservatory in temperate regions.
Rock Garden and Walls in the Tropics, with Drier Soil or in open Woodlands - suitable for Coastal regions as well.

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

The pots should be half-filled with crocks to ensure perfect drainage. Slugs are troublesome, unless the pots are stood upon crushed coke, or sifted ashes, over which the slugs do not like to crawl.

Add composted bark, charcoal, and humus to the basic mix. Tall narrow pots provide the best drainage for containerized plants.

Stove Fern.

A widely distributed species which grows actively during the monsoonal wet season and becomes dormant in the dry. A difficult subject to grow away from the tropics. Best tried in a partially protected situation outside.

This is a fern of open areas in the lowland in Singapore - on bare earthbanks, rock surfaces and even on old walls.

C. tenuifolia occurs often on unfertile, dry or humid, rocky ground in open forest areas, on old stone or earthen walls, sometimes amidst alang-alang ( Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel) or as a weed on ridges in plantations, sometimes gregariously, from sea-level up to 1500 m altitude. It is drought-resistant but also grows well in areas with abundant rainfall. In regions with a pronounced dry season the aboveground parts wither and the plant resumes growth after the first rains. It is often able to regenerate when the grassy vegetation in which it grows is mowed not too close to the ground.

On rocks in forests and along stream banks, roadsides, rice fields; 100-1000 m.

On rather dry clayey banks of paths in mixed forests at low altitudes in Thailand.

cheilanthestenuifoliapfigurewikimediacommons

Cheilanthes tenuifolia - botanical illustrations in Bibliotheca botanica. Stuttgart,E. Schweizerbart [etc.]1886-. biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47220674. From Biodiversity Heritage Library via Wikimedia Commons.

cheilanthestenuifoliapfornatureloveyou

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Lip Fern, Rock Fern) DSC07747 (09). Photo taken 13 June 2009. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

cheilanthestenuifoliapfrunatureloveyou

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Lip Fern, Rock Fern) DSC05720 (11). Spores containing bodies (sporangia) can be seen along the edge of the underside of the leaf (frond). Photo taken 13 June 2009. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

More photos from New Caledonia.

Pleurosorus rutifolius (Gymnogramma alpina ; Gymnogramma rutaefolia ; Gymnogramma pozoi var. rutaefolia ; Ceterach rutaefolium ; Grammitis rutaefolia , Asplenium subglandulosum subsp. subglandulosum )

Blanket Fern

Australia, New Zealand

 

Temperate-Subtropical

Dry

Rhizome covered with purplish brown scales and old stipe bases.
Fronds few to several, erect, 1-pinnate with most pinnae pinnatifid, usually 5–15 cm long, densely covered with silvery to reddish brown non-glandular hairs; pinnae 3–8 pairs, dark green, asymmetric, fan-shaped, irregularly notched or lobed.
Sori in radiating lines along veins, confluent and brown with age.

2-7 x 4
(4-18 x 10)

Small erect tufted fern on a short scaly underground stem (rhizome).
Oblong, blunt, dark green once-divided fronds, irregularly lobed or notched fan-shaped segments 4-20mm long in 3-8 almost opposite pairs. Densely covered in clear to rusty hairs. Hairy green stem shorter than frond, scales tufted at base, scattered above.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

In a terrarium set it up with a stony potting mix (See further details on potting mixes in Chapter 20 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1) and keep on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods).

Suitable for

Terrarium in temperate regions.
Xeriphytic Fern.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Outdoor Containers or
Rock Garden
in open areas or Woodland within native habitat.

Dry well drained soil in rock crevices and gorges associated with woodland. Full sun. Plants will shrivel in extreme dryness and become brown, reviving and regreening after rain. Plants are softer, greener and less hairy in sheltered positions.
An attractive little fern planted amongst rocks in dry areas with lower humidity. Do not like overwatering. Suitable for pots if kept in an open position in Australia.

A hardy fern which grows in open situations with its roots in the shelter of rocks, in crevices etc. It is an appealing little fern usually found in colonies. Plants can be grown in a small pot but must not be overwatered and resent stale, humid conditions. Best in a sheltered situation in rocks.

Widespread, on hillsides, often growing in the shelter of rocks, chiefly in dry areas and exposed situations in New South Wales, Australia

item1d11a1a

See photos.

It is always found in rock crevices in Canberra, Australia.

 

Pleuro = side and sorus = heap, referring to the spores along the veins on the underside of the fronds; rutifolius = wrinkled leaves.

item1a2k1a1

Quercifilix zeylanica (Tectaria zeilanica)

Oak Leaf Fern, Oak Leaf Creeper

It is native to Sri Lanka, India, and the Indochina region in southern China and Vietnam, and Taiwan.

Glasshouse Works only ships within the United States.

Black Jungle Exotics sells Exotic Plants, Dart Frogs and Natural Decor for Terrarium and Vivarium Design.

Terrarium Fern--very slow growing; very shallow wiry roots; must have high levels of humidity and fibrous media. This gem is a collector's excuse to start a Wardian case.

 

Epihytic or lithophytic ferns grow on trees or rocks in nature. These ferns generally grow very well in soil-less potting mixtures because of the improved aeration and drainage of these media with the following suitable mixes from chapter 20 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1:-

Mix A
1 part pine bark
1 part tree-fern fibre
1 part charcoal
1 part peanut shells

Mix B
1 part chopped todea or osmunda fibre
1 part peanut shells
1 part pine bark

Mix C
1 part coarse sand
1 part pine bark
1 part peat moss

Mix D
1 part tree-fern fibre
1 part pine bark
1 part coarse sand

40 x 16
(100 x 40) for adult height

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: See on right.

Suitable for

Terrarium., Wardian Case with flowing waterfall feature within it to provide the humidity and removal of the top for an hour in the morning and evening to prevent the fronds from rotting in temperate regions.


Shade Tolerant Fern,
Coastal Districts, Rock Garden or Outdoor Container close to waterfall to provide humidity in native habitat.

A tiny fern with hairy, dimorphic fronds. Can be grown in a small pot of well-drained loamy mixture or in a rock garden in a lightly shaded situation. Has also been grown in a terrarium, however, the fronds may rot in a very humid atmosphere.

Minimum winter temperature is 5C (10C from book) with altitude of 0-1000m and creeping habit in the Netherlands.
 

It is a small fern, with erect fertile fronds, and sterile fronds shaped like small oak leaves.

quercifilixzeylanicapforwikimediacommons

Tectaria zeylanica syn.Quercifilix zeylanica, collection of Uni Giessen Botanical Garden, Germany. Date: 14 June 2008. By Kembangraps via Wikimedia Commons.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Araiostegia pseudo-cystopteris (Acrophorus pseudo-cystopteris, Araiostegia athamantica, Davallia athamantica, Davallia pseudo-cystopteris, Leucostegia paeudo-cystopteris)

Indian Rabbit's Foot Fern

USDA Zones 7b to 10b

India - A species from the mountains of northern India where it is common on trees and rocks at high elevations.

Araiostegia is a genus of twelve epiphytic or terrestrial ferns from tropical Asia belonging to the hares-foot fern family. It has finely pinnate thinly textured fronds arising from long scaly stalks jointed to creeping rhizomes.

The fronds are finely divided and attractive.

The Araiostegia fronds are a beautiful textural addition to the garden and can also be cut and used in floral arrangements. Araiostegia is a hard-to-find fern but one that deserves a spot in every Zone 7 or warmer shade garden in America.
Araiostegia prefers part shade and well-drained soil that is evenly moist. A sloped garden bed that simulates its native Himalayan habitat is best. It is also deer-resistant.

16-24 x
(40-60 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for UK in

Basket Fern. Woodland.
Rock Garden.
Outdoor Container.
Shade-Tolerant.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.

 

Can be grown as a basket fern or in a pot.

The daintily cut, lacy, medium green foliage is attached to a fuzzy rabbit's-foot-type rhizome that lays on the soil surface. Our 15-year-old specimen of Araiostegia pseudocystopteris has formed a 24 inch (60 cm) wide deciduous clump, although planting it on a slope will result in faster growth. It is dormant in the winter. It is hardy enough for North Carolina gardens in America.

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Araiostegia pulchra (Davallia pulchra ; Acrophorus pseudo-cystopteris ; A. pulcher ; Araiostegia athamantica ; A. beddomei ; A. delavayi ; A. imbricata ; A. pseudo-cystopteris ; A. yunnanensis ; Davallia athamantica ; D. beddomei ; D. chaerophylla ; D. imbricata ; D. pseudo-cystopteris ; D. pulchra var. delavayi ; D. pulchra var. pseudo-cystopteris ; D. rigidula ; D. yunnanensis ; Davallodes beddomei ; D. imbricata ; D. pseudo-cystopteris ; D. pulchra ; D. yunnanensis ; Humata chaerophylla ; H. pulchra ; H. yunnanensis ; Leucostegia delavayi ; L. pseudo-cystopteris ; L. pulchra ; L. yunnanensis)

USDA Zones 10a-11

India, Sri Lanka - An attractive fern from mountainous regions growing in shady conditions.

Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, N Thailand, Vietnam].

Araiostegia is a genus of twelve epiphytic or terrestrial ferns from tropical Asia belonging to the hares-foot fern family. It has finely pinnate thinly textured fronds arising from long scaly stalks jointed to creeping rhizomes.

美小膜盖蕨 mei xiao mo gai jue

The slender rhizomes are covered with blunt, whitish scales and the fronds tend to be spreading or weeping. Fronds may be deciduous.

Sori separate, frequently single on a segment, at forking point of veins or at bending point of a vein; indusium reniform or semicircular, attached at narrow, cordate base only, wider than long, 0.5-0.8 × 0.5-1 mm.

The Araiostegia fronds are a beautiful textural addition to the garden and can also be cut and used in floral arrangements. Araiostegia is a hard-to-find fern but one that deserves a spot in every Zone 7 or warmer shade garden in America.
Araiostegia prefers part shade and well-drained soil that is evenly moist. A sloped garden bed that simulates its native Himalayan habitat is best. It is also deer-resistant.

16-20 x
(40-50 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for native habitat as a

Basket Fern. Woodland.
Rock Garden.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Best grown in moist leafmould in full to light shade where the rhizomes can creep along the surface.

Grow in
Terrarium or Conservatory in temperate regions like the UK

Easily grown in a pot or basket.

Wet forests, epiphytic and epilithic on granite and limestone; 400-3500 m.

Forming an impressive species where we gathered this fern on the slopes of Fansipan the highest mountain in the north of Vietnam in 2003. Unfurling from creeping epiphytic rhizomes densely covered with ginger scales, with upright slender scaly stems (stipes) to 50cm long bearing fronds that were loosely triangular in outline to 50cm long and nearly as wide. Which are one of the most delicate looking finely divided species we grow, with the lamina 5 times pinnately divided. Best grown in moist leafmould in full to light shade where the rhizomes can creep along the surface.

araiostegiapulchrapfigureefloras

Araiostegia pulchra. Figure 1048. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 4 June 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia denticulata (Davallia elegans plus others)

Rabbit's Foot Fern, Paku Tertutup, Toothed davallia

Chinese Name :
假脉骨碎补, 兔脚芒

Hainan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia, Indian Ocean islands, Pacific islands]

A widely distributed species usually found in exposed situations. This fern grows as an epiphyte (epiphyte - A plant growing on another plant but not attached parasitically), also frequently among rocks and often as a terrestrial (terrestrial - growing on the ground) in sandy soil with the rhizomes deeply buried.

Rootstock clothed with woolly fibers: leaves 9-15 inches (22.5-37.5 cms) wide, with the main rachis slightly winged toward the apex; indusia, several to a segment, with the sharp teeth projecting beyond the cups.

Sori separate, several per segment, at forking point of veins.

24-40 x
(60-100 x )

Grows well under medium light in moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss with good drainage.

On dry rocks or on tree trunks in evergreen forests or half-shaded places at altitudes below 200 m, or rarely 500 m in Thailand.

It grows on big trees, partially sheltered by the canopy. It occurs locally in Pulau Ubin (Chek Jawa), Pulau Tekong and many other forested and urban sites. It can be propagated by spores or division of the rhizomes in Singapore.

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in Hanging Basket within a Conservatory in UK.
In Old World Tropics grow on rocks or cork in
Rock Garden or on trees in Woodland as a Shade-Tolerant Fern.
Can be grown in Coastal areas.
Epiphytic and Epilithic.

 

Stove evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
 

Stove Evergreen Fern.

Plants grow readily in a pot or in the ground but the fronds are deciduous during the winter in its native habitats.

Epiphytic on many different species of trees and in different types of forests including mangrove or on solitary trees, epilithic on granite, limestone, or sandstone, terrestrial on different kinds of soil; sea level to 2200 m. Only the typical variety (Davallia denticulata var. denticulata) occurs in China.

Often seen as a lithophyte (Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks ) or epiphyte in different forest types. It may lose all its fronds in dry periods.

item1c11a1a

Davallia, commemorating Edmond Davall, an English-born Swiss botanist from the 18th century; Latin denticulata, finely toothed, referring to the rhizome scales with short spreading curved teeth.

 

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia divaricata (Araiostegia divaricata;
A. divaricata var. formosana; Davallia amabilis; D. austrosinica;
D. divaricata var. orientale;
D. formosana;
D. orientalis; Wibelia divaricata; W. formosana)

大叶骨碎补 da ye gu sui bu

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Pacific islands (Solomon Islands)].

Siam Greenculture ship plants anywhere, anytime,  and can likely send you over 300 species of rare fern and allies - including this one - no matter where in the world you happen to live. 

A very attractive davallia prized for its large, finely-divided, deep green fronds and its rhizomes covered with coarse, dark-coloured, spreading scales. New fronds are red to crimson.

Rootstock with linear rusty scales: leaves tri-pinnatifid, sometimes 2' (24 inches, 60 cms) broad, with deltoid segments cut into linear-oblong lobes; sori at some distance from the edge.

24-48 x
(60-120 x )

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in a Hanging Basket in Conservatory in UK.
Grow on tree trunk in woodland or on rocks in Rock Garden in native habitat.
Epiphytic and Epilithic.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Coastal Districts.
Shade Tolerant Fern.

 

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

Makes an excellent basket plant and can be developed into a large specimen.

Generally epiphytic, sometimes epilithic on limestone, rarely terrestrial, mostly in dense forests, sometimes on dry places; sea level to 1900 m.

On mossy tree trunks or on rocks near streams in light shade or in clearing and on ridge and at low or medium altitudes in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia.

A large specie with large and gracefully lacy fronds reaching 30-50 cm. The frond rises from large, blackish rhizome is black covered with short hair when young. Does exceedingly well in fairly dry compost under light shade. Best suit for hanging basket.

davalliadivaricatapfigureefloras

Davallia divaricata. Figure 1055. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 12 June 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia pyxidata (Davallia solida var. pyxidata)

Australian Hare's-foot Fern, Australian davallia, Hare's foot fern

Zones 8-9

Australia - Endemic and relatively common in coastal eastern Australia, with scattered occurrences in inland forests (Qld, N.S.W.) and an isolated southernmost locality in the Grampian Ranges, Victoria.

An easily grown fern with woody, erect or spreading rhizomes and leathery, dark green fronds. Juvenile or sterile fronds may be coarsely-divided, while fertile fronds are much finer.

Rootstock clothed with pale brown linear scales: leaf-blades tri-quadripinnatifid, 6-9 inches (15-22.5 cms) broad, with oblong segments; sori with a broad space outside, which is extended into a horn-like projection.

Can grow in cool areas of Australia.

12-32 x 40
(30-80 x 100)

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in a Trough or in a Hanging Basket within a Heated Greenhouse or in Outdoors Container as bedding plant among rocks in a Rock Garden (bring inside during a very cold winter) within the UK.
Grow in Hanging Basket, Rock Garden in crevices of the rock as an epilithic in or near rainforest areas outside in Coastal Districts of native habitat.

 

Greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

Can be grown in a pot or basket or among rocks in the garden.

A small-medium fern with medium- to long-creeping rhizomes. Best grown under medium-high light in well-drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss. The plants are sometimes used as bedding plants. The stiff, upward-growing rhizomes do not make for a good basket plant.

An ideal species for growing in hanging baskets on the veranda in South Africa. It bears attractive, feathery, dark green leaves. Tuck several plants into the perimeter of a coir-lined basket to form a round ball of feathery fronds. Fill the basket with a mixture of compost and acid compost and keep the coir moist. Mist-spray the fronds with water in hot, dry weather.

davalliapyxidatapfruwikimediacommons

It is a variety of fern that occurs in eastern Australia and is usually identified as a lithophyte or epiphyte in or near rainforest areas. However, it may also be seen in a few locations west of the Great Dividing Range. Listed as vulnerable in Victoria, occurring in the Grampians.
Most often seen growing from cracks in rocks. But it can also be seen growing in "baskets" formed by other epiphytic ferns such as those in the genera Platycerium and Asplenium. The name "hare's foot" comes from the furry exposed rhizomes. The former specific epithet pyxidata is from Greek, and it refers to a "box", as the sori are partially encased by the frond.

In Victoria known only from crevices of exposed sandstone cliffs in the Black Range (west of the Grampians). The fronds of the Victorian specimens are less than 20 cm tall (they can reach 60 cm elsewhere).
During drought, Davallia solida var. pyxidata sheds fronds from its thick scaly rhizome.

Fern West Head underside sori, likely to be Davallia solida var. pyxidata. Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Australia.. Date: 29 June 2011. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard via Wikimedia Commons.

Hares foot on Hawkesbury Sandstone. West Head, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Australia. Fern is likely to be Davallia solida var. pyxidata. Date: 29 June 2011. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard via Wikimedia Commons.

 

See other photos.

davalliapyxidatapfolwikimediacommons

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

Davallia tasmanii

Tasman's davallia, Three Kings davallia

Three Kings Islands and Tasmania (Endemic to New Zealand)

Plants grow readily in temperate regions, but do not thrive in hotter climates.

 

Distinguishing features of
Davallia canariensis,
D. solida, and the New Zealand taxa D. tasmanii subsp. cristata and
D. tasmanii subsp. tasmanii.

It is a handsome species with its closely placed, finely-divided leathery fronds.

8-20 x 20
(20-50 x 50)

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

It grows well in dry place and the growth is very slow. It can grow from spores and rooted pieces.

Each group of sporangia (a sorus) is inside a distinctive pouch-like covering (indusium) making this an easy fern to identify.
Plant form: creeping with fronds up to 200 mm long.

Suitable for

House Fern in Trough or Hanging Basket within Conservatory.
Slowly growing.
Drier Soil.
Cold Hardy.
Use as Ground Cover, an
Epilithic in a
Rock Garden, and can be grown in
Coastal Districts at the front of the border in Full Sun or in an Outdoor Container in the UK.

 

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

A very hardy and cold-resistant fern which can be grown as a ground cover among rocks or in a basket.

Likes very dry conditions. Good pot plant. Slow growing.

Davallia tasmanii is primarily a terrestrial species found on rocky banks, rock outcrops and scree slopes in exposed situations or under coastal scrub. Occasionally it is also found as an epiphyte.

Grow Davallia tasmanii in well-drained soil or compost. It does well in containers, even when root-bound, and resents root disturbance. It’s ideal for growing as part of a permanent container display in a sunny spot. Frost tender, you may need to move it undercover for winter in the UK.

See photos.

davalliatasmaniapforwikimediacommons

Davallia tasmania, Auckland Winter Garden, Fernery. Date: 22 November 2011. By Andy king50 via Wikimedia Commons.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.
 

Davallia tricho-manoides +
(Davallia dissecta, Davallia bullata;
D. cylindrica;
D. mariesii;
D. mariesii var. stenolepis;
D. petelotii;
D. stenolepis;
D. trichomanoides var. bullata; Trogostolon yunnanensis)

Hare's-foot or Squirrel's-foot Fern, black rabbit's foot fern

骨碎补 gu sui bu

Malaysia, New Guinea, Indonesia

 

Temperate -
Semi-tropical

Valued for its neat habit, refreshing lacy fronds and interesting furry rhizomes which wander at will.

Plants are deciduous for a short period but new fronds are quickly produced. In the typical form, the rhizome scales are yellowish-brown and in forma barbata they are reddish-brown and the frond margins are less deeply incised. The variety lorrainii has dark-coloured rhizome scales and sparser fronds than other forms.

Can grow in cool areas in native districts.

A tender, clump-forming, spreading, deciduous fern. Davallia trichomanoides will reach a height of 0.45m and a spread of 0.3m after 5-10 years.
Under glass, grow in equal mix leaf mould or peat substitute, moss, bark, sharp sand, charcoal, & pine needles in high humidity & bright indirect light. In growth, water moderately & mist daily. Outdoors, grow in moist, open soil in part shade. Indoor heated (H1), Tender in frost (H3).
USDA zones 11, 10, 9

8-16 x
(20-40 x )

Glass Box Tropicals was created in 2012 in order to provide terrarium hobbyists with an increasingly vast assortment of plants suited for use with poison dart frogs. In addition to growing many of the plants that we offer, we also work with select commercial nurseries in the United States of America and abroad. As Glass Box Tropicals has grown, we have also begun to offer a wide array of other supplies commonly needed when growing plants, building and maintaining terrariums, culturing and caring for microfauna, and caring for poison dart frogs and other terrarium inhabitants. Many of the products we now offer are sourced from all over the world in order to aid you in building your personal rainforest. We are located in Lansing, Michigan and are currently an online store only.

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

See Growing Davallia Species Indoors in Davallia corniculata description.

Suitable for

House Fern in Trough Garden or Terrarium in the UK.
Hanging Basket in Conservatory in UK.
Grow in rock garden or on tree trunks in the shade in native habitat and USDA zones 10 and 11.
Epiphytic and Epilithic.
Shade-tolerant.
Drier Soil.
Cold-hardy.
Ground Cover.

Stove and greenhouse evergreen Ferns.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, March or April. Position, pots or baskets in part shade. Water moderately September to March, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 40-50F (4-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-15C).

Stove Evergreen Fern.
Greenhouse Evergreen Fern.

A popular fern with fern enthusiasts and general gardeners alike.

Excellent for baskets or pots.

Epiphytic and epilithic on different kinds of rocks, mostly in wet places, sometimes on dry, exposed places; 100-3500 m.

Partial or full shade is required for the growth of it. It can survive in dryness.

Davallia trichomanoides is one of the more commonly used ferns in a terrarium. This is due to its ability to be grown both terrestrially and epiphytically. Additionally, the fuzzy brown to black rhizomes also draw many customers to this plant. When grown in a terrarium, this species will generally have fronds about 8” (20 cm) in length and 3-5” (8.75 cm) in width. As it grows, the rhizomes will slowly spread sprouting up new leaves as they go.

davalliatrichomanoidespforwikimediacommons

Davallia trichomanoides at Garfield Park Conservatory. Date: 2 September 2016. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

"Old plants of Davallia may be cut into a number of smaller ones with a sharp knife. Planted firmly into shallow pans and placed in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), they soon develop into symetrical plants. The rhizomes should be firmly fastened to soil by strong copper-wire staples, where they will root in a short time. To gain a large number of small plants, the rhizomes should be detached, cleaned from all soil and roots, laid on sand and thinly covered with moss. Placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 65-70F (18-21C), and kept moderately moist, a number of small plants will develop from the dormant eyes, which may be separately potted as soon as of sufficient size.
Spores of Davallia should be sown on a fine compost of soil, leaf-mould or peat and sand in equal parts, and placed in a shaded position in a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C). All the operations of propagation of Davallias will be most successful if conducted during the spring months. All Davallias delight in a rich and open compost, an abundance of light and air, and moisture at their roots, a temperature of 60-65F (15-18C), and a through syringing every bright day." from The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture by L.H. Bailey in three volumes. Published by the Macmillan Company in 1939 - Originally published in 1914, rewritten, enlarged and reset by L.H. Bailey in 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

The remarkable sex life of ferns:-

  • Formation of spores in the capsule (sporangia) underneath a fertile leaf.
  • When they are ripe, the millions of spores are thrown out by the sporangia when it bursts open.
  • A spore that lands on good soil (moist and light) produces a prothallium (of approximately 6mm) onto which male and female organs develop. The spermatozoa from the male organ swim across moisture to fertilise the eggs.
  • On the prothallium the impregnated egg creates a new plant which takes root; the first leaves have an aberrant shape.

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2