Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN - in Pot within Heated Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse Page 1 of 5

 

USE OF FERN as Indoor Ferns in the UK from Ferns for Home and Garden Flowers & Plants. Published by Magna Books in 1995. ISBN 1 85422 888 9. Design and text of plan, planting plan, flowering and colour scheme: Bureau Willemien Dijkshoorn BNT, Amsterdam:-
 

INDOOR FERNS
Part Shade-Full Shade, protect against sun

Name

Height in inches (cms)

Keep Moist

Spray

Temperature in C
Day

Temperature in C
Night

Temperature in C
Winter

Adiantum

12-30 (30-75)

semi

*

18

 

 

Asplenium

24-40 (60-100)

semi

*

18-22

16

12

Blechnum

-40 (-100)

constant

*

16-24

 

14

Cibotium

40-80 (100-200)

semi

 

21-26

10-15

 

Cyathea

80-120 (200-300)

constant

* (stem)

21-26

18

 

Cyrtomium

12-16 (30-40)

semi

*

16-20

10-12

7-10

Davallia

12-34 (30-85)

semi

*

20-24

7-15

 

Dicksonia

40-80 (100-200)

constant

* (stem)

21-26

18

 

Didymochlaena

60-80 (150-200)

constant

*

20-22

 

 

Doryopteris

12-28 (30-70)

semi

 

24-26

15-21

 

Humata

8-12 (20-30)

semi

 

21-26

10-15

 

Microlepia

12-20 (30-50)

semi

*

18-22

 

15

Nephrolepis

12-28 (30-70)

semi

*

18-22

 

18

Pellaea

12-20 (30-50)

semi

*

14-20

 

12-15

Phlebodium

40-48 (100-120)

semi

*

18-22

 

10-16

Phyllitis

8-24 (20-60)

semi

 

18-24

7-13

 

Platycerium

12-36 (30-90)

semi

 

20

 

12-15

Polypodium

16-80 (40-200)

semi

*

21-26

10-15

 

Polystichum

12-40 (30-100)

semi

*

7-18

 

 

Pteris

10-40 (25-100)

semi

*

21-26

 

10-12

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Acrostichum aureum
Leather fern, coastal leather fern, Golden Leather Fern, Swamp fern, Mangrove Fern

Tender,
thrives in Zone (9)10

The leaves are glossy, broad and pinnate, the pinnae being dark green, leathery, alternate and widely spaced.

40-160 x (100-400 x )

Miscellaneous

Aquatic

Bog or Wet-Soil Fern

Brackish Water in Coastal District

Stove evergreen ferns found in tropical swamps. Use within pot in Heated Conservatory
or outside in Tropical Areas i.e. Zones 10,11 like Southern Florida, Hawaii.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam and leafmould, sand and charcoal. Pot in February or March. Water freely, spring and summer, moderately other times. Temperature March-September 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit (21-30 degrees Centigrade), September to March 60-65 degrees Fahrenheit (15-18 degrees Centigrade).

A very large fern with erect rhizomes and fronds in clusters. Best grown under high light in garden soil or potting mix kept constantly wet. It can grow with its stems submerged but is typically found rooting in mud with the foliage held above water. It grows natively in brackish water but can be cultivated in fresh water.

It occurs throughout the tropical regions of the world.
A coarse fern which forms large clumps in wet soils. It is usually familiar in coastal districts and often grows in brackish water behind the mangroves. Large plants generally resent disturbance; small specimens adapt to cultivation easily. They all require bright light and plenty of moisture.

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Frond of Acrostichum aureum; (hakato) near a Tongan creek.
By Tau'olunga via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Form of Acrostichum aureum L.
English: Golden Leather Fern at Rio Suarez in Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica. By Hans Hillewaert via Wikimedia Commons.

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Dryopteris erythrosora

Autumn Fern, Buckler Fern, Japanese Shield Fern, Copper Shield Fern

Hardy, Zone 5(6).

It is native to woodland hillsides and mountain slopes in Japan, China and Taiwan. Genus name from Greek dryas meaning oak and pteris meaning fern in reference to the presence of some species of wood ferns in woodland areas populated with oaks. Specific epithet comes from the Greek words erythros meaning red and sora meaning sori in reference to its red sori.

Copper-red juvenile fronds turning to slightly shiny dark green fronds and ascending to erect or prostrate, branching rhizomes.
In cold climates they may be bright red.
New fronds are produced throughout the growing season, and in winter the fronds remain upright, not reclining as in many evergreen ferns.

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Grows in a vase-shaped clump.

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Greenhouse Fern Type.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water moderately Oct-Mar, freely afterwards. Temperature, Sep-Mar 55-60F (13-15C), Mar-Sep 65-75F (18-24C)
Culture of Greenhouse species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Position, well-drained pots, borders or rock gardens in shade. Pot or plant, February, March or April. Water moderately Oct-Feb, freely afterwards. Temperature, Oct-Mar 40-50F (5-10C), Mar-Oct 55-65F (13-18C). Culture of Hardy species: Soil, ordinary, light, rich. Position, shady borders or rock gardens. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather May-Sep. Top-dress annually with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. Protect in severe weather with bracken or litter. Do not remove dead fronds until April.
Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown on surface of fine sandy peat under bell-glass in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants at potting or planting time. Hardy species by spores sown on surface of sandy soil in shady cold frame; division in April.

Border and Foundation Ferns.
Cold-Hardy Ferns. Colour in Fern Fronds.
Conservatory or Greenhouse Fern.
Evergreen and
Deciduous Ferns.
Ground Cover Fern.
Lime-hating Ferns.
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.

 

Use this clump-forming fern in Moist woodland or shade gardens. May be massed in woodland areas as a ground cover.

Easy evergreen Fern to grow and it will succeed in situations from deep shade to partial sun together with a range of soils providing the drainage is adequate.
One of our recommended plants, it needs plenty of moisture and contrasts beautifully with evergreen ferns and other woodland plants.

It also makes a good pot subject.

Easily grown in average, slightly acidic, medium to wet soils. Prefers consistently moist, humusy soils that are rich in organic matter. Soils must not be allowed to dry out. Site in locations sheltered from strong winds to protect the fronds.

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Frond from Image 1 from Dryopteris erythrosora of Denver Botanic Gardens.

 

 

Form from Image 1 from Dryopteris erythrosora of Denver Botanic Gardens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Juvenile foliage of Dryopteris erythrosora from Coblands Nursery.

 

Sori from
Dryopteris erythrosora

日本語: ベニシダ

Place:Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka, Japan. By I. Kenpei via Wikimedia Commons

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Adiantum trapeziforme (Adiantum formosissimum, Adiantum rhomboideum, Adiantum eminens, Adiantum trapeziformer oblongatum)

Diamond maidenhair Fern, Giant Maidenhair Fern

Tender in
Zone 12-13

Native to Central America, Mexico and the West Indies.

It has triangular blades up to four-pinnate, with a terminal pinna similar to the lateral ones.

40 x 40
(100 x 100)

Maidenhair Fern

Stove Species Fern type.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand, charcoal. Pot, March. Water moderately Sep-Mar, freely afterwards. Position, shady at all times. Plant hardy species in April in equal parts peat and loam, in shady position. Temperature, stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit (21-27 degrees Centigrade); greenhouse species, Sep-Mar 50-55 degrees Fahrenheit (10-13 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade). Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Sun-tolerant Fern.

Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soils.

Ferns for Hanging Baskets

Grows in moist potting mix.
A very large and attractive maidenhair which is commonly grown in the tropics, where it may readily naturalize itself in gardens and the ferneries. Because of its large size; plants are best grown in the ground. Will tolerate considerable sun and likes neutral to alkaline soils.

Evergreen but deciduous in cooler climates. Can be grown in both pots and hanging baskets in Australia. A little mist spraying each week to increase humidity will be beneficial in summer. The soil needs to be moist humus rich and well drained. Fertilise with a little liquid seaweed fertiliser in spring and again in mid summer.

Other germination instructions.

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Picture of Adiantum trapeziforme. By Oeropium via Wkimedia Commons.

Ferns Of The World VS. WORLDWIDE DIVERSITY

Families

98.04%

Based on an estimate of 51 families worldwide. Total number of families on the Ferns Of The World website = 50.

 

Genera

78.04%

Based on an estimate of 337 genera worldwide. Total number of genera on the Ferns Of The World website = 263.

 

species

8.68%

Based on an estimate of 11,916 species worldwide. Total number of species on the Ferns Of The World website = 1034.

Aglaomorpha coronans
(Pseudodrynaria coronans, Drynaria coronans, Phymatodes coronans, Pleopeltis coronans, Polypodium coronans)

Crowning Bear's Claw Fern, Santa Rosa Fern, Basket Fern

Semi-tender or hardier
Zone 10 (coldest zone where hardy) -11

Native to Bangladesh, India, China, Taiwan, southeastern Asia, Malaysia, and the Ryuku Islands of Japan.

Aglaomorpha is from the Greek aglaos (bright, pleasing) and morphe (shape)

Deep green ornately lobed outarching "fronds" with sing like basal oak leaf pattern anchored on large sienna pelted showy rhizomes.  Very sturdy and reliable.

 

 

This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Clayton, California

Hayward, California

Long Beach, California

Stockton, California

Brandon, Florida

36-48 x
(90-120 x )

Spacing 72-96 (180-240)

Staghorn Ferns

Requires consistently moist soil; do not let dry out between waterings.

Always makes an impressive basket fern when well grown. Does best in very couarse, porous epiphyt potting mix and allow it getting fairly dry between watering.

"On rather dry or mossy rocks or on tree trunks in open places or in dense forests, not so rare at medium altitudes throughout Thailand." from Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia

Suitable for

Tropical - in Denver Botanic Garden - Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse

Fern for Acid Soil: 5.6-6.0 pH

Basket Ferns

Best grown in well-drained, moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss. The species is easy to grow and thrives in both humid and drier environments. It can be cultivated in the ground - if given sufficient drainage by using a coarse medium - and in hanging baskets. They collect falling leaves and other organic debris that eventually decay to provide a soil for the roots. The dry, papery texture of this humus-collecting leaf-base resists decay.

Though large, they are suitable as indoor plants because they tolerate low humidity and irregular watering.

 

Glasshouse Works has photos of this fern.

 

The perennials prefer a shady situation on moist soil. They tolerate temperatures only above at least 1°C (USDA zone 10).

Germination Instructions from Exotic Plants.

 

 

Polystichum richardii
Richard's Holly Fern, Black Shield Fern, Common Shield Fern, Pikopiko

Semi-hardy in Zone 7

Zones 8 (with protection) and 9 - it is only borderline hardy in Zone 8. For best results it needs serious protection or a life as an indoor plant.

Erect rhizomes and evergreen fronds that vary from dark bluish green to olive green.

The size of the fronds can be up to 50 by 25 centimetres (20 x 10 inches).

The species is native to New Zealand

12-24 x 20
(30-60 x 50)

 

A question I get asked many times is what flowering plants are suited for growing with ferns. There are a few choice plants, with elegant flowers with subtle shades that compliment ferns and grow well in shade. Here is a collection of plants that, in my opinion, go very well with ferns:-

Cyclamen

Dracunculus

Epimedium

Equisetum

Fritillaria

Omphaloides

Uvularia

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Easily grown in a shady or partial sun aspect in loamy soil. Looks particularly attractive when planted among rocks.

The common shield fern is found in dry places from the coast to lowland forest areas.

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Polystichum richardii in Te Reinga Falls, Hawkes's Bay (New Zealand).
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

 

Polystichum richardii in Eastwoodhill Arboretum (New Zealand).
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum triangulum (Polystichum echinatum)

Zone 9(10)

It forms a spreading rosette of narrow, bright green fronds; the pinnae being deltoid to triangular in shape.

Native to South America and West Indies.

 

Polystichum triangulum (triangular), synonym Polystichum echina-tum, is a small fern that is recommended for Zone 9 and possibly Zone 10. It is most attractive with shiny diamond to triangular-shaped pinnae. If it is not suitable for your garden, try it as a house-plant where, with fronds up to 18 in. (45 cm), it is showy, manageable, and unusual. It can be reproduced by small bulbils on the frond tips.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Ferns suitable for

Acid Soil.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Although reported as being associated with calcareous rocks, this species grows well in acid, loamy soils.

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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Polystichum vestitum (Polypodium vestitum, Aspidium vestitum, Polystichum venustum, Aspidium venustum,
Prickly Shield Fern, pūnui (Maori)

Hardy in Zone 6

Native to the three principal islands of New Zealand (North Island, South Island and Stewart Island) and the Chatham Islands, as well as to New Zealand's subantarctic Snares, Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell Islands, and to Australia’s Macquarie Island.

These can be seen at Attadale Gardens in Scotland.

Erect rhizomes and harsh, prickly, semi-deciduous fronds that are dark green above, lighter below. This species grows in cool, moist climates.

Can develop a small trunk.

It is native to New Zealand.

The fronds are 220–600 mm (9-24 inches) long. There are 3–7 (usually 5) round sori on each pinnule, halfway between the margin and midrib, with a light brown indusium. The ferns are usually bicolour with a dark brown centre that is surrounded by margins that are a pale brown.

The fern is seriously affected by rabbit grazing.

Photos

40 x 40
(100 x 100
)

On the Snares Islands, clumps of P. vestitum are apparently the preferred cover for nests of the Snares Island snipe, Coenocorypha huegeli (Miskelly, 1999). Birds on the Snares that nest higher up apparently lose a lot of eggs or chicks to petrels. Petrels don't eat the other birds, but they also nest under cover in the area - and petrels are notoriously bad at making landings.
Touchdown for a petrel seems to basically involve throwing itself at the ground and cushion its descent in the vegetation. Any nest in the way of a plummeting petrel is turned into kindling. A nice sturdy fern is a ground-nesting birds friend, catching the petrels before they scramble your eggs.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Geenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Easily grown from fresh spores and transplants. However, often slow to establish. Does best in a shaded site planted within a deep, free draining humus-enriched fertile soil.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Plants are very cold-hardy and will withstand severe frosts and snow. Likes plenty of moisture and will tolerate shade to partial sun.

Polystichum vestitum is common in the more exposed landscapes such as gulley floors, forest margins and tussock grasslands, but can also be found in abundance in the more cooler and wetter forests.
It prefers wetter areas and is why it can often be found in gully's however it does like the soil to be free draining rather than waterlogged.

It is found in conjunction with Stilbocarpa polaris, Poa foliosa and Pleurophyllum hookeri.

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Sori of Polystichum vestitum in Dunedin Botanic Garden. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

 

Juvenile Fronds of Polystichum Vestitum
English: Prickly Shield Fern in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, South Island, New Zealand
Deutsch: Flora des Mount Cook Nationalpark, Südinsel, Neuseeland. By MSeses via Wikimedia Commons

Form of Polystichum vestitum in Auckland Botanic Gardens. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumvestitumpforwikimediacommons

Polystichum whiteleggei
A former common name was heavy fern, alluding to the weight of one of the large, thick textured, fronds when fully developed.

Sub-tropical zone

Plants have long and broad bright green fronds attractively divided, with the stipe and young fronds covered with large, papery scales. They like shady conditions in moist but well-drained soil

The fern is endemic to Australia’s subtropical Lord Howe Island in the Tasman Sea; it is locally common to rare on the edges and flanks of the summits of Mounts Lidgbird and Gower.

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Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland in central and southern California.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Damp banks support a variety of ferns including the endemic Dryopteris apiculis and Polystichum whiteleggei in Lord Howean Hill Forest on Lord Howe Island.
Lord Howean Mountain Moss Forest on Lord Howe Island - above altitudes of about 600 m these forests are often enveloped in clouds, and more or less permanently saturated.

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Polystichum whiteleggei. By John Game from Berkeley, United States via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumwhiteleggeipforwikimediacommons

 

View 260 thumbnails of Polystichum

Actiniopteris semiflabellata (Actiniopteris semiflabella)
Eyelash Fern

From Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, North India

Tropical - Semitropical

Excellent

Tender to semi-tender.

Its name comes from the Greek aktis, ray, and pteris, fern, alluding to the radiating segments of the blade.

An unusual fern with spreading, segmented fronds which resemble the sterile leaves of Schizaea dichotoma (Fan Fern).

2-8 x 6-8
(5-20 x 15-20)

Actiniopteris is a small genus of stove ferns that thrive in a compost of sandy loam and peat with charcoal, and plentiful crocks to ensure good drainage. They require a winter temperature of 60F (15C). Repot in February or March.

Xerophytic Ferns and Miscellaneous Ferns

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Terrarium.
Trough in Outdoor Containers in desert area.
Trough in Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, charcoal, potsherds, and silver sand. Pot in February or March . Good drainage and clean pots essential. Water moderately all seasons and keep atmosphere moist.
Temperature, March to September 70-80F (21-27C); September to March 60-70F (15-21C) for Actiniopteris australis (Actiniopteris radiata), 3 inches (7.5 cm) high from India, requires stove treatment.

It is a clumping species which grows in rock crevices in dry to arid climates. It is somewhat tricky to grow requiring a coarse open mixture and a fairly small pot. Plants should be watered profusely while they are in growth and sparingly when they are dormant. It is reported to succeed well in conditions similar to those in a terrarium.

It seems to prefer moderately humid conditions, but excessive moisture around their roots should be avoided.

Crevices in limestone, granite and lava rocks in open bushland and woodland, also dry evergreen forest and derived scrub.

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See photos.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Astrolepis beitelii (Astrolepis laevis, Cheilanthes beitelii)
Beitel's Cloak Fern

This fern prefers warm Zone 9 rock garden sites.

The name is derived from the Greek astro, star, and lepis, scale, and captures the botanical personality of this star-studded genus.

Once-pinnate, strongly vertical, clustered, 8- to 20-in. (20-to 50-cm), linear blades. The lobed, evergreen, bluish pinnae have linear hairs on the upper surface and brown to silver scales below. The rosy stipe with a mixture of whitish scales and hairs is one-fourth of the frond length.

Format

Grows from central Mexico to Guatemala, often on rocky slopes.

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Xerophytic Ferns

Suitable for

Rock Garden.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

In cultivation they share a preference for well-drained, gravelly soil, and garden or artificial sites offering winter wet protection (under overhanging eaves or in the specialized climate of an alpine house). They are cultivated in Zones 7 to 9 and are not as temperamental as some of the other xerics.
A medium-sized fern with compact to short-creeping rhizomes and clustered fronds. Grows under high light in well-drained, moist to moist-dry garden soil with sand.

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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Astrolepis sinuata (Cheilanthes sinuata and Notholaena sinuata)
Wavy cloak fern, Wavy Scaly Cloakfern, Silver Wave Fern

Zones 7b-9b
Native to the southwestern United States, Central America, the West Indies, and South America.

The name is derived from the Greek astro, star, and lepis, scale, and captures the botanical personality of this star-studded genus.

Evergreen fronds softly dressed in xeric characteristic, small silver stellate hairs above and masses of protective, whitish scales and hairs below. Once-pinnate, 18-in. (45-cm) blades stand upright in dense clusters with 20 or more pairs of chubby, lobed pinnae looking like miniature cookie-cutter holly leaves.

12-24 x 12-18
(30-60 x 30-45)

Xerophytic Ferns

Propagation: By spores and root division.

Suitable for

Rock Garden.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse. Drier Soil Fern.

Full Sun, Part Shade. Dry Soil Moisture. High Drought Tolerance. Cold Tolerant and Heat Tolerant.

Very nice under the eaves in your little sheltered tufa garden or planted out with really great drainage in your gravel garden or kept in a display pot sheltered over winter.

Deer and Rabbit Resistant.

In nature, it usually grows with its roots hidden beneath a large rock.

In typical xeric fashion this fern inhabits rocky crevices and slopes sometimes on limestone. It makes an elegant, conversational element, given a blessing of gritty compost and shelter from wet winter slop, in zones 7 to 9. Limestone is not necessary. It also makes a fine houseplant.

Astrolepis sinuata is a lower elevation, dry habitat fern typically found growing underneath evergreen desert & semi-desert shrubs in rocky soil or rock crevices. Although the fronds like to be in full sun, the roots like to remain shaded. This fern is semi-evergreen with thick green fronds the undersides of which are cinnamon in color forming a tight 18 wide upright clump with a short creeping rhizome.

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Astrolepis sinuata at the University of California Botanical Garden, Berkeley, California. By Stan Shebs via Wikimedia Commons

 

Astrolepis sinuata - Botanical specimen in the Zilker Botanical Garden - Austin, Texas, USA. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons

 

See other photos.

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Ceratopteris thalictroides
(Acrostichum thalictroides, Ceratopteris froesii, Ceratopteris gaudichaudii, Ceratopteris siliquosa )
Water Fern, Pod Fern, Oriental Water Fern, Water Sprite, Indian Fern, Water Hornfern, Water Elk's Horn

Tender in Zone 9

It is found throughout the tropics of the world, except Africa. Tropical America - Florida.

The name comes from the Greek keras, horn, and pteris, fern, alluding to the antler-like fertile leaves.

 

AC Tropical Fish (Aquatic Community.com, Aquatic Community) was founded in 2004 as a resource and meeting place for tropical aquarium fish keepers. It has since then grown into a comprehensive aquarium portal featuring information not only about tropical freshwater fish but also about all other types of aquarium fish.

Buds tend to grow on dying fronds.

The bright green, finely-cut, fertile leaves are erect and are produced above water. In Asia the foliage of this species is used in salads and is said to have a peppery taste. This genus has the distinction of having the fastest life cycle of any fern. The plants can take as little as 1 month to go from spores to mature, spore-bearing plants, though 3 or 4 months is more typical. The plants live about 1 year and are usuually perpetuated by the numerous buds that form on the blade surface, typically in margins of the sinuses. The buds detach and float away from the parent plant.

It can provide useful shade to shyer fish and small fry. The dense roots are said to take nutrients out of the water helping to prevent the growth of algae.
Small adventitious plantlets are grown on the mother plant and are then released when ready.
In small open aquariums it can grow out of the aquarium and form beautiful surface leaves.

30 x
(75 x )

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: Mature plants can be propagated by division of the rhizome, which may be allowed to float or, if grown submerged, held in place by coarse gravel. If plants are to be rooted in mud, garden soil with little organic matter will do. Some growers recommend a mixture of about half peat and half sand mixed with 10% top soil. Plants that are rooted in mud need their fronds kept moist. Temperatures must be maintained close to 27C (80F) for good growth. The plants and buds decline when temperatures are below 20C (68F), and if lost, new plants must be started from spores.

Propagation: By spores sown in February on surface of compost in pan or water as for culture in next column, vivaparous forms increased by pegging down leaves into soft mud, detaching later.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Fern for Acid Soils.
Fern for Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Stove aquatic fern that is usually only of annual duration, but when carefully grown may be a biennial.

Culture: Soil, sifted loam and charcoal with a little leaf-mould. Position, in pots or pans submerged to rim in tank of water for floating kinds, submerged kinds in aquarium compost. Plant, spring or summer. All need subdued light, moist, warm atmosphere. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September, about 75F (24C).

It grows best in soil with a pH reading of 5-9 and in very high amounts of light. It usually grows quickly.
This plant normally grows fast, but the addition of CO2 (CO2  concentrations of under 20 mg/l are sufficient) may be necessary to promote growth.

Grows in wet garden soil. Typically, the plants root in mud.

It succeeds best in a pot of good loam, wholly submerged in a tank of warm water in a stove house. It produces spores freely, or may be propagated by the young plants that form on all the fronds.

Swampy areas, swamp forests, sago (Metroxylon) swamps, marshes, natural and man-made ponds, mostly in stagnant water bodies or in still pockets along slow flowing rivers, full sun to moderate shade, from sea level to 1300 m, but mostly less than 500 m altitude. Sometimes massed on or around logs or other floating vegetation, once recorded in a fresh-water mangrove (Sonneratia) growing among the finger-like pneumatophores.
It is widely used as an aquarium plant, and is prized for its versatility, being used both as a floating plant and a plant that can be rooted in the substrate.

"The water temperature should ideally be kept above 20 degrees C." from the Aquatic Community.

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English: Foliage of Ceratopteris thalictroides
日本語: ミズワラビ By Show_ryu via Wikimedia Commons

Figure: Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas, insbesondere seiner tropischen Gebiete : Grundzge der Pflanzen-verbreitung im Afrika und die Charak-terpflanzen Afrikas. Ceratopteris thalictroides. By Engler, Adolf, 1844-1930 via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

English: Two floating aquatic fern: Salvinia minima (right) and Ceratopteris thalictroides (left) floating in aquarium. Identified by user Le.Loup.Gris.
Español: Dos helechos acuáticos flotantes: Salvinia minima (derecha) y Ceratopteris thalictroides (izquierda) flotando en acuario.By Pristigaster via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Salvinia hastata (Salvinia hildebrandtii, Salvinia mollis)
Water fern

Tender

In the Flora of Mozambique.

Floating leaves opposite, oblong, up to 2 cm long, 1.3 cm wide, sometimes slightly broadened towards the base, emarginate at the apex, cordate to truncate at the base, flat or infolded along the midrib, papillate on the upper surface with minute whitish multicellular hairs, pilose beneath with brownish multicellular hairs; submerged leaf up to 6.5 cm long, the lobes with dense dark brown multicellular hairs up to 3 mm long.

 

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

Propagate by division or by spores that fall to the bottom of the tank and if there is a little loam at the bottom will germinate.

Propagation:By division during growing period. It is advisable to keep stock pans containing 3 inches (7.5 cm) sifted loam and charcoal and 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water; spores will drop into mud and keep the stock going.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns. Rapidly Growing Fern.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
 

Stove or Greenhouse annual aquatic fern.
Culture: Soil, not necessary. Position, tanks or water in warm greenhouse or in indoor aquariums. Temperature, March to September 65-75F (18-24C), September to March 55-60F (13-15C). Place in tanks any time.

A pretty little aquatic for stove or greenhouse that floats on the water like Azolla and increases very rapidly in summer. The plants have tiny fern leaves with no roots but the under sides of the leaves perform the functions of the roots.

This is in the Global Compendium of Weeds.

As a Declared Pest, this is Prohibited in all of Western Australia.

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Photos from Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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The Water Spangles are small floating ferns, although they also grow in mud around the shores of ponds, lakes, or swamps. Their small, rounded leaves add interest to ponds, dish gardens, and aquariums. Salvinia does not tolerate much cool weather and dies during the winter in most parts of the United States. Culture is the same as for another aquatic fern, Azolla.
Native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Salvinia natans
Salvinia
floating fern, floating watermoss, floating moss, or commercially, water butterfly wings

Semi-Tender to Hardier in Zone 10-11

Native to Europe and Asia - found in warm ponds and ditches in Central and Southeast Europe, extending to Holland and Spain; absent from Britain and Ireland.
It is found throughout the world where there is plentiful standing fresh water, sunlight, and humid air.

It has oblong-truncate to ovate fronds. Leaves 3, arranged in a whorl: the upper 2 ovate, floating, with large intercellular spaces, hairy and unwettable on both surfaces; the lower 1 split into numerous filiform root-like segments (functional roots).

The leaves of Salvinia natans block sunlight from reaching very far underwater. This is helpful to many freshwater fish, providing safe hiding places to breed in, but can interrupt the photosynthesis of many underwater plants. Salvinia natans can eventually cover entire ponds or lakes without ecological competition, starving other plant species.
It is worth removing sufficient to leave only 33% of the water surface covered and use it as a mulch on flowerbeds, amongst trees or in a hedge.

3 x 3-12
(7.5 x 7.5-30)
Tolerates swimming rabbit in water, which is wet.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

Propagate by division or by spores that fall to the bottom of the tank and if there is a little loam at the bottom will germinate.

Propagation:By division during growing period. It is advisable to keep stock pans containing 3 inches (7.5 cm) sifted loam and charcoal and 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water; spores will drop into mud and keep the stock going.

In home water gardens in the St. Louis area, some plants should be lifted in fall each year before first frost and overwintered in a saucer of moist soil covered with 2” of water in a bright frost-free area or in an aquarium.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
 

Stove and Greenhouse annual aquatic fern.
Culture:Soil, not necessary. Position, tanks or water in warm greenhouse or in indoor aquariums. Temperature, March to September 65-75F (18-24C), September to March 55-60F (13-15C). Place in tanks any time.

 

Use as free floating aquatic perennial for water gardens or ponds.

A small aquatic fern with short-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under direct sunlight.

A pretty little annual aquatic for stove or greenhouse that floats on the water like Azolla and increases very rapidly in summer. The plants have tiny fern leaves with no roots but the under sides of the leaves perform the functions of the roots.

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The Water Spangles are small floating ferns, although they also grow in mud around the shores of ponds, lakes, or swamps. Their small, rounded leaves add interest to ponds, dish gardens, and aquariums. Salvinia does not tolerate much cool weather and dies during the winter in most parts of the United States. Culture is the same as for another aquatic fern, Azolla.
Native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Submerged leaf of salvinia natans - Українська: Занурена вайя сальвінії плаваючої. By Carassiuslike via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-4.0

English: Water plant Salvinia natans from the Botanical Gardens of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Čeština: Vodní rostlina nepukalka vzplývající (Salvinia natans) v Botanické zahradě Univerzity Karlovy Praha. By Karelj via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-3.0, 2.5,2.0,1.0

English: Salvinia natans (L.) All. (Water Fern); habitus. Habitat: а backwater in Volgograd Reservoir (Volga river). Engelssky District, Saratov Oblast, Russia.
Русский: Сальвиния плавающая (Salvinia natans (L.) All.); внешний вид растения. Местообитание: заводь. Волгоградское водохранилище, Энгельсский район Саратовской области. By Le.Loup.Gris via Wikimedia Commons - Multi-license with GFDL and CC-BY-SA

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Suomi: Kellusaniainen (Salvinia natans) kasvaa Kaisaniemen kasvitieteellisen puutarhan kasvihuoneessa.
English: Water Fern (Salvinia natans) in the Glasshouses of Kaisaniemi Botanical Garden
Svenska: Simbräken (Salvinia natans) i växthuset av Kajsaniemi botaniska trädgård. By Anneli Salo via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Salvinia natans - Polski: Salwinia pływająca na naturalnym stanowisku w Rezerwacie Przyrody Łężczok koło Raciborza. By Czonek via Wikimedia Commons - Public Domain

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Salvinia natans - from Original book source: Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany. Source: www.biolib.de via Wikimedia Commons - Public Domain.

Nephrolepis acuminata (Nephrolepis davallioides, Nephrolepis biserrata and other synonyms)
Giant Swordfern,
Golden Boston Fern making a striking hanging basket subject

Malaysia, Indonesia

Tropical - Semi-tropical

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

The fertile pinnae are deeply lobed and attractive.

Tufted clusters of golden-yellow foliage arising from underground rhizomes. The round sori (clusters of spore-bearing organs) are in two rows near the margins on the underside of the pinnae. The fronds grow upright at first, then arch gracefully downwards. They grow in lovely arching rosette shaped and spread by runners.

24-48 x 2-6
(60-120 x 5-15)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse. Basket Fern.
Acid Soil.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

This fern can be grown as a garden plant in the tropics, as well as in a large container.
Inorganic and Organic fertilizers and manures are useful for plants in the ground; in pots, slow-release and liquid fertilizers can be used. Fertilizers should only be applied during the warm, growing months. Avoid sprinkling solid fertilizer or solutions of liquid fertilizer onto the foliage of finely divided cultivars as it can cause rotting.
Most Nephrolepis are sensitive to severe cold weather, and frosts in particular. They have no reserves in their rhizomes and the tropical species usually collapse and die following such weather.

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Nephrolepis acutifolia (Isoloma lanuginosa, Lindsaea acutifolia, Lindsayoides acutifolia)
Creeping Sword Fern

Native of Tropical Africa and from southeastern Asia to Polynesia. Also occurs in Northern Australia.

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Leathery fronds, reddish scaly rachises and linear, marginal indusia. A large fern with short, stoloniferous rhizomes and fronds over 100cm long (36 inches).

40 x 5
(100 x 12.5)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Basket Fern.
Outdoor Containers in Tropics.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

Grows well under high light in moist, well-drained potting mix.

It may grow on rocks or as an epiphyte, favouring palms. Plants are rather cold sensitive but in the tropics can be grown in the garden or in containers.

Native Habitat : Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest; Secondary Rainforest; Coastal Forest; Freshwater Swamp Forest) in Singapore. In Singapore it may be grown in parks and gardens as well as in hanging baskets in Part Shade.

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Nephrolepis acutifolia (Creeping Sword Fern) DSC09856 (12). Photo taken 24 September 2013. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

 

Nephrolepis acutifolia (Creeping Sword Fern) DSC09856 (12). Photo taken 24 September 2013. By Kwan with his copyright © www. NatureLoveYou.sg

See other photos.

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Nephrolepis biserrata (Nephrolepis acuta, Aspidium biserrata)
Paku Larat, Sword Fern, Chinese Name : 长叶肾蕨 , Coarse Sword Fern, Giant Sword Fern,
Golden Boston Fern making a striking hanging basket subject

Malaysia, Malesiana, Indonesia, Southeast Asia, Australia, North and South America, the Pacific islands, Native Plants of South Florida

Tropical - Semi-tropical

 

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia. Species biserrata means double-toothed and refers to the leaf margin of the fern.

The fertile pinnae are deeply lobed and attractive.

Tufted clusters of golden-yellow foliage arising from underground rhizomes. The round sori (clusters of spore-bearing organs) are in two rows near the margins on the underside of the pinnae. The fronds grow upright at first, then arch gracefully downwards. They grow in lovely arching rosette shaped and spread by runners. Grow in Part Shade.

24-48 x 2-6
(60-120 x 5-15)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse. Basket Fern.
Acid Soil.
Groundcover on wooded edges in South Florida

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

This fern can be grown as a garden plant in the tropics, as well as in a large container.
Inorganic and Organic fertilizers and manures are useful for plants in the ground; in pots, slow-release and liquid fertilizers can be used. Fertilizers should only be applied during the warm, growing months. Avoid sprinkling solid fertilizer or solutions of liquid fertilizer onto the foliage of finely divided cultivars as it can cause rotting.
Most Nephrolepis are sensitive to severe cold weather, and frosts in particular. They have no reserves in their rhizomes and the tropical species usually collapse and die following such weather.

Found in swamps and hammocks.

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Nephrolepis biserrata
Date: 12 December 2013, 11:47:01.
By Mokkie via Wikimedia Commons

Nephrolepis biserrata
Date: 12 December 2013, 11:45:21.
By Mokkie via Wikimedia Commons

 

Further photos.

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Nephrolepis cordifolia (Nephrolepis tuberosa, Polypodium cordifolium, Aspidium cordifolium)
Fishbone Fern, Tuber Ladder Fern, Tuberous Sword Fern, erect sword fern, narrow sword fern and ladder fern, and herringbone fern

Native to northern Australia and Asia.

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Nephrolepis cordifolia has become an invasive species is some areas where it has been introduced. In New Zealand it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord, which prohibits the sale, cultivation and distribution of the plant.
It is listed as an invasive species in Florida, United States - "The sword fern poses a threat on native species. Through its aggressive spread, sword fern is able to form dense stands and quickly displace native vegetation. Because it is a true fern, it reproduces via spores. Thousands of spores can be produced by one plant and these can be dispersed by wind and water. Spore production occurs year-round in south Florida."

Nephrolepis cordifolia is a wood fern that typically grows in woodland areas. Both fertile and sterile fronds are pinnate, up to 3 feet in length and 3 inches wide. There are many leaflets, or pinnae, ranging from 40-100 mm (1.5 to 4 inches) on each side of the rachis. Each pinna is oblong to lanceolate with an auricle that overlaps rachis. Rhizomes are orange/brown to pale brown with linear scales having hair like tips. Stolons are straw colored and produce small underground tubers. The presence of tubers distinguishes sword fern from the native Nephrolepis exaltata fern. Numerous sori (spore containing structures) are also produced between the leaflet midvein and margin. Dispersal occurs via spores and through the movement of stolons, tubers, and rhizomes.

 

Hardy to 25°F.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Grows in wet, shady places, limestone ledges, cliffs, rock and roadsides in North America.

Suitable for

Basket fern.
Warm Greenhouse. Ferns for Woodland. Shade Tolerant.
Sun Tolerant.
Hedge in Philippine. Fern for Acid Soil. Groundcover in tropical and subtropical areas.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

Ground cover in tropical and subtropical areas.

Grows from shade to full sun (grows in full sun if given ample water) in soil, among rocks or as an epiphyte (particularly on palm trunks). It is colony former and is popularly grown in temperate regions but in the tropics is generally regarded as a weed. It can be grown in gardens, pots or baskets.

Bayabang grows in the Philippines as a hedge plant.

 

Also in
Zones 8-10 in the USA, where it tolerates sea air and salty soil - Lemon buttons ferns thrive in moist, well-drained, acidic soil with a pH of 4 to 7.

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Español: Cola de Quetzal (Nephrolepis cordifolia), jardín botánico de Tallinn, Estonia
English: Tuber ladder fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Tallinn Botanic Garden, Estonia.
Date 13 August 2012.
By Diego Delso, delso.photo, License CC-BY-SA via Wikimedia Commons

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C.Presl from Rodney Ecological District. This image has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland War Memorial Museum. By Ewen Cameron via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia - Sori. Date 19 March 2008. By Ixitixel via Wikimedia Commons

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Nephrolepis dicksonioides (Dicksonia nephrolepioides, Nephrolepis rosenstockii)

Asia-Tropical:, Maluku (Maluku); New Guinea; Sulawesi (Sulawesi) Solomon Islands:
Malesia: Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea; Solomon Islands.

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

It has fertile pinnae similarly incised as typical specimens of N. acuminata, and marginal sori similar to those of N. abrupta, but differs from both in the indusium having a broad base, innervated by 2 or 3 veins. The apex of the sorus-bearing tooth is often dilated. From N. abrupta it can also be distinguished by the shape of the pinnae: the fertile ones are more constantly deeply divided, the sterile ones more distinctly acuminate, narrowing to a distinct cauda from c. halfway.

120-200 x
(300-500 x )

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Warm Greenhouse.
Hanging Baskets.
Fern for Basic or Limestone Soils.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

A giant fern which grows in large colonies among rocks (often limestone) in sunny situations. It has thick, leathery fronds which have crowded pinnae. Plants appear to be cold sensitive. May require the addition of lime to a potting mix.

Grows on tall trees. Montane forest.

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Nephrolepis exaltata
Sword Fern, Boss Fern, Ladder Fern, Common Sword Fern, Boston Fern

Florida, Mexico, Brazil, West Indies.
It is common in humid forests and swamps, especially in northern South America, Mexico, Central America, Florida, the West Indies, Polynesia and Africa. Nephrolepis exaltata loves moist, shady locations and is found frequently in swamps and floodplains. It likes to grow epiphytically on Sabal palmetto.

Tender to Semi-tender in USDA Zones 9-11.

The fronds of Nephrolepis exaltata are 50–250 centimetres (20–98 in) long and 6–15 centimetres (2.4–5.9 in) broad, with alternate pinnae (the small "leaflets" on either side of the midrib), each pinna being 2–8 centimetres (0.79–3.15 in) long.

Although the fern may appear totally dead due to frost, it will re-emerge in the spring. In general, the Boston fern likes damp, but not soggy soil that is rich in nutrients. Of the common cultivated ferns, the Boston fern is the most tolerant to drought. The fern thrives best in humid conditions, so when grown as a house plant it becomes necessary to mist the plant when relative humidity falls below around 80%. Although outdoors this plant prefers partial shade or full shade, inside it doesn't grow in shade and feels best in bright filtered light.

20-100 x 48
(5-250 x 120)

It is safe for pets as it is known to be non-toxic.

In 1989, the NASA Clean Air Study showed that the Boston Fern could filter Formaldehyde, Xylene and Toluene from the air.

 

Nephrolepis exaltata is classified as an invasive alien plant in South Africa. In some provinces it must, by law, be eradicated.

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

This plant is usually propagated by division of the rooted runners, as named cultivars will not produce true spores.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Warm Greenhouse.
Hanging Basket.
Acid Soil.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

It is a very popular house plant, often grown in hanging baskets.

Grow in steamy bathroom.

A medium-large fern with short, erect, stolonoiferous rhizomes. Grows best under medium to high light in moist-dry potting mixes. So commonly grown are these ferns that commercial growers have established the precise cultural conditions for optimum growth: 2000 foot-candles of light, temperatures between 18 and 35 degrees Centigrade (65-95 degrees Fahrenheit), fertilizers with a 3-1-2 composition, micronutrients, and dolomite to adjust the pH to 5.5. Use a mix with good drainage, and water when the soil surface is slightly dry. To prevent breakage and decay of fronds, water should be applied at the soil level, not on the foliage. Poor foliage results when temperatures are below 18 degrees Centigrade (65 Fahrenheit) for more than a month. Repotting just before the active growth in spring is recommended.

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Nephrolepis exaltata (in a greenhouse). English: Greenhouses of the Botanical garden (Saint Petersburg).
Русский: Оранжереи Ботанического сада Ботанического института им. Комарова в Санкт-Петербурге.
Date: 11 June 2007.
By Kor!An (Корзун Андрей) via Wikimedia Commons

 

The Boston Sword Fern - Nephrolepis exaltata is widely planted from an origin in Central America and the Caribbean. Lomariopsidaceae Lotusland, Montecito, California. By Dick Culbert from Gibsons, B.C., Canada via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Nephrolepis exaltata. I take this photo from Chinese Medicine Garden in Saikung Hong Kong on 19th March 2006. By ‪Xiaowei‪ (talk | contribs)‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

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See more photos.

Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis'
Boston Fern, Sword Fern

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Major cultivar grown in the USA in Zones 10-12.

Native to Florida, West Indies, Mexico, Central America, South America, Polynesia and Africa.

It has graceful, arching, green fronds with a ruffled appearance that is best displayed in a hanging basket or on a stand where it can cascade over the edge.
The evergreen Boston Fern will not only bring an air of calm to your home. It is one of the best known plants for purifying the air and regulating humidity.

In St. Louis, it is easily grown indoors as a houseplant. Use a peaty, soil-based potting mix. Site in bright indirect light with no direct sun. Tolerant of some shade. Soils should be kept consistently moist, with only a slight reduction in watering from fall to late winter. Prefers high humidity and may appreciate being set on a tray of wet pebbles. Weak fertilizer applications may be made monthly from spring to early fall. Will shed fronds if soils dry out, at which point all fronds may be cut back to about 2” to regenerate.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Fronds initially grow upward but arch gracefully and then droop with age. Its fronds are broader and droop more than those of the species.

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Warm Greenhouse.
Hanging Basket.
House Fern.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

Average household temperatures 16-24°C, but no lower than 12°C. Avoid cold draughts.

They're quite sensitive to chemicals and the smoke from coal fires or wood burners are fairly toxic, draughts must also be avoided.
It's also one of the top rated plants for removing air pollutants from the air and because of its almost insatiable appetite for water it pumps out large amounts of water vapor into the nearby air, thereby increasing humidity.

As an indoor fern, it is perhaps best for pedestals or hanging baskets. Locations in or near bathrooms or kitchens may have better humidity. Where winter hardy outdoors, it may be grown in groups or massed in shady areas, or it may be sited at the base of shrubs or around trees.

nephrolepisexaltatabostoniensispforwikimediacommons

Location taken: Brookside Gardens, Wheaton Maryland. Names: Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis'  , Boston Fer Classification: Plantae > Pteridophyta > Polypodiopsida > Polypodiales > Lomariopsidaceae > Nephrolepis > Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis'. Date 8 March 2008. Photo by David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons.

Nephrolepis falcata (Nephrolepis gibbosum, Nephrolepis gibbosa, Nephrolepis biserratum var. furcans, Nephrolepis falcata 'Furcans', Nephrolepis biserrata 'Furcans', Nephrolepis falcata, Nephrolepis biserrata var. furcans, Nephrolepis falcata f. furcans)
Weeping Sword Fern, Fishtail Fern, Fishtail Sword Fern, Broad Sword Fern, Macho Fern, Forked Giant Sword Fern, Chinese Name: 叉葉尖羊齒

Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia

Tender

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Long, strongly-weeping fronds.

 

Sub-erect fern, with drooping fronds, can grow up to 50 - 90 cm tall and 45 - 60 cm wide.

Foliage - Light green fronds, measuring about 80 - 150 cm long and 5 - 10 cm wide, stipe measuring about 10 - 25 cm long, most pinnae with central division to give 2 short tips and giving a "fish tail appearance".

Reproductive Parts (non-flowering plant): Sori round and arranged submarginal, indusia kidney-shaped with narrow sinus.

40-100 x
(100-250 x )

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory and Warm Greenhouse. Hanging Basket.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

A large fern with erect, stoloniferous rhizomes and erect or pendulous, long fronds. Grows well under medium to high light in moist-dry potting mix or uncut moss.

Plants are excellent for a large basket and grow vigorously, quickly developing into an attractive specimen. They like plenty of light but should be protected from direct sun.

Prefers part shade in moist, well-drained soil in Singapore within gardens and indoors.

nephrolepisfalcatapfor1wikimediacommons

Location taken: the New York Botanical Garden. Names: Classification: Plantae > Magnoliophyta > Filicopsida > Filicales > Davalliaceae > Neprolepis > Neprolepis falcata.
Date: 30 March 2006.
Photo by David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons.

Nephrolepis falcata - Español: Jardín Botánico Faustino Miranda, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México. Date: 22 January 2015. By Consultaplantas via Wikimedia Commons.

nephrolepisfalcatapfor2wikimediacommons

Nephrolepis hirsutula (see Synonymy)
Rough Sword Fern, Scaly Swordfern, Scurvy Sword Fern, Chinese Name: 毛葉賢蕨、毛絨賢蕨

Asia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Australia, Central and South America

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Rhizome short, erect, bearing a tuft of fronds.

24-60 x
(60-150 x )

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Suitable for

Conservatory and Warm Greenhouse.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

A coarse fern usually found growing in colonies in exposed situations. It is a strong growing species that can be used as a garden plant in warm climates, but it may become invasive. It also makes a decorative tub specimen which can be used outdoors or in a well-lit situation indoors. The potting mix is kept moist-dry.

Native habitat on rather dry ground in light shade in Thailand.

Grows in Damp sheltered rock crevices, amongst rocks near creeks in Western Australia.

Does best in a north or east window out of direct sun.

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2