Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


TYPE OF FERN - Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) Page 1 of 2
"Habitat
Ferns of this group are mostly colony-formers, growing on shaded forest floors, along the banks of streams and on the margins of forests. A few species grow in quite open, sunny locations and some are colonizers of disturbed earth.
Uses
Because of their attractively divided fronds most of these ferns have ornamental value. Many, however, grow quite large and their spreading habit means that they need plenty of room to develop. Thus their use in home gardens may be limited, although the smaller growing species adapt well to such situations. All species have excellent prospects for large municipal gardens, botanic gardens etc. Once established, most are lng-lived and require little maintenace. These ferns can be grown in containers but those species with spreading rhizomes soon must be planted out.
Their Habitat, Cultivation, Soil Types, Potting Mix, Watering, Fertilizing, Situation, Pests and Propagation details are given in
Chapter 34 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1."

The following ferns come from that chapter:-
 

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden, Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Culcita dubia
False Bracken

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

item1a14a

Culcita javanica

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Culcita straminea

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Dennstaedtia bipinnata (Dicksonia bipinnata)
Couplet Fern, Bipinnate Couplet Fern.

Fla.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America to Bolivia. Dennstaedtia bipinnata was first found in Florida in 1926 around Lake Okeechobee (J. K. Small 1938). These populations have been extirpated and have been replaced by sugar cane and other agriculture. Populations in Seminole County may be naturalized.

Stems long-creeping, 5--6 mm diam. Leaves clustered to well separated, arching, 1.5--2.5 × ca. 1 m.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

Sporulates spring and early summer. Moist to wet, forested habitats in acid soils.

dennstaedtiabipinnatapfruwikimediacommons

Dennstaedtia bipinnata - Hay Scented Fern sori. Date: 14 July 2008. By Homereward price, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Dennstaedtia bipinnata - Botanical specimen in the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens - Sarasota, Florida, USA. Date: 20 March 2017. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons.

dennstaedtiabipinnatapforwikimediacommons

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Dennstaedtia cicutaria

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Dennstaedtia davallioides
Lacy Ground Fern

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

 

dennstaedtiadavallioidespforwikimedacommons
Dennstaedtia davallioides - photographed at the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Australia) in January - Date: 12 January 2011. This photo is from Gardenology.org and is available under CC-BY-SA 3.0 license, By Raffi Kojian via Wikimedia Commons.
Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Dennstaedtia dissecta

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Dennstaedtia punctiloba (Nephrodium punctilobulum)
Hay-scented Fern

Native flora of Missouri, America.
N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis. in America.

Stems long-creeping, 2--3 mm diam. Leaves clustered, erect.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

Sporulates in summer. Rocky slopes, meadows, woods, stream banks, and roadsides, in acid soils; 0--1200 m.

dennstaedtiapunctilobapfruwikimediacommons

dennstaedtiapunctilobapfolwikimediacommons

Dennstaedtia punctiloba - Hay-Scented-Fern-sori. Date: 27 October 2008. By Homer Edward Price, via Wikimedia Commons.

Dennstaedtia punctiloba - Hay-Scented Fern. Date: 2 August 2006. By Homer Edward Price, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Dennstaedtia punctilobula growing in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. Date: 25 July 2005. By Jaknouse, via Wikimedia Commons.

dennstaedtiapunctilobapforwikimediacommons

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Dennstaedtia scandens

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Histiopteris incisa (Pteris incisa; Histiopteris aurita; Litobrochia aurita;
L. incisa;
Pellaea fauriei; Pteris aurita)
Bat's-wing Fern

栗蕨

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan (Baisha, Diaoluo Shan), Hunan (Tongdao, Yizhang), Jiangxi (Jinggangshan), Taiwan, Xizang (Mêdog, Zayü), Yunnan, ?Zhejiang [Bhutan, NE India, S Japan; pantropical areas, islands near Antarctica, Madagascar].

Plants ca. 2 m tall. Rhizome long creeping, robust, to 5 mm in diam., densely scaly; scales castaneous-brown, shiny, lanceolate, thick, often twisted at apex; stipe reddish castaneous, shiny, ca. 1 m × up to 5 mm.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

Forests; 500-2300 m.

histiopterisincisapfruwikimediacommons

 

histiopterisincisapfor1wikimediacommons

Histiopteris incisa sori. Date: 12 February 2003. By Barnasaurus96 , via Wikimedia Commons.

New Zealand tree fern - Français : Détail d'une fougère en Nouvelle Zélande.. Date: 6 June 2011. By Symac, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

日本語: Histiopteris incisa:ユノミネシダ

2015/08/26

沖縄本島:Okinawa Island, Japan. Date: 22 August 2016. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

日本語: Histiopteris incisa:ユノミネシダ

2015/08/26

沖縄本島:Okinawa Island, Japan Date: 22 August 2016. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.

histiopterisincisapfolwikimediacommons

 

histiopterisincisapfor2wikimediacommonsPropagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Hypolepis millefolium
Dissected Ground Fern

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pans of sandy peat and leaf-mould under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) at any tme; division of creeping rhizomes in March.

Suitable for

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen fern. Fronds, feather-shaped. First introduced early nineteenth century.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pots or hanging baskets in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards. Syringing undesirable.
Temperature, March to September 65-75 F (18-24C), September to March 55-65F (13-18C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pans or beds in shade. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards.
Temperature, March to September 55-65F (13-18C), September to March 45-55F (7-13C).

 

hypolepismillefoliumpforwikimediacommons

Hypolepis millefolium on Lake Marian Trail, Southland (New Zealand). Date: 19 November 2017. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz, via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Hypolepis punctata (Polypodium punctatum ; Dryopteris punctata ; Hypolepis yunnanensis ; Nephrodium punctatum ; Phegopteris punctata)
Downy Ground Fern

姬蕨

Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam; Australia, tropical America].

Rhizome 1.5-4 mm in diam., with pale brown hairs to 2 mm. Sori circular or ovate, without hairs between sporangia, unprotected.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pans of sandy peat and leaf-mould under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) at any tme; division of creeping rhizomes in March.

Suitable for

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen fern. Fronds, feather-shaped. First introduced early nineteenth century.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pots or hanging baskets in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards. Syringing undesirable.
Temperature, March to September 65-75 F (18-24C), September to March 55-65F (13-18C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pans or beds in shade. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards.
Temperature, March to September 55-65F (13-18C), September to March 45-55F (7-13C).

Near streams, dense forests; 100-2400 m.

hypolepispunctatapfruwikimediacommons

日本語: Hypolepis punctata:イワヒメワラビ

2015/10/12

和歌山県田辺市:Tanabe City. Wakayama Pref. Japan. Date: 23 December 2015. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

日本語: Hypolepis punctata:イワヒメワラビ

2015/10/12

和歌山県田辺市:Tanabe City. Wakayama Pref. Japan. Date: 23 December 2015. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.

hypolepispunctatapforwikimediacommons

Hypolepis repens (Lonchitis repens)
Bramble Fern, Creeping bramble fern, Flakelet fern

Tropical America, Jamaica.
Fla.; West Indies; Mexico; Central America; South America.

Stems long-creeping, branching, 2.5--4 mm diam., pubescence brown. Leaves 9--60 dm. Sori in sinuses of ultimate segment divisions, reniform to semicircular or appearing circular at maturity. Indusia formed from thin, recurved flap of blade tissue, sometimes obscured by sporangia when mature.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pans of sandy peat and leaf-mould under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) at any tme; division of creeping rhizomes in March.

Suitable for

 

Stove evergreen fern. Fronds, feather-shaped. First introduced early nineteenth century.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pots or hanging baskets in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards. Syringing undesirable.
Temperature, March to September 65-75 F (18-24C), September to March 55-65F (13-18C).
 

Stove Species.
Creeping rhizomes.

Sporulates essentially all year; low hammocks and swamps, generally wet to moist wooded areas in circumneutral to subacid soils; 0 m.

hypolepisrepenspfigureefloras

Hypolepis repens. Illustration from Flora of North America. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 30 April 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Hypolepis rufobarbata

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pans of sandy peat and leaf-mould under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) at any tme; division of creeping rhizomes in March.

Suitable for

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen fern. Fronds, feather-shaped. First introduced early nineteenth century.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pots or hanging baskets in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards. Syringing undesirable.
Temperature, March to September 65-75 F (18-24C), September to March 55-65F (13-18C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pans or beds in shade. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards.
Temperature, March to September 55-65F (13-18C), September to March 45-55F (7-13C).

 

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Hypolepis rugosula
Ruddy Ground Fern

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pans of sandy peat and leaf-mould under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) at any tme; division of creeping rhizomes in March.

Suitable for

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen fern. Fronds, feather-shaped. First introduced early nineteenth century.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pots or hanging baskets in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards. Syringing undesirable.
Temperature, March to September 65-75 F (18-24C), September to March 55-65F (13-18C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pans or beds in shade. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards.
Temperature, March to September 55-65F (13-18C), September to March 45-55F (7-13C).

 

hypolepisrugosulapforwikimediacommons

Hypolepis rugosula specimen in the Jardin Botanique de Lyon, Parc de la Tête d'Or, Lyon, France. Date: 26 April 2011. By Daderot, via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Hypolepis sparsisora

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pans of sandy peat and leaf-mould under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) at any tme; division of creeping rhizomes in March.

Suitable for

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen fern. Fronds, feather-shaped. First introduced early nineteenth century.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pots or hanging baskets in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards. Syringing undesirable.
Temperature, March to September 65-75 F (18-24C), September to March 55-65F (13-18C).
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pans or beds in shade. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards.
Temperature, March to September 55-65F (13-18C), September to March 45-55F (7-13C).

 

hypolepissparsisorapforwikimediacommons

Hypolepis sparsisora -
Afrikaans: Vals-adelaarsvaring langs die Langskadus-voetpad in Krantzkloof Natuurreservaat, KwaZulu-Natal
English: Gaint edgelobed fern beside the Longshadows trail in Krantzkloof Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal.
Date: 3 June 2013. By JMK via Wikimedia Commons.

Hypolepis tenuifolia (Lonchitis tenuifolia ; Cheilanthes arborescens ; Hypolepis gigantea ;
H. nausoriensis ; H. neocaledonica; Phegopteris tenuifolia)
Soft Ground Fern

薄叶姬蕨

Hainan (Lingshui), Taiwan [Indonesia, New Guinea, Philippines; Australia, Pacific islands (including Pitcairn Islands)].

Rhizome 3-10(-13) mm in diam., young parts with dense pale brown hairs, older parts with sparser red-brown hairs. Stipe dark chestnut-brown to almost black, 35-150 cm, 3-15(-20) mm in diam., very base with long, red-brown hairs, upper stipe with colorless, glandular and eglandular hairs, to 5 mm on uncoiling fronds, slightly rough, both sides with narrow wing ca. 1 mm wide. Sori circular or ovate, without hairs between sporangia, protected by well-developed reflexed membranous flaps.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pans of sandy peat and leaf-mould under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) at any tme; division of creeping rhizomes in March.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse evergreen fern. Fronds, feather-shaped. First introduced early nineteenth century.
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, well-drained pans or beds in shade. Pot, March. Water freely March to September, moderately afterwards.
Temperature, March to September 55-65F (13-18C), September to March 45-55F (7-13C).

Greenhouse Species.

Shrubs on wet hillsides, forests; below 100-1600 m.

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Leptolepia novae-zealandiae

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse

 

leptolepianovaezealandiaepforwikimediacommons

Leptolepia novae-zealandiae in Wellington Botanical Garden. Date: 12 November 2017. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz, via Wikimedia Commons.
Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Microlepia firma

长托鳞盖蕨
chang tuo lin gai jue

Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand].

Plants terrestrial. Rhizome creeping, 7-8 mm in diam., branching, with dense, red-brown, stiff hairs. Fronds ca. 1 cm apart; stipe ca. 75 cm, 5-6 mm in diam. at base, gray-straw-colored, base with long gray-brown hairs, scabrous, distally glabrescent; rachis, rachillae, and stalk concolorous, abaxially densely gray-brown pubescent, adaxially glabrous. Sori at base of notch along acroscopic margin of ultimate lobules, usually becoming shortly columnar and protruding from indusium; indusium brownish, hemitelioid, large, with dense long hairs.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

 

Stove fern, similar to Davallia, and formerly included in that genus.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).

Forests; 1200-2500 m.

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Microlepia hirta

 

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

 

Stove fern, similar to Davallia, and formerly included in that genus.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).

 

microlepiahirtapforwikimediacommons

Microlepia hirta - Botanical specimen. The University of Helsinki Botanical Garden at Kaisaniemi. Date: 12 August 2012. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Microlepia marginata

边缘鳞盖蕨 bian yuan lin gai jue

Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Indonesia, Japan (including Ryukyu Islands), Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

Plants terrestrial, robust, 0.6-1.2 m tall. Rhizome 4-5 mm in diam., with dense, red-brown, subulate hairs. Fronds ca. 2[-5] cm apart; stipe straw-colored, 50-70 cm, thick and strong, base with hairs like those of rhizome. Sori 5-7 per lobe, orbicular, near margin; indusium hemitelioid, wider, truncate above, glabrous or hairy.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

 

Stove fern, similar to Davallia, and formerly included in that genus.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).

Forests, shrublands; below 100-1800 m.

microlepiamarginatapfruwikimediacommons

日本語: Microlepia marginata:フモトシダ

2015/07/19

和歌山県田辺市:Tanabe City. Wakayama Pref. Japan. Date: 22 August 2015. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.

フモトシダ. Date:21 November 2015, 15:37, Microlepia marginata. By harum.koh from Kobe city, Japan, via Wikimedia Commons.

microlepiamarginatapfolwikimediacommons

Microlepia platyphylla (Davallia lonchitidea, Davallia platyphylla ; Microlepia grandissima)

阔叶鳞盖蕨
kuo ye lin gai jue

India, Ceylon, Japan.
Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, SC Taiwan (Jiayi), Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

Plants terrestrial. Rhizome creeping, 15-20 mm in diam., stiff and woody, with dense, dark red-brown, subulate bristles. Fronds approximate, ca. 2 m tall; stipe light brown to straw-colored, shiny, 70-100 cm, ca. 1 cm in diam. at base, woody, hairy only at base. Sori 2-5 per lobule, orbicular and large; indusium brown, orbicular-reniform, large, membranous, entire, basifixed, glabrous, persistent.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

 

Stove fern, similar to Davallia, and formerly included in that genus.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).

erect to 48 inches (120 cms).

Forests; 1000-2100 m.

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Microlepia speluncae (Polypodium speluncae ; Aspidium speluncae ; Davallia flaccida ; D. polypodioides ; D. polypodioides var. pilosa ;
D. polypodioides var. pubescens ; D. speluncae ;
D. villosa ; Dennstaedtia villosa ; Dicksonia polypodioides ; Microlepia flaccida ;
M. ganlanbaensis ; M. hispidula ;
M. intermedia
M. mollifolia ;
M. pilosissima ; M. pingpienensis ; M. polypodioides ; M. puberula ;
M. puberula f. pilosior ;
M. pyramidata ; M. speluncae var. hirta ;
M. speluncae var. pubescens ;
M. speluncae var. pyramidata ;
M. subrhomboidea ; M. subspeluncae ; M. villosa)

热带鳞盖蕨
re dai lin gai jue

Plants terrestrial, 1.2-1.5(-2) m tall. Rhizome creeping, more than 7 mm in diam., glabrescent. Fronds scattered; stipe straw-colored, ca. 50[-70] cm, stiff, usually with dense, short, gray-brown, segmented hairs. Sori near notch at margin of lobules; indusium brownish, shallowly saucer- or fan-shaped, small, firm, densely hairy.

Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia (Queensland), Pacific islands (Polynesia), South America (Brazil), West Indies].

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

 

Stove fern, similar to Davallia, and formerly included in that genus.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).

Roadsides, shrublands; below 100-1100 m.

microlepiaspeluncaepfolwikimediacommons

Microlepia speluncae - Limpleaf fern Dennstaedtiaceae Indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands Oʻahu (Cultivated).
Date: 10 September 2010. By David Eickhoff from Pearl City, Hawaii, USA, via Wikimedia Commons.

Microlepia speluncae - Limpleaf fern Dennstaedtiaceae Indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands Oʻahu (Cultivated).
Date: 28 February 2008. By David Eickhoff from Pearl City, Hawaii, USA, via Wikimedia Commons.

microlepiaspeluncaepforwikimediacommons

Microlepia strigosa (Trichomanes strigosum ; Davallia japonica ;
D. strigosa ; Dennstaedtia strigosa ; Dicksonia japonica ;
D. strigosa ; Microlepia formosana ;
M. japonica ;
M. kwangtungensis ; M. neostrigosa)

粗毛鳞盖蕨 cu mao lin gai jue

Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Himalaya, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Pacific islands].

Plants terrestrial, 80-110 cm tall. Rhizome long and creeping, ca. 4[-5] mm in diam., with dense, long, gray-brown, acicular hairs. Fronds distant; stipe brown, ca. 50 cm, ca. 4 mm in diam. at base, basally densely hairy, hairs abscising easily to leave scabrous marks. Sori small, near margin of lobes; indusium brown, hemitelioid, with short brown hairs.

 

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 55-75F (13-24C) at any time; division of rhizomes in February or March.

Suitable for

 

Stove fern, similar to Davallia, and formerly included in that genus.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould, peat, pounded charcoal and sand. Pot, February, March or April. Position, pots or hanging baskets in light part of plant stove. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C).

Forests; 100-1000 m.

microlepiastrigosapfruwikimediacommons

日本語: Microlepia strigosa:イシカグマ

2015/07/20

和歌山県すさみ町;Susami Town, Wakayama Pref. Japan. Date: 1 August 2015. By Keisotyo, via Wikimedia Commons.

Microlepia strigosa (Palapalai). Fronds at Waikapu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. April 25, 2012. By Forest and Kim Starr, via Wikimedia Commons.

Plant Delights Nursery sells Microlepia strigosa 'MacFaddeniae'.

microlepiastrigosapforwikimediacommons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2