Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose


Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

Fern *

Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword

....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

 

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
San Antonio Botanical Garden.
San Diego Botanic Garden.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum.
Sarah P. Duke Gardens.
Tyringham Cobble.
UNC at Charlotte Botanical Gardens.
University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley.
USCS Arboretum.
Whitehall Historic Home and Garden.
Wild Gardens of Acadia.
Zilker Botanical Garden.

WALES
Aberglasney Gardens.
Dewstow Gardens.
Dyffryn Gardens.

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds

 

Where to see

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Brisbane Botanic Garden.
Mount Lofty Botanic Garden.
Royal Botanic Garden, Melbourne.
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.

CANADA
Le Jardin Botanique de Montreal.
Les Jardins de Metis.
Van Dusen Botanical Garden.

ENGLAND
Biddulph Grange Garden.
Brodsworth Hall and Gardens.
Cambridge University Botanic Gardens.
Chelsea Physic Garden.
Harlow Carr Botanic Gardens.
RHS Garden Wisley.
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
Savill Gardens.
Sizergh Castle and Garden.
Southport Botanic Gardens.
Tatton Park.
Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden.

FRANCE
Jardin Botanique de Lyon.
Parc Phoenix-Nice.

GERMANY
Arktisch-Alpiner Garten.
Botanischer Garten und Museum.
Flora und Botanischer Garten Koln.

IRELAND
Caher Bridge Garden.
Kells Bay Gardens.

NETHERLANDS
Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden
 

Where to see

NEW ZEALAND
Franz Fernery at the Auckland Domain Park.
Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust Garden.
Pukekura Park.

SCOTLAND
Arduaine Garden.
Ascog Hall Gardens and Victorian Fernery.
Attadale Gardens.
Benmore Botanic Garden.
Glasgow Botanic Garden.
Inverewe Garden and Estate.
Linn Botanic Gardens.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

UNITED STATES
Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Balboa Park.
Barnes Foundation Arboretum.
Bartholomew's Cobble.
Bellevue Botanical Garden.
Berkshire Botanical Garden.
Bloedal Reserve.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Botanical Gardens at Asheville.
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cailfornia State Unversity at Sacramento.
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.
Chanticleer.
Chicago Botanic Garden.
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens.
Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden.
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden.
Denver Botanic Gardens.
Elandan Gardens.
Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden.
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden.
Fern Canyon.
Ferndell Canyon in Griffith Park.
Fort Worth Botanic Garden.
Frelinghuysen Arboretum.
Garden in the Woods.
Garvan Woodland Gardens.
Ganna Walska Lotusland.
Georgeson Botanical Garden.
Georgia Perimeter College Botanical Gardens


All
Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as
useful websites.

A Natural History of Britain's Ferns by Christopher N. Page. Published by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd in 1988. ISBN 0 00 219382 5 (limpback edition) provides details of Coastal, Man-made Landscapes, Woodland, Wetland, Grassland and Rock Outcrops, Heath and Moorland, Lower Mountain Habitats, Upper Mountain Habitats and Atlantic Fringe Ferns.
I have provided a brief summary in the Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants and Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants pages and provided you with the Chapter number for the others, since the information within this book is so comprehensive, that it would need to be completely copied to be of most use.

Tree Ferns by Mark F. Large & John E. Braggins. Published by Timber Press in 2004. ISBN 978-1-60469-176-4 is a scientifically accurate book dealing with Tree Fern species cultivated in the United States and the Pacific, but little known and rare tree ferns are also included.

The Observer's Book of Ferns, revised by Francis Rose, previous editions compiled by W.J.Stokoe. Published by Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd in 1965 provides a comprehensive guide to 45 British species of Ferns. It provides details of habitat and how to use those ferns.

The Plant Lover's Guide to Ferns by Richard Steffen & Sue Olsen. Published in 2015 by Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60469-
474-1. It provides details on designing with ferns and details on 140 ferns for the garden in the USA.

Success with Indoor Ferns, edited by Lesley Young. Reprinted 1998. ISBN 1 85391 554 8. It details the care of indoor ferns with their position, choice and fern care.


See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

Where to see

UNITED STATES
Harry P. Leu Gardens.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Holden Arboretum.
Honolulu Botanical Gardens.
Huntington Botanical Gardens.
Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden.
Inniswood Metro Gardens.
Kruckeberg Botanic Garden.
Lakewold Gardens.
Leach Botanical Garden.
Leonard J. Buck Garden.
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
Longwood Gardens.
Lyndhurst Gardens.
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
Matthaei Botanical Gardens.
Memphis Botanic Garden.
Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens.
Mercer Arboretum and Botanic Gardens.
Michigan State University.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.
Mount Pisgah Arboretum.
Mt. Cuba Center.
National Tropical Botanical Garden.
New Jersey State Botanical Garden at Skyland.
New York Botanical Garden.
Norfolk Botanical Garden.
North Carolina Botanical Garden.
Olbrich Botanical Garden.
Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens.
Planting Fields Arboretum State Historic Park.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.
Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden.
Rotary Gardens.

 

 

 


TYPE OF FERN - Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives Page 3 of 4

From Chapter 30 of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1:-

"Genera Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia are a loosely related group of ferns, which include many species which are favourites of enthusiastic gardeners and fern specialists alike.

Habitat
The vast majority of these ferns grow as terrestrials but Rumohra adiantiformis can grow as a terrestrial or an epiphyte and a few species of Dryopteris are epiphytes. Most of these ferns commonly grow in wet, shady situations in forests and along stream banks. Hardy species from northern latitudes may be covered in snow during winter.

Cultivation

Uses
These ferns are excellent for gardens, ferneries, and containers. A few are suitable for indoor decoration. Some have colourful new fronds (Dryopteris erythrosora) or spectacular flushes of new fronds (Dryopteris wallichiana) and should be planted where these features can be appreciated. Many from cold regions are dormant over winter and may even be deciduous. A wide range of frond shape and dissection is available and they are ideal for filling gaps in a fernery. See Chapter 22 on housing for ferns from The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further details on fernery, lathe-house, shadehouse and bush-house.

Soil Types
Most of these ferns are adaptable to a variety of soils providing that drainage is unimpeded. Loams fortified with organic matter are particularly suitable. The majority prefer acid soils but some from limestone areas need a neutral to alkaline soil. See Chapter 9 - soils for ferns from The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further details.

Potting Mix
An open mix based on a well-structured loam and fortified with peat moss, milled pine bark or chopped tree-fern fibre is usually satisfactoy for their growth. Some may require limestone chips in their mix. Many species have a vigorous root system and can quickly fill a pot. Repotting for most species will be required annually. See Chapter 10 - The basics of fern nutrition from The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further details.

Watering
Ferns of this group like plenty of water while in active growth over spring and summer. Those species which are dormant over winter should be watered sparingly until new fronds appear. Some species like Blechnum, Doodia and Pteris may suffer frond sweating - a blackening of all or part of the fronds - if kept too wet during still, cool weather (sweating is much worse if the plants are crowded or overgrown with weeds).

Fertilizing
Fertilizers and manures are very beneficial to these ferns and promote strong healthy growth. Those in the ground can receive supplementary dressings at intervals during the growing season. A spring dressing on these species that become dormant will help a strong flush of new growth. Slow-release fertilizers incorporated into potting mixes help maintain growth. See chapter 11 - Fertilizers, manures and lime from The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further detils.

Situation
Species of Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia need protection from direct hot sun and like shade or perhaps filtered sun. In temperate regions like the UK a situation under deciduous trees (but not Beech which is antagonistic to Ferns) is ideal. Species from the tropics may be sensitive to cold, especially frosts.

Pests
Brown Scale and Fern Scale may kill fronds on species of Dryopteris, Cyrtomium and Tectaria. Passion Vine Hoppers can also damage developing fronds. "
See Chapter 13 - Fern Pests of The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1 for further details on control of fern pests."

The following ferns come from Chapter 30:-
 

Fern

Foliage Colour and
Shape/ Division

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch =
2.5 cms,
12 inches =
1 foot
12 inches =
30 cms,
24 inches =
2 feet,
3 feet =
1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
 

Type of Fern to Grow

Use of Fern

Comments

Frond

Credit
is usually for Denver Botanic Gardens,
Wikimedia Commons,
Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden, Dana Kelley Bressette of Nativeplants PNW.com
or
Chris Garnons-Williams

Form

Rumohra adiantiformis
Leathery Shield Fern

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

House Fern.

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Tectaria brachiata

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Tectaria cicutaria
Button Fern

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Tectaria crenata
Samoan Tectaria

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Tectaria gemmifera

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Tectaria heracleifolia (Aspidium heracleifolium)

Halberd Fern, Broad halberd fern

Fla., Tex.; Mexico; West Indies in Antilles; Central America; South America to Peru.

Stems erect, compact.

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

Rocky hammocks, limestone outcrops in shade, cave entrances; 0--100 m.

tectariaheracleifoliapfigureefloras

Tectaria heracleifolia. Illustration from Flora of North America. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 11 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Tectaria incisa

Incised halberd fern

Fla.; Mexico; West Indies in Antilles; Central America; South America to n Argentina.

Stems erect, compact.

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

Hammocks.

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

See Distribution Map from Flora of North America.

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Tectaria mexicana

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Tectaria muelleri

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Woodsia ilvensis (Acrostichum ilvense ; Nephrodium rufidulum ; Polypodium ilvense ; Woodsia rufidula)

Rusty Woodsia, Oblong Woodsia

Arctic and North Temperate Zone

Growing amongst the fissures of rocks on high mountain cliffs, this extremely rare species is centred in the Snowdon district. Specimens have also been recorded before 1965 from Teesdale, the Lake District, the southern uplands of Scotland, and at one place in the east highlands in the UK.

岩蕨
yan jue

Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia; Europe, North America].

The fronds of this fern may be anything from 1 to 6 inches (2.5-15 cms) high, and are covered on both sides with shining hairs. On the underside the clusters of sporangia lie amongst these hairs and are almost hidden by them. The rootsock is tufted and the delicate roots are black and wiry. The fern is of a dull green colour, and dies down to the ground at the approach of winter.

Plants 12-17 cm tall. Rhizomes erect or ascending, scaly; scales concolorous, brown, broadly lanceolate, ca. 4 mm, membranous, margin entire. Fronds clustered; Sori orbicular and attached at ends of veinlets, submarginal.

4 x
(10 x )

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of fine peat in well-drained pans placed in temperature of 75F (24C) at any time; division of plants, March or April.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse and hardy deciduous and evergreen ferns. Fronds feather-shaped.
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts peat and loam with little silver sand and charcoal. Position, well-drained pots or beds in shady greehouse. Pot or plant, February or March. Water freely March to October, moderately afterwards. Syringing not required. Shade from sun. Temperature September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-16C).
Culture of Hardy Species: Compost, equal parts peat and loam. Position, shady borders or banks. Plant, April. Water copiously in dry weather. All the hardy species are suitable for greenhouse culture.

Hardy Species.

Cliffs, rocky slopes; 200-2200 m.

woodsiailvensispfigureefloras

Woodsia ilvensis. Illustration from Flora of North America. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 11 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Woodsia obtusa (Aspidium obtusum ; Woodsia perriniana)

Blunt-lobed Woodsia, Blunt-lobed cliff fern, woodsie à lobes arrondis

North America

Woodsia obtusa comprises two cytotypes. Tetraploid populations (subsp. obtusa ) are found throughout the eastern flora, commonly occurring on limestone. The diploid (subsp. occidentalis ) is found near the western edge of the species range, usually on sandstone and granitic substrates. The westernmost collections of Woodsia obtusa (all subsp. occidentalis ) come from the Wichita Mountains of Oklahoma and the Edwards Plateau of Texas.

Stems compact to creeping, erect to horizontal.
Spores averaging 35--47 µm.

12 x
(30 x )

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of fine peat in well-drained pans placed in temperature of 75F (24C) at any time; division of plants, March or April.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse and hardy deciduous and evergreen ferns. Fronds feather-shaped.
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts peat and loam with little silver sand and charcoal. Position, well-drained pots or beds in shady greehouse. Pot or plant, February or March. Water freely March to October, moderately afterwards. Syringing not required. Shade from sun. Temperature September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-16C).
Culture of Hardy Species: Compost, equal parts peat and loam. Position, shady borders or banks. Plant, April. Water copiously in dry weather. All the hardy species are suitable for greenhouse culture.

Greenhouse Species.

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钝羽岩蕨

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Woodsia polystichoides (Physematium polystichoides ; Woodsia brandtii ;
W. polystichoides var. incisa ;
W. polystichoides var. nudiuscula ; W. polystichoides f. veitchii ;
W. polystichoides var. veitchii )

Japan

Widely distributed in C, E (including Taiwan, but not in Fujian), N, NW, and SW (Sichuan, Yunnan) China [Japan, Korea, Russia].

耳羽岩蕨
er yu yan jue

Plants 15-30 cm tall. Rhizomes short, erect, scaly; scales brown, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, ca. 4 mm, membranous, margin entire. Fronds clustered. Sori orbicular, terminal at tips of acroscopic veinlets, submarginal.

6-9 x
(15-22.5 x )

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By spores sown on surface of fine peat in well-drained pans placed in temperature of 75F (24C) at any time; division of plants, March or April.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse and hardy deciduous and evergreen ferns. Fronds feather-shaped.
Culture of Greenhouse Species: Compost, equal parts peat and loam with little silver sand and charcoal. Position, well-drained pots or beds in shady greehouse. Pot or plant, February or March. Water freely March to October, moderately afterwards. Syringing not required. Shade from sun. Temperature September to March 45-50F (7-10C), March to September 50-60F (10-16C).
Culture of Hardy Species: Compost, equal parts peat and loam. Position, shady borders or banks. Plant, April. Water copiously in dry weather. All the hardy species are suitable for greenhouse culture.

Greenhouse Species.

Crevices of shaded rocks; 200-2700 m.

woodsiapolystichoidespfigureefloras

Woodsia polystichoides. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 11 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Cyrtomium falcatum (Polypodium falcatum ; Aspidium falcatum ; Cyrtomium yiangshanense ; Dryopteris falcata ; Phanerophlebia falcata ; Polystichum falcatum)

Japanese Holly Fern, Holly Fern

Asia

Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Indochina, Japan, Korea; Pacific islands (Polynesia); introduced and locally naturalized in Europe, Hawaii, North America, Réunion, South Africa].

全缘贯众
quan yuan guan zhong

Fronds spreading or erect.

Plants 30-40 cm tall. Rhizome erect, densely covered with lanceolate brown scales. Sori throughout abaxial surface of pinnae

24-36 x
(60-90 x )

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By division of roots in March, also by spores sown on fine sandy peat in temperature 60F (16C) at any time.

Suitable for

House Fern.

 

Greenhouse Fern. Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Pot, March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from strong sun. Temperature, September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). These ferns also make good room plants provided the atmosphere is not too dry.

Coastal and lowland forests; sea level to 500 m in China.

Brick or stone walls, rocky areas, mesic forests, and coastal bluffs; 0--100 m; introduced; Calif., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., S.C.; Europe; Asia. Cyrtomium falcatum is native to east Asia and widely escaped from cultivation. All plants in the flora of North America appear to be the 32-spored, apogamous triploid.

cyrtomiumfalcatumpfigureefloras

Cyrtomium falcatum . Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 12 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Cyrtomium falcatum cultivars

Fronds spreading or erect.

24-36 x
(60-90 x )

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By division of roots in March, also by spores sown on fine sandy peat in temperature 60F (16C) at any time.

Suitable for

House Fern.

 

Greenhouse Fern. Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Pot, March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from strong sun. Temperature, September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). These ferns also make good room plants provided the atmosphere is not too dry.

 

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Plant Delights Nursery sells Cyrtomium falcatum var. maritimum 'Eco-Korean Jade'.

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Cyrtomium fortunei (Aspidium falcatum var. fortunei ; Cyrtomium falcatum var. polypterum ; C. fortunei f. latipinna ; C. fortunei f. polypterum ; C. recurvum ; C. shandongense ; Phanerophlebia fortunei ; Polystichum falcatum var. fortunei ; P. falcatum f. polypterum ; P. fortunei )

Anhui, Chongqing (Fengjie, Nanchuan), Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei (Nanwutai Shan), Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi (Jincheng, Xiushui), Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [NE India (Manipur), Japan, S Korea, Nepal, Thailand, N Vietnam; introduced and locally naturalized in Europe and North America].

贯众
guan zhong

Plants 25-50 cm tall. Rhizome erect, densely covered with brown scales.
Sori throughout abaxial surface of pinnae.

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By division of roots in March, also by spores sown on fine sandy peat in temperature 60F (16C) at any time.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse Fern. Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Pot, March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from strong sun. Temperature, September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). These ferns also make good room plants provided the atmosphere is not too dry.

Limestone crevices in open areas or forests; 100-2400 m.

cyrtomiumfortuneipfigureefloras

Cyrtomium fortunei. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 12 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Plant Delights Nursery sells Cyrtomium fortunei 'Ulleung Island'.
 

Cyrtomium macrophyllum (Aspidium falcatum var. macrophyllum ; Cyrtomium falcatum var. macropterum ;
C. macrophyllum f. minor ;
C. pseudo-caudipinnum ;
C. retro-sopaleaceum Polystichum caryotideum var. macropterum ;
P. falcatum var. macrophyllum ;
P. falcatum f. macropterum ;
P. macrophyllum )

Anhui, S Gansu (Kangxian, Wenxian), Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi (Pingli), Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang (Bomi, Zham), Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan].

大叶贯众
da ye guan zhong

Plants 30-60 cm tall. Rhizome erect, densely covered with lanceolate blackish brown scales.
Sori throughout abaxial surface of pinnae; indusia margins entire.

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By division of roots in March, also by spores sown on fine sandy peat in temperature 60F (16C) at any time.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse Fern. Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Pot, March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from strong sun. Temperature, September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). These ferns also make good room plants provided the atmosphere is not too dry.

Forests; 700-2500 m

cyrtomiummacrophyllumpfigureefloras

Cyrtomium macrophyllum. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 12 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Cyrtomium tukusicola (Cyrtomium macrophyllum var. tukusicola)

Chongqing (Nanchuan), Guizhou (Fanjing Shan, Kaili), Hunan (Longshan, Sangzhi), Sichuan (Cangxi, Emei, Leibo), C Taiwan, Yunnan (Yangbi), Zhejiang (Qingyuan) [Japan].

齿盖贯众
chi gai guan zhong

Cyrtomium tukusicola is an apomictic species and is sometimes treated as a variety of C. macrophyllum.

Plants 40-60 cm tall. Rhizome erect, densely covered with lanceolate blackish brown scales.
Sori throughout abaxial surface of pinnae; indusia margins finely dentate.

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: By division of roots in March, also by spores sown on fine sandy peat in temperature 60F (16C) at any time.

Suitable for

 

Greenhouse Fern. Culture: Compost, equal parts loam, leaf-mould, peat and sand. Pot, March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from strong sun. Temperature, September to March 45-55F (7-13C), March to September 55-65F (13-18C). These ferns also make good room plants provided the atmosphere is not too dry.

Forests; 1000-2600 m.

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Dryopteris tokyoensis

Tokyo Wood Fern

USDA Zones: 5a to 8b, possibly colder

Japan, Korea

 

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

The Tokyo wood fern is one of those little known, but splendid, deciduous woodland ferns, native to woodlands from Honshu to Shikoku and across to Korea. Similar to a dwarf Dryopteris x celsa, the tight, 3' (36 inches, 90 cms) wide, deer-resistant clump of upright, narrow, 3' long fronds provide a nice vertical accent in the woodland garden. We think Dryopteris tokyoensis is an easy-to-grow and distinctive deer-resistant fern for the woodland shade garden.

dryopteristokyoensispforplantdelightsnursery

Dryopteris tokyoensis. Photo Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Dryopteris uniformis

 

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

 

 

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

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Dryopteris varia (Polypodium varium ; Aspidium opacum ;
A. varium ; Dryopteris caudifolia ;
D. consimilis ;
D. fuyangensis ; D. glabrescens ; D. hololepis ;
D. lingii ;
D. matsuzoana ; D. nanchuanensis ; D. ogawai ;
D. sinovaria ;
D. yabei ;
D. yabei var. hololepis ;
D. yabei f. ogawai ;
D. yabei var. ogawai ;
Lastrea opaca ; L. varia ; Nephrodium varium ; Polystichum hololepis ;
P. varium)

Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Vietnam].

变异鳞毛蕨

Rhizome ascending, apex densely covered with scales; scales dark brown, linear-lanceolate, 1.5-2 cm, hairlike at apex. Fronds caespitose.
Sori nearer margin than costa.

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

Subtropical and temperate forests; sea level to 2300 m (in Taiwan).

dryopterisvariapfigureefloras

Dryopteris varia. Illustration from Flora of China. It may be cited as 'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org [accessed 12 May 2019]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Polystichum whiteleggei
A former common name was heavy fern, alluding to the weight of one of the large, thick textured, fronds when fully developed.

Sub-tropical zone

Plants have long and broad bright green fronds attractively divided, with the stipe and young fronds covered with large, papery scales. They like shady conditions in moist but well-drained soil

The fern is endemic to Australia’s subtropical Lord Howe Island in the Tasman Sea; it is locally common to rare on the edges and flanks of the summits of Mounts Lidgbird and Gower.

?

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Stove and greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March. Hardy species by division of crowns in April, also by spores sown on sterilised loam and kept close under glass cover.

Ferns suitable for

Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland in central and southern California.

Stove greenhouse and hardy Polystichum ferns. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).
Culture of hardy species: Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. Position, shady or partially shady spots. Plant in October or April. Water freely in dry weather.

Damp banks support a variety of ferns including the endemic Dryopteris apiculis and Polystichum whiteleggei in Lord Howean Hill Forest on Lord Howe Island.
Lord Howean Mountain Moss Forest on Lord Howe Island - above altitudes of about 600 m these forests are often enveloped in clouds, and more or less permanently saturated.

polystichumwhiteleggeipfrondwikimediacommons

Polystichum whiteleggei. By John Game from Berkeley, United States via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumwhiteleggeipforwikimediacommons

 

View 260 thumbnails of Polystichum

Polystichum vestitum (Polypodium vestitum, Aspidium vestitum, Polystichum venustum, Aspidium venustum,
Prickly Shield Fern, pūnui (Maori)

Hardy in Zone 6

Native to the three principal islands of New Zealand (North Island, South Island and Stewart Island) and the Chatham Islands, as well as to New Zealand's subantarctic Snares, Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell Islands, and to Australia’s Macquarie Island.

These can be seen at Attadale Gardens in Scotland.

Erect rhizomes and harsh, prickly, semi-deciduous fronds that are dark green above, lighter below. This species grows in cool, moist climates.

Can develop a small trunk.

It is native to New Zealand.

The fronds are 220–600 mm (9-24 inches) long. There are 3–7 (usually 5) round sori on each pinnule, halfway between the margin and midrib, with a light brown indusium. The ferns are usually bicolour with a dark brown centre that is surrounded by margins that are a pale brown.

The fern is seriously affected by rabbit grazing.

Photos

40 x 40
(100 x 100
)

On the Snares Islands, clumps of P. vestitum are apparently the preferred cover for nests of the Snares Island snipe, Coenocorypha huegeli (Miskelly, 1999). Birds on the Snares that nest higher up apparently lose a lot of eggs or chicks to petrels. Petrels don't eat the other birds, but they also nest under cover in the area - and petrels are notoriously bad at making landings.
Touchdown for a petrel seems to basically involve throwing itself at the ground and cushion its descent in the vegetation. Any nest in the way of a plummeting petrel is turned into kindling. A nice sturdy fern is a ground-nesting birds friend, catching the petrels before they scramble your eggs.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Geenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Easily grown from fresh spores and transplants. However, often slow to establish. Does best in a shaded site planted within a deep, free draining humus-enriched fertile soil.

Ferns suitable for

Cold-Hardy.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.
Woodland.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Plants are very cold-hardy and will withstand severe frosts and snow. Likes plenty of moisture and will tolerate shade to partial sun.

Polystichum vestitum is common in the more exposed landscapes such as gulley floors, forest margins and tussock grasslands, but can also be found in abundance in the more cooler and wetter forests.
It prefers wetter areas and is why it can often be found in gully's however it does like the soil to be free draining rather than waterlogged.

It is found in conjunction with Stilbocarpa polaris, Poa foliosa and Pleurophyllum hookeri.

polystichumvestitumpsoriwikimediacommons


polystichumvestitumpjuvfrondwikimediacommons

Sori of Polystichum vestitum in Dunedin Botanic Garden. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

 

Juvenile Fronds of Polystichum Vestitum
English: Prickly Shield Fern in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, South Island, New Zealand
Deutsch: Flora des Mount Cook Nationalpark, Südinsel, Neuseeland. By MSeses via Wikimedia Commons

Form of Polystichum vestitum in Auckland Botanic Gardens. By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons

polystichumvestitumpforwikimediacommons

Polystichum triangulum (Polystichum echinatum)

Zone 9(10)

It forms a spreading rosette of narrow, bright green fronds; the pinnae being deltoid to triangular in shape.

Native to South America and West Indies.

 

Polystichum triangulum (triangular), synonym Polystichum echina-tum, is a small fern that is recommended for Zone 9 and possibly Zone 10. It is most attractive with shiny diamond to triangular-shaped pinnae. If it is not suitable for your garden, try it as a house-plant where, with fronds up to 18 in. (45 cm), it is showy, manageable, and unusual. It can be reproduced by small bulbils on the frond tips.

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives

Propagation: Greenhouse species by spores sown in sandy peat any time; division in March.

Ferns suitable for

Acid Soil.
Conservatory or Heated Greenhouse.

Greenhouse Polystichum fern. Heights vary from 12-36 inches (30-90cms).
Culture of stove and greenhouse species: Compost, 2 parts peat, 1 part loam, silver sand and charcoal. Pot in March. Water freely in summer, moderately in winter. Shade from sun. Temperature for stove species, Sep-Mar 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Centigrade), Mar-Sep 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-18 degrees Centigrade).

Although reported as being associated with calcareous rocks, this species grows well in acid, loamy soils.

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If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

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Arachniodes standishii

Upside-down Fern

USDA Zones 4a to 8b

China, Japa, Korea

 

18 x
(45 x )

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

After walking through acres of Arachniodes standishii on Korea's Ulleung Island, we understand why magically elegant upside-down fern is probably the most sought-after fern by gardeners worldwide. The lacy, cutleaf, 18" fronds rise from a thick, slowly creeping rhizome. Our 18-year-old clumps of the easy-to-grow Arachniodes standishii are only 3-4'; 36-48 inches; 90-120 cms wide. Upside-down fern is tardily deciduous, still looking fresh well into the new year. Dormant in the winter. Grow in light shade.

arachniodesstandishiipforplantdelightsnursery

Arachniodes standishii. Photo Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

Dryopteris ludoviciana (Aspidium ludovicianum ; Dryopteris floridana)

Southern Shield Fern, Southern wood fern

Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., N.C., S.C.
Dryopteris ludoviciana is endemic to southeastern United States. This diploid is one of the parents of D . celsa and D . cristata . It crosses with D . celsa to produce sterile hybrids.

Leaves somewhat dimorphic, green through winter, 35--120 × 10--30 cm.
Sori midway between midvein and margin of segments.

 

Shield Ferns, Buckler Ferns, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia)

Propagation: See instructions on right.

Suitable for

Swamps and wet woods; 0--100 m.

Dryopteris ludoviciana is a stately, semi-evergreen, clumping fern, native to the southeastern US, that makes a wonderful addition to the woodland garden. The shiny but leathery 3' tall fronds form a striking upright architectural specimen in the garden. Despite being native to swamps, Dryopteris ludoviciana has performed admirably for us in normal garden conditions. According to fern guru Dr. John Mickel, southern shield fern also occasionally occurs naturally on limestone outcrops, indicating a good tolerance for sweet soils.

dryopterisludovicianapforplantdelightsnursery

Dryopteris ludoviciana. Photo Courtesy of Plant Delights Nursery @ Juniper Level Botanic Garden.

Propagation: For those without propagation by spores instructions; the following is suitable: "Keep a close eye upon the fronds, and when the spore cases begin to turn brown remove a frond or portions of it, and wrap them up in white paper, putting them in a closed box for a few days, when an abundance of spores for sowing will be available. Fill some pots with good loam, to within an inch (2.5 cms) of the top, using to drainage, and surface this with some finely broken and dusty crocks or bricks. Give a thorough watering, and when this has soaked away sow the spores as thinly as possible. Stand each pot in a saucer of water, cover it in a case or under a bell-glass where light is available, but where there is no direct sunshine. When the pots get covered with small green scales (prothallica), transplant some of the small tufts with a pointed peg into other pots filled with compost and surfaced with sandy soil. Saucers of water beneath the pots should be used to supply moisture." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis. Published by A & C. Black Ltd in 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

If you grow and sell ferns in any country, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

If you would provide photos and fern details to be only used by me on this website, they would be gratefully received, since I could assume that the photo was a valid one in regard to its name of fern in its filename to that fern in the photo.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
"This book is mainly written for people seriously interested in growing ferns, knowing their names and what makes them similar or different, and appreciating their diversity. It is not a coffee-table book, nor a chatty type of garden book meant for light reading. Beginning fern amateurs may find more information than they need, but they will also find information useful at their level. Although this book primarily is a reference, it is also for browsing and gleaning bits of information not readily found elsewhere.
The core information in this book will be particularly helpful to plant people who want to grow or identify different ferns and fern allies." from the Preface to the above book.

 

 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States
Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3
Border and Foundation 1, 2
Grow in Coastal Region
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5
Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants
(Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)

Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks

Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2
, 3, 4, 5, 6
House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,

Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4,
5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4
 

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3


Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1
, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns


Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2