Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN as Sun-Tolerant Fern Page 2 of 4
"Ferns seldom look their best when growing in direct sun (if they grow at all in such intense light). The following ferns appear reasonably attractive if grown in places with direct morning or late-afternoon sun. Some tolerate full sun if the skies are often overcast. Elsewhere they need filtered light during the hottest part of the day. Those species marked with an (*) will tolerate full sun only if soil moisture and humidity are adequate." from Chapter 9 of Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Marsilea polycarpa (Marsilea brasiliensis, Marsilea quadrifolia, Zaluzianskia polycarpa)
Water Clover, Guayanan waterclover

Costa Rica, Central and South America, West Indies.

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

This is not a 4-Leaf Clover.

 

Photos.

 

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen rooted fern.

Habitat: Tropical dry forest.

An aquatic fern which grows in permanent water, forming colonies by its spreading rhizomes. Plants can be grown as aquatics in fish ponds and containers.

 

Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Marsilea quadrifolia
Water Clover/ Water Shamrock, European Water Clover, Four leaf clover

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to Northeastern United States, southeastern Europe, and Asia

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

Aquatic fern bearing 4 parted leaf resembling '4-leaf clover' (Trifolium). Leaves floating in deep water or erect in shallow water or on land.

Roots are present on nodes and internodes. Leaves with 4 clover-like leaflets.

14/-1/2inch leaf width, 1-2 inch tall submersed growth

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
Herbaceous Fern.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

"Four Leaf Clover - is one of the most popular carpet aquarium plants for the foreground and it is recommended for beginners to create a dense carpet. It grows slowly but it is easy to keep because is undemanding and can be grown in moderate lighting. Higher lighting and carbon dioxide injection improve growth rate and promote more compact growth. In the lower light situations it produces bigger leaves with a single lobe, very different from the emerse plant. No substrate or water special conditions are required (temperature between 18°C - 28°C or 64°F - 82°F, pH 5 - 7.5 and GH between 1 - 20 dH)." from Aquarium and Pond Plants with their Aquarium Plants guide and who ship their plants worldwide.

Grows well under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist-wet garden soil or sand-peat mix. The plants are used in China for treating infections.

Found in Europe in shallow water of periodically flooded localities such as water-meadows or ricefields, with the leaves floating and the sporocarps usually developing in the mud when the water-level is lowered.

Marsilea quadrifolia is grown in aquaria.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist or wet soil and can grow in water.
Marsilea quadrifolia can be grown as a potted plant, either just with soil kept wet, or semi-submerged, with fronds emergent from the water, or fully submerged, with the fronds floating on the surface of the water.
In the aquarium, water clover is grown fully submerged, usually in the foreground where it spreads by means of runners. It normally seems to be unfussy as to light and water conditions, and doesn't need a rich substrate.

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Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

Juvenile foliage of Marsilea quadrifolia. By Vinayaraj via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

Mature foliage of Marsilea quadrifolia, Romania. By Frank Vassen from Brussels, Belgium via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-2.0

Form of Marsilea quadrifolia
(European water clover) in May 2005, By Phyzome via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0-migrated

Fig. 85. Marsilea quadrifolia from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons, License Public Domain in United States.

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Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Pilularia americana
American Pillwort

Hardy in Zone 5

Native to United States and Mexico.
The range of the American pillwort is well-established throughout much of California and south-central Oregon.

The genus name comes from the Greek pilula, little ball, and refers to the globose sporocarps.

It is an unusual species of fern. The fronds essentially consist of the stems only, any form of flattened laminae having been lost.

Photos

 

This fern resembles a very small clump of grass. However, unlike grasses, the leaves are initially coiled from the tip downward, and unfurl like a typical fern fiddlehead. The leaves also become distinctively curly when dry. Sporocorps look like small woolly marbles and are important for identification.

Leaves sparsely hairy, threadlike, elongate, with an unbranched midvein, round in cross section, 1.6-10.2 cm long, about 0.5 mm wide. Sporocarps present underground June to July; plants are most easily identifiable before vernal pools dry up in late June.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation:
This plant is easily grown given a suitable habitat and kept uncrowded. The pillwort also may die out for drier or colder parts of the season, regenerating the next year from the sporocarps. While it is in the aquatic fern group, it prefers to be emergent (in shallow water, with fronds emerging into the air) or growing completely emersed (fronds completely out of water), though preferring to be rooted in wet mud.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
Ferns for Wet Soils.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Grows well under high light in sandy or silty garden soil kept wet. The plants can also grow submerged or partly submerged. Do not let them dry out completely.

Ecology: Vernal pools, mud flats, lake margins. Poorly collected, often overlooked due to its small, grass-like appearance.
This species is sensitive to disturbance from domestic grazing.

Botanical illustration including Pilularia america with 5 photos of that plant -

Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux 2012, Pilularia americana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=38232, accessed on January 06, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on January 06, 2019.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Pilularia are small, sedge-like or grass-like plants. They can be distinguished from grasses and sedges by the coiled tips of their young leaves. Of little ornamental value, this genus is best used as part of a small, aquatic dish-garden or in bog or marsh plantings.

Associated species include mosses, annual hairgrass (Deschampsia danthonioides), tiny mousetail (Myosurus minimus), popcornflower (Plagiobothrys spp.), pale spike-rush (Eleocharis macrostachya), needle spike-rush (Eleocharis acicularis), fruitleaf knotweed (Polygonum polygaloides ssp. confertiflorum), Pacific foxtail (Alopecurus saccatus), whitehead navarretia (Navarretia leucocephala), elegant calicoflower (Downingia elegans), and water mudwort (Limosella aquatica). Photogragh shows that this fern grows between the grassland and the vernal pool.

Regnellidium dihyllum
Latex Fern, Two-leaf Water Fern, Clover two-leaf

Very Tender - easy to grow but apt to die if the temperature drops below 21C (70F).

The genus has only this one speces. Native to southeastern Brazil and adjacent Argentina.

The specific epithet diphyllum means having two leaves.

It has 2-lobed leaves (rather than 4).

It was, vigorously growing in a garden pond in California with Photos.

Culture: Prefers good nutrition - growth poor under nutrient stress.

The rhizomes are creeping and bear fronds 1-3 cm (0.5-1.2 inches) apart.

Quick grower up to 6 inches (15 cm) high and spreading with glossy green, double leaves.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation:

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.
Culture: Place in water no deeper than 2 inches over the crown. In colder regions, allow to go dormant in a non-freezing location, but do not let the plant dry out. An exceptional pond plant.

It roots in mud, although sometimes it is submerged and the fronds are floating. The rhizomes are creeping and bear fronds 103 cm (0.5-1.2 inches) apart.

Grows well under high light in moist-wet soil (a mixture of sand and peat) or fully submerged. The plants are typically grown in pots set in water or in aquarium with plants partly submerged.

This fern is sometimes grown in aquaria. It is the only non-flowering plant that produces latex.

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Regnellidium diphyllum. A Two-leaf Water Fern, native to southeastern Brazil. UC Berkeley Botanical Gardens. Marsileaceae. By Dick Culbert via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-2.0

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The genus is related to Marsilea, the clover fern, but differs by having 2 leaflets instead of 4. The leaves are produced too far apart on the rhizome to make an attractive pot plant; the plants are mainly used as a novelty in aquariums.

Salvinia natans
Salvinia
floating fern, floating watermoss, floating moss, or commercially, water butterfly wings

Semi-Tender to Hardier in Zone 10-11

Native to Europe and Asia - found in warm ponds and ditches in Central and Southeast Europe, extending to Holland and Spain; absent from Britain and Ireland.
It is found throughout the world where there is plentiful standing fresh water, sunlight, and humid air.

It has oblong-truncate to ovate fronds. Leaves 3, arranged in a whorl: the upper 2 ovate, floating, with large intercellular spaces, hairy and unwettable on both surfaces; the lower 1 split into numerous filiform root-like segments (functional roots).

The leaves of Salvinia natans block sunlight from reaching very far underwater. This is helpful to many freshwater fish, providing safe hiding places to breed in, but can interrupt the photosynthesis of many underwater plants. Salvinia natans can eventually cover entire ponds or lakes without ecological competition, starving other plant species.
It is worth removing sufficient to leave only 33% of the water surface covered and use it as a mulch on flowerbeds, amongst trees or in a hedge.

3 x 3-12
(7.5 x 7.5-30)
Tolerates swimming rabbit in water, which is wet.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

Propagate by division or by spores that fall to the bottom of the tank and if there is a little loam at the bottom will germinate.

Propagation:By division during growing period. It is advisable to keep stock pans containing 3 inches (7.5 cm) sifted loam and charcoal and 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water; spores will drop into mud and keep the stock going.

In home water gardens in the St. Louis area, some plants should be lifted in fall each year before first frost and overwintered in a saucer of moist soil covered with 2” of water in a bright frost-free area or in an aquarium.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
 

Stove and Greenhouse annual aquatic fern.
Culture:Soil, not necessary. Position, tanks or water in warm greenhouse or in indoor aquariums. Temperature, March to September 65-75F (18-24C), September to March 55-60F (13-15C). Place in tanks any time.

 

Use as free floating aquatic perennial for water gardens or ponds.

A small aquatic fern with short-creeping rhizomes. Grows well under direct sunlight.

A pretty little annual aquatic for stove or greenhouse that floats on the water like Azolla and increases very rapidly in summer. The plants have tiny fern leaves with no roots but the under sides of the leaves perform the functions of the roots.

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The Water Spangles are small floating ferns, although they also grow in mud around the shores of ponds, lakes, or swamps. Their small, rounded leaves add interest to ponds, dish gardens, and aquariums. Salvinia does not tolerate much cool weather and dies during the winter in most parts of the United States. Culture is the same as for another aquatic fern, Azolla.
Native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Submerged leaf of salvinia natans - Українська: Занурена вайя сальвінії плаваючої. By Carassiuslike via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-4.0

English: Water plant Salvinia natans from the Botanical Gardens of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Čeština: Vodní rostlina nepukalka vzplývající (Salvinia natans) v Botanické zahradě Univerzity Karlovy Praha. By Karelj via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-3.0, 2.5,2.0,1.0

English: Salvinia natans (L.) All. (Water Fern); habitus. Habitat: а backwater in Volgograd Reservoir (Volga river). Engelssky District, Saratov Oblast, Russia.
Русский: Сальвиния плавающая (Salvinia natans (L.) All.); внешний вид растения. Местообитание: заводь. Волгоградское водохранилище, Энгельсский район Саратовской области. By Le.Loup.Gris via Wikimedia Commons - Multi-license with GFDL and CC-BY-SA

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Suomi: Kellusaniainen (Salvinia natans) kasvaa Kaisaniemen kasvitieteellisen puutarhan kasvihuoneessa.
English: Water Fern (Salvinia natans) in the Glasshouses of Kaisaniemi Botanical Garden
Svenska: Simbräken (Salvinia natans) i växthuset av Kajsaniemi botaniska trädgård. By Anneli Salo via Wikimedia Commons - License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Salvinia natans - Polski: Salwinia pływająca na naturalnym stanowisku w Rezerwacie Przyrody Łężczok koło Raciborza. By Czonek via Wikimedia Commons - Public Domain

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Salvinia natans - from Original book source: Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany. Source: www.biolib.de via Wikimedia Commons - Public Domain.

Marsilea macrocarpa (Marsilea dregeana, Marsilea fischeri, Marsilea rotundata )

Probably Semi-Hardy

Native to Africa in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

macrocarpa: with large fruits or sporocarps.

Some roots are present on internodes of the rhizome.

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Grows best under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist to wet garden soil or sand-peat mix.

Habitat: Areas with permanent or temporary ground water, seasonal vleis and pans, temporary grassland depressions, along streams, sometimes in running water. Seasonal pattern, dormant in dry season.

 

Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Photos

 

Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Marsilea mutica
Floating Four-Leaf Clover

Semi-Hardy

Native to New Caledonia and Australia.

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

Pale green of yellowish green leaflets in the lower (proximal) part and a dark green in the upper (distal) part, often separated by a pale or brownish band. Roots are present on the nodes and internodes.

 

This extremely rare pond plant produces attractive glossy leaves which float on the water's surface like those of a small waterlily. These leaves reach up to 1½ inches across and have delicate two-tone markings, which are particularly striking on mature leaves. Although it looks just like a four-leaved clover, Marsilea mutica is actually an aquatic fern. It thrives in warm shallow water and spreads slowly, making it suitable for small ponds and especially tub gardens. Contrary to popular belief, the plant is fully hardy: Marsilea mutica has been grown here at the nursery for 20 years with no protection whatsoever from frost or snow and always survives.
We recommend starting your Marsilea mutica off in a pot of 1 litre capacity.
Water Garden Plants is run by Anna and James and sells pond plants by mail order including Marsh Plants and poolside Plants and native British Pond Plants (further details about those native plants via Wildflower Botanical Names Page ).

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

Grows well under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist to wet garden soil or sand-peat mix.

 

 

"2018 - 2019 List of Regulated or Illegal Aquatic Plants in America. Never release non-native aquatic plants into natural lakes, streams, or other waterways. This plant is on that list of illegal plants in America." from Pond Plants Online who offer hardy waterlilies, tropical waterlilies, hardy bog pond plants, tropical bog pond plants, floating pond plants, submerged pond plants, lotus and other pond supplies for your water garden from Ohio in America.
Other Rapidly Growing Ferns in this page must not be released into local rivers or streams, since it can cause growth in those rivers in any country, which is very expensive to get rid of. When no longer required, take it out the water and spread them on land as a mulch under trees, shrubs or hedges.

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Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

Juvenile Marsilea mutica - KRT3962. Kevin Thiele from Perth, Australia via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-2.0

Mature Marsilea mutica - KRT3961. Kevin Thiele from Perth, Australia via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-2.0

Form of Marsilea mutica. Location taken: Lilypons Water Gardens, Adamstown MD, USA. Names: Marsilea mutica Mett., Banded Nardoo, Floating Water Clover, Four leafed water clover, Nardoo, Water Clove. Photo by David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0

Marsilea mutica in mud - Español: Marsilea mutica ejemplar del Jardín botánico de Valencia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia. España. By Falconaumanni via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

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Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Nephrolepis cordifolia (Nephrolepis tuberosa, Polypodium cordifolium, Aspidium cordifolium)
Fishbone Fern, Tuber Ladder Fern, Tuberous Sword Fern, erect sword fern, narrow sword fern and ladder fern, and herringbone fern

Native to northern Australia and Asia.

The genus name comes from the Greek nephros, kidney, and lepis, scale, referrring to the kidney-bean-shaped indusia.

Nephrolepis cordifolia has become an invasive species is some areas where it has been introduced. In New Zealand it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord, which prohibits the sale, cultivation and distribution of the plant.
It is listed as an invasive species in Florida, United States - "The sword fern poses a threat on native species. Through its aggressive spread, sword fern is able to form dense stands and quickly displace native vegetation. Because it is a true fern, it reproduces via spores. Thousands of spores can be produced by one plant and these can be dispersed by wind and water. Spore production occurs year-round in south Florida."

Nephrolepis cordifolia is a wood fern that typically grows in woodland areas. Both fertile and sterile fronds are pinnate, up to 3 feet in length and 3 inches wide. There are many leaflets, or pinnae, ranging from 40-100 mm (1.5 to 4 inches) on each side of the rachis. Each pinna is oblong to lanceolate with an auricle that overlaps rachis. Rhizomes are orange/brown to pale brown with linear scales having hair like tips. Stolons are straw colored and produce small underground tubers. The presence of tubers distinguishes sword fern from the native Nephrolepis exaltata fern. Numerous sori (spore containing structures) are also produced between the leaflet midvein and margin. Dispersal occurs via spores and through the movement of stolons, tubers, and rhizomes.

 

Hardy to 25°F.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Boston Ferns (Nephrolepis)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of pans of sandy peat under bell-glass and placed in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants, February-April; or by pegging down creeping stems bearing young plants and removing when rooted.

The most common problem in caring for established plants is overwatering combined with poor drainage. These ferns generally tolerate short periods of dryness.

Grows in wet, shady places, limestone ledges, cliffs, rock and roadsides in North America.

Suitable for

Basket fern.
Warm Greenhouse. Ferns for Woodland. Shade Tolerant.
Sun Tolerant.
Hedge in Philippine. Fern for Acid Soil. Groundcover in tropical and subtropical areas.

Stove Evergreen Ferns. Fronds linear, narrow, once divided, plain or crested. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts lumpy peat.
Position: in baskets suspended from roof, or in well-drained pots or beds in shady part of stove.
Pot or plant, February or March. Water moderately October to March, freely afterwards.
Temperature: September to March 55-60F (13-16C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C). Nephrolepis cordifolia will thrive in warm greenhouse.

Ground cover in tropical and subtropical areas.

Grows from shade to full sun (grows in full sun if given ample water) in soil, among rocks or as an epiphyte (particularly on palm trunks). It is colony former and is popularly grown in temperate regions but in the tropics is generally regarded as a weed. It can be grown in gardens, pots or baskets.

Bayabang grows in the Philippines as a hedge plant.

 

Also in
Zones 8-10 in the USA, where it tolerates sea air and salty soil - Lemon buttons ferns thrive in moist, well-drained, acidic soil with a pH of 4 to 7.

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Español: Cola de Quetzal (Nephrolepis cordifolia), jardín botánico de Tallinn, Estonia
English: Tuber ladder fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Tallinn Botanic Garden, Estonia.
Date 13 August 2012.
By Diego Delso, delso.photo, License CC-BY-SA via Wikimedia Commons

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C.Presl from Rodney Ecological District. This image has been released as "CCBY" by Auckland War Memorial Museum. By Ewen Cameron via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia - Sori. Date 19 March 2008. By Ixitixel via Wikimedia Commons

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Cheilanthes austrotenuifolia (Cheilanthes tenuifolia)
Rock Fern, Southern Rock-fern, Green Rock Fern

Australia, New Zealand

The Seeds of South Australia database contains 143 families, 837 genera and 3,103 native species with 29,293 images (also with 400 introduced species).

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

Bright green fronds grow from an underground rhizome. Fronds die down in summer and return with the rain in Autumn.

Spore cases partially enclosed by scalloped margins of lobes.

4-20 x
(10-50 x )

Fronds crowded, mostly 15–30 cm high, 3–10 cm wide at the widest point; stipe red-brown, dark brown or black, covered densely at the base with transparent scales; lamina lanceolate to triangular, 2–3-pinnate, glabrous above, sparsely scaly below; ultimate segments sessile, 2–6 mm long and 1–3 mm wide, with crenate margins.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.
The plant spreads through division of this rhizome, and also by spores held under the fronds The plant is very difficult to propagate using spores, but it may be more easily done using sections of the rhizome

Suitable for

Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse.
Acid Soil.
Terrarium.
Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Sun-Tolerant.

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

This is a dwarf fern which develops into compact clumps of bright green, finely divided fronds. It usually occurs in rocky situations and plants look particularly appealing in a rock garden, especially when situated against dark rocks. Plants require well-drained, acid, humus-rich soils in a sunny situation.

Once a common understory plant along streams in moist areas of Southern Australia.

Grows in rocky ground in open forest or on exposed rocky slopes in New South Wales.

Garden Use in Victoria, Australia:While difficult to establish it is very tough for rockeries and exposed positions provided it has root protection.

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Cheilanthes austrotenuifolia H.M.Quirk & T.C.Chambers, Black Mountain, Canberra, ACT, 4 November 2010. By Donald Hobern from Copenhagen, Denmark via Wikimedia Commons.

See more photos from Seeds of South Australia.
 

Cheilanthes lasiophylla
Woolly Cloak Fern, Woolly Lip Fern
 

Australia - Endemic to Australia and more common in the drier western and central regions of the country. Restricted in Victoria to the north-west near the South Australian border and at two isolated localities in north-central Victoria.

USDA Zones 7a-10b

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

4-8 x
(10-20 x )

 

This Fern is growing in garden of Alison Evans ,who is a member of the British Pteridological Society.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil Fern.
Tolerates Full Sun.
Terrarium.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

This is a very hardy fern which adapts well to a dry climate, the fronds curling quickly in dry times and resurrecting within a few hours of rain. The narrow fronds are dark green above and have masses of brown hairs and scales on the underside. An attractive plant for a sunny rock garden.

On rocky outcrops and hills in inland arid regions in New South Wales in Australia.

Sandy loam, red clayey sand. On rocky slopes and in rock crevices in Western Australia.

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Cheilanthes lasiophylla frond lower. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons.

Cheilanthes lasiophylla frond. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons.

Cheilanthes lasiophylla habit. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons.

cheilantheslasiophyliapforwikimediacommons

Cheilanthes lanosa (Notholaena vestita)
Hairy Lip-fern

Hardy in USDA Zone 5, where it is native to the eastern United States.

Native to the Southwestern US, this will handle hot, dry summers, with its roots cool down among the rocks.

Myriopteris lanosa, the hairy lip fern, is a moderately-sized fern of the eastern United States, a member of the family Pteridaceae. Its leaves and stem are sparsely covered in hairs, but lack scales, hence its common name. One of the cheilanthoid ferns, it was usually classified in the genus Cheilanthes until 2013, when the genus Myriopteris was again recognized as separate from Cheilanthes. It typically grows in shallow, dry, soil, often in rocky habitats.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

 

Suitable for rockeries, beds, border fringes or in the container with Dianthus, Sempervivums or Sedums for example. A hardy plant which should survive normal winter conditions outside, especially if protected from the hardest frosts in the UK.

Lovely with other woodland plants or grown in a greenhouse in the UK.

Perfect respite for woodland animals when grouped.

8-16 x 4-20
(20-40 x 10-50)

Will not tolerate winter wet. Grow in sharply-drained, gritty, humus-rich soil in full sun, with protection from winter rain. Otherwise grow under glass in full light, with low humidity and good ventilation, in a mix of equal parts loam-based potting compost and coarse grit plus 10 percent added charcoal, and water sparingly in the UK.
Propagation in the UK - Sow spores at 16°C as soon as ripe. Division in spring is possible, but rhizomes resent disturbance.
Grow on Banks and Slopes, Gravel Garden, Patio & Container Plants, Rock Garden in the UK.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

 

This evergreen fern is best grown as a house plant here in the UK, although it can survice out in the garden if its roots are well protected from cold.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Acid Soil.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil Fern.
Terrarium.
Heated Greenhouse and Conservatory.
Tolerates Full Sun.
Woodland.
Outdoor Containers. Border and Foundation Fern.
House Fern in Trough Garden.

 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A small to medium evergreen fern with short-creeping rhizomes bearing clustered, grayish fronds. Grows under medium-high light in well-drained, acidic garden soil or potting mix kept moist-dry to dry. It usually grows on the ground in or among sandstone; it does not grow on vertical cliff faces.

A neat fern with clumps of bright green fronds which are densely woolly on the underside. Likes dry conditions in a sunny situation. Soil requirements are acid to neutral with excellent drainage. Must not be overwatered.

It can also grow in open woodlands and other open areas. It grows in shallow soil on rocky slopes and ledges, although not usually on cliff faces, at an altitude from 100 to 800 meters (300 to 3,000 ft). It is not particularly sensitive to rock type, growing on limestone, granite and sandstone, among others.

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Cheilanthes lanosa at the University of California Botanical Garden, Berkeley, California. Date: September 2006. By Stan Shebs via Wikimedia Commons.

Cheilanthes lanosa. Date: 10 July 2011.
by ghislain118 (AD) http://www.fleurs-des-montagnes.net via Wikimedia Commons

See photo of greyish foliage in USA.

cheilantheslanosapforwikimediacommons

 

"Although this fern is quite hardy (-15°C), it does not like too much damp in winter.
Maintenance: protect against winter damp by mulching with a thick mattress of pine needles in the autumn. Cut back the dry fronds at the end of winter." from
Le Clos d’Armoise Nursery - a perennial plant nursery in France.

Cheilanthes mulifida (Adiantum globatum, Adiantum multifidum, Cheilanthes bolusii)

Africa, St. Helena - Widespread throughout Swaziland, but more frequent on the western highveld, occurring at altitudes ranging from 760 to 1 672 m. The species is widespread in west-central tropical Africa, east- and south tropical Africa and southern Africa.

multifida: with many divisions, referring to the finely divided lamina.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

Fronds closely spaced, to 8 per plant, erect, to 540 mm long.
Ecology: Terrestrial or epilithic, at boulder bases, in rock crevices and in shallow soil pockets overlaying sheet rock, in exposed or partially shaded conditions. In exposed habitats, or during prolonged periods of drought the plants may go dormant.

8-20 x
(20-50 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Sun-Tolerant.
Shade-Tolerant.
Woodlands.
Drier Soil Fern.

 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A variable species which also grows in shady positions in forests. It is a tufting species with broad-deltoid, finely lacy fronds which vary from soft to leathery in texture. Requires well-drained, loamy soils and should be kept on the dry side.

Rock crevices and around boulders in grassland, margins of sheetrock, forest margins in high rainfall areas.

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See photos.

 

We have 45 taxa in the database for Cheilanthes as Pteridophytes of Africa.
Derivation of name:  cheilos: lip, anthos: flower; an allusion to the marginal sori.

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Cheilanthes sieberi
Mulga Fern, Poison Rock Fern

Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

Makes a good groundcover or rockery plant in Australia - Paten Park Native Nursery is a not-for-profit, community organisation specialising in the indigenous plant species of south-east Queensland.
Our purpose is to protect and restore the ecological values of south-east Queensland habitats by returning locally indigenous plants to the landscape. 

4-20 x
(10-50 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Terrarium.
Acid Soil.
Woodland in New South Wales.
Drier Soil Fern.
Shade-tolerant.
Sun-Tolerant.
Coastal Districts.
Ground Cover.
 

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

It is a decorative species when planted among rocks in a sunny situation, in acid humus-rich loam.

This fern may grow up to 25 cm tall within Australia and New Zealand. It is a widespread plant, seen in a variety of different habitats: it occurs in arid areas as well as sites with over 1500 mm of annual average rainfall. In desert areas it grows in shaded rocky gullies. However, near the coast, it can grow in full sun in cracks of rocks, or in thin soils.
Excessive consumption of this fern can cause health issues for sheep and cattle .

Grows amongst rocks, widespread in open forest or woodland in New South Wales, Australia.

Sandy to clayey loams, gravel, laterite, granite. Rock crevices, slopes, outcrops, near waterfalls or streams, floodplains.

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Cheilanthes sieberi habit. Date 25 August 2011. By Mark Marathon via Wkimedia Commons. See other photos.
 

Cheilanthes tomentosa (Myripteris tomentosa)
Woolly Lip Fern

Hardy, Zones 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, where it grows on a variety of rock types.

It shrivels up into a brown curled mass and appears dead in periods of drought but will green up again in periods of moisture, this has earned it the name resurrection fern. The name lipfern derives from the fact that the sporecases are located at the margins of the leaves which give the leaves a lipped appearance.

Grow in a terrarium set up with a stony potting mix and kept on the dry side (by sparse watering and leaving the lid off for long periods), Cheilanthes can sometimes be grown to perfection. They may need brighter light than other ferns usually grown in terrariums.

The lower surface is densely hairy with matted hairs and the upper surface with fine hairs.

Woolly lipfern typically grows in dry and rocky places such as high cliffs and crevices in substrate such as limestone or granite.

Rocky slopes and ledges, on a variety of substrates including limestone and granite in North America.

8-24 x 16
(20-60 x 40)

It should be grown in full to partial sun with its toes tucked under a rock or covered with a gravel mulch for best results. The blade is a smoky glaucous-green covered with a smattering of fine unbranched white hairs supported by a purplish-black framework. This charming wooly confection is quite at home next to agave, yuccas, sun-loving bulbs, and other grit and sun loving rock plants.

Ideal for planting in pots or borders ferns look great when left undisturbed where they can slowly spread and multiply. It falls under the desert fern species, so it's the ideal fern for sunny corners of the garden.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Sow spores at 16°C as soon as ripe. Division in spring is possible, but rhizomes resent disturbance.

Suitable for

Rock Garden and Wall Fern.
Drier Soil Fern.
Terrarium.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Conservatory and Heated Greenhouse. Basic or Limestone Soils.
Tolerates Full Sun.
Tolerates Part Shade.
Outdoor Containers. Border and Foundation Ferns.
Xerophytic Fern.

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam and silver sand.
Position, pots in shade. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C);
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C).
These ferns require less moisture than most.

A small-medium fern with compact rhizomes and clustered fronds. Grows well under high light in well-drained, moist-dry to dry garden soil with sand. The plants usually bear attractive grey-green fronds. This species is relatively easy to grow.

An attractive species with brown woolly hairs on the stipes and grey to white woolly hairs on the fronds. These are especially noticeable on the undersurface. Can be tricky to grow needing very well-drained neutral to alkine soils, sun and plenty of air movement.

Will not tolerate winter wet. Grow in sharply-drained, gritty, humus-rich soil in full sun, with protection from winter rain. Otherwise grow under glass in full light, with low humidity and good ventilation, in a mix of equal parts loam-based potting compost and coarse grit plus 10 percent added charcoal, and water sparingly.

cheilanthestomentosapfolwikimediacommons

Cheilanthes tomentosa (Woolly Lip Fern), growing in cultivation. Date 21 February 2010. By Megan Hansen via Wikimedia Commons.

Cheilanthes tomentosa from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons.

cheilanthestomentosapfigurewikimediacommons

Pellaea atropurpurea (Pellaea atropurpurea var. cristata,
Pteris atropurpurea)

Purple Rock Brake,
Cliff Brake Fern, Purple Cliff Brake, Purple-stem Cliffbrake

This is sufficiently hardy to grow outside in UK in sheltered rockeries if protected with litter or hand-light in winter.

North America

Zones 4-9

Very Hardy in Zone 4

Brake is an old word for fern, related to the word bracken.

Rhizome is short-creeping. The pinnate fronds are borne on dark purple-black stipes.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

8-18 x 12-24
(20-45 x 30-60)

The triangular leaves 10-12 inches (25-30 cms) long, are parted many times at the base, and widespread, lanceolate leaflets which turn from green to a bluish-green.

This fern produces clumps of widely arching fronds. They produce sori, which lack a true indusium, within the inrolled margins of the pinnae. It grows in the crevices of dry limestone cliffs, rocky slopes, crevices in alvars, and mortared walls.

Drought tolerant species that grows in rocky, limestone areas where there is little soil. It is evergreen and grows in an asymmetric clump.

It grows in full sun and is native to all but 8 states of the continental United States.

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Spores produced June - September.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soil.
Drier Soil.
Rock Garden.
Outdoor Container.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Shade-Tolerant.
Sun-Tolerant.
Shallow dish in Heated Greenhouse.
Xerophytic Fern.

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C).

 

This species can tolerate annual winter temperatures of -28 to -35C (-23 to -31F). In the wild this species grows on calcareous rocks such as dolomite and limestone. It resembles Pellaea glabella, with which it often grows, but can easily be distinguished by the hairy stipe and stalked pinnae and pinnules.

It is at home in limestone cliffs across central and midwestern North America, into Mexico and Central America.
It is suitable for a rock garden site with good drainage and a limestone substrate.

Evergreen

Grow in a shady, well-drained spot in the UK, in lime-rich soil. It is only evergreen when the winters are mild. Protect against heavy rain. Indoors the fern thrives in broad, shallow dishes or hanging baskets because of its shallow roots, even in fairly dark spots. It requires light, well-drained soil, rich in humus, e.g, equal parts of sand or vermiculite, leaf-mould or peat, and some lime. Keep relatively moist and do not allow the plant to dry out. Do not water the leaves directly - especially in winter - to prevent infections, and spray occasionally. Temperature 14-20C, in winter 12-15C. During the growing season, feed once every 2 or 3 weeks. Propagate by dividing in spring.

pellaeaatropurpureapforwikimediacommons

Pellaea atropurpurea (purple cliffbrake) foliage. Date: 20 July 2016. This image is Image Number 5550677 at Insect Images, a source for entomological images operated by The Bugwood Network at the University of Georgia and the USDA Forest Service. By Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org via Wikimedia Commons.

Frond forms of Pellaea atropurpurea. Date: July 2009. By Jaknouse via Wikimedia Commons.

More photos.
Yet more.
and.

 

Distribution Map in USA.

pellaeaatropurpureapfigurewikimediacommons

Pellaea andromedifolia (Pellaea andromedifolia var. pubescens, Pellaea andromedifolia var. rubens)

Coffee Fern, Coffeeberry Fern, Cliff Brake Fern, Coffee Cliffbrake

Native to United States (California and Oregon) and Mexico (Baja California).

Semi-hardy, Zone (7), 8; reportedly can endure temperatures as low as -13C (9F)

The common name alludes to the mature leaflets, which bear a resemblance to coffee beans.

The main rachis of the fronds of this fern is often zig-zagged. The segments are blunt, oblong in shape and dark green. Plants need an open, well-drained mixture of neutral to acid reaction, good light and air movement.

Leaves are 6-12 inches (15-30) long, 3-6 (7.5-15) wide.

Each segment may curl under along its edges. The leaves are green when new, then turn red, purplish, or brown.

Fronds are pale to bluish green but age to purplish or coffee brown.

"Pellaea comes from the Greek pellos, dusky, an apt description of foliage colour. The 50-70 species are primarily of rocky dryland sites in the Western Hemisphere.The fern's exposure is tempered by the shade of rocks that collect and funnel the minimal dessert moisture to a relatively cool ferny root run. They want bright airy exposures, but not quite full sun, and turn spindly in too much shade. Tuck their long-ranging roots in moist but well-drained crevices in rocky sites and give them a gritty top dressing. They are good candidates for container culture, but where they can be grown in customized soil and moved around when in need of attention." from The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richie Steffen and Sue Olsen. Published by Timber Press in 2015, Second printing 2017. ISBN 978-1-60469-474-1

6-18 x 6-12
(15-45 x 15-30)

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan in temperature 70-80F (21-27C) at any time; division of plants in February or April, "when the plants have rhizomatous roots. Plant in a soil composed of 2 parts peat to 1 each of loam and mortar rubbish.

Many of the species are best grown in hanging baskets from which the pendent fronds are best seen. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight, or the fronds will turn yellow." from The New Illustrated Gardening Encyclopedia Edited by Ruchard Sudell. Published by Oldhams Press Limited prior to 1936.

Suitable in UK and warm temperate regions for

Acid Soil.
Rock Garden.
Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil.
Woodlands.
Coastal Districts.
Sun-Tolerant.
Heated Greenhouse where external temperatures can be lower than -10C

 

Greenhouse Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns. First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and sandstone. Pot or plant, March.
Position, well-drained pots in shady part of greenhouse or in beds or rockeries in shade. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards.
Temperature,
September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 60-65F (15-18C)

Difficult to establish and needs summer water the first year. After that they increase in size and vigor and are drought tolerant.

A small to medium fern with slender, creeping rhizomes and loosely clustered fronds. Grows under high light in well-drained, moist-dry garden soil with coarse sand.

Pellaea andromedifolia is found on dry Western facing sunny banks, in coastal, Mojave Desert, and California chaparral and woodlands habitats. It is able to take long periods without water, when it will shrivel and appear dead. Then shortly after rainfall new growth appears quickly from the ground. It is not crown forming, but spreading slowly and forming clumps.

Generally rocky or dry areas; Elevation: 30--1800 m. See Botanical Illustration on same page.

Communities for Pellaea andromedifolia: Chaparral, Mixed-evergreen Forest and Central Oak Woodland.

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Photo of Pellaea andromedifolia at the Regional Parks Botanic Garden, Berkeley, California. Date: April 2007. By Stan Shebs via Wikimedia Commons.

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Pellaea andromedifolia (Coffee Fern) - El Portal, Mariposa County, California. Date: 14 June 2012. By Sandy Rae via Wikimedia Commons.
 

Notholaena standleyi (Cheilanthes standleyi, Cheilanthes hookeri ; Notholaena candida var. quinque-fidopalmata ; Notholaena hookeri ; Notholaena sulphurea var. quinqu-ifidopalmata ; Chrysochosma hookeri)

Cloak Fern, Star Cloak Fern, Standley's cloak fern, Northern Desert Star Cloakfern, Northern Desert Star

Native to the southwestern United States and Mexico.

The genus name comes from the Greek nothos, false, and chlaena, cloak, referring to the blade margins, which are not reflexed as in the similar genus Cheilanthes.

It has pentagonal blades densely covered with a whitish powder on the lower surface, and the hardly enrolled indusium is narrow.

An attractive fern with broad, dull green fronds with the undersurface covered with yellow or white waxy powder. In dry periods the fronds curl inwards to form a ball. Plants are clumping and look attractive among rocks. They need bright light, well-drained gravelly soils of a neutral to alkaline pH and plenty of air movement.

It is locally common in rock cracks and sheltered pockets under boulders in dry exposed sites.

4-12 x
(10-30 x )

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and Their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix)

 

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of fine sandy peat in pans under bell-glass in temperature 75-85F (24-29C) at any time; division at potting time.

It takes 13 days to germinate and sporulates from late spring to fall. The spore is transported by air and water.

Suitable for

Terrarium in Conservatory in temperate regions.

Limestone or Basic Soils.
Xerophytic Fern. Colour in Fern Fronds.
Drier Soil in
Rock Garden with Sun-Tolerance in native habitat.

Herbaceous Stove Fern.

A small fern with compact rhizomes and fronds in a cluster. Requires high light in moist-dry, well-drained garden soil preferably mixed with coarse sand or gravel.

Notholaena standleyi is a perennial species that typically grows in desert regions at elevations from 300 to 2100 m. It is found on rocky hillsides, usually in the crevices created by limestone and granite boulders that provide the partial shade the plant prefers. During periods of drought, the frond may curl and become brown until water is available, an adaptation to the semi-arid environments it inhabits. At lower elevations, it sometimes grows alongside Notholaena californica.

notholaenastanleyipforwikimediacommons

Stove and Greenhouse Ferns. Fronds divided, upper surface green, under covered with white powder or scales. Height from 3 to 18 inches (7.5-45cm). First introduced mid-eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand, with little charcoal and finely broken sandstone.
Position, pots in shady part of house. Pot, February or March. Water moderately October to February, freely afterwards. Syringing not required.
Temperature,
Stove species, September to March 55-65F (13-18C), March to September 65-75F (18-24C)
Greenhouse, September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). Notholaena bonariensis is impatient of water on fronds.

Notholaena standleyi — Standley Cloak Fern. Substrate is highly weathered gneiss; At the Phoenix Mountains Preserve, Maricopa County, Arizona.
Date: 5 January 2008. By Mike via Wikimedia Commons.

Notholaena standleyi distribution in US. Date: 10 April 2012. By USDA via Wikimedia Commons.

See photos.

See Notholaena standleyi in the desert house at the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh

See dry foliage balls and green fronds from Eco Landscaping.

notholaenastanleyipfigurewikimediacommons

Xerophytes should be planted with their crowns slightly above the soil. If using pots, make sure that the soil level is close to the rim in order to reduce the amount of water that could be caught in the pot during watering. A process known as double potting maintains uniform soil moisture over a longer time. The fern is planted in a porous clay pot, which in turn is planted in a larger clay pot, usually 5-7.5 cms (2-3 inches) wider than the first. The same soil mix is used in both pots.
Xerophytes can be successively grown in terrariums if the soil moisture is carefully monitored and the humidity not excessive. Soil water evaporates slowly in a terrarium, thus maintaining a more constant moisture level. In such a protected environment fronds may develop more fully than in nature.
Outdoors, xerophytes are often planted in trough gardens, among rocks, or on well-drained sites. Xerophytic ferns are extremely sensitive to overwatering and can die if overwatered only a few times, and so they should be planted away from plants that require more water. Whether in the ground or in pots, the plants should be watered early in the morning so that any water settling on the fronds will evaporate during the day.
Most xerophytic ferns go dormant during the summer in their native habitats. In cultivation, however, dormancy might not occur. In addition, many xerophytic ferns grow more slowly or go dormant as cool weather approaches. Dormant or slow-growing plants need less water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2