Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN as Sun-Tolerant Fern Page 1 of 4
"Ferns seldom look their best when growing in direct sun (if they grow at all in such intense light). The following ferns appear reasonably attractive if grown in places with direct morning or late-afternoon sun. Some tolerate full sun if the skies are often overcast. Elsewhere they need filtered light during the hottest part of the day. Those species marked with an (*) will tolerate full sun only if soil moisture and humidity are adequate." from Chapter 9 of Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Aglaomorpha coronans

 

 

 

 

 

item1p1

 

item1a14a

Athyrium filix-femina

Lady Fern is a Native UK Plant.

Lance-shaped pinnatified light green fronds

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Lady Ferns and their Allies

Ferns suitable for Outdoor Containers

Ferns for Wet Soils

Cold-Hardy Ferns

This deciduous lady fern is a Missouri native that typically occurs in wooded valleys along streams, on rich wooded slopes and on floors of ravines. Light green, finely-divided fronds grow up to 3' (90 cms) long.
Grow in a shady border or damp woodland by a stream or pond.

item1c12a1

 

item1a1l1a

Blechnum appendiculatum

 

 

 

 

 

item1d1a

 

item1a2a1

Cheilanthes, most species

 

 

 

 

 

item1e1a

 

item1a3a1

Cibotium glaucum *

 

 

 

 

 

item1c1a1

 

item1a1a1a

Cyrtomium falcatum

Japanese Holly Fern

 

Cyrtomium falcatum and cultivars

Spreading, glossy, leathery dark green fronds have holly-like pinnae

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Suitable for Indoor Decoration
Ferns for Hanging Baskets
Ferns suitable for Outdoor Containers
Cold-Hardy Ferns
Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles)

Plants are hardy, long-lived and succeed equally well in containers or in the ground. A variety of positions from shade to full sun can be suitable. It is also a useful indoor fern.
The perfect fern for that cold, well-lit entryway where nothing else will seem to grow and where your ficus is constantly dropping leaves.

item1d1a1

 

item1a2a1a

Dennstaedtia punctilobula *

 

 

 

 

 

item1c11a1

 

item1a1k1a

Doodia media

 

 

 

 

 

item1d11a1

 

item1a2k1a

Dryopteris erythrosora

Autumn Fern, Buckler Fern, Japanese Shield Fern, Copper Shield Fern

Hardy, Zone 5(6).

It is native to woodland hillsides and mountain slopes in Japan, China and Taiwan. Genus name from Greek dryas meaning oak and pteris meaning fern in reference to the presence of some species of wood ferns in woodland areas populated with oaks. Specific epithet comes from the Greek words erythros meaning red and sora meaning sori in reference to its red sori.

Copper-red juvenile fronds turning to slightly shiny dark green fronds and ascending to erect or prostrate, branching rhizomes.
In cold climates they may be bright red.
New fronds are produced throughout the growing season, and in winter the fronds remain upright, not reclining as in many evergreen ferns.

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Grows in a vase-shaped clump.

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Greenhouse Fern Type.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water moderately Oct-Mar, freely afterwards. Temperature, Sep-Mar 55-60F (13-15C), Mar-Sep 65-75F (18-24C)
Culture of Greenhouse species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Position, well-drained pots, borders or rock gardens in shade. Pot or plant, February, March or April. Water moderately Oct-Feb, freely afterwards. Temperature, Oct-Mar 40-50F (5-10C), Mar-Oct 55-65F (13-18C). Culture of Hardy species: Soil, ordinary, light, rich. Position, shady borders or rock gardens. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather May-Sep. Top-dress annually with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. Protect in severe weather with bracken or litter. Do not remove dead fronds until April.
Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown on surface of fine sandy peat under bell-glass in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants at potting or planting time. Hardy species by spores sown on surface of sandy soil in shady cold frame; division in April.

Border and Foundation Ferns.
Cold-Hardy Ferns. Colour in Fern Fronds.
Conservatory or Greenhouse Fern.
Evergreen and
Deciduous Ferns.
Ground Cover Fern.
Lime-hating Ferns.
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.

 

Use this clump-forming fern in Moist woodland or shade gardens. May be massed in woodland areas as a ground cover.

Easy evergreen Fern to grow and it will succeed in situations from deep shade to partial sun together with a range of soils providing the drainage is adequate.
One of our recommended plants, it needs plenty of moisture and contrasts beautifully with evergreen ferns and other woodland plants.

It also makes a good pot subject.

Easily grown in average, slightly acidic, medium to wet soils. Prefers consistently moist, humusy soils that are rich in organic matter. Soils must not be allowed to dry out. Site in locations sheltered from strong winds to protect the fronds.

dryopteriserythrosorapfrond1denverbotanic

dryopteriserythrosorapfrond2coblands

Frond from Image 1 from Dryopteris erythrosora of Denver Botanic Gardens.

 

 

Form from Image 1 from Dryopteris erythrosora of Denver Botanic Gardens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Juvenile foliage of Dryopteris erythrosora from Coblands Nursery.

 

Sori from
Dryopteris erythrosora

日本語: ベニシダ

Place:Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka, Japan. By I. Kenpei via Wikimedia Commons

dryopteriserythrosorapfor1denverbotanic

dryopteriserythrosorapsoriwikimediacommons

Dryopteris ludoviciana

 

 

 

 

 

item1c10a1

 

item1a1j1a

Lygodium japonicum

 

 

 

 

 

item1d10a1

 

item1a2j1a

Microlepia platyphylla

 

 

 

 

 

item1m1a

 

item1a11a1

Microlepia strigosa

 

 

 

 

 

item1c9a1

 

item1a1i1a

Onoclea sensibilis
*

Sensitive Fern

Upright, then arching, lance-shaped or triangular, pinnate, pale green sterile fronds.

24 x indefinite
(60 x indefinite)

Miscellaneous Ferns

Suitable for Indoor Decoration

Ferns suitable for Outdoor Containers

Ferns for Wet Soils

Cold-Hardy Ferns

Open swamps, thickets, marshes, or low woods, in sunny or shaded locations, often forming thick stands from sea level to elevations of 1500 metres.
A coarse weedy fern commonly found in wet soils where it may form spreading colonies. Plants grow very easily in a pot or moist garden situation. In wet soils, the plants will stand considerable exposure to sun.
Thrives at the edge of water or in a damp shady border.

item1c11a1a

 

item1a1k1a1

Osmunda regalis

Royal Fern, Flowering Fern

 

Osmunda, all species

A fibrous rootstock bears dense clumps of triangular-ovate-pinnate, bright green sterile fronds. In summer, partially fertile fronds, to 6 feet long, have tassel-like tips, with brown or rust-coloured sporangia covering the much smaller pinnae.

72 x 144
(180 x 360)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Ferns suitable for Outdoor Containers

Ferns for Wet Soils

Cold-Hardy Ferns

Grow in a damp border, or at the margins of a pond or stream.
This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

item1n1a

 

item1a12a1

Pellaea, most species

 

 

 

 

 

item1c8a1

 

item1a1h1a

Phlebodium pseudoaureum

 

 

 

 

 

item1d8a1

 

item1a2h1a

Pityrogramma, most species

 

 

 

 

 

item1k1a

 

item1a9a1

Platycerium veitchii

 

 

 

 

 

item1c7a1

 

item1a1g1a

Polystichum polyblepharum Bristle Fern, Japanese Sword Fern, Japanese Tassel fern

Hardy in Zone 5 (6)

Suitable for Zones 5-9

Erect rhizomes and dark green, glossy, evergreen fronds. This species is easy to grow.

This species is native to Japan, southern Korea, and eastern China.

It performs well in moist shady conditions. Plants form a tidy clump of arching dark green fronds with a glossy finish. Foliage remains evergreen in mild winter regions, but old fronds may be trimmed back in the spring. Well-behaved and not invasive.

Shuttlecocks of spreading lance-shaped 2-pinnate shiny dark green fronds covered with golden hairs when they unfurl.

12-23 x 18-23
(30-60 x 45-60)

Plants in Combination: "It demonstrates another good solid principle of planting design: foliage can be just as exciting as flowers, and it lasts a lot longer. 3 varieties of ferns and a groundcover serve as underplantings for a cutleaf, weeping Japanese maple. In the foreground is Japanese tassel fern, Polystichum polyblepharum. In the middle a Japanese painted fern, Athyrium niponicum var. pictum grows out of a groundcover of bugleweed, Ajuga reptans ‘Catlin’s Giant’. The large background planting is Japanese shield fern, Dryopteris erythrosora. All of these plantings thrive in soil that has been enriched with peat moss to a depth of about 12 inches and is kept lightly moist."

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Sun Tolerant.
Woodland.
Accent Plant.
Border and Foundation.
Outdoor Containers.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Ground Cover

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

This is a beautiful low to medium-sized fern - Excellent for a woodland edging.

A most striking fern as one of selected perennials for Oklahoma Gardens.

Grow in a Rock Garden or well-drained border in the shade.
Newly emerging croziers are covered in scales and, as they develop, the tips fold backwards to make the 'tassels' of the Tassel Fern. As the fronds age they turn a glossy deep green and are beautifully presented in a slightly recurved rosette, like a soft light-reflecting mirror in a shady spot. Given a deep, rich and moist soil this can grow to enormous proportions - exceptionally to 120cm. New growth is early so protect from late frosts.

polystichumpolyblepharumpsoriwikimediacommons1

 

polystichumpolyblepharumpfol1wikimediacommons1

Sori of Polystichum polyblepharum in botanical garden in Batumi.
By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

Emerging fronds of Japanese Tassel Fern Polystichum Polyblepharum.
By Harum via Wikimedia Commons

 

イノデ. Mature Japanese tassel fern (Polystichum polyblepharum) No.1.
By harum.koh from Kobe city, Japan via Wikimedia Commons

 

イノデ. www.inaturalist.
org/calendar/harumkoh/2015/4/4. Juvenile Japanese tassel fern (Polystichum polyblepharum)
By harum.koh from Kobe city, Japan via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumpolyblepharumpforwikimediacommons1

 

polystichumpolyblepharumpfol2wikimediacommons1

Pteridium aquilinum *

 

 

 

 

 

item1j1a

 

item1a8a1

Pteris cretica

 

 

 

 

 

item1c6a1

 

item1a1f1a

Pteris tremula

 

 

 

 

 

item1d6a1

 

item1a2f1a

Rumohra adiantiformis

 

 

 

 

 

item1i1a

 

item1a7a1

Sphaeropteris cooperi

 

 

 

 

 

item1c5a1

 

item1a1e1a

Thelypteris noveboracensis

 

 

 

 

 

item1d5a1

 

item1a2e1a

Thelypteris puberula

 

 

 

 

 

item1h1a

 

item1a6a1

Todea barbara

 

 

 

 

 

item1c4a1

 

item1a1d1a

Adiantum trapeziforme (Adiantum formosissimum, Adiantum rhomboideum, Adiantum eminens, Adiantum trapeziformer oblongatum)

Diamond maidenhair Fern, Giant Maidenhair Fern

Tender in
Zone 12-13

Native to Central America, Mexico and the West Indies.

It has triangular blades up to four-pinnate, with a terminal pinna similar to the lateral ones.

40 x 40
(100 x 100)

Maidenhair Fern

Stove Species Fern type.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand, charcoal. Pot, March. Water moderately Sep-Mar, freely afterwards. Position, shady at all times. Plant hardy species in April in equal parts peat and loam, in shady position. Temperature, stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit (21-27 degrees Centigrade); greenhouse species, Sep-Mar 50-55 degrees Fahrenheit (10-13 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade). Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Sun-tolerant Fern.

Ferns found on Limestone or Basic Soils.

Ferns for Hanging Baskets

Grows in moist potting mix.
A very large and attractive maidenhair which is commonly grown in the tropics, where it may readily naturalize itself in gardens and the ferneries. Because of its large size; plants are best grown in the ground. Will tolerate considerable sun and likes neutral to alkaline soils.

Evergreen but deciduous in cooler climates. Can be grown in both pots and hanging baskets in Australia. A little mist spraying each week to increase humidity will be beneficial in summer. The soil needs to be moist humus rich and well drained. Fertilise with a little liquid seaweed fertiliser in spring and again in mid summer.

Other germination instructions.

Adiantumtrapeziformepforwikimediacommons

Picture of Adiantum trapeziforme. By Oeropium via Wkimedia Commons.

Ferns Of The World VS. WORLDWIDE DIVERSITY

Families

98.04%

Based on an estimate of 51 families worldwide. Total number of families on the Ferns Of The World website = 50.

 

Genera

78.04%

Based on an estimate of 337 genera worldwide. Total number of genera on the Ferns Of The World website = 263.

 

species

8.68%

Based on an estimate of 11,916 species worldwide. Total number of species on the Ferns Of The World website = 1034.

Polystichum scopulinum
Western Holly Fern, Rock Sword Fern, polystic des rochers, Mountain Holly Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 4

It is native to much of western North America, and it is known from disjunct occurrences in eastern Canada, as well.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and leathery, semi-evergreen fronds. This species is difficult to grow.

This fern produces several erect, narrowly lance-shaped leaves up to 50 centimeters (20 inches) in length. The leaves narrow near the bases. Each leaf is divided into many lance-shaped or oblong leaflets up to 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) long. The toothed leaflets are sometimes twisted on their axes and overlapping.

The species is native to western North America and Canada.

20 x 12-40
(50 x 30-100)

 

Habitat in Moist rock crevices in subalpine zone, and moist rocks along rivers in the valleys.

Photos

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Sun-Tolerant.
Acid Soils.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Rock crevices and at base of boulders, serpentine to acidic substrates, usually exposed to full sun; 0--3500 m; B.C., Nfld., Que.; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo.

A small leathery fern suitable for planting among rocks.

It is found in dry coniferous forest or more commonly on cliffs and talus slopes.  It is more frequent east of the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains; it also grows in eastern Canada.

It grows in rocky habitat, often in full sun. It is widespread but mostly found in small populations, and is noted to be most abundant on serpentine soils - Soldiers Delight Natural Environmental Area in Baltimore County, Maryland, covers 1,900 acres of serpentine barren. The area has over 38 rare, threatened, or endangered plant species as well as rare insects, rocks and minerals.

polystichumscopulinumpfigurewikimediacommons

Fig. 35. Polystichum scopulinum from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons

Polystichum scopulinum by Sheri Hagwood. Bureau of Land Management. United States, ID, Bureau of Land Management Jarbidge Resource Area. August 1, 2006 via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumscopulinumpforwikimediacommons

Ceratopteris thalictroides
(Acrostichum thalictroides, Ceratopteris froesii, Ceratopteris gaudichaudii, Ceratopteris siliquosa )
Water Fern, Pod Fern, Oriental Water Fern, Water Sprite, Indian Fern, Water Hornfern, Water Elk's Horn

Tender in Zone 9

It is found throughout the tropics of the world, except Africa. Tropical America - Florida.

The name comes from the Greek keras, horn, and pteris, fern, alluding to the antler-like fertile leaves.

 

AC Tropical Fish (Aquatic Community.com, Aquatic Community) was founded in 2004 as a resource and meeting place for tropical aquarium fish keepers. It has since then grown into a comprehensive aquarium portal featuring information not only about tropical freshwater fish but also about all other types of aquarium fish.

Buds tend to grow on dying fronds.

The bright green, finely-cut, fertile leaves are erect and are produced above water. In Asia the foliage of this species is used in salads and is said to have a peppery taste. This genus has the distinction of having the fastest life cycle of any fern. The plants can take as little as 1 month to go from spores to mature, spore-bearing plants, though 3 or 4 months is more typical. The plants live about 1 year and are usuually perpetuated by the numerous buds that form on the blade surface, typically in margins of the sinuses. The buds detach and float away from the parent plant.

It can provide useful shade to shyer fish and small fry. The dense roots are said to take nutrients out of the water helping to prevent the growth of algae.
Small adventitious plantlets are grown on the mother plant and are then released when ready.
In small open aquariums it can grow out of the aquarium and form beautiful surface leaves.

30 x
(75 x )

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: Mature plants can be propagated by division of the rhizome, which may be allowed to float or, if grown submerged, held in place by coarse gravel. If plants are to be rooted in mud, garden soil with little organic matter will do. Some growers recommend a mixture of about half peat and half sand mixed with 10% top soil. Plants that are rooted in mud need their fronds kept moist. Temperatures must be maintained close to 27C (80F) for good growth. The plants and buds decline when temperatures are below 20C (68F), and if lost, new plants must be started from spores.

Propagation: By spores sown in February on surface of compost in pan or water as for culture in next column, vivaparous forms increased by pegging down leaves into soft mud, detaching later.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Ferns for wet Soils.
Sun-Tolerant Fern.
Rapidly Growing Fern.
Fern for Acid Soils.
Fern for Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Stove aquatic fern that is usually only of annual duration, but when carefully grown may be a biennial.

Culture: Soil, sifted loam and charcoal with a little leaf-mould. Position, in pots or pans submerged to rim in tank of water for floating kinds, submerged kinds in aquarium compost. Plant, spring or summer. All need subdued light, moist, warm atmosphere. Temperature, September to March 55-60F (13-15C), March to September, about 75F (24C).

It grows best in soil with a pH reading of 5-9 and in very high amounts of light. It usually grows quickly.
This plant normally grows fast, but the addition of CO2 (CO2  concentrations of under 20 mg/l are sufficient) may be necessary to promote growth.

Grows in wet garden soil. Typically, the plants root in mud.

It succeeds best in a pot of good loam, wholly submerged in a tank of warm water in a stove house. It produces spores freely, or may be propagated by the young plants that form on all the fronds.

Swampy areas, swamp forests, sago (Metroxylon) swamps, marshes, natural and man-made ponds, mostly in stagnant water bodies or in still pockets along slow flowing rivers, full sun to moderate shade, from sea level to 1300 m, but mostly less than 500 m altitude. Sometimes massed on or around logs or other floating vegetation, once recorded in a fresh-water mangrove (Sonneratia) growing among the finger-like pneumatophores.
It is widely used as an aquarium plant, and is prized for its versatility, being used both as a floating plant and a plant that can be rooted in the substrate.

"The water temperature should ideally be kept above 20 degrees C." from the Aquatic Community.

ceratopteristhalictroidespfrondwikimediacommons

 

ceratopteristhalictroidespfigurewikimediacommons

English: Foliage of Ceratopteris thalictroides
日本語: ミズワラビ By Show_ryu via Wikimedia Commons

Figure: Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas, insbesondere seiner tropischen Gebiete : Grundzge der Pflanzen-verbreitung im Afrika und die Charak-terpflanzen Afrikas. Ceratopteris thalictroides. By Engler, Adolf, 1844-1930 via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

English: Two floating aquatic fern: Salvinia minima (right) and Ceratopteris thalictroides (left) floating in aquarium. Identified by user Le.Loup.Gris.
Español: Dos helechos acuáticos flotantes: Salvinia minima (derecha) y Ceratopteris thalictroides (izquierda) flotando en acuario.By Pristigaster via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

ceratopteristhalictroidespforwikimediacommons

Marsilea coromandelina (Marsilea trichocarpa)
Water Clover, pepperwort

 

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

 

 

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

coromandelina: named after the type locality at the Coromandel coast (south-eastern tip of India).
Habitat: Arid bushveld regions, upper limits of seasonal or temporal vleis and pans, edge of lakes and rivers.
In Zimbabwe confined to dry lowveld in Gonaredzu Reserve (Jacobsen, 1983).
Worldwide distribution:Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Kenya, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Also Madagascar, socotra and India.

 

Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

Distributed in Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Kenya, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Also Madagascar, socotra and India.

See images.

Marsilea drummondii
Nardoo, Common Nardoo

Probably Semi-Hardy

It is native to Australia, where it is widespread and common, particularly in inland regions.
In northern Victoria, M. drummondii has been found where flooding occurs in spring-summer, lasts one to six months, and is shallow (less than 10 cm deep).

Marsilea is a genus of approximately 65 species of aquatic ferns of the family Marsileaceae. These small plants are of unusual appearance and do not resemble common ferns. Common names include water clover and four-leaf clover because the long-stalked leaves have four clover-like lobes and are either held above water or submerged.

Deciduous fronds with greenish gray leaflets and (nonaquatic forms) conspicuous white, silky hairs. Roots are present on the nodes and internodes. This species is native to Australia, where it is called "nardoo".

The sterile fronds are erect when growing in mud, floating when growing in water, each consisting of 2 pairs of leaflets arranged in a fourleaf-clover pattern. The flexible stems allow the plants to adapt to small changes in water level (although M. drummondii has been seen in water up to 1 m deep), while keeping their leaves on the water surface to access light and carbon dioxide.

 

Parts of Marsilea drummondii contain an enzyme which destroys thiamine (vitamin B1), leading to brain damage in sheep and horses. During floods in the Gwydir River basin 2,200 sheep died after eating nardoo. Three-quarters of the sheep that were affected did however respond to thiamine injections.

The sporocarp can be toxic due to high levels of thiaminase, which destroys thiamine. Consumption of large amounts can cause beriberi. It has been known to poison sheep, as well as humans.

Aquatic Ferns

Propagation: The spores are of separate sexes (male and female) and contained in brown, hard, bean-like structures called sporocarps. These are extremely durable and remain viable for up to 100 years if kept dry. To germinate the spores, take a piece of sand paper or a rough nail file and abrade the sporocarp until the white inside is visible. Then put the sporocarp in shallow water under a bright light.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Sun-Tolerant.
Rapidly Growing Ferns.

 

Stove and Greenhouse evergreen ferns.

 

San Marcos Growers - Even if you don't have a "pond" the size of Zaca Lake - Santa Barbara Countys's only natural lake - you can "water garden" using smaller ponds or even containers. San Marcos Growers is pleased to offer a diverse line of plants for ponds, bogs and fountains. We also manufacture a large pot that is suitable as a small pond of fountain. We feel that by using a very limited area within the garden for a pond or fountain, a feeling of cool lushness is achieved without requiring copious amounts of water, a precious resource in the dry California garden. This type of planting is sometimes referred to as an oasis within the garden. For your oasis check out our pond plants and links to other water plant sites.

Grows best under high light in aquatic conditions or in a moist to wet garden soil or sand-peat mix.

It is a rhizomatous perennial aquatic fern that roots in mud substrates and produces herbage that floats on the surface of quiet water bodies. It occurs in water up to one meter deep. It occurs in abundance after floods. It can form mats on the water's surface and cover the ground in carpets as floodwaters recede.

Plants grow rapidly and can form sporocarps within three months.

In the home garden pond, Common Nardoo grows as a perennial. It is hardy, thriving in a full sun to a semi-shade gradient, withstanding Canberra frosts and regenerating quickly from stresses. Transplant from the pond into a pot to allow propagation and algal treatment. A loam should be used with a gravel surface mulch to reduce leaching of nutrients into the pond. To propagate, remove the plant from the pot and divide into new plants by slicing through the ‘root ball’ with a knife or secateurs.
Common Nardoo attracts frogs to the garden, providing good breeding habitat.

marsilleadrummondiipfiddleheadwikimediacommons

 

marsilleadrummondiipgarwikimediacommons

Propagation continued
Within minutes it will germinate and extrude a transparent, tail-like, gelatinous ring called the Sorophore, to which the sori are attached. The sori resemble grains of white rice arranged in a row. Within a few more minutes the sori will release the small male and much larger female spores that will quickly germinate and fertilize in the water. After a week or so, the fertilized female spores, which will appear as conspicuous white dots, can be picked up with an eye-dropper and released over wet sand or mud. Keep the planting wet and in bright light. Young plants should emerge and grow rapidly, maturing in 12 to 18 months.

The plant produces sporocarps which can remain viable for 50 years and only release spores after being thoroughly soaked. The sporocarps are dispersed by birds that eat them but cannot digest them, and by flowing water.

Marsilea drummondii leaf and fiddlehead. Date: 4 February 2017. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0.

Marsilea drummondii in water. By Mark Marathon via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-4.0.

Figure of Marsilea drummondii in Comprehensive catalogue of Queensland plants, both indigenous and naturalised. To which are added, where known, the aboriginal and other vernacular names; with numerous illustrations, and copious notes on the properties, features, &c., of the plants. By Bailey, Frederick Manson, 1827-1915 via Wikimedia Commons.

Common nardoo, Marsilea dummondii, on a pond in the Dandenongs. By Casliber via Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA-3.0

marsilleadrummondiipfigurewikimediacommons

 

marsilleadrummondiipforwikimediacommons

Marsilea ferns are grown as novelty plants in aquariums, ponds, and wide pots. If the pots are submerged a few inches in water, the plants may produce floating leaves. It usually grows vigorously and spreads by rhizomes The plants do best in well-watered, sunny locations. They are typically planted in garden soil or a mixture of half sand and peat. Mixes with high amounts of organic matter are apt to sour in standing water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2