Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Scupture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

--->

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens
--->


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.
--->
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1, 2

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes)

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria) 1, 2, 3 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma)
 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P.Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.



 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2
Drier Soil
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2
Shade Tolerant

Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2

House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4

House Fern in Terrarium or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums 2, 3, 4
 

Grow in Woodlands
 


TYPE OF FERN - Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)
"Truly aquatic ferns are not particularly common or popular with fern enthusiasts.
Habitat
Aquatic ferns grow in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly. The may either be free floating on the surface or rooting in the mud in which case they may have either submerged, floating or emergent leaves. Those which root in the mud can only grow in water to about 80 cms (32 inches) deep. Aquatic ferns are also frequently found in low lying areas which are periodically flooded and here they may grow as annuals.
Uses
Some aquatic ferns have ornamental appeal and can be grown in aquaria, ponds and dams. They can also provide shelter and food for fish and sites for egg laying.
Their Cultivation, Soil Types, Fertilizing, Situation, Pests and Propagation details are given in Chapter 39 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1.

The following ferns come from that chapter:-"
 

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

The Aquatic Plant Society has Local Fish Shop Map, Plant Archives - The Aquatic Plant Society is dedicated to promoting the science and aesthetic of the Planted Aquarium. We are committed to a responsible and environmentally conscious pursuit of the hobby, and invite all to share in and add to our knowledge.

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually from Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com ,
Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Azolla caroliniana
Carolinian Azolla, Fairy Moss, Water velvet (with the Complete guide to Aquariums), Mosquito Fern, American waterfern, Pacific mosquitofern - from Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants of University of Florida who treat this aquatic weed with herbicide or you could take out and use it as a free fertiliser on your land.

Hardy in
Zone (4)5; survives frost and ice

Tropical - Subtropical

Native to Eastern North America.

Carolina - North America. Americas, Europe and Asia.

Azollas tend to die in cold weather after forming buds, which sink to the bottom of the pond and resume growth when warm weather returns. Mosquito ferns prefer full sunlight, warm temperatures, and silty water containing organic matter. High light encourages reddish growth.

Azolla is a highly productive plant. It doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields.

Carolina mosquitofern distribution in USA.

 

This attractive floating pond plant will grow in damp soil or on moist rocks along the ponds edge. Usually covers 1 to 2 square feet (1 foot = 12 inches = 30 cms) of surface area. Pond Plants Online also provide Water Garden Planting and Care Instructions.

Pale green, turning bright red in autumn (several weeks later they die and sink to the bottom), lacy-looking and closely overlapping. Plants are roughly circular to triangular and about the size of a dime.

 

Azolla has filamentous roots which extend down from the thread-like rhizome, which branches repeatedly and bears fronds in 2 rows.
Its name comes from azo, to dry, and olluo, to kill, presumably alluding to the fern's tendency to be killed by drying. Azolla is the world's most important economic fern because it used as an organic fertilizer in rice paddies in China and Vietnam. It is allso fed to livestock and certain fish.

The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being widely used as a biofertiliser, especially in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years. When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year.

As the rice grows, the ferns are shaded, die and sink to the bottom, thus recycling the vital nutrient to the food crop.

Less than 1 inch (2.5 cms) in height
Leaves normally not eaten by fish; overwinter indoors; naturalized in shallow ponds, ditches and sluggish streams.

 

Azolla caroliniana mature plant floats on the still water, and has no true roots, but the small divided leaves on the underside of the stem are often mistaken for them. The spores are found amongst these so-called roots. The plants grow annually from these spores. Frequently these are lost through insufficient care. They may be preserved by placing the plants in a tank of water that is half filled with sandy loam. When the plants die in the winter, the spores remain and germinate in the following year. They are very pretty plants, and hardly rise above the surface of the water which they cover with a carpet of green that becomes bronze in summer.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

 

Water Garden Plants nursery is completely free from the invasive non-native species Crassula helmsii 
(New Zealand Pigmyweed/
Australian Swamp-Stonecrop), 
Myriophyllum aquaticum
(Parrot's Feather), 
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating
Pennywort), Floating Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.), and Water Fern (Azolla spp.).

"The above Invasive non-native species can have a devastating cost to the economy, costing £1.7 billion to control. Floating pennywort, which can grow up to eight inches a day, costs the British economy £23.5 million per year. The plants form dense mats in water, depleting oxygen and light availability, causing declines in the numbers of fish and other aquatic species. They also reduce access to waterways for boating and angling and increase flood risk which, taken together, can cost millions of pounds per year." Press release Sale of invasive water plants banned to protect wildlife of Published 29 January 2013.
From:
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Wet Soils.
Rapidly Growing Fern.

Hardy, Floating Aquatic Fern with delicate fern-like foliage.
Culture: Grow in shallow ponds or in indoor aquariums. Require no soil, merely to float on surface of water. Being very sensitive to cold, especially frosts, it may need the protection of a heated greenhouse or a well lit tropical aquarium. It grows in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly.

 

They are great, attractive nutrient absorbers and the roots make excellent and attractive cover for fry.

Cordon off a small area to place Azolla.

How to grow Azolla caroliniana in aquariums.

A free floating aquatic fern which forms colonies on still water. Easily grown in ponds etc, but very cold-sensitive.

The common name - Mosquito Fern - is derived from the fern's supposed ability to discourage mosquito reproduction by densely carpeting the water's surface, thereby preventing the adults from laying eggs and preventing the larvae from getting air at the surface.

This floating fern is the best species for growing on mud.

azollacarolinianapfol1wikimediacommons

 

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Closeup of this vegetation choking the lake at Jack London State Historic Park. Taken last spring. The lake is in the lengthy process of remediation by the Jack London Lake Alliance. Date: 28 April 2009, 15:33:15 File: Azolla caroliniana.jpg cropped to a 2x3 format. By Ingrid Taylar from San Francisco Bay Area - California, USA via Wikimedia Commons

Azolla caroliniana at Orto botanico di Pisa. Date: 18 January 2012, 17:55:20. By Notafly via Wikimedia Commons.

English: Carolina Mosquito Fern (Azolla caroliniana). Zamora (Spain).
Español: Helecho mosquito de Carolina (Azolla caroliniana) invasor. Zamora (España).
Date: 4 February 2012, 11:59:39. By David Perez
(DPC) via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-sa-4.0


 
 

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azollacarolinianapforwikimediacommons

Azolla Production and Demonstration Farm involving on the 4 qualified Azolla, namely - Azolla, - Azolla microphylla Kaulf., Azolla pinnata, Azolla pinnata var pinnata, Azolla pinnata var imbricata, and Azolla caroliniana, in Philippine Rice Research Institute, PhilRice, (is a government corporate entity attached to the Department of Agriculture, created through Executive Order 1061 on 5 November 1985 (as amended), Irrigated Rice Research Consortium, and International Rice Research Institute; located in Barangay, Maligaya, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, in front of its Barangay Hall and Chapel along the Pan-Philippine Highway, also known as the Maharlika "Nobility/freeman" Highway or Asian Highway 26, in Cagayan Valley Road; or Category:Maharlika Highway (Cagayan Valley Road, Talavera-Santo Domingo-Quezon-Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija section) since its re-launch in September 2014, the museum opened 3 exhibits titled, Lovelife with Rice, Abundant Harvest, and Colors of Rice, which focuses on the health and nutrition aspects of rice, will run until Feb. 2016; per guidance of Visual Artist Consultant of the Rice Museum, Rogelio N. Bibal; under bad weather photography due to effects of Typhoon Goni (2015)). Date: 24 August 2015. By Judgefloro via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-sa-4.0

Azolla filiculoides (Azolla filiculoides var. rubra, Azolla rubra)
Ferny Azolla,
Fairy Moss, Mosquito Fern, Water Fern, Red Water Fern

Hardy in Zone (6)7

Tropical - Temperate

North America, Central and South America, Asia, Australia - This fern is native to lakes, ponds, streams and rivers in both North and South America.
Invasive non-native in southern England and coastal Wales, scattered mainly in coastal areas further north and in eastern Ireland.

Azollas tend to die in cold weather after forming buds, which sink to the bottom of the pond and resume growth when warm weather returns. Mosquito ferns prefer full sunlight, warm temperatures, and silty water containing organic matter. High light encourages reddish growth.

Azolla is a highly productive plant. It doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields.

Azolla filiculoides has a surface-area doubling time of 7-10 days under favourable conditions.

Larger fronds than Azolla caroliniana, pale green tinted rose. This floating species forms dense mats on the water's surface. The plants can survive under thin ice for at least a week.

Azolla has filamentous roots which extend down from the thread-like rhizome, which branches repeatedly and bears fronds in 2 rows.
Its name comes from azo, to dry, and olluo, to kill, presumably alluding to the fern's tendency to be killed by drying. Azolla is the world's most important economic fern because it used as an organic fertilizer in rice paddies in China and Vietnam. It is also fed to livestock and certain fish.

Azolla filiculoides (red azolla) is the only member of this genus and of the family Azollaceae in Tasmania. It is a very common native aquatic plant in Tasmania. It is particularly common on farm dams and other still water bodies. The plants are small (usually only a few cm across) and float, but can be very abundant and form large mats. The plants are typically red, and have very small water repellent leaves. Azolla floats on the surface of water by means of numerous, small, closely overlapping scale-like leaves, with their roots hanging in the water. They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a "super-plant", as it can readily colonise areas of freshwater, and grow at great speed - doubling its biomass every two to three days. The typical limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus, another essential mineral. An abundance of phosphorus, due for example to eutrophication or chemical runoff, often leads to Azolla blooms.

0.25-3 x 12-36
(0.6-7.5 x 30-90)

1-5 cm (0.5-2 inches) in diameter - Leaves are bilobed, arranged in 2 ranks, imbricate; the upper lobe about 1mm wide, ovate, obtuse, floating, densely hairy; lower lobe submerged, thinner, bearing pairs of of sori (each pair either both with megasporangia or each with mega- or microsporangia).

The species has been introduced to many regions of the Old World, grown for its nitrogen-fixing ability which can be utilized to enhance the growth rate of crops grown in water like rice, or by removal from lakes for use as green manure. It has become naturalized, sometimes also an invasive species, in several regions, including western Europe, southern Africa, tropical Asia, Australia (where it is considered native), and New Zealand.

Looking for a cheaper more effective alternative for controlling Azolla filiculoides (water fern)? Look no further - AzollaControl from CABI offers you a comprehensive natural control option for managing this most noxious of weeds.
AzollaControl makes use of the North American, weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus. This weevil is a highly effective natural enemy of Azolla filiculoides. The weevil, which can only feed and reproduce on Azolla, has proven to be an effective biological control agent in laboratory and field trials in South Africa as well as in the UK.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: By division.

 

Water Garden Plants nursery is completely free from the invasive non-native species Crassula helmsii 
(New Zealand Pigmyweed/
Australian Swamp-Stonecrop), 
Myriophyllum aquaticum
(Parrot's Feather), 
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating
Pennywort), Floating Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.), and Water Fern (Azolla spp.).

"The above Invasive non-native species can have a devastating cost to the economy, costing £1.7 billion to control. Floating pennywort, which can grow up to eight inches a day, costs the British economy £23.5 million per year. The plants form dense mats in water, depleting oxygen and light availability, causing declines in the numbers of fish and other aquatic species. They also reduce access to waterways for boating and angling and increase flood risk which, taken together, can cost millions of pounds per year." Press release Sale of invasive water plants banned to protect wildlife of Published 29 January 2013.
From:
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Livestock Feed - which could be grown on your own land providing you with free livestock feed during the summer.

Hardy, Floating Aquatic Fern with delicate fern-like foliage.
Culture: Grow in shallow ponds or in indoor aquariums. Require no soil, merely to float on surface of water. Being very sensitive to cold, especially frosts, it may need the protection of a heated greenhouse or a well lit tropical aquarium. It grows in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly.

It is found in ditches and ponds.

It is not tolerant of salinity; normal plants can't survive in greater than 1-1.6‰, and even conditioned organisms die in over 5.5‰ salinity.

It discourages algae growth and helps keep waters clear. It also tolerates swimming rabbits.

A free floating aquatic fern which forms colonies on still water such as lakes, ponds, dams, swamps, etc. Plants propagate freely by vegetative techniques and soon cover the surface of the water. Can be used as an ornamental on the surface of man-made ponds and dams or fish tanks.

The common name - Mosquito Fern - is derived from the fern's supposed ability to discourage mosquito reproduction by densely carpeting the water's surface, thereby preventing the adults from laying eggs and preventing the larvae from getting air at the surface.

The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being widely used as a biofertiliser, especially in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years. When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year.

Azolla has been used in rice paddies as a companion plant, because of the presence of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in symbiosis with azolla, and its tendency to block out light to prevent any competition from other plants, aside from the rice, which is planted when tall enough to poke out of the water through the azolla layer.

azollafiliculoidespfol1wikimediacommons 

 

 

azollafiliculoidespfor1wikimediacommons

 

azollafiliculoidespfol2wikimediacommons

KRT3901.
Azolla filiculoides. Date:3 November 2009, 07:18. By Kevin Thiele from Perth, Australia via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-2.0.

Profile detail of Azolla filiculoides (Water Fern) is a species of Azolla, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Americas as well as most of the old world including Asia and Australia. Date: 7 November 2010, 12:47 (UTC). By Azolla Filiculoides Profil.JPG: Mygaia via Wikimedia Commons

Azolla filiculoides. Date 11 May 2016, 13:27:07. By Dubbeltänk via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0

Red foliage of Water fern (Azolla filiculoides), botanic school of the Jardin des Plantes of Paris.
Français : Azolla fausse-fougère (Azolla filiculoides) à l'école de botanique du Jardin des Plantes de Paris. Date: 2 May 2013. By © Marie-Lan Nguyen / 
Wikimedia Commons / 
CC-BY 2.5

Azolla filiculoides carpeting a pond in 2012. By AerobicFox via Wikimedia Commons

English: Azolla filiculoides
日本語: ニシノオオアカウキクサ. Illustration from Flora Batava. Afbeelding en beschrijving der Nederlandsche Gewassen. (1915) by Jan Kops, F. W. van Eeden, L. Vuyck via Wikimedia Commons

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Azolla nilotica
African Azolla,
Fairy Moss, Mosquito Fern

Tropical - Subtropical

Africa, that naturally occurs in the Nile and in eastern and central Africa. The species name nilotica refers to the fact that it was collected from the river Nile.

Azollas tend to die in cold weather after forming buds, which sink to the bottom of the pond and resume growth when warm weather returns. Mosquito ferns prefer full sunlight, warm temperatures, and silty water containing organic matter. High light encourages reddish growth.

Azolla is a highly productive plant. It doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields.

A very large species which may develop stems to 30 cm (12 inches) long. Individuals branch freely and may form sizeable clumps before the lateral growths break away as separate plants.

Azolla has filamentous roots which extend down from the thread-like rhizome, which branches repeatedly and bears fronds in 2 rows.
Its name comes from azo, to dry, and olluo, to kill, presumably alluding to the fern's tendency to be killed by drying. Azolla is the world's most important economic fern because it used as an organic fertilizer in rice paddies in China and Vietnam. It is also fed to livestock and certain fish.

Azolla has been used in rice paddies as a companion plant, because of the presence of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in symbiosis with azolla, and its tendency to block out light to prevent any competition from other plants, aside from the rice, which is planted when tall enough to poke out of the water through the azolla layer.

It is a floating aquaceous fern of up to 32 cm (13 in) long, with a long, horizontal, branched, hairy rhizome of up to 2 mm (0.079 in) thick. Side branches are alternately set. It has its roots in bundles while all other species have single roots. The plant never attains a red color, such as is often seen towards the end of the growing season in all other Azolla species. It occurs in stagnant or slowly streaming water, such as temporary pools, waterholes and lake edges, and can persist on drying mud. It occurs from sea level to an altitude of 1650 m. It is intolerant of temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F), so there is little risk that the species will become naturalised outside of the tropics. Due to its high nitrate content, the plant is used as green fertilizer, like other Azolla species.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: By division.

The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being widely used as a biofertiliser, especially in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years. When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns

Hardy, Floating Aquatic Fern with delicate fern-like foliage.
Culture: Grow in shallow ponds or in indoor aquariums. Require no soil, merely to float on surface of water. Being very sensitive to cold, especially frosts, it may need the protection of a heated greenhouse or a well lit tropical aquarium. It grows in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly.

It is not tolerant of salinity; normal plants can't survive in greater than 1-1.6‰, and even conditioned organisms die in over 5.5‰ salinity.

Forms colonies on still water and on wet mud. Used as an ornamental on small ponds or aquaria.
In dams or ponds the rhizomes can be planted directly into the mud at the bottom. In aquaria the rhizomes can be planted in coarse sand or in small pots containing a soil-based potting mixture covered with a layer of fine sand.

It can also be grown in a pot of sphagnum moss or of soil-based mixture with the base of the pot submerged in 8-10 cm(3-4 inches) depth of water. The fronds will then grow emergent. If frost is likely, then transfer inside heated greenhouse to aquarium.

The common name - Mosquito Fern - is derived from the fern's supposed ability to discourage mosquito reproduction by densely carpeting the water's surface, thereby preventing the adults from laying eggs and preventing the larvae from getting air at the surface.

 

 

A way of absorbing Carbon Dioxide in freshwater ponds/lakes to reduce Climate Change
A study of Arctic paleoclimatology
reported that Azolla may have had a significant role in reversing an increase in greenhouse effect that occurred 55 million years ago that caused the region around the north pole to turn into a hot, tropical environment. This research conducted by the Institute of Environmental Biology at Utrecht University indicates that massive patches of Azolla growing on the (then) freshwater surface of the Arctic Ocean consumed enough carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for the global greenhouse effect to decline, eventually causing the formation of Ice sheets in Antarctica and the current "icehouse period" which we are still in. This theory has been termed the Azolla event.

Azolla is a unique plant that can help reduce man-made climate change and provide biofertilizer, livestock feed, food and renewable energy anywhere in the world.
The Azolla Foundation was set  up by Azolla Biosystems Ltd founders Alexandra and Jonathan Bujak to provide a platform for sharing information about Azolla and its contribution to new technologies such as space exploration and planetary colonization.
We have now finished writing our book ‘The Azolla Story’. If all goes smoothly, it will be published in December 2018 and you can read more about our book 
here.

 

 

 

Azolla can remove chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead from effluent. It can remove lead from solutions containing 1–1000 ppm.

As the rice grows, the ferns are shaded, die and sink to the bottom, thus recycling the vital nutrient to the food crop.

 

 

Water Garden Plants nursery is completely free from the invasive non-native species 
Crassula helmsii (New Zealand Pigmyweed/
Australian Swamp-Stonecrop), 
Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot's Feather), 
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating Pennywort),
Floating Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.), and
Water Fern (Azolla spp.).

"The above Invasive non-native species can have a devastating cost to the economy, costing £1.7 billion to control. Floating pennywort, which can grow up to eight inches a day, costs the British economy £23.5 million per year. The plants form dense mats in water, depleting oxygen and light availability, causing declines in the numbers of fish and other aquatic species. They also reduce access to waterways for boating and angling and increase flood risk which, taken together, can cost millions of pounds per year." Press release Sale of invasive water plants banned to protect wildlife of Published 29 January 2013.
From:
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Azolla pinnata
Pacific Azolla,
Fairy Moss, Mosquito Fern, Ferny azolla, Water Fern

Tender

Tropical - Temperate

Africa, Asia, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia.
It is native to much of Africa, Asia (Brunei Darussalam, China, India, Japan, Korea, and the Philippines) and parts of Australia.

Azollas tend to die in cold weather after forming buds, which sink to the bottom of the pond and resume growth when warm weather returns. Mosquito ferns prefer full sunlight, warm temperatures, and silty water containing organic matter. High light encourages reddish growth.

Azolla is a highly productive plant. It doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields.

The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being widely used as a biofertiliser, especially in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years. When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year.

This fern forms a mass of floating material which propagates itself freely by vegetative means.
Plants in sunny situations may be bright red; those in the shade remain green.

Azolla has filamentous roots which extend down from the thread-like rhizome, which branches repeatedly and bears fronds in 2 rows.
Its name comes from azo, to dry, and olluo, to kill, presumably alluding to the fern's tendency to be killed by drying. Azolla is the world's most important economic fern because it used as an organic fertilizer in rice paddies in China and Vietnam. It is also fed to livestock and certain fish.

It is an aquatic plant, its frond floating upon the surface of the water. It grows in quiet and slow-moving water bodies, because swift currents and waves break up the plant.
It is present in New Zealand as an introduced species and an invasive weed that has crowded out a native relative, Azolla rubra. It is a pest of waterways because its dense mats reduce oxygen in the water. The weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus is used as an agent of biological pest control to manage Azolla filiculoides, and it has been found to attack A. pinnata as well.

0.39-0.98 inches wide. Leaves are 0-039-0.078 inches long.

 

This is a small fern with a triangular frond measuring up to 2.5 centimeters in length which floats on the water. The frond is made up of many rounded or angular overlapping leaves each 1 or 2 millimeters long. They are green, blue-green, or dark red in color and coated in tiny hairs, giving them a velvety appearance. The hairs make the top surface of the leaf water-repellent, keeping the plant afloat even after being pushed under. A water body may be coated in a dense layer of the plants, which form a velvety mat that crowds out other plants.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: By division.

Rice farmers sometimes keep this plant in their paddies because it generates valuable nitrogen via its symbiotic cyanobacteria. The plant can be grown in wet soil and then plowed under, generating a good amount of nitrogen-rich fertilizer. The plant has the ability to absorb a certain amount of heavy metal pollution, such as lead, from contaminated water. It is 25-30% protein and can be added to chicken feed.

Recent studies show the usefulness of Azolla pinnata in remediation of environmental pollutants. There are two main methods for utilising A. pinnata to clean up environmental pollutants. The first method is by adsorption, which required the A. pinnata to be processed into powder and agitate with the wastewater for fixed duration of time. The pollutant will adhere to the organic functional groups on the surface of the A. pinnata powder. In adsorption studies, A. pinnata were reported in the remediation of dye wastewater containing methyl violet 2B, malachite green, rhodamine B, acid red 88 and acid blue 25.
The second remediation method is phyto-remediation, where living A. pinnata suspended on the surface of the wastewater. A. pinnata were primarily studied due to its high tolerance to environmental pollutants and their ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. Phyto-
remediation of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals (such as zinc, lead, chromium, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic) as well as organic dyes such as methyl violet 2B and malachite green were reported in literature. A.pinnata was also reported to be useful for treating of wastewater (remove nitrogenous waste and phosphorus) of poultry farm.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns

Hardy, Floating Aquatic Fern with delicate fern-like foliage.
Culture: Grow in shallow ponds or in indoor aquariums. Require no soil, merely to float on surface of water. Being very sensitive to cold, especially frosts, it may need the protection of a heated greenhouse or a well lit tropical aquarium. It grows in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly.

Azolla fodder is an excellent alternate feed supplement for livestock, poutry and fish. This is a boon for dairy farmers because; it drastically reduces the feed cost and results in increased milk yield. Azolla possess high protein content, amino acids, vitamins, minerals (like magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium).

Great for cattle/horse/goat water troughs!

If these fern colonies cover the surface of the water, then oxygen depletion and fish kills can occur.

Commonly grows on still water. An interesting ornamental for the surface of ponds, dams, fish tanks etc.

The common name - Mosquito Fern - is derived from the fern's supposed ability to discourage mosquito reproduction by densely carpeting the water's surface, thereby preventing the adults from laying eggs and preventing the larvae from getting air at the surface.

This floating fern has been used for centuries in China and Vietnam as a green manure for growing rice. Some USA states list this plant as an aquatic weed and prohibit its import, possession, and distribution.

It is not tolerant of salinity; normal plants can't survive in greater than 1-1.6‰, and even conditioned organisms die in over 5.5‰ salinity.

 

Water Garden Plants nursery is completely free from the invasive non-native species Crassula helmsii 
(New Zealand Pigmyweed/
Australian Swamp-Stonecrop), 
Myriophyllum aquaticum
(Parrot's Feather), 
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating
Pennywort), Floating Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.), and Water Fern (Azolla spp.).

"The above Invasive non-native species can have a devastating cost to the economy, costing £1.7 billion to control. Floating pennywort, which can grow up to eight inches a day, costs the British economy £23.5 million per year. The plants form dense mats in water, depleting oxygen and light availability, causing declines in the numbers of fish and other aquatic species. They also reduce access to waterways for boating and angling and increase flood risk which, taken together, can cost millions of pounds per year." Press release Sale of invasive water plants banned to protect wildlife of Published 29 January 2013.
From:
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

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English: Azolla Production and Demonstration Farm involving on the 4 qualified Azolla, namely - Azolla, - Azolla microphylla Kaulf., Azolla pinnata, Azolla pinnata var pinnata, Azolla pinnata var imbricata, and Azolla caroliniana, in Philippine Rice Research Institute, PhilRice, (is a government corporate entity attached to the Department of Agriculture, created through Executive Order 1061 on 5 November 1985 (as amended), Irrigated Rice Research Consortium, and International Rice Research Institute; located in Barangay, Maligaya, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, in front of its Barangay Hall and Chapel along the Pan-Philippine Highway, also known as the Maharlika "Nobility/freeman" Highway or Asian Highway 26, in Cagayan Valley Road; or Category:Maharlika Highway (Cagayan Valley Road, Talavera-Santo Domingo-Quezon-Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija section) since its re-launch in September 2014, the museum opened 3 exhibits titled, Lovelife with Rice, Abundant Harvest, and Colors of Rice, which focuses on the health and nutrition aspects of rice, will run until Feb. 2016; per guidance of Visual Artist Consultant of the Rice Museum, Rogelio N. Bibal; under bad weather photography due to effects of Typhoon Goni (2015)). By Judgefloro via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0

Français : Azolla pinnata à Antananarivo (with 2 cm distance). Date: 28 November 2005. By Tpa2067 via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0,2.5, 2.0,1.0

Green Foliage in shade of Azolla pinnata. Date: 5 August 2010. By Laxskinn via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

Red foliage in sunshine of 滿江紅 Azolla pinnata R. Brown, which was taken on 23 April 2014. By lienyuan lee via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-3.0

Red foliage in sunshine at edge of pond for Azolla pinnata R.Br. on 31 December 2005. By Brownsey, Pat of Auckland Museum via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-4.0

Red azolla (Azolla pinnata), a fast growing aquatic plant - total length of this plant is 40mm. Date: 31 December 2008, 18:51:22. By graibeard via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-2.0

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Ceratopteris thalictroides
(Acrostichum thalictroides, Ceratopteris froesii, Ceratopteris gaudichaudii, Ceratopteris siliquosa )
Water Fern, Pod Fern, Oriental Water Fern, Water Sprite, Indian Fern, Water Hornfern, Water Elk's Horn

Tender in Zone 9

It is found throughout the tropics of the world, except Africa. Tropical America - Florida.

The name comes from the Greek keras, horn, and pteris, fern, alluding to the antler-like fertile leaves.

 

AC Tropical Fish (Aquatic Community.com, Aquatic Community) was founded in 2004 as a resource and meeting place for tropical aquarium fish keepers. It has since then grown into a comprehensive aquarium portal featuring information not only about tropical freshwater fish but also about all other types of aquarium fish.

Buds tend to grow on dying fronds.

The bright green, finely-cut, fertile leaves are erect and are produced above water. In Asia the foliage of this species is used in salads and is said to have a peppery taste. This genus has the distinction of having the fastest life cycle of any fern. The plants can take as little as 1 month to go from spores to mature, spore-bearing plants, though 3 or 4 months is more typical. The plants live about 1 year and are usuually perpetuated by the numerous buds that form on the blade surface, typically in margins of the sinuses. The buds detach and float away from the parent plant.

It can provide useful shade to shyer fish and small fry. The dense roots are said to take nutrients out of the water helping to prevent the growth of algae.
Small adventitious plantlets are grown on the mother plant and are then released when ready.
In small open aquariums it can grow out of the aquarium and form beautiful surface leaves.

30 x
(75 x )

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: Mature plants can be propagated by division of the rhizome, which may be allowed to float or, if grown submerged, held in place by coarse gravel. If plants are to be rooted in mud, garden soil with little organic matter will do. Some growers recommend a mixture of about half peat and half sand mixed with 10% top soil. Plants that are rooted in mud need their fronds kept moist. Temperatures must be maintained close to 27C (80F) for good growth. The plants and buds decline when temperatures are below 20C (68F), and if lost, new plants must be started from spores.

Propagation: By spores sown in February on surface of compost in pan or water as for culture in next column, vivaparous forms increased by pegging down leaves into soft mud, detaching later.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Fern for Acid Soils.
Fern for Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Stove aquatic fern that is usually only of annual duration, but when carefully grown may be a biennial.

Culture: Soil, sifted loam and charcoal with a little leaf-mould. Position, in pots or pans submerged to rim in tank of water for floating kinds, submerged kinds in aquarium compost. Plant, spring or summer. All need subdued light, moist, warm atmosphere. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September, about 75F (24C).

It grows best in soil with a pH reading of 5-9 and in very high amounts of light. It usually grows quickly.
This plant normally grows fast, but the addition of CO2 (CO2  concentrations of under 20 mg/l are sufficient) may be necessary to promote growth.

Grows in wet garden soil. Typically, the plants root in mud.

It succeeds best in a pot of good loam, wholly submerged in a tank of warm water in a stove house. It produces spores freely, or may be propagated by the young plants that form on all the fronds.

Swampy areas, swamp forests, sago (Metroxylon) swamps, marshes, natural and man-made ponds, mostly in stagnant water bodies or in still pockets along slow flowing rivers, full sun to moderate shade, from sea level to 1300 m, but mostly less than 500 m altitude. Sometimes massed on or around logs or other floating vegetation, once recorded in a fresh-water mangrove (Sonneratia) growing among the finger-like pneumatophores.
It is widely used as an aquarium plant, and is prized for its versatility, being used both as a floating plant and a plant that can be rooted in the substrate.

"The water temperature should ideally be kept above 20 degrees C." from the Aquatic Community.

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English: Foliage of Ceratopteris thalictroides
日本語: ミズワラビ By Show_ryu via Wikimedia Commons

Figure: Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas, insbesondere seiner tropischen Gebiete : Grundzge der Pflanzen-verbreitung im Afrika und die Charak-terpflanzen Afrikas. Ceratopteris thalictroides. By Engler, Adolf, 1844-1930 via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

English: Two floating aquatic fern: Salvinia minima (right) and Ceratopteris thalictroides (left) floating in aquarium. Identified by user Le.Loup.Gris.
Español: Dos helechos acuáticos flotantes: Salvinia minima (derecha) y Ceratopteris thalictroides (izquierda) flotando en acuario.By Pristigaster via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Marsilea coromandelina (Marsilea trichocarpa)
Water Clover, pepperwort

 

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

 

 

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light. --->

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

coromandelina: named after the type locality at the Coromandel coast (south-eastern tip of India).
Habitat: Arid bushveld regions, upper limits of seasonal or temporal vleis and pans, edge of lakes and rivers.
In Zimbabwe confined to dry lowveld in Gonaredzu Reserve (Jacobsen, 1983).
Worldwide distribution:Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Kenya, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Also Madagascar, socotra and India.

 

Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Distributed in Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Kenya, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Also Madagascar, socotra and India.

See images.

Marsilea drummondii
Nardoo, Common Nardoo

Probably Semi-Hardy

It is native to Australia, where it is widespread and common, particularly in inland regions.
In northern Victoria, M. drummondii has been found where flooding occurs in spring-summer, lasts one to six months, and is shallow (less than 10 cm deep).

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

Deciduous fronds with greenish gray leaflets and (nonaquatic forms) conspicuous white, silky hairs. Roots are present on the nodes and internodes. This species is native to Australia, where it is called "nardoo".

The sterile fronds are erect when growing in mud, floating when growing in water, each consisting of 2 pairs of leaflets arranged in a fourleaf-clover pattern. The flexible stems allow the plants to adapt to small changes in water level (although M. drummondii has been seen in water up to 1 m deep), while keeping their leaves on the water surface to access light and carbon dioxide.

 

Parts of Marsilea drummondii contain an enzyme which destroys thiamine (vitamin B1), leading to brain damage in sheep and horses. During floods in the Gwydir River basin 2,200 sheep died after eating nardoo. Three-quarters of the sheep that were affected did however respond to thiamine injections.

The sporocarp can be toxic due to high levels of thiaminase, which destroys thiamine. Consumption of large amounts can cause beriberi. It has been known to poison sheep, as well as humans.

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light. --->

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
Rapidly Growing Ferns.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

 

San Marcos Growers - Even if you don't have a "pond" the size of Zaca Lake - Santa Barbara Countys's only natural lake - you can "water garden" using smaller ponds or even containers. San Marcos Growers is pleased to offer a diverse line of plants for ponds, bogs and fountains. We also manufacture a large pot that is suitable as a small pond of fountain. We feel that by using a very limited area within the garden for a pond or fountain, a feeling of cool lushness is achieved without requiring copious amounts of water, a precious resource in the dry California garden. This type of planting is sometimes referred to as an oasis within the garden. For your oasis check out our pond plants and links to other water plant sites.

Grows best under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist to wet garden soil or sand-peat mix.

It is a rhizomatous perennial aquatic fern that roots in mud substrates and produces herbage that floats on the surface of quiet water bodies. It occurs in water up to one meter deep. It occurs in abundance after floods. It can form mats on the water's surface and cover the ground in carpets as floodwaters recede.

Plants grow rapidly and can form sporocarps within three months.

In the home garden pond, Common Nardoo grows as a perennial. It is hardy, thriving in a full sun to a semi-shade gradient, withstanding Canberra frosts and regenerating quickly from stresses. Transplant from the pond into a pot to allow propagation and algal treatment. A loam should be used with a gravel surface mulch to reduce leaching of nutrients into the pond. To propagate, remove the plant from the pot and divide into new plants by slicing through the ‘root ball’ with a knife or secateurs.
Common Nardoo attracts frogs to the garden, providing good breeding habitat.

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Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

The plant produces sporocarps which can remain viable for 50 years and only release spores after being thoroughly soaked. The sporocarps are dispersed by birds that eat them but cannot digest them, and by flowing water.

Marsilea drummondii leaf and fiddlehead. Date: 4 February 2017. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0.

Marsilea drummondii in water. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0.

Figure of Marsilea drummondii in Comprehensive catalogue of Queensland plants, both indigenous and naturalised. To which are added, where known, the aboriginal and other vernacular names; with numerous illustrations, and copious notes on the properties, features, &c., of the plants. By Bailey, Frederick Manson, 1827-1915 via Wikimedia Commons.

Common nardoo, Marsilea dummondii, on a pond in the Dandenongs. By Casliber via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Marsilea macrocarpa (Marsilea dregeana, Marsilea fischeri, Marsilea rotundata )

Probably Semi-Hardy

Native to Africa in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

macrocarpa: with large fruits or sporocarps.

Some roots are present on internodes of the rhizome.

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light. --->

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Grows best under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist to wet garden soil or sand-peat mix.

Habitat: Areas with permanent or temporary ground water, seasonal vleis and pans, temporary grassland depressions, along streams, sometimes in running water. Seasonal pattern, dormant in dry season.

 

Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Photos

 

Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Marsilea mutica
Floating Four-Leaf Clover

Semi-Hardy

Native to New Caledonia and Australia.

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

Pale green of yellowish green leaflets in the lower (proximal) part and a dark green in the upper (distal) part, often separated by a pale or brownish band. Roots are present on the nodes and internodes.

 

This extremely rare pond plant produces attractive glossy leaves which float on the water's surface like those of a small waterlily. These leaves reach up to 1½ inches across and have delicate two-tone markings, which are particularly striking on mature leaves. Although it looks just like a four-leaved clover, Marsilea mutica is actually an aquatic fern. It thrives in warm shallow water and spreads slowly, making it suitable for small ponds and especially tub gardens. Contrary to popular belief, the plant is fully hardy: Marsilea mutica has been grown here at the nursery for 20 years with no protection whatsoever from frost or snow and always survives, within Brentwood in Essex, England.

Recommended water depth over crown of plant: 5 - 15 cm (2 - 6 inches)

This extremely rare pond plant produces attractive glossy leaves which float on the water's surface like those of a small waterlily. These leaves reach up to 1½ inches across and have delicate two-tone markings, which are particularly striking on mature leaves. Although it looks just like a four-leaved clover, Marsilea mutica is actually an aquatic fern. It thrives in warm shallow water and spreads slowly, making it suitable for small ponds and especially tub gardens. Contrary to popular belief, the plant is fully hardy: Marsilea mutica has been grown here at the nursery for 20 years with no protection whatsoever from frost or snow and always survives.
We recommend starting your Marsilea mutica off in a pot of 1 litre capacity.
Water Garden Plants is run by Anna and James and sells pond plants by mail order including Marsh Plants and poolside Plants and native British Pond Plants (further details about those native plants via Wildflower Botanical Names Page ).

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light. --->

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Grows well under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist to wet garden soil or sand-peat mix.

 

 

"2018 - 2019 List of Regulated or Illegal Aquatic Plants in America. Never release non-native aquatic plants into natural lakes, streams, or other waterways. This plant is on that list of illegal plants in America." from Pond Plants Online who offer hardy waterlilies, tropical waterlilies, hardy bog pond plants, tropical bog pond plants, floating pond plants, submerged pond plants, lotus and other pond supplies for your water garden from Ohio in America.
Other Rapidly Growing Ferns in this page must not be released into local rivers or streams, since it can cause growth in those rivers in any country, which is very expensive to get rid of. When no longer required, take it out the water and spread them on land as a mulch under trees, shrubs or hedges.

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Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

Juvenile Marsilea mutica - KRT3962. Kevin Thiele from Perth, Australia via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-2.0

Mature Marsilea mutica - KRT3961. Kevin Thiele from Perth, Australia via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-2.0

Form of Marsilea mutica. Location taken: Lilypons Water Gardens, Adamstown MD, USA. Names: Marsilea mutica Mett., Banded Nardoo, Floating Water Clover, Four leafed water clover, Nardoo, Water Clove. Photo by David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0

Marsilea mutica in mud - Español: Marsilea mutica ejemplar del Jardín botánico de Valencia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia. España. By Falconaumanni via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Marsilea polycarpa (Marsilea brasiliensis, Marsilea quadrifolia, Zaluzianskia polycarpa)
Water Clover, Guayanan waterclover

Costa Rica, Central and South America, West Indies.

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

This is not a 4-Leaf Clover.

 

Photos.

 

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light. --->

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen rooted fern.

Habitat: Tropical dry forest.

An aquatic fern which grows in permanent water, forming colonies by its spreading rhizomes. Plants can be grown as aquatics in fish ponds and containers.

 

Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Marsilea quadrifolia
Water Clover/ Water Shamrock, European Water Clover, Four leaf clover

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to Northeastern United States, southeastern Europe, and Asia

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

Aquatic fern bearing 4 parted leaf resembling '4-leaf clover' (Trifolium). Leaves floating in deep water or erect in shallow water or on land.

Roots are present on nodes and internodes. Leaves with 4 clover-like leaflets.

14/-1/2inch leaf width, 1-2 inch tall submersed growth

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light. --->

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
Herbaceous Fern.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

"Four Leaf Clover - is one of the most popular carpet aquarium plants for the foreground and it is recommended for beginners to create a dense carpet. It grows slowly but it is easy to keep because is undemanding and can be grown in moderate lighting. Higher lighting and carbon dioxide injection improve growth rate and promote more compact growth. In the lower light situations it produces bigger leaves with a single lobe, very different from the emerse plant. No substrate or water special conditions are required (temperature between 18°C - 28°C or 64°F - 82°F, pH 5 - 7.5 and GH between 1 - 20 dH)." from Aquarium and Pond Plants with their Aquarium Plants guide and who ship their plants worldwide.

Grows well under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist-wet garden soil or sand-peat mix. The plants are used in China for treating infections.

Found in Europe in shallow water of periodically flooded localities such as water-meadows or ricefields, with the leaves floating and the sporocarps usually developing in the mud when the water-level is lowered.

Marsilea quadrifolia is grown in aquaria.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist or wet soil and can grow in water.
Marsilea quadrifolia can be grown as a potted plant, either just with soil kept wet, or semi-submerged, with fronds emergent from the water, or fully submerged, with the fronds floating on the surface of the water.
In the aquarium, water clover is grown fully submerged, usually in the foreground where it spreads by means of runners. It normally seems to be unfussy as to light and water conditions, and doesn't need a rich substrate.

marsilleaquadrifoliapjuvfolwikimediacommons

 

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Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

Juvenile foliage of Marsilea quadrifolia. By Vinayaraj via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

Mature foliage of Marsilea quadrifolia, Romania. By Frank Vassen from Brussels, Belgium via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-2.0

Form of Marsilea quadrifolia
(European water clover) in May 2005, By Phyzome via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0-migrated

Fig. 85. Marsilea quadrifolia from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons, License Public Domain in United States.

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Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Pilularia americana
American Pillwort

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to United States and Mexico.
The range of the American pillwort is well-established throughout much of California and south-central Oregon.

The genus name comes from the Greek pilula, little ball, and refers to the globose sporocarps.

It is an unusual species of fern. The fronds essentially consist of the stems only, any form of flattened laminae having been lost.

Photos

 

This fern resembles a very small clump of grass. However, unlike grasses, the leaves are initially coiled from the tip downward, and unfurl like a typical fern fiddlehead. The leaves also become distinctively curly when dry. Sporocorps look like small woolly marbles and are important for identification.

Leaves sparsely hairy, threadlike, elongate, with an unbranched midvein, round in cross section, 1.6-10.2 cm long, about 0.5 mm wide. Sporocarps present underground June to July; plants are most easily identifiable before vernal pools dry up in late June.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation:
This plant is easily grown given a suitable habitat and kept uncrowded. The pillwort also may die out for drier or colder parts of the season, regenerating the next year from the sporocarps. While it is in the aquatic fern group, it prefers to be emergent (in shallow water, with fronds emerging into the air) or growing completely emersed (fronds completely out of water), though preferring to be rooted in wet mud.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Grows well under high light in sandy or silty garden soil kept wet. The plants can also grow submerged or partly submerged. Do not let them dry out completely.

Ecology: Vernal pools, mud flats, lake margins. Poorly collected, often overlooked due to its small, grass-like appearance.
This species is sensitive to disturbance from domestic grazing.

Botanical illustration including Pilularia america with 5 photos of that plant -

Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux 2012, Pilularia americana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=38232, accessed on January 06, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on January 06, 2019.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Associated species include mosses, annual hairgrass (Deschampsia danthonioides), tiny mousetail (Myosurus minimus), popcornflower (Plagiobothrys spp.), pale spike-rush (Eleocharis macrostachya), needle spike-rush (Eleocharis acicularis), fruitleaf knotweed (Polygonum polygaloides ssp. confertiflorum), Pacific foxtail (Alopecurus saccatus), whitehead navarretia (Navarretia leucocephala), elegant calicoflower (Downingia elegans), and water mudwort (Limosella aquatica). Photogragh shows that this fern grows between the grassland and the vernal pool.

Pilularia globulifera
European Pillwort, Pillwort

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to Europe - found in western Central Europe and scattered throughout the British Isles in shallow water at edges of ponds, ricefields, marshy ground, wet heaths, often submerged, in acid substrata; very local and absent from many counties; local in Ireland.
Native UK plant.
 

Leaves arising from a creeping rhizome with nodes 1-4 cm (0.5-1.5inches) apart, 3-10 (15) (1.2-4 inches) long, subulate.

This tiny plant is a type of creeping fern. It is hard to spot because it has thin, grass-like leaves and often grows with water grasses or small rushes. The ‘pills’ are tiny round spore cases at the bases of the stems. It can still be found at a number of sites scattered across Britain, but is internationally threatened, as it is declining across its whole European range.
Key threats:-
Water pollution, particularly by fertilisers, which encourage the growth of coarse plants. The decline of cattle grazing and the resultant loss of trampling; drainage; the ploughing of old pastures; and invasion by the vigorous non-native water plant New Zealand pigmyweed (Crassula helmsii) - illegal plant in the UK.

About 3 inches (8 cms) tall, which is easily recognised by the characteristically unfurling leaves and the large (3 mm), round sporocarps, if present.

Lime green round stem-like leaves or  fronds approximately 1-1.5mm diameter.

Fronds unfurl from tight coils, and you can often see 1 or 2 fronds which have yet to unfurl even late into the season.

Fronds can grow up to 8cm tall, often standing upright from the ground or above the surface of the water, but they can be submerged.

The fronds are rarely straight and have a kinky or wavy appearance, especially when young.

The fronds arise singly, or at most 3 shoots, from a rhizome (horizontal underground stem), not in clumps or tussocks (as seen in grasses and rushes).

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation:

Pillwort is a specialist of bare pond edge habitats. It is not a good competitor and only thrives where there are few other plants. Like many specialists, it has some key habitat requirements:-
1. Seasonally fluctuating water levels, doing especially well in temporary ponds. 2. Poaching and grazing by livestock. This is the best form of sustainable management because it creates bare ground which the plant needs.
3. Slightly acidic ponds on clays, sands and peaty substrates.
4. Open habitats including heathland and acid grassland. It is intolerant of shading from scrub.
Pillwort can also be found growing on the edge of larger ponds and lakes, particularly sand and gravel pits, but only where there are fluctuating water levels and clean unpolluted water.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Fern for Acid Soils. Ferns suitable for Terrariums.
Use as Bog or Wet-Soil Fern.

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Pillwort can be grown in a "bog garden" or as a marginal aquatic in a garden pond.

Grows well under high light in sandy or silty garden soil kept wet. The plants can also grow submerged or partly submerged. Do not let them dry out completely. This speces is a rapid and robust grower in moist to wet soil.

It grows at edges of lakes, ponds, ditches and marshes, on wet clay or clay-sand soil (that are submerged for at least part of the year), sometimes in water up to 30 cm (12 in) deep. Some of the plants growing in association with this species in the UK include water celery (Apium inundatum), marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) and lesser spearwort (Ranunculus flammula).

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English: Single creeping plant of the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera, on wet ground.
Deutsch: Einzelner Kriechspross (Ausläufer) des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera) auf wechselnassem Teichboden. By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

English: Mature sporocarps at the base of the leaves from the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera.
Deutsch: Reife Sporenbehälter ("Pillen") am Grund der Blätter des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera). By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

English: Field of the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera, in a natural habitat (alternating wet pond bottom).
Deutsch: Aspekt eines rasenartigen Bestandes des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera) in seinem natürlichen Lebensraum (wechselnasse Teichbodenflur, Zwergbinsen-gesellschaft). By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

Pilularia globulifera - Image:Illustration Pilularia globulifera0.jpg from Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany via Wikimedia Commons

pilulariaglobuliferapgarwikimediacommons1

 

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Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Pilularia novae-hollandiae (Pilularia novae-zelandiae)
Australian Pillwort, Austral Pillwort

Found in Tasmania and throughout New Zealand.

Fertile fronds are required to confirm the identity of this aquatic or semi-aquatic fern with grass-like fronds, though fertile fronds tend not to develop in plants that are submerged for most of the year. The production of fertile fronds appears to be associated with seasonal drought or stress though plants can die down in dry conditions. Most herbarium specimens from Tasmania have been collected from November to March and those from Victoria have been collected in spring.

2-3 x
(5-7.5 x )

Aquatic Ferns

 

 

It grows among grasses in soft mud at the edges of swamps and pools, or in shallow water.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
 

A small species from ponds and low-lying areas subject to periodic inundation, often growing in drying mud. Colonies may decline after a few years and benefit from restarting with a small division in a fesh mix.

Austral Pillwort grows in shallow swamps and waterways, often among grasses and sedges. It is most often recorded in drying mud as this is when it is most conspicuous.

Austral Pillwort is a semi-aquatic fern, resembling a small fine grass. Its thread-like fronds, to 8 cm long, arise in tufts from a creeping underground stem (rhizome). The fruiting capsules are small, spherical hairy pills that form at the base of fronds. This species is probably ephemeral (especially in the drier parts of its range), appearing when soils are moistened by rain.

Cite as: Threatened Species Section (2019). Pilularia novae-hollandiae (australian pillwort): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link. https://www.threatenedspecieslink.tas.gov.au/Pages/Pilularia-novae-hollandiae.aspx. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Tasmania. Accessed on 8/1/2019.

Contact details: Threatened Species Section, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, GPO Box 44, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 7001. Phone (1300 368 550).

Permit: A permit is required under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 to 'take' (which includes kill, injure, catch, damage, destroy and collect), keep, trade in or process any specimen or products of a listed species. Additional permits may also be required under other Acts or regulations to take, disturb or interfere with any form of wildlife or its products, (e.g. dens, nests, bones). This may also depend on the tenure of the land and other agreements relating to its management.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Regnellidium diphyllum
Latex Fern, Two-leaf Water Fern, Clover two-leaf

Very Tender - easy to grow but apt to die if the temperature drops below 21C (70F).

The genus has only this one speces. Native to southeastern Brazil and adjacent Argentina.

The specific epithet diphyllum means having two leaves.

It has 2-lobed leaves (rather than 4).

It was, vigorously growing in a garden pond in California with Photos.

Culture: Prefers good nutrition - growth poor under nutrient stress.

Plants have a long-creeping stem which roots in mud and long leaf stems which bear a pair of leaflets at the apex. These leaves either float on the water or are emergent from shallow water. Plants can be grown readily in a heated aquarium or a pot of spagnum moss with the base permanently immersed in water. The species is very sensitive to cold and resents alkaline water.

The rhizomes are creeping and bear fronds 1-3 cm (0.5-1.2 inches) apart.

Quick grower up to 6 inches (15 cm) high and spreading with glossy green, double leaves.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation:

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.
Culture: Place in water no deeper than 2 inches over the crown. In colder regions, allow to go dormant in a non-freezing location, but do not let the plant dry out. An exceptional pond plant.

It roots in mud, although sometimes it is submerged and the fronds are floating. The rhizomes are creeping and bear fronds 103 cm (0.5-1.2 inches) apart.

Grows well under high light in moist-wet soil (a mixture of sand and peat) or fully submerged. The plants are typically grown in pots set in water or in aquarium with plants partly submerged.

This fern is sometimes grown in aquaria. It is the only non-flowering plant that produces latex.

regnellidiumdihyllumpgarwikimediacommons

Regnellidium diphyllum. A Two-leaf Water Fern, native to southeastern Brazil. UC Berkeley Botanical Gardens. Marsileaceae. By Dick Culbert via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-2.0

regnellidiumdihyllumpforwikimediacommons

The genus is related to Marsilea, the clover fern, but differs by having 2 leaflets instead of 4. The leaves are produced too far apart on the rhizome to make an attractive pot plant; the plants are mainly used as a novelty in aquariums.

Salvinia auriculata (Salvinia rotundifolia)
Water Spangle, Giant Salvinia, Eared Salvinia, Eared Watermoss

Semi-Tender to Tender

Native to tropical America.

 

 

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

A small aquatic fern with short-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under direct sunlight.

This may not be imported into the United States and possession of the plants is prohibited by governmental agencies in America.

Due to the above paragragh, it would seem unwise to grow this as it becomes an expensive pest if allowed into natural lakes or slow moving rivers and so no further details will occur in this website.

 

 

 

The Water Spangles are small floating ferns, although they also grow in mud around the shores of ponds, lakes, or swamps. Their small, rounded leaves add interest to ponds, dish gardens, and aquariums. Salvinia does not tolerate much cool weather and dies during the winter in most parts of the United States. Culture is the same as for another aquatic fern, Azolla.
Native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Salvinia hastata (Salvinia hildebrandtii, Salvinia mollis)
Water fern

Tender

In the Flora of Mozambique.

Floating leaves opposite, oblong, up to 2 cm long, 1.3 cm wide, sometimes slightly broadened towards the base, emarginate at the apex, cordate to truncate at the base, flat or infolded along the midrib, papillate on the upper surface with minute whitish multicellular hairs, pilose beneath with brownish multicellular hairs; submerged leaf up to 6.5 cm long, the lobes with dense dark brown multicellular hairs up to 3 mm long.

 

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

Propagate by division or by spores that fall to the bottom of the tank and if there is a little loam at the bottom will germinate.

Propagation:By division during growing period. It is advisable to keep stock pans containing 3 inches (7.5 cm) sifted loam and charcoal and 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water; spores will drop into mud and keep the stock going.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns. Rapidly Growing Fern.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
 

Stove or Greenhouse annual aquatic fern.
Culture: Soil, not necessary. Position, tanks or water in warm greenhouse or in indoor aquariums. Temperature, March to September 65-75F (18-24C), September to March 55-60F (13-15C). Place in tanks any time.

A pretty little aquatic for stove or greenhouse that floats on the water like Azolla and increases very rapidly in summer. The plants have tiny fern leaves with no roots but the under sides of the leaves perform the functions of the roots.

This is in the Global Compendium of Weeds.

As a Declared Pest, this is Prohibited in all of Western Australia.

item1d8a1

Photos from Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

item1a1h1a1

The Water Spangles are small floating ferns, although they also grow in mud around the shores of ponds, lakes, or swamps. Their small, rounded leaves add interest to ponds, dish gardens, and aquariums. Salvinia does not tolerate much cool weather and dies during the winter in most parts of the United States. Culture is the same as for another aquatic fern, Azolla.
Native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Salvinia molesta
Water Spangles/ Kariba Weed, Giant salvinia

Native to southern South America (southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay), but has become naturalized in Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand.

 

 

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

This may not be imported into the United States and possession of the plants is prohibited by governmental agencies in America.

Due to the above paragragh, it would seem unwise to grow this as it becomes an expensive pest if allowed into natural lakes or slow moving rivers and so no further details will occur in this website.

 

Salvinia (Salvinia molesta) photos before and after biocontrol with the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae, from PDF of SAPIA NEWS No. 24 - Invasive Species South Africa.

Salvinia molesta photos from Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

 

 

The Water Spangles are small floating ferns, although they also grow in mud around the shores of ponds, lakes, or swamps. Their small, rounded leaves add interest to ponds, dish gardens, and aquariums. Salvinia does not tolerate much cool weather and dies during the winter in most parts of the United States. Culture is the same as for another aquatic fern, Azolla.
Native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Salvinia natans
Salvinia
floating fern, floating watermoss, floating moss, or commercially, water butterfly wings

Semi-Tender to Hardier in Zone 10-11

Native to Europe and Asia - found in warm ponds and ditches in Central and Southeast Europe, extending to Holland and Spain; absent from Britain and Ireland.
It is found throughout the world where there is plentiful standing fresh water, sunlight, and humid air.

It has oblong-truncate to ovate fronds. Leaves 3, arranged in a whorl: the upper 2 ovate, floating, with large intercellular spaces, hairy and unwettable on both surfaces; the lower 1 split into numerous filiform root-like segments (functional roots).

The leaves of Salvinia natans block sunlight from reaching very far underwater. This is helpful to many freshwater fish, providing safe hiding places to breed in, but can interrupt the photosynthesis of many underwater plants. Salvinia natans can eventually cover entire ponds or lakes without ecological competition, starving other plant species.
It is worth removing sufficient to leave only 33% of the water surface covered and use it as a mulch on flowerbeds, amongst trees or in a hedge.

3 x 3-12
(7.5 x 7.5-30)
Tolerates swimming rabbit in water, which is wet.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

Propagate by division or by spores that fall to the bottom of the tank and if there is a little loam at the bottom will germinate.

Propagation:By division during growing period. It is advisable to keep stock pans containing 3 inches (7.5 cm) sifted loam and charcoal and 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water; spores will drop into mud and keep the stock going.

In home water gardens in the St. Louis area, some plants should be lifted in fall each year before first frost and overwintered in a saucer of moist soil covered with 2” of water in a bright frost-free area or in an aquarium.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
 

Stove and Greenhouse annual aquatic fern.
Culture:Soil, not necessary. Position, tanks or water in warm greenhouse or in indoor aquariums. Temperature, March to September 65-75F (18-24C), September to March 55-60F (13-15C). Place in tanks any time.

 

Use as free floating aquatic perennial for water gardens or ponds.

A small aquatic fern with short-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under direct sunlight.

A pretty little annual aquatic for stove or greenhouse that floats on the water like Azolla and increases very rapidly in summer. The plants have tiny fern leaves with no roots but the under sides of the leaves perform the functions of the roots.

salvianatansprootswikimediacommons1

 

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The Water Spangles are small floating ferns, although they also grow in mud around the shores of ponds, lakes, or swamps. Their small, rounded leaves add interest to ponds, dish gardens, and aquariums. Salvinia does not tolerate much cool weather and dies during the winter in most parts of the United States. Culture is the same as for another aquatic fern, Azolla.
Native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Submerged leaf of salvinia natans - Українська: Занурена вайя сальвінії плаваючої. By Carassiuslike via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-4.0

English: Water plant Salvinia natans from the Botanical Gardens of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Čeština: Vodní rostlina nepukalka vzplývající (Salvinia natans) v Botanické zahradě Univerzity Karlovy Praha. By Karelj via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-3.0, 2.5,2.0,1.0

English: Salvinia natans (L.) All. (Water Fern); habitus. Habitat: а backwater in Volgograd Reservoir (Volga river). Engelssky District, Saratov Oblast, Russia.
Русский: Сальвиния плавающая (Salvinia natans (L.) All.); внешний вид растения. Местообитание: заводь. Волгоградское водохранилище, Энгельсский район Саратовской области. By Le.Loup.Gris via Wikimedia Commons - Multi-license with GFDL and CC-BY-SA

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Suomi: Kellusaniainen (Salvinia natans) kasvaa Kaisaniemen kasvitieteellisen puutarhan kasvihuoneessa.
English: Water Fern (Salvinia natans) in the Glasshouses of Kaisaniemi Botanical Garden
Svenska: Simbräken (Salvinia natans) i växthuset av Kajsaniemi botaniska trädgård. By Anneli Salo via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Salvinia natans - Polski: Salwinia pływająca na naturalnym stanowisku w Rezerwacie Przyrody Łężczok koło Raciborza. By Czonek via Wikimedia Commons - Public Domain

salvianatanspfigwikimediacommons1

Salvinia natans - from Original book source: Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany. Source: www.biolib.de via Wikimedia Commons - Public Domain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

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Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.