Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Scupture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

--->

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens
--->


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.
--->
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1, 2

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes)

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oentrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria) 1, 2, 3 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma)
 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P.Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.



 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2
Drier Soil
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2
Shade Tolerant

Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2

House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4

House Fern in Terrarium or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums 2, 3, 4
 

Grow in Woodlands
 


USE OF FERN as Rapidly Growing Fern Page 1 of 2
"In optimum conditions of temperature, light and nutrients, the following species grow relatively rapidly."
from Chapter 9 of Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually from Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Adiantum raddianum

 

 

 

 

 

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Anogramma chaerophylla

 

 

 

 

 

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Athyrium filix-femina

 

 

 

 

 

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Cobotium schiedei

 

 

 

 

 

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Dennstaedtia punctilobula

 

 

 

 

 

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Goniophlebium subauriculatum 'Knightiae'

 

 

 

 

 

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Hypolepis, most species

 

 

 

 

 

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Macro-thelypteris torresiana

 

 

 

 

 

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Matteuccia struthiopteris

 

 

 

 

 

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Microlepia strigosa

 

 

 

 

 

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Nephrolepis cordifolia

 

 

 

 

 

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Onoclea sensibilis

 

 

 

 

 

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Phegopteris connectilis

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteridium aquilinum

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris cretica

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris tremula

 

 

 

 

 

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Pteris vittata

 

 

 

 

 

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Selaginella kraussiana

 

 

 

 

 

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Sphaeropteris cooperi

 

 

 

 

 

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Sphaeropteris excelsa

 

 

 

 

 

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Thelypteris, most species

 

 

 

 

 

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Woodwardia radicans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Woodwardia virginica

 

 

 

 

 

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Azolla caroliniana
Carolinian Azolla, Fairy Moss, Water velvet (with the Complete guide to Aquariums), Mosquito Fern, American waterfern, Pacific mosquitofern - from Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants of University of Florida who treat this aquatic weed with herbicide or you could take out and use it as a free fertiliser on your land.

Hardy in
Zone (4)5; survives frost and ice

Tropical - Subtropical

Native to Eastern North America.

Carolina - North America. Americas, Europe and Asia.

Azollas tend to die in cold weather after forming buds, which sink to the bottom of the pond and resume growth when warm weather returns. Mosquito ferns prefer full sunlight, warm temperatures, and silty water containing organic matter. High light encourages reddish growth.

Azolla is a highly productive plant. It doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields.

Carolina mosquitofern distribution in USA.

 

This attractive floating pond plant will grow in damp soil or on moist rocks along the ponds edge. Usually covers 1 to 2 square feet (1 foot = 12 inches = 30 cms) of surface area. Pond Plants Online also provide Water Garden Planting and Care Instructions.

Pale green, turning bright red in autumn (several weeks later they die and sink to the bottom), lacy-looking and closely overlapping. Plants are roughly circular to triangular and about the size of a dime.

 

Azolla has filamentous roots which extend down from the thread-like rhizome, which branches repeatedly and bears fronds in 2 rows.
Its name comes from azo, to dry, and olluo, to kill, presumably alluding to the fern's tendency to be killed by drying. Azolla is the world's most important economic fern because it used as an organic fertilizer in rice paddies in China and Vietnam. It is allso fed to livestock and certain fish.

The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being widely used as a biofertiliser, especially in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years. When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year.

As the rice grows, the ferns are shaded, die and sink to the bottom, thus recycling the vital nutrient to the food crop.

Less than 1 inch (2.5 cms) in height
Leaves normally not eaten by fish; overwinter indoors; naturalized in shallow ponds, ditches and sluggish streams.

 

Azolla caroliniana mature plant floats on the still water, and has no true roots, but the small divided leaves on the underside of the stem are often mistaken for them. The spores are found amongst these so-called roots. The plants grow annually from these spores. Frequently these are lost through insufficient care. They may be preserved by placing the plants in a tank of water that is half filled with sandy loam. When the plants die in the winter, the spores remain and germinate in the following year. They are very pretty plants, and hardly rise above the surface of the water which they cover with a carpet of green that becomes bronze in summer.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

 

Water Garden Plants nursery is completely free from the invasive non-native species Crassula helmsii 
(New Zealand Pigmyweed/
Australian Swamp-Stonecrop), 
Myriophyllum aquaticum
(Parrot's Feather), 
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating
Pennywort), Floating Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.), and Water Fern (Azolla spp.).

"The above Invasive non-native species can have a devastating cost to the economy, costing £1.7 billion to control. Floating pennywort, which can grow up to eight inches a day, costs the British economy £23.5 million per year. The plants form dense mats in water, depleting oxygen and light availability, causing declines in the numbers of fish and other aquatic species. They also reduce access to waterways for boating and angling and increase flood risk which, taken together, can cost millions of pounds per year." Press release Sale of invasive water plants banned to protect wildlife of Published 29 January 2013.
From:
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Wet Soils.
Rapidly Growing Fern.

Hardy, Floating Aquatic Fern with delicate fern-like foliage.
Culture: Grow in shallow ponds or in indoor aquariums. Require no soil, merely to float on surface of water. Being very sensitive to cold, especially frosts, it may need the protection of a heated greenhouse or a well lit tropical aquarium. It grows in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly.

 

They are great, attractive nutrient absorbers and the roots make excellent and attractive cover for fry.

Cordon off a small area to place Azolla.

How to grow Azolla caroliniana in aquariums.

A free floating aquatic fern which forms colonies on still water. Easily grown in ponds etc, but very cold-sensitive.

The common name - Mosquito Fern - is derived from the fern's supposed ability to discourage mosquito reproduction by densely carpeting the water's surface, thereby preventing the adults from laying eggs and preventing the larvae from getting air at the surface.

This floating fern is the best species for growing on mud.

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Closeup of this vegetation choking the lake at Jack London State Historic Park. Taken last spring. The lake is in the lengthy process of remediation by the Jack London Lake Alliance. Date: 28 April 2009, 15:33:15 File: Azolla caroliniana.jpg cropped to a 2x3 format. By Ingrid Taylar from San Francisco Bay Area - California, USA via Wikimedia Commons

Azolla caroliniana at Orto botanico di Pisa. Date: 18 January 2012, 17:55:20. By Notafly via Wikimedia Commons.

English: Carolina Mosquito Fern (Azolla caroliniana). Zamora (Spain).
Español: Helecho mosquito de Carolina (Azolla caroliniana) invasor. Zamora (España).
Date: 4 February 2012, 11:59:39. By David Perez
(DPC) via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-sa-4.0


 
 

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Azolla Production and Demonstration Farm involving on the 4 qualified Azolla, namely - Azolla, - Azolla microphylla Kaulf., Azolla pinnata, Azolla pinnata var pinnata, Azolla pinnata var imbricata, and Azolla caroliniana, in Philippine Rice Research Institute, PhilRice, (is a government corporate entity attached to the Department of Agriculture, created through Executive Order 1061 on 5 November 1985 (as amended), Irrigated Rice Research Consortium, and International Rice Research Institute; located in Barangay, Maligaya, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, in front of its Barangay Hall and Chapel along the Pan-Philippine Highway, also known as the Maharlika "Nobility/freeman" Highway or Asian Highway 26, in Cagayan Valley Road; or Category:Maharlika Highway (Cagayan Valley Road, Talavera-Santo Domingo-Quezon-Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija section) since its re-launch in September 2014, the museum opened 3 exhibits titled, Lovelife with Rice, Abundant Harvest, and Colors of Rice, which focuses on the health and nutrition aspects of rice, will run until Feb. 2016; per guidance of Visual Artist Consultant of the Rice Museum, Rogelio N. Bibal; under bad weather photography due to effects of Typhoon Goni (2015)). Date: 24 August 2015. By Judgefloro via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-sa-4.0

Azolla filiculoides (Azolla filiculoides var. rubra, Azolla rubra)
Ferny Azolla,
Fairy Moss, Mosquito Fern, Water Fern, Red Water Fern

Hardy in Zone (6)7

Tropical - Temperate

North America, Central and South America, Asia, Australia - This fern is native to lakes, ponds, streams and rivers in both North and South America.
Invasive non-native in southern England and coastal Wales, scattered mainly in coastal areas further north and in eastern Ireland.

Azollas tend to die in cold weather after forming buds, which sink to the bottom of the pond and resume growth when warm weather returns. Mosquito ferns prefer full sunlight, warm temperatures, and silty water containing organic matter. High light encourages reddish growth.

Azolla is a highly productive plant. It doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields.

Azolla filiculoides has a surface-area doubling time of 7-10 days under favourable conditions.

Larger fronds than Azolla caroliniana, pale green tinted rose. This floating species forms dense mats on the water's surface. The plants can survive under thin ice for at least a week.

Azolla has filamentous roots which extend down from the thread-like rhizome, which branches repeatedly and bears fronds in 2 rows.
Its name comes from azo, to dry, and olluo, to kill, presumably alluding to the fern's tendency to be killed by drying. Azolla is the world's most important economic fern because it used as an organic fertilizer in rice paddies in China and Vietnam. It is also fed to livestock and certain fish.

Azolla filiculoides (red azolla) is the only member of this genus and of the family Azollaceae in Tasmania. It is a very common native aquatic plant in Tasmania. It is particularly common on farm dams and other still water bodies. The plants are small (usually only a few cm across) and float, but can be very abundant and form large mats. The plants are typically red, and have very small water repellent leaves. Azolla floats on the surface of water by means of numerous, small, closely overlapping scale-like leaves, with their roots hanging in the water. They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a "super-plant", as it can readily colonise areas of freshwater, and grow at great speed - doubling its biomass every two to three days. The typical limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus, another essential mineral. An abundance of phosphorus, due for example to eutrophication or chemical runoff, often leads to Azolla blooms.

0.25-3 x 12-36
(0.6-7.5 x 30-90)

1-5 cm (0.5-2 inches) in diameter - Leaves are bilobed, arranged in 2 ranks, imbricate; the upper lobe about 1mm wide, ovate, obtuse, floating, densely hairy; lower lobe submerged, thinner, bearing pairs of of sori (each pair either both with megasporangia or each with mega- or microsporangia).

The species has been introduced to many regions of the Old World, grown for its nitrogen-fixing ability which can be utilized to enhance the growth rate of crops grown in water like rice, or by removal from lakes for use as green manure. It has become naturalized, sometimes also an invasive species, in several regions, including western Europe, southern Africa, tropical Asia, Australia (where it is considered native), and New Zealand.

Looking for a cheaper more effective alternative for controlling Azolla filiculoides (water fern)? Look no further - AzollaControl from CABI offers you a comprehensive natural control option for managing this most noxious of weeds.
AzollaControl makes use of the North American, weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus. This weevil is a highly effective natural enemy of Azolla filiculoides. The weevil, which can only feed and reproduce on Azolla, has proven to be an effective biological control agent in laboratory and field trials in South Africa as well as in the UK.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: By division.

 

Water Garden Plants nursery is completely free from the invasive non-native species Crassula helmsii 
(New Zealand Pigmyweed/
Australian Swamp-Stonecrop), 
Myriophyllum aquaticum
(Parrot's Feather), 
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating
Pennywort), Floating Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.), and Water Fern (Azolla spp.).

"The above Invasive non-native species can have a devastating cost to the economy, costing £1.7 billion to control. Floating pennywort, which can grow up to eight inches a day, costs the British economy £23.5 million per year. The plants form dense mats in water, depleting oxygen and light availability, causing declines in the numbers of fish and other aquatic species. They also reduce access to waterways for boating and angling and increase flood risk which, taken together, can cost millions of pounds per year." Press release Sale of invasive water plants banned to protect wildlife of Published 29 January 2013.
From:
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Livestock Feed - which could be grown on your own land providing you with free livestock feed during the summer.

Hardy, Floating Aquatic Fern with delicate fern-like foliage.
Culture: Grow in shallow ponds or in indoor aquariums. Require no soil, merely to float on surface of water. Being very sensitive to cold, especially frosts, it may need the protection of a heated greenhouse or a well lit tropical aquarium. It grows in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly.

It is found in ditches and ponds.

It is not tolerant of salinity; normal plants can't survive in greater than 1-1.6‰, and even conditioned organisms die in over 5.5‰ salinity.

It discourages algae growth and helps keep waters clear. It also tolerates swimming rabbits.

A free floating aquatic fern which forms colonies on still water such as lakes, ponds, dams, swamps, etc. Plants propagate freely by vegetative techniques and soon cover the surface of the water. Can be used as an ornamental on the surface of man-made ponds and dams or fish tanks.

The common name - Mosquito Fern - is derived from the fern's supposed ability to discourage mosquito reproduction by densely carpeting the water's surface, thereby preventing the adults from laying eggs and preventing the larvae from getting air at the surface.

The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being widely used as a biofertiliser, especially in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years. When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year.

Azolla has been used in rice paddies as a companion plant, because of the presence of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in symbiosis with azolla, and its tendency to block out light to prevent any competition from other plants, aside from the rice, which is planted when tall enough to poke out of the water through the azolla layer.

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KRT3901.
Azolla filiculoides. Date:3 November 2009, 07:18. By Kevin Thiele from Perth, Australia via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-2.0.

Profile detail of Azolla filiculoides (Water Fern) is a species of Azolla, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Americas as well as most of the old world including Asia and Australia. Date: 7 November 2010, 12:47 (UTC). By Azolla Filiculoides Profil.JPG: Mygaia via Wikimedia Commons

Azolla filiculoides. Date 11 May 2016, 13:27:07. By Dubbeltänk via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0

Red foliage of Water fern (Azolla filiculoides), botanic school of the Jardin des Plantes of Paris.
Français : Azolla fausse-fougère (Azolla filiculoides) à l'école de botanique du Jardin des Plantes de Paris. Date: 2 May 2013. By © Marie-Lan Nguyen / 
Wikimedia Commons / 
CC-BY 2.5

Azolla filiculoides carpeting a pond in 2012. By AerobicFox via Wikimedia Commons

English: Azolla filiculoides
日本語: ニシノオオアカウキクサ. Illustration from Flora Batava. Afbeelding en beschrijving der Nederlandsche Gewassen. (1915) by Jan Kops, F. W. van Eeden, L. Vuyck via Wikimedia Commons

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Ceratopteris thalictroides
(Acrostichum thalictroides, Ceratopteris froesii, Ceratopteris gaudichaudii, Ceratopteris siliquosa )
Water Fern, Pod Fern, Oriental Water Fern, Water Sprite, Indian Fern, Water Hornfern, Water Elk's Horn

Tender in Zone 9

It is found throughout the tropics of the world, except Africa. Tropical America - Florida.

The name comes from the Greek keras, horn, and pteris, fern, alluding to the antler-like fertile leaves.

 

AC Tropical Fish (Aquatic Community.com, Aquatic Community) was founded in 2004 as a resource and meeting place for tropical aquarium fish keepers. It has since then grown into a comprehensive aquarium portal featuring information not only about tropical freshwater fish but also about all other types of aquarium fish.

Buds tend to grow on dying fronds.

The bright green, finely-cut, fertile leaves are erect and are produced above water. In Asia the foliage of this species is used in salads and is said to have a peppery taste. This genus has the distinction of having the fastest life cycle of any fern. The plants can take as little as 1 month to go from spores to mature, spore-bearing plants, though 3 or 4 months is more typical. The plants live about 1 year and are usuually perpetuated by the numerous buds that form on the blade surface, typically in margins of the sinuses. The buds detach and float away from the parent plant.

It can provide useful shade to shyer fish and small fry. The dense roots are said to take nutrients out of the water helping to prevent the growth of algae.
Small adventitious plantlets are grown on the mother plant and are then released when ready.
In small open aquariums it can grow out of the aquarium and form beautiful surface leaves.

30 x
(75 x )

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: Mature plants can be propagated by division of the rhizome, which may be allowed to float or, if grown submerged, held in place by coarse gravel. If plants are to be rooted in mud, garden soil with little organic matter will do. Some growers recommend a mixture of about half peat and half sand mixed with 10% top soil. Plants that are rooted in mud need their fronds kept moist. Temperatures must be maintained close to 27C (80F) for good growth. The plants and buds decline when temperatures are below 20C (68F), and if lost, new plants must be started from spores.

Propagation: By spores sown in February on surface of compost in pan or water as for culture in next column, vivaparous forms increased by pegging down leaves into soft mud, detaching later.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Fern for Acid Soils.
Fern for Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Stove aquatic fern that is usually only of annual duration, but when carefully grown may be a biennial.

Culture: Soil, sifted loam and charcoal with a little leaf-mould. Position, in pots or pans submerged to rim in tank of water for floating kinds, submerged kinds in aquarium compost. Plant, spring or summer. All need subdued light, moist, warm atmosphere. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September, about 75F (24C).

It grows best in soil with a pH reading of 5-9 and in very high amounts of light. It usually grows quickly.
This plant normally grows fast, but the addition of CO2 (CO2  concentrations of under 20 mg/l are sufficient) may be necessary to promote growth.

Grows in wet garden soil. Typically, the plants root in mud.

It succeeds best in a pot of good loam, wholly submerged in a tank of warm water in a stove house. It produces spores freely, or may be propagated by the young plants that form on all the fronds.

Swampy areas, swamp forests, sago (Metroxylon) swamps, marshes, natural and man-made ponds, mostly in stagnant water bodies or in still pockets along slow flowing rivers, full sun to moderate shade, from sea level to 1300 m, but mostly less than 500 m altitude. Sometimes massed on or around logs or other floating vegetation, once recorded in a fresh-water mangrove (Sonneratia) growing among the finger-like pneumatophores.
It is widely used as an aquarium plant, and is prized for its versatility, being used both as a floating plant and a plant that can be rooted in the substrate.

"The water temperature should ideally be kept above 20 degrees C." from the Aquatic Community.

ceratopteristhalictroidespfrondwikimediacommons

 

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English: Foliage of Ceratopteris thalictroides
日本語: ミズワラビ By Show_ryu via Wikimedia Commons

Figure: Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas, insbesondere seiner tropischen Gebiete : Grundzge der Pflanzen-verbreitung im Afrika und die Charak-terpflanzen Afrikas. Ceratopteris thalictroides. By Engler, Adolf, 1844-1930 via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

English: Two floating aquatic fern: Salvinia minima (right) and Ceratopteris thalictroides (left) floating in aquarium. Identified by user Le.Loup.Gris.
Español: Dos helechos acuáticos flotantes: Salvinia minima (derecha) y Ceratopteris thalictroides (izquierda) flotando en acuario.By Pristigaster via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Marsilea drummondii
Nardoo, Common Nardoo

Probably Semi-Hardy

It is native to Australia, where it is widespread and common, particularly in inland regions.
In northern Victoria, M. drummondii has been found where flooding occurs in spring-summer, lasts one to six months, and is shallow (less than 10 cm deep).

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

Deciduous fronds with greenish gray leaflets and (nonaquatic forms) conspicuous white, silky hairs. Roots are present on the nodes and internodes. This species is native to Australia, where it is called "nardoo".

The sterile fronds are erect when growing in mud, floating when growing in water, each consisting of 2 pairs of leaflets arranged in a fourleaf-clover pattern. The flexible stems allow the plants to adapt to small changes in water level (although M. drummondii has been seen in water up to 1 m deep), while keeping their leaves on the water surface to access light and carbon dioxide.

 

Parts of Marsilea drummondii contain an enzyme which destroys thiamine (vitamin B1), leading to brain damage in sheep and horses. During floods in the Gwydir River basin 2,200 sheep died after eating nardoo. Three-quarters of the sheep that were affected did however respond to thiamine injections.

The sporocarp can be toxic due to high levels of thiaminase, which destroys thiamine. Consumption of large amounts can cause beriberi. It has been known to poison sheep, as well as humans.

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light. --->

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
Rapidly Growing Ferns.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

 

San Marcos Growers - Even if you don't have a "pond" the size of Zaca Lake - Santa Barbara Countys's only natural lake - you can "water garden" using smaller ponds or even containers. San Marcos Growers is pleased to offer a diverse line of plants for ponds, bogs and fountains. We also manufacture a large pot that is suitable as a small pond of fountain. We feel that by using a very limited area within the garden for a pond or fountain, a feeling of cool lushness is achieved without requiring copious amounts of water, a precious resource in the dry California garden. This type of planting is sometimes referred to as an oasis within the garden. For your oasis check out our pond plants and links to other water plant sites.

Grows best under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist to wet garden soil or sand-peat mix.

It is a rhizomatous perennial aquatic fern that roots in mud substrates and produces herbage that floats on the surface of quiet water bodies. It occurs in water up to one meter deep. It occurs in abundance after floods. It can form mats on the water's surface and cover the ground in carpets as floodwaters recede.

Plants grow rapidly and can form sporocarps within three months.

In the home garden pond, Common Nardoo grows as a perennial. It is hardy, thriving in a full sun to a semi-shade gradient, withstanding Canberra frosts and regenerating quickly from stresses. Transplant from the pond into a pot to allow propagation and algal treatment. A loam should be used with a gravel surface mulch to reduce leaching of nutrients into the pond. To propagate, remove the plant from the pot and divide into new plants by slicing through the ‘root ball’ with a knife or secateurs.
Common Nardoo attracts frogs to the garden, providing good breeding habitat.

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Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

The plant produces sporocarps which can remain viable for 50 years and only release spores after being thoroughly soaked. The sporocarps are dispersed by birds that eat them but cannot digest them, and by flowing water.

Marsilea drummondii leaf and fiddlehead. Date: 4 February 2017. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0.

Marsilea drummondii in water. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0.

Figure of Marsilea drummondii in Comprehensive catalogue of Queensland plants, both indigenous and naturalised. To which are added, where known, the aboriginal and other vernacular names; with numerous illustrations, and copious notes on the properties, features, &c., of the plants. By Bailey, Frederick Manson, 1827-1915 via Wikimedia Commons.

Common nardoo, Marsilea dummondii, on a pond in the Dandenongs. By Casliber via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Pilularia globulifera
European Pillwort, Pillwort

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to Europe - found in western Central Europe and scattered throughout the British Isles in shallow water at edges of ponds, ricefields, marshy ground, wet heaths, often submerged, in acid substrata; very local and absent from many counties; local in Ireland.
Native UK plant.
 

Leaves arising from a creeping rhizome with nodes 1-4 cm (0.5-1.5inches) apart, 3-10 (15) (1.2-4 inches) long, subulate.

This tiny plant is a type of creeping fern. It is hard to spot because it has thin, grass-like leaves and often grows with water grasses or small rushes. The ‘pills’ are tiny round spore cases at the bases of the stems. It can still be found at a number of sites scattered across Britain, but is internationally threatened, as it is declining across its whole European range.
Key threats:-
Water pollution, particularly by fertilisers, which encourage the growth of coarse plants. The decline of cattle grazing and the resultant loss of trampling; drainage; the ploughing of old pastures; and invasion by the vigorous non-native water plant New Zealand pigmyweed (Crassula helmsii) - illegal plant in the UK.

About 3 inches (8 cms) tall, which is easily recognised by the characteristically unfurling leaves and the large (3 mm), round sporocarps, if present.

Lime green round stem-like leaves or  fronds approximately 1-1.5mm diameter.

Fronds unfurl from tight coils, and you can often see 1 or 2 fronds which have yet to unfurl even late into the season.

Fronds can grow up to 8cm tall, often standing upright from the ground or above the surface of the water, but they can be submerged.

The fronds are rarely straight and have a kinky or wavy appearance, especially when young.

The fronds arise singly, or at most 3 shoots, from a rhizome (horizontal underground stem), not in clumps or tussocks (as seen in grasses and rushes).

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation:

Pillwort is a specialist of bare pond edge habitats. It is not a good competitor and only thrives where there are few other plants. Like many specialists, it has some key habitat requirements:-
1. Seasonally fluctuating water levels, doing especially well in temporary ponds. 2. Poaching and grazing by livestock. This is the best form of sustainable management because it creates bare ground which the plant needs.
3. Slightly acidic ponds on clays, sands and peaty substrates.
4. Open habitats including heathland and acid grassland. It is intolerant of shading from scrub.
Pillwort can also be found growing on the edge of larger ponds and lakes, particularly sand and gravel pits, but only where there are fluctuating water levels and clean unpolluted water.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Fern for Acid Soils. Ferns suitable for Terrariums.
Use as Bog or Wet-Soil Fern.

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Pillwort can be grown in a "bog garden" or as a marginal aquatic in a garden pond.

Grows well under high light in sandy or silty garden soil kept wet. The plants can also grow submerged or partly submerged. Do not let them dry out completely. This speces is a rapid and robust grower in moist to wet soil.

It grows at edges of lakes, ponds, ditches and marshes, on wet clay or clay-sand soil (that are submerged for at least part of the year), sometimes in water up to 30 cm (12 in) deep. Some of the plants growing in association with this species in the UK include water celery (Apium inundatum), marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) and lesser spearwort (Ranunculus flammula).

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English: Single creeping plant of the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera, on wet ground.
Deutsch: Einzelner Kriechspross (Ausläufer) des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera) auf wechselnassem Teichboden. By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

English: Mature sporocarps at the base of the leaves from the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera.
Deutsch: Reife Sporenbehälter ("Pillen") am Grund der Blätter des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera). By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

English: Field of the fern species Pillwort, Pilularia globulifera, in a natural habitat (alternating wet pond bottom).
Deutsch: Aspekt eines rasenartigen Bestandes des Pillenfarns (Pilularia globulifera) in seinem natürlichen Lebensraum (wechselnasse Teichbodenflur, Zwergbinsen-gesellschaft). By Christian Fischer via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

Pilularia globulifera - Image:Illustration Pilularia globulifera0.jpg from Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany via Wikimedia Commons

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Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Regnellidium dihyllum
Latex Fern, Two-leaf Water Fern, Clover two-leaf

Very Tender - easy to grow but apt to die if the temperature drops below 21C (70F).

The genus has only this one speces. Native to southeastern Brazil and adjacent Argentina.

The specific epithet diphyllum means having two leaves.

It has 2-lobed leaves (rather than 4).

It was, vigorously growing in a garden pond in California with Photos.

Culture: Prefers good nutrition - growth poor under nutrient stress.

The rhizomes are creeping and bear fronds 1-3 cm (0.5-1.2 inches) apart.

Quick grower up to 6 inches (15 cm) high and spreading with glossy green, double leaves.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation:

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.
Culture: Place in water no deeper than 2 inches over the crown. In colder regions, allow to go dormant in a non-freezing location, but do not let the plant dry out. An exceptional pond plant.

It roots in mud, although sometimes it is submerged and the fronds are floating. The rhizomes are creeping and bear fronds 103 cm (0.5-1.2 inches) apart.

Grows well under high light in moist-wet soil (a mixture of sand and peat) or fully submerged. The plants are typically grown in pots set in water or in aquarium with plants partly submerged.

This fern is sometimes grown in aquaria. It is the only non-flowering plant that produces latex.

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Regnellidium diphyllum. A Two-leaf Water Fern, native to southeastern Brazil. UC Berkeley Botanical Gardens. Marsileaceae. By Dick Culbert via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-2.0

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The genus is related to Marsilea, the clover fern, but differs by having 2 leaflets instead of 4. The leaves are produced too far apart on the rhizome to make an attractive pot plant; the plants are mainly used as a novelty in aquariums.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.