Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Scupture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

--->

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens
--->


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.
--->
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1, 2

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes)

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria) 1, 2, 3 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma)
 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P.Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.



 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2
Drier Soil
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2
Shade Tolerant

Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2

House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4

House Fern in Terrarium or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums 2, 3, 4
 

Grow in Woodlands
 


USE OF FERN - Cold-hardy Ferns Page 5 of 6
"The following species will succed very well in temperate regions. Those marked with an asterisk - * - are very hardy to frosts and snow and so are suitable for the British Isles.

Appendix 8 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1
, provides the following list of Cold-Hardy Ferns:-"
 

Fern Species

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually from Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Pellaea rotundifolia

 

 

 

 

 

item1p1

 

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Pellaea viridis

 

 

 

 

 

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Phegopteris connectilis

 

 

 

 

 

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Phegopteris hexagonoptera

 

 

 

 

 

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Polypodium australe

Polypodium - Wikipedia

 

 

 

 

 

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Polypodium formosanum

 

 

 

 

 

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Polypodium glycyrrhiza

 

 

 

 

 

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Polypodium polypodioides

 

 

 

 

 

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Polypodium scouleri

 

 

 

 

 

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Polypodium vulgare and cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

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Polypodium vulgare and cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

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Polystichum acrostichoides*
(Nephrodium acrostichoides)

Christmas Fern, Dagger Fern

Very Hardy Species in Zone 3

Polystichum - Wikipedia

Christmas fern grows in a circular form with all the leaves arising from a single point on the ground. It can form colonies but frequently grows singly or in twos or threes. The fronds grow from 30–80 cm long and 5–12 cm broad, divided into 20-35 pairs of leaflets or pinnae. Each pinna is typically 4 cm long and has a finely serrulate or spiny edge and is oblong to falcate in shape.

12-18 x 12-18
(30-45 x 30-45)

Spacing 12 (30)

Often used in Christmas floral arrangements because it is still attractive in December. It is a wonderful companion for spring blooming bulbs. Found in acidic to neutral soils on shaded slopes and well drained flats. The plant height varies from 1 to 2 feet (12-24 inches, 30-60 cms), and will gradually colonize an area even in poor soil. Christmas Fern is a top choice for gardens in Zones 3 through 9.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

The shield ferns of the genus Polystichum are small- to medium-sized terrestrial ferns commonly grown in temperate gardens. Many of the species are particularly attractive for their dark green, glossy, evergreen foliage. The plants are used in rock gardens, borders, or pots, and the larger species can be used as foundation plants or for background foliage. They are often slow to grow from spores.
 

Ferns suitable for

Border and Foundation Ferns

Cold-hardy Fern

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns

Shade-Tolerant Fern

Cut Foliage

Drought Tolerant in dry or moist shade

Stove greenhouse and hardy ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Grow in well-drained soil, in shade it can tolerate dry conditions. Clump-forming. Grow in Part Shade and Full Shade.

It is found in moist and shady habitats in woodlands, rocky slopes, and stream banks.

The fern can conserve soil and allay erosion of steep slopes. The fronds are semi-erect until the first hard frost, after which they recline to be prostrate and effectively hold in place abscised foliage of the duff layer of the sylvan floor, which enables the gradual decomposition of the abscised foliage into humus, which in turn further conserves soil.

Polystichumacrostichoidespfrondwikimediacommons

Frond of Photograph of the Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Photo taken at the Tyler Arboretum where it was identified.
By Photo (c)2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Form of Photograph of the Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Photo taken at the Tyler Arboretum where it was identified. By Photo (c)2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

Polystichumacrostichoidespforwikimediacommons

Polystichum aculeatum * (Polystichum lobatum, Polypodium aculeatum, Aspidium aculeatum)
Hard Shield Fern

Very Hardy Species in Zone 4.
Is okay in Zones 5,6,7,8

Native to Europe. It is most abundant in upland regions of the British Isles and western France, where it benefits from the combination of mild winters and moist summers.

Stiff, leathery, glossy, dark green evergreen leaves. Young fronds may be light green and provide a pleasant contrast to the mature rosette. Plants are very hardy in a shady, moist situation and may benefit from the addition of lime to the soil.

24-36 x 20-40
(60-90 x 50-100) with time to ultimate height of 2-5 years.

Remove dead fronds before new ones unfurl in the spring.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam in Julyat 15-16°C (59-61°F) and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Hedge.
Cold-Hardy.
Basic or Limestone Soil.
Outdoor Containers.
Rock Garden and Walls.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, full sun spots. Plant in March. Water freely in dry weather.

Grow in cool, sheltered spot in rock garden

This free-growing Fern is found in hedge-banks.

It occurs in shady situations frequently in mountainous regions and often on limestone rocks.

It grows on steep slopes in deciduous woodlands. It is found in mountain limestone screes in the Jura and the alps, and on alpine and subalpine limestone cliffs.

Underplant roses and deciduous shrubs with this fern.

polystichumaculwatumpsoriwikimediacommons

Nederlands: Stijve naaldvaren sori
English: Polystichum aculeatum sori.
By Rasbak via Wikimedia Commons

English: Polystichum aculeatum, Allenbanks, Northumberland, UK; 04 May 2006. By MPF via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumaculeatumpforwikimediacommons

Polystichum aculeatum* and cultivars

Polystichum is a genus of about 260 species of ferns with a cosmopolitan distribution. The highest diversity is in eastern Asia, with about 120 species in China alone; the region from Mexico to Brazil has nearly 100 additional species; Africa (17 species), North America (15 species), and Europe (5 species) have much lower diversity. Polystichum species are terrestrial or rock-dwelling ferns of warm-temperate and montane-tropical regions (a few species grow in alpine regions).

"Hardy species of Polystichum do well under the shade of trees. A top dressing of leaf-soil is beneficial in autumn and the dead fronds, if left on, afford protection in winter. All require plenty of water all the year round.
The greenhouse and stove species do well in the sun as their leathery fronds give protection."
from Aspidium section via Polystichum entry of The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia by Richard Sudell, F.I.L.A., A.R.H.S. Published by Odhams Press Limited in 1932

 

Polystichum aculeatum 'Acutilobum' - segments narrow and sharply pointed.

Polystichum aculeatum 'Cambricum' - segments ovate or sickle-shaped with coarsely toothed margins.

 

Polystichum aculeatum 'Pulcherrimum' - a bautiful form with graceful silky fronds with the segments tailed. Sterile.

Polystichum aculeatum 'Pulcherrimum Gracillimum' - described as the most beautiful British Fern. Fronds are delicately divided and the segments end in slender almost hair-like divisions. Sterile.

Polystichum andersonii
Anderson's Holly Fern, Anderson's sword fern

Hardy Species in Zone 5(6)

Native to North America, Pacific Northwest. Found growing in the mountains from Alaska south to Oregon and east to Montana. In Zones 6-9.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and evergreen, bud-bearing leaves - see Section 9 - Propagation

It likes cool and drained soils, acidic and humusy, in the shade.

Over
36 x 36
(90 x 90)
in height by spread in 5 years

It occurs where vegetation is dense, such as moist spruce-fir forests, avalanche chutes, along streams, and shrub thickets.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Ferns for Acid Soils

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It is found in deep woods in the mountains.  Fronds grow to 100 cms (40 inches).   It has a conspicuously chaffy fiddlehead and leaf stalk.  Pinnae are deeply cut making it appear doubly pinnate.  Bulblets form at the base of pinnae near the tip and may grow into a new plant when the frond touches the ground!

polystichumandersoniipfrondwikimediacommons

English: Polystichum andersonii in Arboretum Rogow, Poland
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

English: Polystichum andersonii in Arboretum Rogow, Poland
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

polystichumandersoniipforwikimediacommons

Polystichum braunii
Braun's Holly Fern, Prickly Shield Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 3(4)

Suitable for Zones 4-9

Clump-forming rhizomes and dark green, shiny, evergreen fronds. The plants do best if placed in a cool site. The fiddleheads are particularly attractive because they are densely covered by silvery scales, which turn light brown with age.

Consider planting rhizome at an angle to help combat potential crown rot problems which most often occur in poorly drained soils.

12-29 x 12-23 (30-75 x 30-60)

Stalks or stems are covered in golden-brown scales that contrast nicely against the leaflets. Dense, upright and arching habit, the fronds arising from a single point, giving a formal appearance. Easy and reliable.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Accent Fern.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Ground Cover.
Woodland.
Outdoor Container.
Border and Foundation.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It grows in moist woodlands.  (Native to British Columbia, southern Alaska, the Idaho panhandle—Listed as threatened or endangered in several eastern U.S. states).

Excellent selection for shaded areas in the landscape, including borders, woodland gardens and wild gardens.

polystichumbrauniipsoriwikimediacommons1

Polski: Polystichum braunii.
By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

Polski: Polystichum braunii
By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum cystostegia* (Polystichum cystostegium, Aspidium cystostegia, Dryopteris cystostegia)
Mountain Shield Fern, Alpine Shield Fern

A very hardy little fern from alpine regions.

Native to New Zealand

The stipes and rachises are covered with conspicuous, brown scales.

New Zealand Plant Conservation Network has publications - Our unique strength is in linking people interested in plant conservation with comprehensive, accessible and accurate information to support their efforts in promoting and conserving native plants. There is a library of books made by Network members using the website book-making facility.

12 x 20
(30 x 50)

This tough little fern is generally found growing in sheltered crevices amongst rocks where it spreads by a branching underground stem in some of the higher altitude rocky and stony places (boulderfields) of Mt Taranaki in North Island of New Zealand.
It has brownish-green fronds that die off in winter and reappear in November and December in New Zealand.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Wall.
Deciduous Fern.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Plants are very cold tolerant and are ideal for a rock garden.

Plant Citation from Plant Information Online of University of Minnesota - Alpine Gardener, The. vol 78, no. 1. (2010)   p 56   Parts Shown: Leaf   Photo

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Polystichum cystostegia (Hook.) J.B.Armstr.
This image by artist P. J. de Lange has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland Museum via Wikimedia Commons

English: Polystichum cystostegium by Peter de Lange via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum lonchitis (Polypodium lonchitis, Aspidium lonchitis, Dryopteris lonchitis)
Northern Holly Fern, The Holly Fern, Holly Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 3

Native to northern North America and Greenland.
It is native to much of the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to Alaska to Greenland and south into mountainous central North America.

Lonchitis is from the Greek logch meaning spear, referring to its spear-shaped leaves.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and dark green, evergreen fronds.
The plants are difficult to grow even in cool climates. It is seldom seen thriving under artificial treatment.

This is a true rock-Fern, occuring on the bleak mountains of Scotland and in the milder climate of Ireland, as well, rarely, in the north of England and Wales in 1929.

This fern produces several erect linear leaves up to 60 centimetres (24 in) long. Each leaf is made up of many lance-shaped to oblong leaflets up to 3 or 4 centimetres (1.2 or 1.6 in) long. The leaflets have toothed and often spiny edges.

10-24 x
(25-60 x )

 

This evergreen species is a calcicole, growing in well-drained, cool and moist positions at the base of cliffs, on rocky ledges, and particularly in stabilised boulder-scree. It also grows in deep grikes of limestone pavements.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam in July and kept close under glass cover. Sporelings establish easily in a loamy soil to which lime has been added.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Limestone or Basic Soils.
Rock Garden and Walls in scree slopes.
Woodland in coniferous woods

Hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, full sun or partially shady spots. Plant in April. Water freely in dry weather.

Grow on High and dry slopes. Plant in April

A rarely grown fern confined to mountainous regions. Plants resent moving and are very slow to establish following such disturbance.

They like shady, moist conditions and are very cold-hardy.

It grows in mountains, often in rock crevices, throughout much of the northern hemisphere.

It grows in moist, shady, rocky mountain habitat.

polystichumlonchitispsoriwikimediacommons

Sori of Northern hollyfern (Polystichum lonchitis), Wood Fern family (Dryo-pteridaceae). Rocky slope between the Upper and Lower Red Pine Lakes. Red Pine Fork of the Little Cottonwood Canyon, Utah.
By Andrey Zharkikh from Salt Lake City, USA via Wikimedia Commons

English: Form of Polystichum lonchitis, Grandes Rousses, Vaujany, Dauphiné, French Alps
Français : Polystic en lance
By Meneerke bloem via Wikimedia Commons

More Photos

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Polystichum munitum* Western Sword Fern, Common Sword Fern

Hardy in Zone 7

Polystichum means many rows, referring to the arrangement of the spore cases on the undersides of the fronds.  Munitum means armed with teeth, referring to its toothed fronds.  Western Sword Fern is also known as Sword Holly Fern, Giant Holly Fern, Christmas Fern, Pineland Sword Fern, or Chamisso’s Shield Fern.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and evergreen fronds.This species does best in moist, cool climates and does not grow well in the eastern of Southeastern United States.

The species is native to the western United States, Canada, Alaska (Yukon), and Mexico (Guadalupe Island); it is naturalized in Europe.

35-47 x 23-47
(90-120 x 60-120)

The dark green fronds of this fern grow in a tight clump spreading out radially from a round base. Individual fronds live for 1.5 to 2.5 years and remain attached to the rhizome after withering.

Trim off dead fronds in early spring before new growth begins.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.
In cultivation, it also responds well to regular, light fertilizations. While this fern is a favored horticultural subject in western North America, it has proved difficult or impossible to cultivate satisfactorily in the eastern part of the continent.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Shade Tolerant.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Woodland.
Acid Soil.
Ground Cover. Outdoor Containers.
Accent.

Hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

The fronds are used by florists to include in vases.

Hardy fern for a shady, moist situation in the garden or fernery. Plants are quite cold tolerant.

The preferred habitat of this fern is the understory of moist coniferous woodlands at low elevations. It grows best in well-drained acidic soil of rich humus and small stones. It is very resilient and survives occasional droughts, but flourishes only with consistent moisture and light sunlight, and it prefers cool weather.

polystichummunitumfiddleheaddanakelleybressette

Phenology: Fronds partially unroll their “fiddleheads” by late May; by late July the spores are near maturity.
Fiddleheads and

 

 

Form of
Polystichum munitum, Western Sword Fern. Photos courtesy of Dana Kelley Bressette, Nativeplants PNW.com

polystichummunitumpfordanakelleybressette

Polystichum polyblepharum* Bristle Fern, Japanese Sword Fern, Japanese Tassel fern

Hardy in Zone 5 (6)

Suitable for Zones 5-9

Erect rhizomes and dark green, glossy, evergreen fronds. This species is easy to grow.

This species is native to Japan, southern Korea, and eastern China.

It performs well in moist shady conditions. Plants form a tidy clump of arching dark green fronds with a glossy finish. Foliage remains evergreen in mild winter regions, but old fronds may be trimmed back in the spring. Well-behaved and not invasive.

Shuttlecocks of spreading lance-shaped 2-pinnate shiny dark green fronds covered with golden hairs when they unfurl.

12-23 x 18-23
(30-60 x 45-60)

Plants in Combination: "It demonstrates another good solid principle of planting design: foliage can be just as exciting as flowers, and it lasts a lot longer. 3 varieties of ferns and a groundcover serve as underplantings for a cutleaf, weeping Japanese maple. In the foreground is Japanese tassel fern, Polystichum polyblepharum. In the middle a Japanese painted fern, Athyrium niponicum var. pictum grows out of a groundcover of bugleweed, Ajuga reptans ‘Catlin’s Giant’. The large background planting is Japanese shield fern, Dryopteris erythrosora. All of these plantings thrive in soil that has been enriched with peat moss to a depth of about 12 inches and is kept lightly moist."

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Sun Tolerant.
Woodland.
Accent Plant.
Border and Foundation.
Outdoor Containers.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Ground Cover

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

This is a beautiful low to medium-sized fern - Excellent for a woodland edging.

A most striking fern as one of selected perennials for Oklahoma Gardens.

Grow in a Rock Garden or well-drained border in the shade.
Newly emerging croziers are covered in scales and, as they develop, the tips fold backwards to make the 'tassels' of the Tassel Fern. As the fronds age they turn a glossy deep green and are beautifully presented in a slightly recurved rosette, like a soft light-reflecting mirror in a shady spot. Given a deep, rich and moist soil this can grow to enormous proportions - exceptionally to 120cm. New growth is early so protect from late frosts.

polystichumpolyblepharumpsoriwikimediacommons1

 

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Sori of Polystichum polyblepharum in botanical garden in Batumi.
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

Emerging fronds of Japanese Tassel Fern Polystichum Polyblepharum.
By Harum via Wikimedia Commons

 

イノデ. Mature Japanese tassel fern (Polystichum polyblepharum) No.1.
By harum.koh from Kobe city, Japan via Wikimedia Commons

 

イノデ. www.inaturalist.
org/calendar/harumkoh/2015/4/4. Juvenile Japanese tassel fern (Polystichum polyblepharum)
By harum.koh from Kobe city, Japan via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumpolyblepharumpforwikimediacommons1

 

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Polystichum proliferum *
Mother Shield Fern

Hardy in Zone 5

This species is native to Australia - New South Wales, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory and Tasmania.

Polystichum - from Greek poly, many and stichos, rows, referring to rows of sori.
proliferum - from Latin proli, offspring, fer – bearing, referring to the proliferous buds.

Erect rhizomes and dark green fronds that are evergreen in warmer climates. This species is easy to grow and can be propagated from the bulbils on the fronds - see Section 9 - Propagation

The rhizome and frond bases are covered in persistent scales which are glossy brown with pale edges. Fronds can reach up to 100 cm in length and 30 cm wide, are dark green when mature but lighter and paler when young.

52 x 36
(130 x 90)

It will occur in amongst boulders and at lower altitudes - in wet forests. The species typically favours gullies and creeks as well as the cooler/moister, southern and eastern facing aspects. Polystichum proliferum will however, occur in drier vegetation types such as coastal scrub and dry schelorphyll, due to its hardy characteristics such as the ability to tolerate salt-laden winds and poor soil quality.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Vegetative reproduction occurs when bulbils develop at end of the larger fronds grows into small plant. As the weight of the bulbil increases, the frond sags until the bulbil can take root in the soil underneath. It can then become the dominant ground cover

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy. Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Ground Cover.
Accent.
Border and Foundation.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

An attractive shield fern which grows in colonies, the fronds characteristically developing plantlets near the end which take root while still attached. Flushes of new fronds are covered with brown scales and are eye-catching.
Plants grow easily in a shady, moist situation and are also useful in a large pot.

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Fronds of Polystichum proliferum from Barrington Tops, photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. By Poyt448 Peter Woodard via Wikimedia Commons

Photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Australia) in January. This photo is from Gardenology.org and is available under CC-BY-SA 3.0 license via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum retroso-paleaceum
Japanese Sword Fern, Narrow Tassel Fern

Zones 5-8

retroso-paleaceum Epithet means "twisted back scales."

An attractive shield fern which grows in colonies, the fronds characteristically developing plantlets near the end which take root while still attached - see Section 9 - Propagation . Flushes of new fronds are scaly and interesting.

This species is native to Japan and Korea

Photos

40-80 x 40-80
(100-200 x 100-200)

Rounded, overlapping pinnules give this fern a certain stoutness, which is complimented by its extremely furry golden scales running up the stipe and rachis.  They very reliably form a nice regular vase shape with their fronds gently arching outward.  Mature specimens are quite impressive when placed where they can be easily viewed from above, such as below a porch or balcony.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy. Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Evergreen plants are easily grown in a shady, moist garden position and are also ideal for a tub or large container.

Large populations grow in rich soil throughout forests in Korea and especially Japan.

New growth emerges early spring a bright green. Plant in afternoon to full shade in well drained moist soil.

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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Polystichum richardii
Richard's Holly Fern, Black Shield Fern, Common Shield Fern, Pikopiko

Semi-hardy in Zone 7

Zones 8 (with protection) and 9 - it is only borderline hardy in Zone 8. For best results it needs serious protection or a life as an indoor plant.

Erect rhizomes and evergreen fronds that vary from dark bluish green to olive green.

The size of the fronds can be up to 50 by 25 centimetres (20 x 10 inches).

The species is native to New Zealand

12-24 x 20
(30-60 x 50)

 

A question I get asked many times is what flowering plants are suited for growing with ferns. There are a few choice plants, with elegant flowers with subtle shades that compliment ferns and grow well in shade. Here is a collection of plants that, in my opinion, go very well with ferns:-

Cyclamen

Dracunculus

Epimedium

Equisetum

Fritillaria

Omphaloides

Uvularia

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Easily grown in a shady or partial sun aspect in loamy soil. Looks particularly attractive when planted among rocks.

The common shield fern is found in dry places from the coast to lowland forest areas.

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Polystichum richardii in Te Reinga Falls, Hawkes's Bay (New Zealand).
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

 

Polystichum richardii in Eastwoodhill Arboretum (New Zealand).
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum tsus-simense
Tsus-sima Holly Fern, Korean Rock Fern

Hardy in
Zones (5)6

A neat fern valued for its compact, spreading rosette. The fronds are fairly stiff and leathery and an interesting dark, purplish colour when young.

Native to China, Japan and Korea.

It forms a low mound of dark green fronds with black stems and delicate dark veining through the leaflets. New leaves have a purplish cast. Clumps may be divided after 4 to 5 years, in early spring. Trim off any tired looking fronds in spring, and they will soon be replaced by new ones. Tolerates summer heat and humidity.

6-12 x 12-16
(15-30 x 30-40)

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Evergreen.
Rock Garden and Wall.
Terrarium or Bottle Garden.
Outdoor Containers.
Woodland.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Makes an excellent pot plant and can also be grown in a shady position among rocks.

In cold regions this may be grown in a container and wintered indoors. Excellent for edging in the woodland, or in the shady rock garden.

Polystichum tsus-simense of eastern Asia, is commonly offered as a houseplant.

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Frond of Polystichum tsus-simense in Wellington Botanical Garden. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

Form of Polystichum tsus-simense. Specimen in the Atlanta Botanical Garden, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons with Multi-license GFDL, all CC-BY-SA permission.

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Polystichum vestitum (Polypodium vestitum, Aspidium vestitum, Polystichum venustum, Aspidium venustum,
Prickly Shield Fern, pūnui (Maori)

Hardy in Zone 6

Native to the three principal islands of New Zealand (North Island, South Island and Stewart Island) and the Chatham Islands, as well as to New Zealand's subantarctic Snares, Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell Islands, and to Australia’s Macquarie Island.

These can be seen at Attadale Gardens in Scotland.

Erect rhizomes and harsh, prickly, semi-deciduous fronds that are dark green above, lighter below. This species grows in cool, moist climates.

Can develop a small trunk.

It is native to New Zealand.

The fronds are 220–600 mm (9-24 inches) long. There are 3–7 (usually 5) round sori on each pinnule, halfway between the margin and midrib, with a light brown indusium. The ferns are usually bicolour with a dark brown centre that is surrounded by margins that are a pale brown.

The fern is seriously affected by rabbit grazing.

Photos

40 x 40
(100 x 100
)

On the Snares Islands, clumps of P. vestitum are apparently the preferred cover for nests of the Snares Island snipe, Coenocorypha huegeli (Miskelly, 1999). Birds on the Snares that nest higher up apparently lose a lot of eggs or chicks to petrels. Petrels don't eat the other birds, but they also nest under cover in the area - and petrels are notoriously bad at making landings.
Touchdown for a petrel seems to basically involve throwing itself at the ground and cushion its descent in the vegetation. Any nest in the way of a plummeting petrel is turned into kindling. A nice sturdy fern is a ground-nesting birds friend, catching the petrels before they scramble your eggs.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Geenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Easily grown from fresh spores and transplants. However, often slow to establish. Does best in a shaded site planted within a deep, free draining humus-enriched fertile soil.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Plants are very cold-hardy and will withstand severe frosts and snow. Likes plenty of moisture and will tolerate shade to partial sun.

Polystichum vestitum is common in the more exposed landscapes such as gulley floors, forest margins and tussock grasslands, but can also be found in abundance in the more cooler and wetter forests.
It prefers wetter areas and is why it can often be found in gully's however it does like the soil to be free draining rather than waterlogged.

It is found in conjunction with Stilbocarpa polaris, Poa foliosa and Pleurophyllum hookeri.

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Sori of Polystichum vestitum in Dunedin Botanic Garden. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

 

Juvenile Fronds of Polystichum Vestitum
English: Prickly Shield Fern in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, South Island, New Zealand
Deutsch: Flora des Mount Cook Nationalpark, Südinsel, Neuseeland. By MSeses via Wikimedia Commons

Form of Polystichum vestitum in Auckland Botanic Gardens. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

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Pseudo-cystopteris atkinsonii

 

 

 

 

 

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Pseudo-cystopteris spinulosum

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris comans

Pteris - Wikipedia

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris cretica and cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris cretica and cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris macilenta

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris multifida

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris tremula

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris umbrosa

 

 

 

 

 

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.