Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


USE OF FERN as Outdoor Use in Northeastern United States
"Hardy to very hardy ferns are the only ones suitable for the Northeastern United States, where prolonged periods of cold are common. This area includes mostly Zones 3-6. Summers are hot and humid in some areas and often difficult for ferns that prefer cooler summers." from Chapter 9 of Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
 

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Adiantum pedatum
American Maidenhair, five-finger fern

Hardy to -37 degrees Centigrade (-35 degrees Fahrenheit),
Zone 3

Grows in North America, Central and Eastern United States, Canada, Alaska, North India, Japan and eastern Asia.

"Zones 3-8 native to North America and East Asia, the 8-20 forked pinnate leaf segments are in a horse-shape arrangemen from the central stalk" from University of Vermont

Dainty, bright green fronds are held aloft on shiny black stems. The fronds are in clusters from the clump-forming rhizome.

12-24 x 12-18
(30-60 x 30-45)

Spacing 10 (25)

Dainty, bright green fronds are held aloft on shiny black stems, creating a light, airy texture in the woodland garden. In rich soil and bright shade it will spread by shallow rhizomes to form a dense groundcover. Found in the humus-rich woodlands and moist woods of Eastern North America. Easy to grow as long as the soil is loose and rich.
In time, good moist compost and filtered light this will form a lush clump gradually spreading its welcome wands of foliage. Brighter light will reduce the size of the fronds but full sun does not make for a happy plant! It is content in gardens from Zone 2 (where it is clearly one of the most ornamental options) to Zone 9

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum)

Hardy Species Fern of the Stove, greenhouse and hardy fern types.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand, charcoal. Pot, March. Water moderately Sep-Mar, freely afterwards. Position, shady at all times. Plant hardy species in April in equal parts peat and loam, in shady position. Temperature, stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit (21-27 degrees Centigrade); greenhouse species, Sep-Mar 50-55 degrees Fahrenheit (10-13 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade). Propagation: By spores sown on fine sandy peat, kept moist and shaded under bell-glass.

Suitable for

Border and Foundation Ferns

Cold-hardy Ferns

Ground Cover

Lime-hating Ferns

Shade-Tolerant Ferns

Clump-forming. Deciduous Fern. In Part Shade and Full Shade.

It can be found in humus-rich woodlands and moist woods in acidic to neutral, moist, well-drained soils. Does not tolerate clay. Happier in cooler climates and can take more sun in northern zones. Spreads by shallow rhizomes. Propagate by dividing rhizomes in spring. Best used as a groundcover in the woodland or rock garden or as an edge or border in the shaded garden.

A hardy fern which thrives in cold districts, but which is very difficult to grow in areas with a warm to hot climate. Plants may be deciduous in cold regions.It likes shady conditions and plenty of moisture and are best grown in the ground as they dislike being pot-bound. Acid organically-rich loams are very suitable and the plants appreciate applications of surface mulches.

Adiantumpedatumpfrondwikimediacommons

Frond from Image 3 from Adiantum pedatum of Denver Botanic Gardens.

Form from Image 2 from Adiantum pedatum of Denver Botanic Gardens.

Adiantumpedatumpforwikimediacommons

Adiantum pedatum cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

Adiantum pedatum var. aleuticum - a form from Canada, Alaska and the states of north-western USA in which the branches of the fronds are strongly ascending and have fewer, more deeply-lobed pinnules. Deciduous and very cold hardy.

Adiantum pedatum var. subpumilum - a dwarf form originating from north-western North America and Vancouver Island off Canada. Fronds are somewhat glaucous and pinnules overlap to give a crowded impression. Very adaptable in cultivation. Comes true from spore.

Adiantum pedatum ssp. calderi - and upright form from north-eastern North America. Plants form a crowded clump and the fronds are glaucous with fairly small pinnules.

Adiantum pedatum 'Asiaticum' - a form with drooping fronds.

Adiantum pedatum 'Imbricatum' - another form often confused with var. aleuticum. It has crowded, stiffly erect fronds which are markedly glaucous. Attractive when planted among rocks.

 

Adiantum pedatum 'Japonicum' - a form from Japan with pinkish-bronze new fronds.

Adiantum pedatum 'Miss Sharples' - a form with yellowish-green new fronds.

Adiantum pedatum 'Montanum' - compact grower.

Deparia acrostichoides
(Athyrium thelypteroides, Diplazium acrostichoides, Lunathyrium thelypterioides)

Silver Glade Fern, Silvery Spleenwort - The name silvery comes from the fact that the indusia on the underside of the leaf have a silver color when the sori are close to ripening.

Very Hardy.
Zone 3(4)

Grows in North America, North India and China

Leaves (fronds) are once compound, lance-elliptic in outline, widest near the middle, narrowed at the base with a long taper at the tip end, 18 to 40 inches long, 5 to 10 inches wide, with 20 to 25 pairs of leaflets (pinnae) alternately attached along the stem.

Young fronds are yellow-green in color.

18-40 x 12
(45-100 x 30)

Lady Ferns and Their Allies

Hardy Fern Type. Culture of Stove and Greenhouse species: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, leaf-mould and sand. Pot Mar. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Temperature
stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade) Mar-Sep 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit (21-26 degrees Centigrade). Greenhouse, Sep-Mar 50-55 degrees Fahrenheit (10-13 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of Hardy Species: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, leaf-mould, sand and old mortar rubble. Position, old walls, rock gardens, moist shady borders for Lady Ferns.
Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat at any time. Hardy species by spores when ripe, and division in April.

Suitable for
Cold-Hardy Ferns.

Lime-hating Ferns.

Outdoor Containers.

Shade Tolerant.

Deciduous Fern.

An easy fern to grow which is well suited to temperate regions, but which sheds its fronds with the onset of cold weather in the winter. Plants form a neat tussock and favour organically-rich, loamy soil in a shady situation. New growth in the spring is particularly decorative.

Grows well under medium light in moist soil or potting mix.

Grow in Part Shade, Full Shade, with moist soil in deciduous forest, wooded bluffs, slopes and ravines

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Deparia acrostichoides fronds taken in bucks county Pa.
By Wasp32 via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

Deparia acrostichoides form taken in bucks county Pa.
By Wasp32 via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

 

Deparia acrostichoides macro of leaflets.
By Wasp32 via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

Deparia acrostichoides sori at Cataloochee, Smokies, North Carolina, 20131014.
By Wasp32 via Wikimedia Commons.

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Dryopteris erythrosora

Autumn Fern, Buckler Fern, Japanese Shield Fern, Copper Shield Fern

Hardy, Zone 5(6).

It is native to woodland hillsides and mountain slopes in Japan, China and Taiwan. Genus name from Greek dryas meaning oak and pteris meaning fern in reference to the presence of some species of wood ferns in woodland areas populated with oaks. Specific epithet comes from the Greek words erythros meaning red and sora meaning sori in reference to its red sori.

Copper-red juvenile fronds turning to slightly shiny dark green fronds and ascending to erect or prostrate, branching rhizomes.
In cold climates they may be bright red.
New fronds are produced throughout the growing season, and in winter the fronds remain upright, not reclining as in many evergreen ferns.

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Grows in a vase-shaped clump.

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Greenhouse Fern Type.
Culture of Stove Species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady part of stove. Pot, March. Water moderately Oct-Mar, freely afterwards. Temperature, Sep-Mar 55-60F (13-15C), Mar-Sep 65-75F (18-24C)
Culture of Greenhouse species: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Position, well-drained pots, borders or rock gardens in shade. Pot or plant, February, March or April. Water moderately Oct-Feb, freely afterwards. Temperature, Oct-Mar 40-50F (5-10C), Mar-Oct 55-65F (13-18C). Culture of Hardy species: Soil, ordinary, light, rich. Position, shady borders or rock gardens. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather May-Sep. Top-dress annually with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. Protect in severe weather with bracken or litter. Do not remove dead fronds until April.
Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown on surface of fine sandy peat under bell-glass in temperature 75-85F (24-30C) any time; division of plants at potting or planting time. Hardy species by spores sown on surface of sandy soil in shady cold frame; division in April.

Suitable for
Border and Foundation Ferns.

Cold-Hardy Ferns.

Colour in Fern Fronds.

Conservatory or Greenhouse Fern.

Evergreen and
Deciduous Ferns.

Ground Cover Fern.

Lime-hating Ferns.

Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.

Sun-Tolerant Fern.

 

Use this clump-forming fern in Moist woodland or shade gardens. May be massed in woodland areas as a ground cover.

Easy evergreen Fern to grow and it will succeed in situations from deep shade to partial sun together with a range of soils providing the drainage is adequate.
One of our recommended plants, it needs plenty of moisture and contrasts beautifully with evergreen ferns and other woodland plants.

It also makes a good pot subject.

Easily grown in average, slightly acidic, medium to wet soils. Prefers consistently moist, humusy soils that are rich in organic matter. Soils must not be allowed to dry out. Site in locations sheltered from strong winds to protect the fronds.

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Frond from Image 1 from Dryopteris erythrosora of Denver Botanic Gardens.

 

 

Form from Image 1 from Dryopteris erythrosora of Denver Botanic Gardens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Juvenile foliage of Dryopteris erythrosora from Coblands Nursery.

 

Sori from
Dryopteris erythrosora

日本語: ベニシダ

Place:Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka, Japan. By I. Kenpei via Wikimedia Commons

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Dryopteris goldiana (Aspidium goldianum)

Giant Wood Fern, Goldie's Fern.
Very hardy.
Zone 3-8

The species is native to eastern North America

The new fronds of this fern are covered with prominent white and brown scales and the flush on a large plant in spring is quite decorative.

Over 36 x 36
(90 x 90) in 5 years

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Hardy Fern Type.
Culture of Hardy species: Soil, ordinary, light, rich. Position, shady borders or rock gardens. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather May-Sep. Top-dress annually with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. Protect in severe weather with bracken or litter. Do not remove dead fronds until April.
Propagation: Hardy species by spores sown on surface of sandy soil in shady cold frame; division in April.

Suitable for
Cold-hardy Ferns.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Rock Garden and Wall ferns.

Shade-tolerant Fern.

Deciduous Fern. Plants grow easily in a shady position with plenty of moisture. In cold climates the fronds are deciduous.

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Detail of back of Dryopteris goldiana, showing sori. Photo was taken in early July, 2007. By Maria97 at English Wikipedia via Wikimedia Commons

 

Dryopteris goldiana - Botanical specimen in Jenkins Arboretum, 631 Berwyn Baptist Road, Devon, Pennsylvania, USA. By Daderot via Wikimedia Commons

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Dryopteris marginalis (Aspidium marginale, Nephrodium marginale, Polypodium marginale)

Eastern Wood Fern, marginal shield fern, marginal wood fern.
Very hardy.
Zone 2(3)

The species is native to northeastern North America, where it grows on or among rocks.

Fronds are dark blue-green and are carried in a tussock.
Marginal wood fern's name derives from the fact that the sori are located on the margins, or edges of the leaflets.
Evergreen fronds provide good interest to the winter landscape.

18-24 x 18-24
(45-60 x 45-60)

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Hardy Fern Type.
Culture of Hardy species: Soil, ordinary, light, rich. Position, shady borders or rock gardens. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather May-Sep. Top-dress annually with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure. Protect in severe weather with bracken or litter. Do not remove dead fronds until April.
Propagation: Hardy species by spores sown on surface of sandy soil in shady cold frame; division in April.

Suitable for
Accent Fern

Cold-hardy ferns.

Lime-hating Ferns.

Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.

Shade-tolerant Fern.

 

Grow in shady areas of the woodland, rock, native plant or wild garden. Mixes well with spring wildflowers, purple-leafed heucheras and hostas. Excellent as a specimen or in groups.

Evergreen Fern.
In nature this fern occurs in shady woodland, and is sometimes known as the Leather Woodfern. Plants grow easily in shade in a loamy soil.
It is found in damp shady areas throughout eastern North America. It favors moderately acid to circumneutral soils in cooler areas, but is fairly drought-resistant once established. In the warmer parts of its range, it is most likely to be found on north-facing non-calcareous rock faces. It is common in many altitudes throughout its range, from high ledges to rocky slopes and stream banks.

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Frond of Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray, dryoptère à sores marginaux, dryoptéride marginale. By David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons

 

Dryopteris marginalis sori, Tom Dorman State Nature Preserve Garrard County, Kentucky. By Masebrock at English Wikipedia via Wikimedia Commons

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Matteuccia struthiopteris
(Syn. Matteuccia pennsylvanica, Pteretis struthiopteris, Pteretis nodulosa, Struthiopteris pennsylvanica)

Ostrich Fern, Shuttlecock Fern

Very hardy.
Zone 2

Mid Green pinnate fronds taper at both ends and grow in a vase-like cluster around the robust rootstock.
Each cluster eventually develops a small trunk.

A vigorous fern which spreads by underground rhizomes, producng clusters of new fronds at intervals Flushes of new fronds are most decorative. Requires acid, loamy soil.

The sterile leaves are deciduous, but the fertile ones persist throughout the winter and shed their spores in early spring, sometimes over snow. Usually 1 or 2 new plants are produced each year from the stolons.

66 x 36
(165 x 90)

Spacing 24-30 (60-75)

Shielder Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Large hardy deciduous fern. Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margin of pond. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady, cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, Mar or Apr. Water copiously Apr-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
Propagation: By spores gathered just before the cases burst and sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould, cover with glass and keep moderately moist in a shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants Mar-Apr.

Suitable for

Fern for Acid Soils

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Border and Foundation Ferns.

Ground Cover Ferns.

Outdoor Containers.

Ferns for Wet Soils

Grow in moist shade in a woodland garden, a damp border or at the edge of a pond.
Great at the front of the border, in containers or as ground cover under deciduous trees.
Used as a foundation planting around houses.

Mass in moist, shady woodland areas, wild gardens or wet areas near streams or ponds. Combines well with astilbes or hostas. Plant in conjunction with early spring wildflowers (e.g., trilliums, bloodroot, trout lilies or Dutchman's breeches) which will be well on the way toward dormancy by the time this fern reaches full size.

It will grow in full sun with constant moisture.

Clump-forming fern to grow in Part Shade and Full Shade in Medium to Wet soil.

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Matteuccia struthiopteris, young plant, Hurum, Buskerud (Norway). By Bjoertvedt via Wikimedia Commons.

 

English: Matteuccia Struthiopteris in Ypäjä, Tavastia Proper, Finland
Suomi: Kotkansiiven pysty kasvutapa. Kuva Ypäjältä 29.5.2011.
By Urjanhai via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

Русский: Страусник обыкновенный. Спорофиллы и вайи. Россия, Савинский район Ивановской области.
English: Matteuccia struthiopteris. Fertile and sterile fronds. Savinsky district, Ivanovo Oblast, Russia
By Borealis55 via Wikimedia Commons

 

Matteuccia struthiopteris
Deutsch: Junge Farne im Zeitzgrund bei Stadtroda (Thüringen).
By Michael Sander via Wikimedia Commons

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Onoclea
sensibilis Temperate-Tropical

Sensitive Fern, Bead Fern, Sympathy Fern

Native to North America, Canada and North Asia.

Onoclea comes from the Greek onos, vessel, and klein, to close, referring to the pinnules of the fertile leaf, which roll up into bead-like segments to enclose the sori.

A member of the Woodsiaceae Cliff Fern Family.

Zone 4

 

Available in USA from
Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery - Orefield, PA

ArcheWild Native Nurseries - Quakertown, PA

Toadshade Wildflower Farm - Frenchtown, NJ

Prairie Nursery - Westfield, WI

Yellow Springs Farm Native Plant Nursery - Chester Springs , PA

Upright, then arching, lance-shaped or triangular, pinnate, pale green sterile fronds.

The bead-like appearance of the fertile fronds accounts for this genus's common name of bead fern. Some say that the name sensitive fern originates from the frond's sensitivity to frost (they wither after the first subfreezing temperatures).

Winter survival will be enhanced if the dried fronds are left on the plant through the winter.

36-48 x 36-48
(90-120 x 90-120)
 

Miscellaneous Ferns

Hardy deciduous ferns. Fronds, barren ones, broad, once-divided, green; fertile ones, narrow, contracted, once-divided, brown.
Outdoor Culture: Soil, 2 parts good loam, 1 part leaf-mould. Position, semi-shaded, cool, moist border or margins of ponds. Plant, April.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part leaf-mould, 1 part sand. Position, well-drained pots in shady cold frame or greenhouse. Pot, March or April. Water copiously April-Sep, moderately Sep-Nov, keep nearly dry Nov-Mar. Repot annually.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of well-drained pan of sandy peat and leaf-mould covered with square of glass, and kept moderately moist in shady position in cold frame or greenhouse; division of plants, March or April.

Suitable for
Indoor Decoration.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and
Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns suitable for Outdoor Containers

Ferns for Wet Soils

Cold-Hardy Ferns

Shade-Tolerant Fern

The fertile fronds are often used in dried flower arrangements.

Best in wet woodland gardens and moist locations alongside streams and ponds. Can grow in very wet soils as long as there is adequate oxygen. It cannot tolerate sour clay or stagnant water. Also, does not tolerate freezing well, turns black even in light frost.

Shelters salamanders and frogs

Open swamps, thickets, marshes, or low woods, in sunny or shaded locations, often forming thick stands from sea level to elevations of 1500 metres.
A coarse weedy fern commonly found in wet soils where it may form spreading colonies. Plants grow very easily in a pot or moist garden situation. In wet soils, the plants will stand considerable exposure to sun.
Thrives at the edge of water or in a damp shady border.

It grows best in a shaded or partially shaded area in a moist soil. The plant can tolerate dryer conditions in shade, and will tolerate wet soils and so occurs in soggy ground or at the very edge of water in shade or sun. Sensitive ferns spread to form colonies and are often the first species to inhabit disturbed areas. They can become weedy if not sited properly.

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Rodgersia and Onoclea. 25 April 2014, 16:50. By peganum from Henfield, England via Wikimedia Commons

 

日本語: Onoclea sensibilis:コウヤワラビ
2003/06/15
新潟県:Niigata Pref. Japan. By Keisotyo via Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

 

 

Juvenile Onoclea sensibilis sterile fronds in pots. By Coblands.

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Osmunda claytoniana

Interrupted Fern, Flowering Fern

Very hardy,
Zone (2),3

Native to northeastern North America, India and Asia.

The unusual common name for this fern arises because on the fertile fronds the fertile segments are carried in between sets of normal barren segments, giving the appearance of a gap in the frond. Young fronds are covered with wooly, pinkish hairs.

The leaves grow from a rhizome growing at or below the ground.

Forming a lovely spreading vase habit, this low-maintenance native fern makes a distinctive addition to the shade border or woodland garden.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, laf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

Accent Fern.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Grows well with hostas in shaded woodland or wild gardens. Also effective along ponds or streams. Interesting accent for the shaded border.

This clump-forming fern has erect rhizomes that form occasional offshoots and grows in moist-wet to wet, acidic garden soil. The plants have deciduous fronds and do poorly in the Gulf States and subtropical climates.

Habitat in forests, shores of rivers or lakes, swamps, wetland margins (edges of wetlands).

Easily grown in medium to wet soils in part shade to full shade. Prefers moist, rich, humusy, acidic soils, but adapts to lesser conditions.

Deer resistant.

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Osmunda claytoniana.
By Kurt Stueber via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

 

Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana, in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec.
By ‪Circeus‪ ‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

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Osmunda regalis

Royal Fern, Flowering Fern

Very hardy,
Zone 2(3)

A fibrous rootstock bears dense clumps of triangular-ovate-pinnate, bright green sterile fronds. In summer, partially fertile fronds, to 6 feet long, have tassel-like tips, with brown or rust-coloured sporangia covering the much smaller pinnae.

In autumn, they turn bronze before dying back. This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

72 x 144
(180 x 360)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, laf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.
Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Ferns suitable for

Outdoor Containers.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Bog or Wet-Soil Fern.

Cold-Hardy Ferns.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Excellent selection for wet areas along ponds, streams, water gardens or in bogs. Also grows well in shaded borders, woodland gardens, wild gardens or native plant gardens.

Grow in a damp border, or at the margins of a pond or stream.
This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

It prefers cool summer climates where it tolerates close to full sun as long as given consistent moisture. Full sun exposure is not recommended for the hot St. Louis summers.

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Osmunda regalis Image 1 on left from Denver Botanic Gardens

 

Osmunda regalis Image 2 from Denver Botanic Gardens

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Osmunda regalis on right. By Ghislain118 http://www.fleurs-des-montagnes.net via Wikimedia Commons

 

Nederlands: Plant - Koningsvaren - Osmunda regalis
English: Plant - Royal Fern - Osmunda regalis on left. ByMarianne Cornelissen-Kuyt via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum acrostichoides
(Nephrodium acrostichoides)

Christmas Fern, Dagger Fern

Very Hardy Species in Zone 3

Christmas fern grows in a circular form with all the leaves arising from a single point on the ground. It can form colonies but frequently grows singly or in twos or threes. The fronds grow from 30–80 cm long and 5–12 cm broad, divided into 20-35 pairs of leaflets or pinnae. Each pinna is typically 4 cm long and has a finely serrulate or spiny edge and is oblong to falcate in shape.

12-18 x 12-18
(30-45 x 30-45)

Spacing 12 (30)

Often used in Christmas floral arrangements because it is still attractive in December. It is a wonderful companion for spring blooming bulbs. Found in acidic to neutral soils on shaded slopes and well drained flats. The plant height varies from 1 to 2 feet (12-24 inches, 30-60 cms), and will gradually colonize an area even in poor soil. Christmas Fern is a top choice for gardens in Zones 3 through 9.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

The shield ferns of the genus Polystichum are small- to medium-sized terrestrial ferns commonly grown in temperate gardens. Many of the species are particularly attractive for their dark green, glossy, evergreen foliage. The plants are used in rock gardens, borders, or pots, and the larger species can be used as foundation plants or for background foliage. They are often slow to grow from spores.
 

Ferns suitable for

Border and Foundation Ferns

Cold-hardy Fern

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns

Shade-Tolerant Fern

Cut Foliage

Drought Tolerant in dry or moist shade

Stove greenhouse and hardy ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Grow in well-drained soil, in shade it can tolerate dry conditions. Clump-forming. Grow in Part Shade and Full Shade.

It is found in moist and shady habitats in woodlands, rocky slopes, and stream banks.

The fern can conserve soil and allay erosion of steep slopes. The fronds are semi-erect until the first hard frost, after which they recline to be prostrate and effectively hold in place abscised foliage of the duff layer of the sylvan floor, which enables the gradual decomposition of the abscised foliage into humus, which in turn further conserves soil.

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Frond of Photograph of the Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Photo taken at the Tyler Arboretum where it was identified.
By Photo (c)2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Form of Photograph of the Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Photo taken at the Tyler Arboretum where it was identified. By Photo (c)2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

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Polystichum acrostichoides

Christmas Fern, Dagger Fern

 

 

 

Eastern and western North America harbour distinctive species of Polystichum. In the eastern region, the Christmas fern (Polstichum acrostichoides) is one of the most common native species and is widely cultivated. Western North American Polystichum species do not grow as well on the East Coast, and vice versa, but the European and Asiatic species are adaptable in both areas, except in very hot, humis places.

 

Culture of Hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.
Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

 

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Photograph of an unfurling frond of the Christmas Fernen (Polystichum acrostichoides en ). Photo taken at the Mt. Cuba Center where it was identified.
By Photo by and (c)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

 

New Growth of Photograph of an early Christmas Fernen (Polystichum acrostichoides en ). Photo taken at the Mt. Cuba Center where it was identified. By Photo (c)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) via Wikimedia Commons.

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Polystichum braunii
Braun's Holly Fern, Prickly Shield Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 3(4)

Suitable for Zones 4-9

Clump-forming rhizomes and dark green, shiny, evergreen fronds. The plants do best if placed in a cool site. The fiddleheads are particularly attractive because they are densely covered by silvery scales, which turn light brown with age.

Consider planting rhizome at an angle to help combat potential crown rot problems which most often occur in poorly drained soils.

12-29 x 12-23 (30-75 x 30-60)

Stalks or stems are covered in golden-brown scales that contrast nicely against the leaflets. Dense, upright and arching habit, the fronds arising from a single point, giving a formal appearance. Easy and reliable.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Accent Fern.
Fronds in Floral Decorations.
Ground Cover.
Woodland.
Outdoor Container.
Border and Foundation.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

It grows in moist woodlands.  (Native to British Columbia, southern Alaska, the Idaho panhandle—Listed as threatened or endangered in several eastern U.S. states).

Excellent selection for shaded areas in the landscape, including borders, woodland gardens and wild gardens.

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Polski: Polystichum braunii.
By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

Polski: Polystichum braunii
By Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

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Polystichum scopulinum
Western Holly Fern, Rock Sword Fern, polystic des rochers, Mountain Holly Fern

Very Hardy in Zone 4

It is native to much of western North America, and it is known from disjunct occurrences in eastern Canada, as well.

Ascending to erect rhizomes and leathery, semi-evergreen fronds. This species is difficult to grow.

This fern produces several erect, narrowly lance-shaped leaves up to 50 centimeters (20 inches) in length. The leaves narrow near the bases. Each leaf is divided into many lance-shaped or oblong leaflets up to 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) long. The toothed leaflets are sometimes twisted on their axes and overlapping.

The species is native to western North America and Canada.

20 x 12-40
(50 x 30-100)

 

Habitat in Moist rock crevices in subalpine zone, and moist rocks along rivers in the valleys.

Photos

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Rock Garden and Walls.
Sun-Tolerant.
Acid Soils.

Hardy Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Rock crevices and at base of boulders, serpentine to acidic substrates, usually exposed to full sun; 0--3500 m; B.C., Nfld., Que.; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo.

A small leathery fern suitable for planting among rocks.

It is found in dry coniferous forest or more commonly on cliffs and talus slopes.  It is more frequent east of the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains; it also grows in eastern Canada.

It grows in rocky habitat, often in full sun. It is widespread but mostly found in small populations, and is noted to be most abundant on serpentine soils - Soldiers Delight Natural Environmental Area in Baltimore County, Maryland, covers 1,900 acres of serpentine barren. The area has over 38 rare, threatened, or endangered plant species as well as rare insects, rocks and minerals.

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Fig. 35. Polystichum scopulinum from the second edition of An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1913). By Nathaniel Lord Britton & Addison Brown via Wikimedia Commons

Polystichum scopulinum by Sheri Hagwood. Bureau of Land Management. United States, ID, Bureau of Land Management Jarbidge Resource Area. August 1, 2006 via Wikimedia Commons

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Azolla caroliniana
Carolinian Azolla, Fairy Moss, Water velvet (with the Complete guide to Aquariums), Mosquito Fern, American waterfern, Pacific mosquitofern - from Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants of University of Florida who treat this aquatic weed with herbicide or you could take out and use it as a free fertiliser on your land.

Hardy in
Zone (4)5; survives frost and ice

Tropical - Subtropical

Native to Eastern North America.

Carolina - North America. Americas, Europe and Asia.

Azollas tend to die in cold weather after forming buds, which sink to the bottom of the pond and resume growth when warm weather returns. Mosquito ferns prefer full sunlight, warm temperatures, and silty water containing organic matter. High light encourages reddish growth.

Azolla is a highly productive plant. It doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, and yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields.

Carolina mosquitofern distribution in USA.

 

This attractive floating pond plant will grow in damp soil or on moist rocks along the ponds edge. Usually covers 1 to 2 square feet (1 foot = 12 inches = 30 cms) of surface area. Pond Plants Online also provide Water Garden Planting and Care Instructions.

Pale green, turning bright red in autumn (several weeks later they die and sink to the bottom), lacy-looking and closely overlapping. Plants are roughly circular to triangular and about the size of a dime.

 

Azolla has filamentous roots which extend down from the thread-like rhizome, which branches repeatedly and bears fronds in 2 rows.
Its name comes from azo, to dry, and olluo, to kill, presumably alluding to the fern's tendency to be killed by drying. Azolla is the world's most important economic fern because it used as an organic fertilizer in rice paddies in China and Vietnam. It is allso fed to livestock and certain fish.

The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being widely used as a biofertiliser, especially in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years. When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year.

As the rice grows, the ferns are shaded, die and sink to the bottom, thus recycling the vital nutrient to the food crop.

Less than 1 inch (2.5 cms) in height
Leaves normally not eaten by fish; overwinter indoors; naturalized in shallow ponds, ditches and sluggish streams.

 

Azolla caroliniana mature plant floats on the still water, and has no true roots, but the small divided leaves on the underside of the stem are often mistaken for them. The spores are found amongst these so-called roots. The plants grow annually from these spores. Frequently these are lost through insufficient care. They may be preserved by placing the plants in a tank of water that is half filled with sandy loam. When the plants die in the winter, the spores remain and germinate in the following year. They are very pretty plants, and hardly rise above the surface of the water which they cover with a carpet of green that becomes bronze in summer.

Aquatic Ferns

 

Propagation: It propagates itself freely by division.

 

Water Garden Plants nursery is completely free from the invasive non-native species Crassula helmsii 
(New Zealand Pigmyweed/
Australian Swamp-Stonecrop), 
Myriophyllum aquaticum
(Parrot's Feather), 
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating
Pennywort), Floating Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.), and Water Fern (Azolla spp.).

"The above Invasive non-native species can have a devastating cost to the economy, costing £1.7 billion to control. Floating pennywort, which can grow up to eight inches a day, costs the British economy £23.5 million per year. The plants form dense mats in water, depleting oxygen and light availability, causing declines in the numbers of fish and other aquatic species. They also reduce access to waterways for boating and angling and increase flood risk which, taken together, can cost millions of pounds per year." Press release Sale of invasive water plants banned to protect wildlife of Published 29 January 2013.
From:
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Suitable for

Aquatic Ferns.
Wet Soils.
Rapidly Growing Fern.

Hardy, Floating Aquatic Fern with delicate fern-like foliage.
Culture: Grow in shallow ponds or in indoor aquariums. Require no soil, merely to float on surface of water. Being very sensitive to cold, especially frosts, it may need the protection of a heated greenhouse or a well lit tropical aquarium. It grows in shallow fresh water which is either still or moving slowly.

 

They are great, attractive nutrient absorbers and the roots make excellent and attractive cover for fry.

Cordon off a small area to place Azolla.

How to grow Azolla caroliniana in aquariums.

A free floating aquatic fern which forms colonies on still water. Easily grown in ponds etc, but very cold-sensitive.

The common name - Mosquito Fern - is derived from the fern's supposed ability to discourage mosquito reproduction by densely carpeting the water's surface, thereby preventing the adults from laying eggs and preventing the larvae from getting air at the surface.

This floating fern is the best species for growing on mud.

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Closeup of this vegetation choking the lake at Jack London State Historic Park. Taken last spring. The lake is in the lengthy process of remediation by the Jack London Lake Alliance. Date: 28 April 2009, 15:33:15 File: Azolla caroliniana.jpg cropped to a 2x3 format. By Ingrid Taylar from San Francisco Bay Area - California, USA via Wikimedia Commons

Azolla caroliniana at Orto botanico di Pisa. Date: 18 January 2012, 17:55:20. By Notafly via Wikimedia Commons.

English: Carolina Mosquito Fern (Azolla caroliniana). Zamora (Spain).
Español: Helecho mosquito de Carolina (Azolla caroliniana) invasor. Zamora (España).
Date: 4 February 2012, 11:59:39. By David Perez
(DPC) via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-sa-4.0


 
 

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Azolla Production and Demonstration Farm involving on the 4 qualified Azolla, namely - Azolla, - Azolla microphylla Kaulf., Azolla pinnata, Azolla pinnata var pinnata, Azolla pinnata var imbricata, and Azolla caroliniana, in Philippine Rice Research Institute, PhilRice, (is a government corporate entity attached to the Department of Agriculture, created through Executive Order 1061 on 5 November 1985 (as amended), Irrigated Rice Research Consortium, and International Rice Research Institute; located in Barangay, Maligaya, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, in front of its Barangay Hall and Chapel along the Pan-Philippine Highway, also known as the Maharlika "Nobility/freeman" Highway or Asian Highway 26, in Cagayan Valley Road; or Category:Maharlika Highway (Cagayan Valley Road, Talavera-Santo Domingo-Quezon-Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija section) since its re-launch in September 2014, the museum opened 3 exhibits titled, Lovelife with Rice, Abundant Harvest, and Colors of Rice, which focuses on the health and nutrition aspects of rice, will run until Feb. 2016; per guidance of Visual Artist Consultant of the Rice Museum, Rogelio N. Bibal; under bad weather photography due to effects of Typhoon Goni (2015)). Date: 24 August 2015. By Judgefloro via Wikimedia Commons, License cc-by-sa-4.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation 1, 2
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2