<-------- Title of Page

(o) in front of Page Name or Index Page No in this Main Menu Table indicates that all pages linked to from that cell have content.

SPRING FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

Index Page No.

AUTUMN FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

Index Page No.

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers
Erica Hardy Heaths:-

Index Page No.

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers
Erica Hardy Heaths:-

Index Page No.

HEATHER EVERGREEN SHRUB
INDEX GALLERY PAGES

Index Page No.


Site Map

Introduction

Index Page No.

Click on Colour below to change to its Heather Flower Colour Page with Flower and Flower Stalk

Spr-Bronze

1

(o) Aut-Bronze

(o) 1

Erica garforthensis

(o) 1

Erica tetralix

1

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers

 

FLOWERING SEASON
with Flower and Flower Stalk

 

(o) H0
White
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1e1a1b

Index Page No.

(o) H1 Amethyst
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1q1a1

Index Page No.

H2
Mauve
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1a1a1a

Index Page No.

(o) Spr-Green

(o) 1

(o) Aut-Green

(o)
1 2

Erica gaudificans

(o) 1

Erica umbellata

1

Andromeda

(o) 1

(o) January
Winter

(o)
1 2

(o) 1

(o) 1

1

Spr-Grey

1

(o) Aut-Grey

(o) 1

(o) Erica x griffithsii

(o) 1

Erica vagans

1

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia changed to
Erica spiculifolia

1

(o)February
Winter

(o)
1 2

(o) H3
Lavender
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1c1a1a

(o) 1

H4
Lilac
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1d1a1a

1

H5
Ruby
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1f1a1a

1

(o) Spr-Orange

(o) 1

Aut-Orange

1

Erica krameri

(o) 1

Erica veitchii

1

(o) Calluna

(o) 1

(o) March
Spring

(o)
1 2

Spr-Red

1

Aut-Red

1

(o) Erica lusitanica

(o) 1

Erica watsonii

1

(o) Daboecia

(o) 1

(o) April
Spring

(o)
1 2

H6
Cerise
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1g1a1a

1

(o) H7
Rose Pink
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1h1a1a

(o) 1

(o) H8
Pink
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1i1a1a

(o) 1

(o) Spr-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Aut-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Erica mackayana

(o) 1

Erica williamsii

1

Erica Hardy Heaths:-

 

(o) May
Spring

(o) 1

(o) Spr-Other Colour

(o) 1

Aut-Other Colour

1

Erica maderensis

(o) 1

 

 

Erica x afroeuropea

(o) 1

(o) June
Summer

(o) 1

(o) H9
Beetroot
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1j1a1a

(o) 1

(o) H10
Purple
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1k1a1a

(o) 1

(o) H11
Lilac Pink
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1l1a1a

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

(o) Erica manipuliflora

(o) 1

 

 

Erica andevalensis now treated as Erica mackayana ssp andevalensis

1

(o) July
Summer

(o) 1

SUMMER FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

 

WINTER FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

 

Erica multiflora

1

SEED COLOUR

 

(o) Erica arborea

(o) 1

(o) August
Summer

(o) 1

(o) H12 Heliotrope
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1m1a1a

(o) 1

H13 Crimson
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1n1a1a

1

(o) H14 Magenta
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1o1a1a

(o) 1

(o) Sum-Bronze

(o) 1

(o) Win-Bronze

(o) 1

(o) Erica
oldenburgensis

(o) 1

Seed

1

(o) Erica x arendsiana

(o) 1

(o) September
Autumn

(o) 1

(o) Sum-Green

(o)
1 2

(o) Win-Green

(o)
1 2

Erica platycodon

1

 

 

(o) Erica australis

(o) 1

(o) October
Autumn

(o) 1

H15 Salmon

item2e1a1i1a1a1a1p1a1a

1

(o) H16
Shell Pink

item2e1a1i1a1a1a1b1a1a

(o) 1

(o) H17 Multi-Coloured
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1e1a1a1

(o) 1

Sum-Grey

1

Win-Grey

1

Erica scoparia

1

BED PICTURES

 

(o) Erica azorica
(Syn.
Erica scoparia subsp. azorica)

(o) 1

(o) November
Autumn

(o) 1

Sum-Orange

1

(o) Win-Orange

(o) 1

Erica sicula

1

Garden

1

(o) Erica carnea

(o)
1 2

(o) December
Winter

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum-Red

1

(o) Win-Red

(o) 1

(o) Erica spiculifolia

(o) 1

 

 

(o) Erica ciliaris

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and
User Guidelines

 

 

 

(o) Sum-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Win-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Erica stuartii

(o) 1


(o) COMMENTS

(o) Erica cinerea

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum-Other Colour

1

(o) Win-Other Colour

(o) 1

Erica terminalis

1

(o) Erica x darleyensis

(o) 1

The 2 rows of "Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms) and Comment" state the Heather Description from 'Handy Guide to Heathers Descriptions & Suppliers of over 1000 varieties" by David & Anne Small, published in 1992 by Denbeigh Heather Nurseries (ISBN 0-9519160-0-9). This gives the official Heather Society flower colour(s) and foliage colour(s).
Photos from Chris Garnons-Williams are added to that respective flower colour or foliage colour page in the Shrub Heather Gallery and the relevant index page in this gallery IRRESPECTIVE OF THE ACTUAL FLOWER COLOUR OR FOLIAGE COLOUR (stated in the Handy Guide) IN THE IMAGE THAT WAS TAKEN BY CHRIS GARNONS-WILLIAMS.

(o) Erica erigena

(o) 1

End of Main Menu - See Sub-Menu and Data below:-

Ivydene Gardens Heather Evergreen Shrub Index
Gallery:
Erica maderensis Cultivars Index

 

 

Species: Erica maderensis:-

 

"Erica maderensis : Madeira heath, Madeiran bell heather synonym: Erica cinerea subsp. maderensis
Bushy shrub to about 1m tall; mature stems stout and woody with grey bark; leaves in whorls of 3, to 5(–10)mm long, linear; flowers in terminal umbels of 3–6 flowers; calyx with 4 free sepals, centre green, sometimes tinged pink; corolla mauve (H2) to 5mm long, tubular-ovoid; stamens 8, included; anthers with spurs; fruit with woody, thickened walls, very hygroscopic, opening wide on warm dry days; interior of valves glossy, pale gold when freshly opened.
Blooms in summer.
Restricted to the mountains of Madeira, and one thought to be only a subspecies of the bell heather. However it may be more closely related to the Corsican heath (Erica terminalis). Very uncommon in cultivation and not available commercially. It can be grown successfully in lime-free and well-drained sompost in containers with protection from winter frost (see Yearbook of The Heather Society 1999: 11–21. Heathers 5: 17–25. 2008)." from the The Heather Society.

 

Heather Evergreen Shrub Cultivar or Hybrid Name
with link to its Description Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Bud

item2g1a42

Photo from
 

item2g1a41

item2g1a40

item2g1a39

item2g1a38

item2g1a37

item2g1a36

 

Flower Bud Stalk

item2g1a29

Photo from
 

item2g1a30

item2g1a31

item2g1a32

item2g1a33

item2g1a34

item2g1a35

 

Flower and Flower Colour
with link to its
Flower Colour Page

item2g1a28

White - H0

Photo from
 

item2g1a27

item2g1a26

item2g1a25

item2g1a24

item2g1a23

item2g1a22

 

Flower Stalk

item2g1a15

Photo of flower stalk from
 

item2g1a16

item2g1a17

item2g1a18

item2g1a19

item2g1a20

item2g1a21

 

Flowers

item2g1a14

Photo of flowers from
 

item2g1a13

item2g1a12

item2g1a11

item2g1a10

item2g1a9

item2g1a8

 

Seed

item2g1a11b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seedhead

item2g1a11c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flowering Months with link to its Flowering Month Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms)
and Comment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fol-iage Stalk Col-our

Spring
with link to its
Spring Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a1

Dark Green

Photo from
 

item2g1a3

item2g1a2

item2g1a4

item2g1a5

item2g1a6

item2g1a7

Summer with link to its
Summer Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a1b

Dark Green

Photo from
 

item2g1a44

item2g1a45

item2g1a46

item2g1a47

item2g1a48

item2g1a49

Autumn with link to its
Autumn Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a50

Dark Green

Photo from
 

item2g1a51

item2g1a52

item2g1a53

item2g1a54

item2g1a55

item2g1a56

Winter
with link to its
Winter Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a59

Dark Green

Photo from
 

item2g1a58

item2g1a57

item2g1a60

item2g1a61

item2g1a62

item2g1a63

Form dis-plays Over-all Fol-iage Col-our

Spring form
with link to supplier in the UK

item2g1a64

Spring Park Nursery

Photo of form from
 

item2g1a65

item2g1a66

item2g1a67

item2g1a68

item2g1a69

item2g1a70

Summer form with link to supplier in Europe

Heather's Heide online shop from Holland is closed on Sunday

item2g1a71

Heather's Heide

Photo of form from
 

item2g1a73

item2g1a72

item2g1a74

item2g1a75

item2g1a76

item2g1a77

Autumn form with link to supplier in USA

item2g1a78

Heaths and Heathers

Photo of form from
 

item2g1a79

item2g1a80

item2g1a81

item2g1a82

item2g1a83

item2g1a84

Winter form
with link to supplier in Canada

item2g1a85

Bunchberry Nurseries

Photo of form from
 

item2g1a87

item2g1a86

item2g1a88

item2g1a89

item2g1a90

item2g1a91

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Anyone during the summer months, who has walked over the moor lands throughout the British Isles will appreciate the magnificent mass of colour provided by Heathers. Heathers are native to not only the British Isles, but also much of mainland Europe to northern Italy and as far north as Iceland. Due to seed of our native Calluna vulgaris (Scotch Heather) being accidentally introduced on packaging materials, it has also become naturalised in parts of Nova Scotia and Eastern Canada.

We had better point out that there are more heather species (Erica) in South Africa than anywhere else in the world. Many of these have been introduced and sold as pot grown house plants, which if after flowering they are planted out in the garden, then they will die during the winter months. So do make sure the heather you are purchasing is hardy enough to be grown outdoors in the garden.

Most of the heathers require a fertile, moist, but not waterlogged, acid soil. By incorporating plenty of composted bark, or peat, we grow them quite successfully in a sandy loam of Ph6.5, which is almost neutral. If you garden on soils with a high lime content, it is better to create beds raised 15/20cm above your normal soil level and infill this with half and half John Innes No. 3 compost and composted bark, or peat. Heathers can also be grown in tubs, or troughs, but Calluna’s and Erica cinerea hate hot feet, but both species like an open sunny site and will not produce so many flowers if grown in dense shade. The winter flowering heather, Erica carnea, is a mountain plant consequently it will tolerate drier soils and warmer sites and will grow in fertile soils of PH7 with less bark, or peat being used.

FLOWERING TIMES
Erica carnea is a superb winter flowering, dwarf evergreen shrub. Over 130 named forms have been introduced varying in size, foliage and flower colour. Flowering time is usually from December to March when there is little else in flower.

Erica erigena is a strong growing shrub, which will attain between 75 cm and 2 metres and flowers during April and May. It has sported a number of foliage and flower cultivars, but they will not tolerate wet feet and exposed sites, but the hybrids between this species and Erica carnea are named Erica x darleyensis and these - although almost as tough as Erica carnea - are much stronger growers growing between 45 and 70cms in height. The x darleyensis cultivars produce flowers from white through to dark amethyst - all flower from December to May.

The tree heather, Erica arborea forms a small tree in Southern Europe where its roots are used to make briar pipes, but it is very tender. However, the variety alpina has been growing in our nursery showground for many years where - if left to its own devices - would attain 2-3 metres in height. It is massed with honey scented white flowers in April-May.

Erica cinerea is a superb low growing shrub which, according to cultivar, is massed with flowers of varying colours from June to September. Daboecia cantabrica also flowers at this time with attractive urn shaped flowers. The sub species scotica is lower growing and freer flowering.

Although there is only one species in Calluna vulgaris; over 600 named cultivars have been introduced, varying from dwarfs of 7cms to those which attain 60cms and with foliage of green, silver, or yellow. The flowers also vary from white to beetroot-red and appear from late June to September. Erica vagans, the Cornish Heath brings the season to a close; its stiff, upright branches produce masses of white, lavender, or pink flowers in September-October.

PRUNING
All of the summer flowering heathers can be pruned after flowering, or the brown seed heads left on until April. Erica arborea alpina and the x darleyensis hybrids can if room allows, be left to their own devices. If room is restricted they can be pruned over as soon as their flowers have faded.

" from Goscote Nurseries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heather Evergreen Shrub Cultivar or Hybrid Name
with link to its Description Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Bud

item2g1a42b

Photo from
 

item2g1a41a

item2g1a40a

item2g1a39a

item2g1a38a

item2g1a37a

item2g1a36a

 

Flower Bud Stalk

item2g1a29b

Photo from
 

item2g1a30a

item2g1a31a

item2g1a32a

item2g1a33a

item2g1a34a

item2g1a35a

 

Flower and Flower Colour
with link to its
Flower Colour Page

item2g1a28b

White - H0

Photo from
 

item2g1a27a

item2g1a26a

item2g1a25a

item2g1a24a

item2g1a23a

item2g1a22a

 

Flower Stalk

item2g1a15b

Photo of flower stalk from
 

item2g1a16a

item2g1a17a

item2g1a18a

item2g1a19a

item2g1a20a

item2g1a21a

 

Flowers

item2g1a14b

Photo of flowers from
 

item2g1a13a

item2g1a12a

item2g1a11a

item2g1a10a

item2g1a9a

item2g1a8a

 

Seed

item2g1a11b1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seedhead

item2g1a11c1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flowering Months

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms)
and Comment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fol-iage Stalk Col-our

Spring
with link to its
Spring Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a1c

Dark Green

Photo from
 

item2g1a3a

item2g1a2a

item2g1a4a

item2g1a5a

item2g1a6a

item2g1a7a

Summer with link to its
Summer Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a1b1

Dark Green

Photo from
 

item2g1a44a

item2g1a45a

item2g1a46a

item2g1a47a

item2g1a48a

item2g1a49a

Autumn with link to its
Autumn Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a50b

Dark Green

Photo from
 

item2g1a51a

item2g1a52a

item2g1a53a

item2g1a54a

item2g1a55a

item2g1a56a

Winter
with link to its
Winter Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a59b

Dark Green

Photo from
 

item2g1a58a

item2g1a57a

item2g1a60a

item2g1a60b

item2g1a61b

item2g1a62b

Form dis-plays Over-all Fol-iage Col-our

Spring form
with link to supplier in the UK

item2g1a64b

Spring Park Nursery

Photo of form from
 

item2g1a65a

item2g1a66a

item2g1a67a

item2g1a68a

item2g1a69a

item2g1a70a

Summer form with link to supplier in Europe

Heather's Heide online shop from Holland is closed on Sunday

item2g1a71b

Heather's Heide

Photo of form from
 

item2g1a73a

item2g1a72a

item2g1a74a

item2g1a75a

item2g1a76a

item2g1a77a

Autumn form with link to supplier in USA

item2g1a78b

Heaths and Heathers

Photo of form from
 

item2g1a79a

item2g1a80a

item2g1a81a

item2g1a82a

item2g1a83a

item2g1a84a

Winter form
with link to supplier in Canada

item2g1a85b

Bunchberry Nurseries

Photo of form from
 

item2g1a87a

item2g1a86a

item2g1a88a

item2g1a89a

item2g1a90a

item2g1a91a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depending on which heather species you choose with their 1 from the official 18 heather colours in the top menu, you can have flowers throughout the year, which is very useful for their pollination by bees.

Click on the 1 in the Colour Wheel below to link to those thumbnails in their Comparison Gallery -
with their index of those bee-pollinated plants in addition to heathers of that flower colour in that month -
to compare their blooms:-

bloomsmonth2a1a

 

"RHS Plants for Pollinators
There are lots of ways to make your garden as perfect for pollinators as possible with the RHS
We have compiled two downloadable plant lists to help gardeners identify plants that will provide nectar and pollen for bees and many other types of pollinating insects:
 

How to attract and support pollinating insects

  • Aim to have plants that are attractive to pollinating insects in flower from early spring to late autumn.
  • Grow garden plants with flowers that attract pollinating insects.
  • Avoid plants with double or multi-petalled flowers. Such flowers may lack nectar and pollen, or insects may have difficulty in gaining access.
  • Never use pesticides on plants when they are in flower.
  • Where appropriate, British wildflowers can be an attractive addition to planting schemes and may help support a wider range of pollinating insects.
  • Observe the plants in your garden. If you know of plants with blooms that regularly attract insects, let us know.
  • Encourage bees by keeping honeybees yourself or allowing a beekeeper to place hives in your garden. Nest boxes containing cardboard tubes or hollow plant stems, or holes drilled in blocks of wood will provide nest sites for some species of solitary bees. Such nests are available from garden centres or you can make your own (holes/tubes should be in a mixture of sizes with a diameter of 2 - 8mm)." from the RHS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2014. Index Page for each Comparison Page of Heather Comparison Gallery created in this Gallery in December 2014. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.
It is possible that the carrier pigeon used in the original link may have died and thus that link currently may no longer be functional. 

 

Some heathers besides having flowers have foliage colours that change from 1 season to the next season in the UK -

  • Spring (March, April, May),
  • Summer (June, July, August),
  • Autumn (September, October, November) and
  • Winter (December, January, February).


The Heather Comparison Gallery provides comparison pages of the:-

  • 18 flower colours with flower and flower stalk as shown in the menu table at the top of this page,
  • 18 flower colours with flower and flower stalk in each of the months that heather flowers,
  • 7 foliage colours with foliage stalk and form per season as shown in the menu table at the top of this page, and
  • Each of the Heather Cultivar Groups with flowers

and the Index for the heathers shown in each of these Comparison Pages is in 1 or more Index Pages in the relevant Heather Evergreen Shrub Index Gallery instead of being in the same Comparison page, due to their being too many to include within the available space.
THIS COMBINATION OF FOLIAGE COLOUR CHANGE CAN BE USED IN YOUR GARDEN DESIGN TO AID DIFFERENT GROUNDCOVER FOLIAGE COLOURS IN DIFFERENT SEASONS, together with the months of flower buds before flowering and the post months of seedheads.

From Heathers: Yearbook of the Heather Society:-

"Heathers 5: 17-25 (2008). © A. Hall

Erica maderensis in England

 

Allen Hall

 

10 Upper Green, Nanpantan, LOUGHBOROUGH, LE11 3SG.

 

Erica maderensis is a native of the island of Madeira and grows nowhere else in the wild. On Madeira, it frequents the highest ground, typically on the tops of mountains. Erica maderensis is rarely grown in cultivation and so is one of those heathers that is unfamiliar even to heather enthusiasts. For these reasons, the plant has been little observed and written about. This article is about my experience of growing Erica maderensis in England and may to some small extent help redress this situation.

In the mid- to late 1980s my interest in heather gardening spilled over into a curiosity about heathers themselves and I wanted to know more about heathers on the fringes of the hardy species of northern Europe that were rarely if ever cultivated. So I sought to acquire some of these plants, Erica maderensis among them. Plants of these species can't be obtained on the market. However, one of the unsung advantages of membership of The Heather Society is that rarities can be obtained through the liberality of fellow members. Heathers that are worthless to horticulturists, yet priceless to enthusiasts, are obtained without cost from one's fellows.

 

A CLONE FROM AN EXPEDITION IN 1974
Dr (now Professor) John Griffiths generously sent me a rooted cutting of Erica maderensis in 1989. This was a clone collected by Don Richards and David McClintock in Madeira in 1974. Don Richards subsequently wrote about the expedition in the Yearbook of The Heather Society. He reported that ... on the bleak top of Pico do Ariero Erica maderensis is quite common as tight cushions or mats draping the rocks. Some of these plants are ancient with a main stem thicker than one's thumb and close pressed to the rock up to 6 feet (1.83 metres) across. ... Erica maderensis survived on the bleak, rocky mountain tops where practically nothing else could find a living.

Lower down they saw bushy plants perhaps 1— 2ft (0.3-0.6m) tall. The colour of flowers was "near white to fawny or purplish pink, much like a paler version of Erica terminalis." Writing in 1981 about the same expedition, David McClintock said that all but the youngest plants had thick, stout stems. He stated that the colour of the flowers was mauve - H2. However, one plant had flowers with colours ranging from deep rose pink to near white.

A more recent botanical explorer was Dr Charles Nelson. In 2003, Dr Nelson gave a talk to the East Midlands Group of The Heather Society in which he showed a number of slides of Erica maderensis. One of these showed a woody plant fully 3m long hanging down a mountain side.

Seed from the Botanical Gardens in Madeira
The 1999 Heather Society conference at Falmouth was addressed by Dr Judy Rose of the Horticultural Research Institution, East Malling, Kent. Dr Rose was engaged in research in which heathers were to feature. After her lecture I discovered that she was seeking some plants to use in her research, in particular Erica bocquetii and Erica maderensis. Subsequently I sent her some plants of both species. Later, Dr Rose obtained some Erica maderensis seed from a contact at the Madeira Botanical Gardens and she had a surplus which she sent me as thanks for the plants I had given to her.

The seed from the Botanical Garden was dated 1998. I obtained, and sowed, my share in May 2000 and raised many fine plants, most of which I gave to fellow members of the Society, including John Griffiths and David Small, our current President, who has also assisted me with my collection of rare heathers over the years. I kept a number myself until I was satisfied that the plants had similar flowers and forms to each other and to the Richards /McClintock clone. I now have clones from two different sources.

Hardiness
When I received my first plant in 1989, David McClintock advised me that the species was hardy. Erica maderensis, after all, experiences windy conditions in its native clime and is sometimes covered with snow. Moreover, Don Richards could grow the species in his garden in Eskdale, Cumbria. David himself grew Erica maderensis outside at his home, Bracken Hill, Piatt, in Kent for a number of years, as he mentioned in his article on the bell heather of Madeira. He commented: "here it does not thrive or make the floriferous display to be seen in the climate of Madeira."

When I had accumulated a number of plants, I conducted my own experiment in my Surrey garden and later repeated it in Loughborough. In both trials/the plants were cut to the ground by winter frosts and fragile spring recoveries were not sustained. A mature plant was later installed in a concrete container, by the south wall of the house and sheltered from the east by a water-butt. This has survived, and indeed flourished, for several years. Dr Nelson saw this plant recently and thought it reminiscent of those he has seen growing in the wild on Pico de Ariero.

My conclusion is that Erica maderensis might be hardy in milder, western parts of the country but is on the fringes of hardiness in middle and eastern England. In these places, the species needs some protection in the winter either by careful selection of site, protection in a cold glasshouse, or, as I prefer, in a heated glasshouse.

Cultivation in England
I keep stock plants in a glasshouse from mid-September to mid-May. The glasshouse has an electric fan-heater thermostatically controlled to prevent the ambient temperature falling below +5°C. Good ventilation is important and the glasshouse is liberally equipped with automatically operated, and hand-worked, ventilators. On winter nights the ventilators have to be closed but they are opened during the day even if it is cold, providing the temperature does not drop below freezing.

Erica maderensis thrives when well watered. I water the plants every day except in the winter months when frequency and quantities of water are reduced to suit individual needs - as informed by experience. In some weeks at the turn of the year, watering once a week is enough.

During the summer, my Erica maderensis plants are put in a sheltered place outside and they enjoy their weeks in the sun.

I neglected to re-pot one of my plants for a number years but when I came eventually to re-pot it, I found no trace of the root ball being pot-bound. The plant, it seems, had accommodated itself to its conditions. This prompts me to wonder if in the wild Erica maderensis has to live in cracks and hollows in the rocks that contain little soil?

Compost
I use a compost mix of half moss peat and half Perlite. 6 This compost is light, free-draining and acidic. Both components are water-retentive. To this mixture is added John Innes base fertiliser at the rate of 6.25ml per litre (lfl oz per gallon). During the summer months, I give the plants feeds of liquid ericaceous fertiliser once a month.

I have not explored whether Erica maderensis might grow in a neutral or alkaline soil.

Propagation
I find that Erica maderensis is easier to grow from seed than from cuttings. Each flower is capable of producing many seeds and early autumn is a good time to collect them. I use similar techniques to those described by Barry Sellers, but confess that I do not take so many pains. I use the same peat/Perlite compost with a 3mm layer of horticultural grade sand on top. The seed is mixed with a little of the same sand and sprinkled on top. As Barry advised, in his authoritative article, the compost is not allowed to dry out. The seed typically germinates in three to five weeks after sowing.

Erica maderensis is a very woody plant but the stems throw slender, green side-shoots of up to about 2.5cm (lin) long. These can be used for cutting material but care has to be used in selecting them because they harden quickly and the best cutting material has half-ripe wood. I root them in a peat/Perlite mix with a thin layer of horticultural sand on the surface. The cuttings are placed in a cold frame and the strike rate I obtain is reasonable.

Size of plants in cultivation
Currently, I have four plants, two of the Richards / McClintock clone, and two from seeds obtained in 2000 from the Madeira Botanic Garden via Dr Rose.

One seedling, from the seed sown in May 2000, is now growing in a 19-litre (4-gallon) plastic container. It has a spread of 97cm (38in) and reached a height above the rim of the container of 45cm (18in). However, the nature of the plant is to form a hummock and it trails 27cm (10.5in) over the side of the container, reaching the ground. It has a single woody main stem that is 2.2cm in diameter - as thick as my thumb in fact. Erica seedlings take a long time to develop so I reckon that the main growth of the plant has occurred since around May 2001, in other words within six years.

A second, older plant of the Richards / McClintock clone has a single main stem 2.5cm in diameter (lin), while a third has seven stems emerging from the compost and the diameter of these is 10-1 3mm (<0.5in). These dimensions accord with David McClintock' s and Don Richards' s observations of plants in the wild.

General description
Erica maderensis is a distinctive plant with tough, woody stems and branches that are not brittle. It puts out short, stubby twigs which form green side- shoots. The twigs soon mature and harden. The plants characteristically form dense hummocks around their roots or mould themselves to their immediate environment and this habit may be a response to the strong, Atlantic winds that sweep its mountain homeland.

In my Leicestershire garden, the plants flower in June and July - depending on their particular locations - and sometimes flowers appear in August or even September.

My plants produce very pale pink flowers. From a distance, the flowers appear white and when in full flower a plant can look attractive. However, I do not regard it as a good garden plant, lack of hardiness aside.

In his talk to the East Midlands Group in 2003 , Dr Nelson pointed out that the valves of the fruits are woody. The fruits persist for a long time after the seed has been released and the valves open and close according to humidity (like a pine cone).

David McClintock raised the question of whether Erica maderensis should continue to be regarded as a separate species or as a subspecies of Erica cinerea. He concluded that its specific status should be retained but said that it would be helpful if someone could attempt to cross the two species. Professor Griffiths was present at the East Midlands Group meeting in October 2003 and said that he had crossed the two several times, using Erica maderensis as the seed parent.

 

References

1 D. A. Richards, 1976. Mostly Erica maderensis and Daboecia azorica. Yearbook of The Heather Society 2 (5): 15-20.

2 D. McClintock, 1981. The bell heather of Madeira. Yearbook of The Heather Society 2 (10): 48-50.

3 Report on a talk on "Heathers of the Atlantic Islands" given by Dr E. C. Nelson to the East Midlands Group October 2003. Bulletin of The Heather Society 6 (10: Autumn): 13-14. 2003.

4 A. Hall, 2002. The hardiness of some of the less familiar heathers in the English Midlands. Yearbook of The Heather Society 2002: 37-42.

5 A. Hall, 1999. Heathers in the glasshouse. Yearbook of The Heather Society 1999: 11- 21.

6 G. Yates, 1978. Pocket guide to heather gardening. Tabramhill Gardens, Far Sawrey.

7 B. Sellers, 1999. Propagation of heather from seed. Yearbook of The Heather Society 1999:23-29. "

Topic
Remaining Topic Table is now on the right hand side.


Plants

...Plant Selection of 6 levels with lists by:

1 - Plant Use including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers, Groundcover and
Poisonous Plants

2 - Plants for Soil
Any, Chalk, Clay, Lime-free, Sandy, Peaty
2a Plant Requirements
2b Form - Tree Growth Shape
Columnar

2b Shrub/ Perennial Growth Habit
Mat

2c - Garden Use
Bedding

2d - Plant Type
Bulb


Refining Selection
3a - Flower Colour
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower
3b - Flower Shape
Photos -
Bedding

Evergr Per
Herbac Per
3c - Foliage Colour
Large Leaves

Other

Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

4 - Pruning Requirements
Pruning Plants

5 - 1000 Groundcover Plants
Plant Name - A

6 - Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests



Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
......Gallery,
......Species Index Page with
......Pages describing each Heather of that Species Index Page

......Andromeda
.........Andromeda In
......
Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
.........Index AC
.........AB-AP,
.........AP-BU,
.........BU-CW,
.........
Index D-G
.........DB-FA,
.........FA-GO,
.........GO-GU,
.........
Index H-L
.........HA-IN,
.........IN-LO,
.........LO-LY,
.........
Index M-R
.........MA-PA,
.........PA-RO,
.........RO-RU,
.........
Index S-Z
.........SA-SO,
.........SP-WH,
.........WI-YV

......Daboecia
.........Daboecia In
.........Index
.........cantabrica
.........x scotica

......Erica: Carnea
.........Carnea Index
.........AD-JO
.........JO-RO
.........RU-WI
......Erica: Cinerea
.........Index
.........AM-HE,
.........HO-RO,
.........RO-WI

......Erica: Others
.........Others Index
.........Others 1
.........Others 2
.........Others 3
.........Others 4
.........
Darleyensis In
.........darleyensis 1
.........darleyensis 2
.........
Tetralix Index
.........tetralix
.........
Vagans Index
.........vagans
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index

 

 

STAGE 4C CULTIVATION, POSITION, USE GALLERY

 

Cultivation Requirements of Plant

Outdoor / Garden Cultivation

1

Indoor / House Cultivation

1

Cool Greenhouse (and Alpine House) Cultivation with artificial heating in the Winter

1

Conservatory Cultivation with heating throughout the year

1

Stovehouse Cultivation with heating throughout the year for Tropical Plants

1

 

Sun Aspect

Full Sun

1

Part Shade

1

Full Shade

1

 

Soil Type

Any Soil

1

Chalky Soil

1

Clay Soil

1

Lime-Free Soil

1

Peaty Soil

1

Sandy Soil

1

Acid Soil

1

Alkaline Soil

1

Badly-drained Soil

1

 

Soil Moisture

Dry

1

Moist

1

Wet

1

 

Position for Plant

Back of Shady Border

1

Back of Shrub Border

1

Bedding

1

Bog Garden

1

Coastal Conditions / Seaside

1

Container in Garden

1

Front of Border

1

Ground Cover 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

1

Ground Cover 24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

1

Ground Cover Over 72 inches (180 cms)

1

Hanging Basket

1

Hedge

1

Hedge - Thorny

1

Pollution Barrier

1

Pond

1

Pot in House, Greenhouse, Conservatory or Stovehouse

1

Raised Bed

1

Rest of Border

1

Rock Garden

1

Scree Bed

1

Speciman on Lawn

1

Sunny Border

1

Tree for Lawn

1

Tree/Shrub for Small Garden

1, 2,
3, 4,
5, 6,
7, 8,
9, 10,
11,12,
13,14,
15,16,
uses of tree/ shrub

Wildflower

1

Windbreak

1

Woodland

1

 

Use of Plant

Pollen or nectar for Bees

1

Hosts to Butterflies

1

Encouraging birds / wildlife, providing food and shelter

1

Bee-Pollinated plants for Hay Fever Sufferers

1

Berries / Fruit

1

Dry Site in Full Sun

1

Dry Shade

1

Filtering noise

1

Flower Arrange-ments

1

Fragrant Flower

1

Language of Flowers

1

Low maintenance

1

Moist Shade

1

Moist and swampy Sites

1

Nitrogen fixing plants

1

Not Fragrant Flower

1

Rabbit-Resistant

1

Speciman Plant

1

Thornless

1

Tolerant of Poor Soil

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

Aromatic Foliage

1

Autumn Foliage

1

Finely Cut Leaves

1

Large Leaves

1

Yellow Variegated Foliage

1

White Variegated Foliage

1

Red / Purple Variegated Foliage

1

Silver, Grey and Glaucous Foliage

1

Sword-shaped Leaves

1

 

 

Flower Shape

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less
lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

1 Petal

1

2 Petals

1

3 Petals
irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

4 Petals
aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

5 Petals
anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Above 5
anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars
anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Bowls
 

1

Cups and Saucers
euphorbiacflo1wallichiigarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Globes
paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Goblets and Chalices
paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Trumpets
acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Funnels
stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Bells
digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Thimbles
fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Urns
ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Salverform

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

 

Flower Shape - Elaborated

Tubes, Lips and Straps
prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets
aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Hats, Hoods and Helmets
acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Standards, Wings and Keels
lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Discs and Florets
brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Pin-Cushions
echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Tufts
centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Cushion
androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Umbel
agapanthuscflos1campanulatusalbidusgarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Buttons
argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Pompoms
armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

 

Natural Arrangements

Bunches, Posies, Sprays
bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Columns, Spikes and Spires
ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Whorls, Tiers and Candelabra
lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Plumes and Tails
astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Chains and Tassels
 

1

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades
 

1

Spheres, Domes (Clusters), Plates and Drumsticks
androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Shrub, Tree Shape

Columnar
ccolumnarshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Oval
covalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Rounded or Spherical
croundedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Flattened Spherical
cflattenedsphericalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal
cnarrowconicalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal
cbroadpyramidalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Ovoid /
Egg-Shaped

ceggshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Ovoid
cbroadovoidshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Vase-shaped / Inverted Ovoid
cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Fan-Shaped /Vase-Shaped
cfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Fan-Shaped / Broad Vase-Shaped
cbroadfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Weeping
cnarrowweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Weeping
cbroadweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Palm

1

 

Conifer Cone

1

 

Form

Arching

1

Climbing

1

Clump-Forming

1

Mat-Forming

1

Mound-Forming

1

Prostrate

1

Spreading

1

Stemless

1

Upright

1

 

Poisonous Plant

1

 

STAGE 1
GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark
1
, 2, 3

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2

Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Scented Aquatic Plants
1


Plants with Scented Fruits
1


Plants with Scented Roots
1
, 2

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood
1


Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums
1


Scented Cacti and Succulents
1


Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell
1
, 2
 

 

STAGE 2
INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERY 3

Fan-trained Shape
fantrainedshape2a1a1a1a1a1

From Rhododendrons, boxwood, azaleas, clematis, novelties, bay trees, hardy plants, evergreens : novelties bulbs, cannas novelties, palms, araucarias, ferns, vines, orchids, flowering shrubs, ornamental grasses and trees book, via Wikimedia Commons

 

Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0) describes how to choose, plant and nurture over 500 high-performance climbing plants and wall shrubs, so that more can be made of your garden if you think not just laterally on the ground but use the vertical support structures including the house as well.

The Gardener's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Climbers & Wall Shrubs - A Guide to more than 2000 varieties including Roses, Clematis and Fruit Trees by Brian Davis. (ISBN 0-670-82929-3) provides the lists for 'Choosing the right Shrub or Climber' together with Average Height and Spread after 5 years, 10 years and 20 years.

 

STAGE 2
INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES 1, 2, 3


Gardening with Alpines by Stanley B. Whitehead. Garden Book Club.
Published in 1962. It provides most of the data about the Alpines.

Plant Solutions 1000+ suggestions for every garden situation by Nigel Colborn ISBN
13:978
0 00 719312 7, provides many of the plants for the pages in these Galleries.

Essential Annuals The 100 Best for Design and Cultivation. Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell. ISBN 0-517-66177-2, provides data about annuals.

Indoor Bulb
Growing by
Edward Pearson
. Published by Purnell & Sons, Ltd in 1953. It provides the data about Indoor Bulbs and Bulbs in
Window-boxes.

Colour All The
Year In My Garden
: A selection of choice varieties - annuals, biennials, perennials, bulbs, climbers and trees and shrubs - that will give a continuity of colour
in the garden throughout the year. Edited by C.H. Middleton. Gardening Book
from Ward, Lock & Co published in 1938, provides plant data for a calendar of plants in bloom throughout the year and for those in the smallest garden.
The Book of Bulbs by S. Arnott, F.R.H.S. Printed by
Turnbull & Spears, Edinburgh in 1901. This provides data about Hardy Bulbs, Half-Hardy Bulbs, Greenhouse and Stove Bulbs.

Collins Guide to
Bulbs by Patrick
M. Synge
. ISBN
0 00 214016-0
First Edition 1961, Second Edition 1971, Reprinted 1973. This provides data on bulbs for bedding, bulbs in the border, bulbs naturalised in grass, bulbs in the woodland garden, bulbs in the rock garden, bulbs in pans in the alpine house, bulbs in the greenhouse, bulbs in bowls and the bulb frame.

Annuals & Biennials, the best annual and biennial plants and their uses in the garden by Gertrude Jekyll published in 1916 and
republished by Forgotten Books in 2012
(Forgotten Books
is a London-based book publisher specializing in the restoration of old books, both fiction and non-fiction. Today we have
372,702 books available to read online, download as ebooks, or
purchase in print.).

Cut Flowers All The Year from The New Illustrated
Gardening Encyclopedia
by Richard Sudell, printed before May 1935 for the plant names in each month, followed by details for culture and propagation.

Mr. Middleton's Garden Book by
Daily Express Publication,
reprinted 1941
for the individual
cultivar names with evergreen/
deciduous, flower colour, flower month and height.

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Tree and Shrubs in Garden Design -

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Clay Soils (neutral to slightly acid)

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Dry Acid Soils

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Shallow Soil over Chalk

Trees and Shrubs tolerant of both extreme Acidity and Alkalinity

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Damp Sites

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Industrial Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Cold Exposed Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Seaside Areas

Shrubs suitable for Heavy Shade

Shrubs and Climbers suitable for NORTH- and EAST-facing Walls

Shrubs suitable for Ground Cover

Trees of Pendulous Habit

Trees and Shrubs of Upright or Fastigiate Habit

Trees and Shrubs with Ornamental Bark or Twigs

Trees and Shrubs with Bold Foliage

Trees and Shrubs for Autumn Colour

Trees and Shrubs with Red or Purple Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Golden or Yellow Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Grey or Silver Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Variegated Foliage

Trees and Shrubs bearing Ornamental Fruit

Trees and Shrubs with Fragrant or Scented Flowers

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Foliage

Flowering Trees and Shrubs for Every Month:-
Jan
, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
..A, B , C , D , E ,
..F , G , H , I , J , K ,
..L, M , N , O , P , Q ,
..R, S , T , U , V , W ,
..X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

item2e1a1i1a1a1a1e1a1b item2e1a1i1a1a1a1q1a1 item2e1a1i1a1a1a1a1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1c1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1d1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1f1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1g1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1h1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1i1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1j1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1k1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1l1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1m1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1n1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1o1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1p1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1b1a1a item2e1a1i1a1a1a1e1a1a1 item32b1a item29b1a item27b1a item25b1a item23b1a item22b1a item21b1a item51a1b1a item43a1b1a item39a1b1a item14a1b1a item12a1b1a item11a1b1a item9a1b1a item7a1b1a item3a1b1a item2a1b1a item32b1a item29b1a item27b1a item25b1a item23b1a item22b1a item21b1a item51a1b1a item43a1b1a item39a1b1a item14a1b1a item12a1b1a item11a1b1a item9a1b1a item7a1b1a item3a1b1a item2a1b1a