Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


TYPE OF FERN - Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)
"
From Chapter 36 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1:-

"Genera Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea are a loosely related group of ferns which have primitive features. Some have dimorphic fronds or specialized fertile blades attached to sterile blades of vastly different appearance. In size, they range from tiny plants with fronds a few inches long to giants with fronds several yards in length. With the possible exception of species of Osmunda, few ferns in this group are commonly grown and lack commercial appeal.

Habitat
These ferns mostly occur in moist conditions, particularly in situations where the soils are moist to wet. Species of Angiopteris, Marattia and Danaea generally seek sheltered, shady situations while most of the others grow in more open conditions. Species of Botrychium, Helminthostachys and the terrestrial Ophioglossum are deciduous and die back to a perennial root system each year. Some species of Osmunda may also be deciduous though the others are evergreen.

Cultivation

Uses
Ferns of this group are mainly grown by collectors for their interest value. Large plants of Angiopteris are impressive and can be the focal point of a planting. Species of Osmunda are very decorative and lend themselves well to landscping where water is a feature. Todea barbara is an impressive fern which makes a very durable container plant. Ophioglossum pendulum is unsurpassed as a basket plant. Species of Botrychium can be difficult to maintain and may succed best in a garden situation.

Soil Types
Most ferns of this group will tolerate quite moist to wet soils, preferably with the water moving and not stagnant. Species of Botrychium and Ophioglossum like moist but not overwet soils.

Potting Mix
An open mix based on a well-structured loam is usually suitable. Despite their tolerance of moist soils a well-drained potting mix is necessary. Most species seem to need soils of an acid pH.

Watering
Ferns of this group like plenty of water and may suffer sever setbacks if allowed to dry out. Plants of Helminthotachys and the terrestrial species of Ophioglossum appreciate having the base of the pot submerged in a container of water while they are in active growth.

Fertilizing
Species of Botrychium, Helminthostachys and Ophioglossum require little in the way of nutrients and occasional applications of old manure or weak liquid fertilizers are adequate for their requirements. The other ferns will respond to applications of manures or fertilizers but are generally not heavy feeders.

Situation
Species of Angiopteris, Christensenia, Danaea and Marattia prefer shady conditions and have their best appearance when provided with such protection. The rest of this group needs bright light and will happily grow in the sun if the soils are moist to wet. Many of the tropical species are sensitive to cold, especially frosts.

Pests
Slugs and snails may be very damaging to the fleshy fronds and rhizomes of many of the ferns included in this group. For plants of Botrychium and Ophioglossum continual protection may be necessary " (See Pest Control by companion planting).

The following ferns come from Chapter 36:-
 

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden, Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Angiopteris evecta (Polypodium evectum ; Angiopteris acrocarpa de ;
A. alata ;
A. commutata ; A. durvilleana ; A. oldhamii ;
A. palmiformis ; Clementea palmiformis)
Giant Fern

Ceylon and Pacific Isles.
Taiwan (Lan Yu) [New Guinea, Philippines; Australia, S Pacific islands; naturalized in Costa Rica, Hawaii, Jamaica, and possibly elsewhere].

莲座蕨
lian zuo jue

Fronds 2-5 m; stipes smooth.
Sori marginal to ca. 1 mm from margin, ca. 2 mm, with 8-10 sporangia.

120-180 x
(300-450 x )

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By offsets only.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse, evergreen tree fern
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, leaf-mould, sand and charcoal. Pot, February, March. Position, pots or tubs, standing in 3 inches (7.5 cms) of water in shade. Water freely in spring and summer, moderately other times.
Temperature, March to September 55-60F (C), September to March 45-50F (C).

Broad-leaved forests, rain forests in valleys, roadsides, slopes, usually on volcanic soils; 100-1200 m.

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Botrychium australe
Southern Moonwort

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By division of roots in April.

Suitable for

 

Hardy and Half-Hardy Deciduous Fern
Culture: Compost, equal parts sandy loam and peat. Position, moist, shady rockery, or in grass. Half-hardy species in cool greenhouse. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather during summer.

 

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Botrychium virginianum (Osmunda virginiana ; Botrypus virginianus ; Japano-botrychum virginia)
Rattlesnake Fern

Anhui, Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [temperate Asia: Himalaya, Japan, Korea, Russia; temperate regions within the N Hemisphere; Central and South America].

蕨萁
jue qi

Rhizomes erect, short, cylindrical, fleshy, having many fleshy roots and annually producing 1 frond 25-70 cm tall.
Sporophore arising at top of common stipe; stalk 10-30 cm; lamina ovate-deltoid, 10-20 cm, 3- or 4-pinnate; pinnae stalked; sporangia globose or elliptic, each on tip of very short, sometimes obscure axes. Spore surface coarse and distantly verrucose.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By division of roots in April.

Suitable for

 

Hardy and Half-Hardy Deciduous Fern
Culture: Compost, equal parts sandy loam and peat. Position, moist, shady rockery, or in grass. Half-hardy species in cool greenhouse. Plant, April. Water freely in dry weather during summer.

Forests; 1600-3200 m.

botrychiumvirginianumpfolefloras

Botrychium virginianum. Photo by The Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains Project by David Boufford. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 3 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

 

Botrychium virginianum. Photo by The Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains Project by David Boufford. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 3 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

botrychiumvirginianumpforefloras

Christensenia aesculifolia (Aspidium aesculifolium ; Christensenia assamica ;
C. lobbiana ; Kaulfussia aesculifolia ;
K. assamica ;
K. korthalsii ;
K. lobbiana)

Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago), Philippines, Vietnam; Pacific islands (Solomon Islands)].

天星蕨
tian xing jue

Plants up to 80 cm tall. Rhizomes creeping (to suberect), short, fleshy, scaly.
Synangia radially arranged, circular, made up of 8-12 sporangia.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse, evergreen tree fern
Culture:

On limestone.

christenseniaaesculifoliapfigureefloras

Christensenia aesculifolia . Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 8 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Danaea elliptica

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse, evergreen tree fern
Culture:

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Danaea moritziana

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse, evergreen tree fern
Culture:

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Helmintho-stachys zeylanica (Osmunda zeylanica ; Botrychium zeylanicum ; Helminth-ostachys dulcis ; Ophiala zeylanica)

Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [widespread: Cambodia, India, Japan, Laos, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; tropical Australia, W Pacific islands].

七指蕨

Rhizome 4-8 mm in diam. Fronds usually single at rhizome apex, 20-60 cm tall; stipe base sheath ca. 1 cm.
Spikelike sporophore arising at top of common stipe; stalk 4-10 cm, spike 4-20 cm, 5-12 mm in diam., branches divided 1 or 2 times, each consisting of stalk bearing a pseudowhorl of sporangia and 1-4 forked sterile apical appendages.

 

 

Helminth-ostachys zeylanica is a rare, endangered species in China because of over-collecting for use in traditional medicine and because of habitat change.

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse, evergreen tree fern
Culture:

Forests, edges of marshes; low elevations.

helminthostachyszeylanicapfigureefloras

Helmintho-stachys zeylanica. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 8 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Marattia excavata

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow, well-drained pans placed under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) any time.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse, evergreen fern with long, feather-shaped fronds; leaflets twice or 3 times divided. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 each of loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, large well-drained pots or moist beds. Pot or plant, February or March. Shade from sun essential. Water freely, March to October, moderately afterwards. Syringing not required. Temperature, February to October 60-70F (16-21C), October to February 50-60F (10-16C).

 

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Marattia salicina
Potato Fern

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow, well-drained pans placed under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) any time.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse, evergreen fern with long, feather-shaped fronds; leaflets twice or 3 times divided. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 each of loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, large well-drained pots or moist beds. Pot or plant, February or March. Shade from sun essential. Water freely, March to October, moderately afterwards. Syringing not required. Temperature, February to October 60-70F (16-21C), October to February 50-60F (10-16C).

 

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Marattia smithii

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow, well-drained pans placed under bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) any time.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse, evergreen fern with long, feather-shaped fronds; leaflets twice or 3 times divided. First introduced late eighteenth century.
Culture: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 each of loam, leaf-mould and sand. Position, large well-drained pots or moist beds. Pot or plant, February or March. Shade from sun essential. Water freely, March to October, moderately afterwards. Syringing not required. Temperature, February to October 60-70F (16-21C), October to February 50-60F (10-16C).

 

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Ophioglossum palmatum

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores gathered when ripe in July and sown on surface of pans of soil alongside, covered with a sheet of glass, and placed in a cool, moist frame or greenhouse; division of plants in April.

Suitable for

 

Hardy deciduous fern. Barren fronds, egg-shaped, pale green; fertile ones contracted, spike-like.
Outdoor Culture: Soil, moist, loamy. Position, in tufts of grass on partially shaded rockery. Plant, April to August. Lift plants growing wild with large sod attached and plant fern and sod together. Water freely in dry weather.
Pot Culture: Compost, sandy loam and leaf-mould in equal parts. Position, shallow pans, well-drained, in cold, shady frame. Plant, April to August. Water freely MArch to September, keep just moist afterwards.

 

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Ophioglossum pendulum (Ophioderma pendula ;
O. pendula f. ramosa)
Ribbon Fern

Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka; W Africa, Australia, Pacific islands (Hawaiian Islands)]

带状瓶尔小草
dai zhuang ping er xiao cao

Fronds 1-3 or more.
Spores colorless or light yellow, quadrangular, surface foveolate.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores gathered when ripe in July and sown on surface of pans of soil alongside, covered with a sheet of glass, and placed in a cool, moist frame or greenhouse; division of plants in April.

Suitable for

 

Hardy deciduous fern. Barren fronds, egg-shaped, pale green; fertile ones contracted, spike-like.
Outdoor Culture: Soil, moist, loamy. Position, in tufts of grass on partially shaded rockery. Plant, April to August. Lift plants growing wild with large sod attached and plant fern and sod together. Water freely in dry weather.
Pot Culture: Compost, sandy loam and leaf-mould in equal parts. Position, shallow pans, well-drained, in cold, shady frame. Plant, April to August. Water freely MArch to September, keep just moist afterwards.

On tree trunks in tropical rain forests.

ophioglossumpendulumpfigureefloras

Ophioglossum pendulum. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 9 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Ophioglossum petiolatum
Adder's-tongue Fern

Fujian, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [W India, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Australia, North America, Pacific islands (New Zealand)].

柄叶瓶尔小草
bing ye ping er xiao cao

Plants 15-25 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, bearing a cluster of thick fleshy roots; roots extending horizontally like stolons, producing a new plant from apical bud. Fronds simple; common stalk 9-15 cm.
Sporophore arising from base of sterile lamina, 6-9 cm; linear spike 2.5-3 cm. Spore surface obviously subreticulate with fine granules.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores gathered when ripe in July and sown on surface of pans of soil alongside, covered with a sheet of glass, and placed in a cool, moist frame or greenhouse; division of plants in April.

Suitable for

 

Hardy deciduous fern. Barren fronds, egg-shaped, pale green; fertile ones contracted, spike-like.
Outdoor Culture: Soil, moist, loamy. Position, in tufts of grass on partially shaded rockery. Plant, April to August. Lift plants growing wild with large sod attached and plant fern and sod together. Water freely in dry weather.
Pot Culture: Compost, sandy loam and leaf-mould in equal parts. Position, shallow pans, well-drained, in cold, shady frame. Plant, April to August. Water freely MArch to September, keep just moist afterwards.

Open shrubby hillsides; 200-3300 m.

ophioglossumpetiolatumpfigureefloras

Ophioglossum petiolatum. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 9 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Ophioglossum reticulatum (Ophioglossum cordifolium ;
O. pedunculosum)
Adder's-tongue Fern

Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, ?Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Korea; Africa, Madagascar, South America].

心叶瓶尔小草
xin ye ping er xiao cao

Plants 10-30 cm tall. Rhizomes erect, slender, bearing a few thick fleshy roots. Common stalk 4-8 cm, light green, gradually pale toward base.
Sporophore arising from base of sterile lamina, slender, 10-15 cm; spike 3-3.5 cm, slender. Spore surface regularly or irregularly subreticulate.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores gathered when ripe in July and sown on surface of pans of soil alongside, covered with a sheet of glass, and placed in a cool, moist frame or greenhouse; division of plants in April.

Suitable for

 

Hardy deciduous fern. Barren fronds, egg-shaped, pale green; fertile ones contracted, spike-like.
Outdoor Culture: Soil, moist, loamy. Position, in tufts of grass on partially shaded rockery. Plant, April to August. Lift plants growing wild with large sod attached and plant fern and sod together. Water freely in dry weather.
Pot Culture: Compost, sandy loam and leaf-mould in equal parts. Position, shallow pans, well-drained, in cold, shady frame. Plant, April to August. Water freely MArch to September, keep just moist afterwards.

Shaded forests; 1100-4000 m.

ophioglossumreticulatumpfigureefloras

Ophioglossum reticulatum. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 9 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Osmunda banksiifolia (Nephrodium banksiifolium ; Plenasium banksiifolium)

Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Indonesia (Java), Japan (including Ryukyu Islands), New Guinea, Philippines].

粗齿紫萁
cu chi zi qi

Rhizome ascending or erect, massive, naked. Fronds simple pinnate, up to 100-180 × 30-60 cm, hemidimorphic with 3-5 pairs of fertile pinnae in lower middle portion of lamina. Fertile fronds developing several times per year; fertile pinnae ca. 1/2 length of sterile ones, 2-4 mm wide, covered throughout with sporangia and turning brownish after spores are shed.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

By streams in valleys; 300-800 m.

osmundabanksifoliapfigureefloras

Osmunda banksiifolia. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 9 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Osmunda cinnamonea

Cinnamon Fern

USDA Zones 3a to 9b

United States of America

 

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

 

Hardy evergreen and deciduous fern. Fronds, feather-shaped, plain or crested; fertile portions contracted.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.

Hardy Species.

(Osmundastrum cinnamomea) - The deciduous US native Osmunda cinnamomea can be found in every state east of the Mississippi River...and Texas and Oklahoma. The stately, upright, 3' (36 inches, 90 cms) tall clumps of osmunda thrive in moist soils but also grow well under typical garden conditions...a great large foil in woodland settings. The fertile fronds of Osmunda cinnamomea arise in spring just above the sterile foliage as phallic, cinnamon-colored spikes in the center of the clump. In moist soils, a happy clump of cinnamon fern can reach 3' tall x 3' wide, although very old clumps in ideal conditions have been known to reach 6'...one of our finest US native plants. Recently DNA work shows that Osmunda cinnamomea is only distantly related to other osmunda ferns like Osmunda regalis and some taxonomists have moved it to another genus, Osmundastrum. Grow in Part Sun to Light Shade. Dormant in Winter.

osmundacinnamoneapfigureefloras

Osmunda cinnamonea. Illustration from Flora of North America. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 9 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

osmundacinnamomeapforplantdelightsnursery

Osmunda cinnamonea. Photo Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden.

Osmunda claytoniana

Interrupted Fern, Flowering Fern

Very hardy,
Zone (2),3

Native to northeastern North America, India and Asia.

The unusual common name for this fern arises because on the fertile fronds the fertile segments are carried in between sets of normal barren segments, giving the appearance of a gap in the frond. Young fronds are covered with wooly, pinkish hairs.

绒紫萁
rong zi qi

The leaves grow from a rhizome growing at or below the ground.

Forming a lovely spreading vase habit, this low-maintenance native fern makes a distinctive addition to the shade border or woodland garden.

Rhizome ascending, short, bearing several approximate fronds. Fronds hemidimorphic; stipe greenish, shorter than lamina, 15-20 cm, usually woolly.
fertile pinnae ca. 1/3 length of sterile ones, ca. 5 mm wide but usually with reduced lobes, covered throughout with sporangia, turning blackish brown after spores are shed.

24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)

(Osmunda claytoniana subsp. pilosa ;
O. claytoniana var. pilosa ;
O. claytoniana subsp. vestita ; O. claytoniana var. vestita;
O. pilosa ; Osmundastrum claytonianum ; O. claytonianum subsp. pilosum ; O. claytonianum var. pilosum)

Chongqing, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Liaoning, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Russia (Far East); North America].

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

Accent Fern.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Evergreen and Deciduous Ferns.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Cold-hardy Ferns.

Rock Garden and Wall Ferns.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Grows well with hostas in shaded woodland or wild gardens. Also effective along ponds or streams. Interesting accent for the shaded border.

Hardy Species.

This clump-forming fern has erect rhizomes that form occasional offshoots and grows in moist-wet to wet, acidic garden soil. The plants have deciduous fronds and do poorly in the Gulf States and subtropical climates.

Habitat in forests, shores of rivers or lakes, swamps, wetland margins (edges of wetlands).

Easily grown in medium to wet soils in part shade to full shade. Prefers moist, rich, humusy, acidic soils, but adapts to lesser conditions.

Deer resistant.

Forming large populations on hillsides; 1600-3400 m.

Osmundaclaytonianapfrondwikimediacommons

Osmunda claytoniana.
By Kurt Stueber via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

 

Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana, in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec.
By ‪Circeus‪ ‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

Osmundaclaytonianapforwikimediacommons

Osmunda japonica (Osmunda biformis ; O. japonica var. sublancea ; O. nipponica ; O. regalis Linnaeus var. biformis ; O. regalis subsp. japonica ; O. regalis var. japonica ; O. regalis var. sublancea ; Osmundastrum japonicum)

Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, N India, Japan (including Ryukyu Islands), Kashmir, Korea, Myanmar, Pakistan, Russia (Sakhalin), Thailand, Vietnam].

紫萁
zi qi

Rhizome erect, ascending, or shortly creeping. Fronds 2-pinnate, dimorphic, or rarely hemidimorphic, up to 150 × 50 cm; fiddleheads enveloped by pale reddish brown, long lax hairs, but glabrescent and naked in mature fronds.
Fertile fronds 2-pinnate; pinnules linear, 2-4 mm wide, covered throughout with sporangia except on costae, falling soon after spore dispersal.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

Forests, by streams, exposed hillsides, grasslands; 100-3000 m.

osmundajaponicapfigureefloras

Osmunda japonica. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 9 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Osmunda javanica (Plenasium javanicum )

Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan [S India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].

宽叶紫萁
kuan ye zi qi

Rhizome massive. Fronds to 2 m, monomorphic with pinnae dimorphic.
A few middle or below-middle pairs of pinnae fertile, linear, 5-12 × ca. 1 cm, sometimes basal ones sterile and wider.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse evergreen and deciduous fern. Fronds, feather-shaped, plain or crested; fertile portions contracted.
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts turfy loam and peat, little sand. Position, pots or beds in moist, shady part of greenhouse or fernery. Pot or plant, March or April. Water copiously April to October, moderately aferwards. Temperature 55-65F (13-18C) April to September, 45-55F (7-13C) September to April.

Greenhouse Species.

Tropical evergreen forests; 600-1600 m.

osmundajavanicapfigureefloras

Osmunda javanica . Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 9 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Osmunda lancea

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

 

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Osmunda regalis (Osmunda regalis f. anomala)

Royal Fern, Flowering Fern, Osmonde Royale

Very hardy,
Zone 2(3)

The King Fern, Regal Fern and Flowering Fern is distributed throughout the British Isles and is a plant of bogs, river-sides and swampy woods.
The spores are ripe from June to August, and the plant shrivels at the first touch of frost.

 

Varieties 4--5 (1 in the flora of North America): North America, West Indies, Bermuda, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa.

A fibrous rootstock bears dense clumps of triangular-ovate-pinnate, bright green sterile fronds. In summer, partially fertile fronds, to 6 feet long, have tassel-like tips, with brown or rust-coloured sporangia covering the much smaller pinnae.

In autumn, they turn bronze before dying back. This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

72 x 144
(180 x 360)

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities

Hardy deciduous fern.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Ferns suitable for

Outdoor Containers.

Ferns for Wet Soils.

Bog or Wet-Soil Fern.

Cold-Hardy Ferns.

Ferns for Acid Soils.

Shade-Tolerant Fern.

 

Excellent selection for wet areas along ponds, streams, water gardens or in bogs. Also grows well in shaded borders, woodland gardens, wild gardens or native plant gardens.

Hardy Species.

Grow in a damp border, or at the margins of a pond or stream.
This deciduous fern forms a natural, rounded shape and looks fantastic planted near a pond or stream, where its feathery fronds will be reflected in the water. It likes damp, preferably acid soil, and looks breathtaking with other moisture-loving, large foliage plants such as rodgersia and gunnera.

It prefers cool summer climates where it tolerates close to full sun as long as given consistent moisture. Full sun exposure is not recommended for the hot St. Louis summers.

osmundaregalispsoridenverbotanicgardens

 

osmundaregalispjuvfolwikimediacommons

Osmunda regalis Image 1 on left from Denver Botanic Gardens

 

Osmunda regalis Image 2 from Denver Botanic Gardens

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Osmunda regalis on right. By Ghislain118 http://www.fleurs-des-montagnes.net via Wikimedia Commons

 

Nederlands: Plant - Koningsvaren - Osmunda regalis
English: Plant - Royal Fern - Osmunda regalis on left. ByMarianne Cornelissen-Kuyt via Wikimedia Commons

osmundaregalispfor1denverbotanicgardens

osmundaregalispfor2wikimediacommons

Osmunda regailis cultivars

 

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat or hand-light in shady part of cool greenhouse at any time; offsets from established plants in April.

Suitable for

 

Hardy evergreen and deciduous fern. Fronds, feather-shaped, plain or crested; fertile portions contracted.
Culture of Hardy Species: Soil, 1 part each loam, leaf-mould and sand, 2 parts peat. Position, bases of sheltered, moist rock gardens or margins of ponds in shade or part shade. Plant, April. Top-dress annually in April with compost of peat, leaf-mould and loam. Remove dead fronds in March. Water plants growing elsewhere than on the margins of ponds copiously in dry weather.

Hardy Species

Osmunda regalis 'Crispa' (Osmunda regalis 'Undulatifolia') is a way-margined showstopper with tall, full-bodied apple-green foliage.

Osmunda regalis 'Cristata' has pinnae that are more angulated than crested. A modest 36 inches (90 cm) high and perhaps 84 inches (210 cms) around. It appreciates a constant supply of moisture.

 

 

Todea barbara (Todea rivularis)
King Fern,
Australian King Fern, Royal Fern

Southern Africa, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand

Hardy to -5 Celsius without the ground freezing. More mature plants with trunks will survive lower temperatures in Kells Bay Country House and Gardens in Ring of Kerry, Ireland

Fronds are bipinnate, forms a large fibrous trunk over time. Evergreen in milder parts but will defoliate in freezing conditions.
Trunks form relatively quickly if planted in very wet, damp conditions.

 

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of sandy peat in shallow pan covered with bell-glass in temperature 65-75F (18-24C) at any time; by division of plants at pottting time.

Suitable for

 

Same culture and propagation as Leptopteris.
Greenhouse evergreen fern with finely or coarsely divided fronds, dark green, mostly semi-transparent, previously known as Todea. First introduced mid-nineteenth century.
Culture: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, leaf-mould, charcoal, sandstone and silver sand. Position, moist, shady, in damp resesses of rockeries, under bell-glasses or in cases. Plant. March. Water freely March to October, moderately October to March. Moist atmosphere and shade most essential but syringing unsatisfactory.
Temperature, March to September 55-65F (13-18C), September to March 45-55F (7-13C). Leptopteris superba and Leptopteris hymeno-phylloides suitable for cold houses.
Culture in Cases: Compost, equal parts peat, loam, leaf-mould, charcoal, sandstone and silver sand. Position, shady window, not exposed to sun. Pot or plant, March. Top-dress with fresh compost annually in March. Water freely April to September, moderately afterwards. Ventilate case few minutes daily. Suitable species are Leptopteris superbs and Leptopteris hymeno-phylloides.

It being from the Osmundaceae family does best in or near water in damp ground. Still a rare fern in cultivation.
Species in the genus Todea, as Leptopteris, are distinct from other in Osmundaceae in that sporangia are born on laminar pinnules.

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

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Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2