Ivydene Gardens Glossary: L

Laced A term applied to Dianthus cultivars in which the petals have a narrow band of colour contrasting with the ground (main) colour.

Lamina The blade of a leaf, usually flattened, not including the petiole (leaf stalk).

Lateral A side growth that arises from a shoot or root.

Layer planting A form of interplanting in which groups of plants flower in succession having been planted closely together.

Layering A method of propagation by which a shoot is induced to root while attached to the parent plant. The basic form is self layering, which occurs naturally in some plants. Methods include: air layering (also known as Chinese layering or marcottage), French layering, mound layering, serpentine layering, simple layering, stooling, tip layering and trench layering.

Leaching The loss from the top soil of soluble nutrients by downward drainage.

Leader 1) The main, usually central, stem of a plant. 2) The terminal shoot of a main branch.

Leaf A plant organ, variable in shape and colour but often flattened and green, borne on the stem, that performs of the functions of photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration.

Leaf mould Fibrous, flaky material derived from decomposed leaves, used as an ingredient in potting media and as a soil improver.

Leaflet One of the subdivisions of a compound leaf.

Legume A one-celled, dehiscent fruit splitting at maturity into two, belonging to the family Leguminosae.

Light 1) The movable cover of a coldframe. 2) Of soil, with a high proportion of sand and little clay.

Lime Loosely, a number of compounds of calcium; the amount of lime in soil determines whether it is alkaline, acid or neutral.

Line out To plant out young plants or insert cuttings in lines in a nursery bed or frame.

Lithophyte A plant naturally growing on rocks (or in very stony soil) and usually obtaining most of its nutrients and water from the atmosphere.

Loam A term used for soil of medium texture, often easily worked, that contains more or less equal parts of sand, silt, and clay, and is usually rich in humus. If the proportion of one ingredient is high, the term may be qualified as silt loam, clay loam, or sandy loam.

Lopper Long-handled shears, designed to enable high branches to be chopped (lopped) from large shrubs and trees from ground level.

Lute A piece of equipment used for working (luting) top-dressings into lawns.

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Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended October 2012. Glossary Index added to New Page Template March 2016. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

See
Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

grass-seeding_picture

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Glossary Pages

Glossary
Site Map


Glossary A
Abortive
Abscission Layer
Acaricide
Acaulescent
Achene
Acicular
Acid (of soil)
Acorn
Acre
Acuminate
Acute
Adventitious
Aerate (of soil)
Aerial root
Alkaline (of soil)
Allelopathic
Alpine
Alpine house
Alternate (of leaves)
Anemone-centred (of flowers)
Annual
Anther
Arbour
Aquatic
Asclepiad
Asexual reproduction
Auxins
Awn
Axil
 

Glossary F
F1 hybrids
F2 hybrids
Falls
Family
Fastigiate
Feathered
Fertile (of plants)
Fertilisation
Fibrous
Filament
Fimbriate
Floating cloche
Floret
Flower
Flowerhead
Foliage
Force
Forma (f.)
Formative pruning
Foundation planting
Framework
Framework plants
Frame-working (of fruit trees)
Friable (of soil)
Frond
Frost pocket
Fruit
Fruit set
Fungicide

Glossary K
Knot garden

Glossary P
Packs
Pan
Panicle
Parterre
Parthenocarpic
Pathogens
Patio
Peat
Peat bed
Peat blocks
Peat substitute
Peduncle
Peltate (of leaves)
Perennial
Perianth
Perianth segment
Perlite
Perpetual
Pesticide
Petal
Petiole
pH
Photosynthesis
Picotee
Pinching out
Pistil
Pith
Pleaching
Plunge
Pod
Pollarding
Pollen
Polyembryonic
Pome fruit
Pompon
Potting compost
Potting on
Potting up
Pricking out
Propagation
Propagator
Proximal end (of cuttings)
Pruning
Pseudobulb

Glossary U
“U” cordon
Underplanting
Union
Upright
Urn-shaped (of flowers)

Glossary B
Back-bulb
Backfill
Balled
Bare-root
Bark-ringing
Basal plate
Base dressing
Basin irrigation
Bed system
Bedding plants
Biennial
Biennial bearing
Blanch
Bleed
Blind
Bloom
Blown
Bog plant
Bole
Bolt
Bower
Bract
Branch
Brassica
Break
Broadcasting
Broad-leaved
Bromeliad
Bud
Bud union
Budding
Budwood
Bulb
Bulb fibre
Bulbil
Bulblet
Bush
 

Glossary G
Genus (pl. genera)
Germination
Girdling
Glaucous
Glume
Graft
Graft union
Grafting
Grafting tape
Green manure
Ground colour
Ground cover

Glossary L
Laced
Lamina
Lateral
Layer planting
Layering
Leaching
Leader
Leaf
Leaf mould
Leaflet
Legume
Light
Lime
Line out
Lithophyte
Loam
Lopper
Lute

Glossary Q
Quartered rosette

Glossary V
Variable
Variegated
Variety
Vegetative growth
Vegetative propagation
Vermiculite
Vertebrate

Glossary C
Cactus
Calcicole
Calcifuge
Callous
Calyx
Cambium
Capillary matting
Capping
Capsule
Carpet bedding
Catkin
Central leader
Certified stock
Chilling requirement
Chinese layering
Chlorophyll
Clamp
Climber
Cloche
Clone
Cold frame
Collar
Companion planting
Compositae
Compost
Compound
Cone
Conifer
Conservatory
Contact action
Coppicing
Cordon
Corm
Cormel
Cormlet
Corolla
Cotyledon
Crest
Cristate
Crocks
Crop rotation
Cross-fertilisation
Cross-pollination
Crown
Culm
Cultivar
Cupped
Cutting
Cyme
 

Glossary H
Half hardy
Half standard
Hardening off
Hardy
Haulm
Head
Head back
Heart up
Heavy (of soil)
Heel
Heeling in
Herb
Herbaceous
Herbicide
Hull (of nuts)
Humus
Hybrid
Hybrid vigour
Hybridisation
Hydroculture
Hydroponics
Hypocotyl
Hypogeal

Glossary M
Maiden
Maincrop (of vegetables)
Manure
Marcottage
Marginal water plant
Medium
Mericlone
Meristem
Micronutrients
Micro-propagation
Microlife
Midrib
Module
Monocarpic
Monocotyledon
Monoecious
Monopodial
Mulch
Mutation
Mycorrhizae

Glossary R
Raceme
Radicle
Rain shadow
Rambler
Ray flower (or floret)
Recurved
Reflexed
Remontant
Renewal pruning
Respiration
Revert
Rhizome
Rind
Root
Root ball
Root crops
Root run
Rooting
Rooting hormone
Rootstock
Rose (of a watering can)
Rosette
Rounded
Runner

Glossary W
Water shoots
Whip
Whorl
Widger
Wind-break
Wind-rock
Winter wet
Woody
Wound
Wound paint

Glossary D
Damping down
Dead-heading
Deciduous
Degradable pot
Dehiscence
Dehiscent
Determinate
Dibber
Dicotyledon
Dieback
Dioecious
Diploid
Disbudding
Distal end (of cuttings)
Division
Dormancy
Double digging
Drainage
Drill
 

Glossary I
Incurved
Indehiscent
Indeterminate
Inflorescence
Informal
Inorganic
Insecticide
Insert
lntercropping
Intermediate
Internode
Interplanting
Invertebrate
Irrigation

Glossary N
Naturalise
Neck
Nectar
Nectary
Nematicide
Nematode Worms
Neutral (of soil)
Node
Non-remontant
Nursery bed
Nut
Nutrients

Glossary S
Sap
Sapling
Scandent
Scarification
Scion
Scree
Seed
Seedhead
Seedling
Selection
Self seed
Self-fertile
Self-pollination
Self-sterile
Semi-deciduous
Semi-determinate
Semi-evergreen
Sepal
Set
Sexual reproduction
Sheet mulch
Shoot
Shrub
Sideshoot
Simple (mainly of leaves)
Single digging
Snag
Soil mark
Species
Specimen plant
Spent (of flowers)
Sphagnum mosses
Spike
Spikelet
Spit
Spoon-type
Sporangium
Spore
Spray
Spur
Stalk
Stamen
Standard
Station sow
Stem
Sterile
Stigma
Stock plant
Stolon
Stone fruits
Stool
Stooling
Stopping
Strain
Stratification
Stylar column
Style
Subfamily
Sub-lateral
Subshrub
Subsoil
Subspecies
Succulent (of plants)
Sucker
Sympodial
Systemic

Glossary XYZ
 

Glossary E
Earthing up
Emasculation
Epicormic shoots
Epigeal
Epiphyte
Ericaceous
Espalier
Evergreen
Explant
Eye

Glossary J
John Innes compost

Glossary O
Offset
Open-pollination
Opposite
Organic
Ovary
Ovule
Oxygenator

Glossary T
Tap root
Taxon (pl. taxa)
Tender
Tendril
Tepal
Terminal
Terrarium
Terrestrial
Thatch
Thin (of soil)
Thinning
Tilth
Tip prune
Tissue culture (of plants)
Top-dressing
Topiary
Topsoil
Trace element
Translocated (of dissolved nutrients or weedkillers)
Transpiration
Transplanting
Tree
Trellis
Trench digging
Triploid
True (True-breeding)
Trunk
Truss
Tuber
Tufa
Tunic
Tunicate
Turion

 

EU Directive No. 456179 
In order to meet the conditions for joining the Single European currency, all citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland must be made aware that the phrase 'Spending a Penny' is not to be used after 31st December 2009.

From this date, the correct terminology will be: 'Euronating'. 

Thank you for your attention.

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

 

or

 

when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflower

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures. Stigma This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of. 
Ovary The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

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Library

Site Map


Garden Style
Garden Design:-
A-G
G-H with Arsenic and Old Lace Cake Variation Recipes that I - as a Member -provided as cakes during 5 Medway Fair Traders Scheme Meetings.
J-T with Arsenic and Old Lace Cake Variation 5 Recipe
T-W
Garden Planting Design:-
A-G
G-L
L-S
S-T
T-Y
Location of Plants:-
A-G
G-T with Slavery Education of Girls in UK
T-W with Cup Cakes of Arsenic and Old Lace Cake Variation 3 Recipe
Plant Association:-
A-R
T-W
Plant Types:-
A-H
H-S
T-T
Plant Species:-
A-E
F-M
M-T
T-W
Gardening:-
A-S
S-Y
Garden Cultivation
Propagation
Garden Pests
Garden Tips
Practical Projects:-
A-H with Saving the Church's Common Yew
H-S Plans for new garage on my property, that I built
S-T
T-Y
Wildlife
Reference Library
Miscellaneous
Health

The Garden Style chosen at the beginning defines what a garden should look like.

Following this choice of Garden Style, then:-

  • use the relevant Garden Design methodology, then
  • use the Planting Design to implement the ideas for the beds, before
  • using the Location of Plants to show which plants should be grouped together for the soil, shade and colour of that Garden Style chosen.

Plant Association shows which plant combinations give pleasing flower or foliage colour combinations, then

Plant Type gives growing conditions of a family of plants - ie Primulas - with lists of primulas with the same flower colour, foliage colour or height and where is suitable for those plants, followed by

Plant Species gives data about a family of plants in a restricted format - ie without lists - as the lowest level of useful information (unless you are prepared to read the text in a whole book each time you want to use this particular species of plant).

 

Gardening gives general information on how to garden for the whole garden.

Garden Cultivation gives specific information on veg, fruit, lawn, pond, etc.

Garden Pests details garden pests/diseases and their control.

 

Practical Projects gives details on how to construct hard landscaping.

Copied from
Offbeat Glossary
Site Map
with
Back to back
they faced each other
drew their swords
and shot each other poem demonstrated by this sand sculpture of Everybody is a Winner
Offbeat Glossary A with Ladies and Gentlemen
Poem
Offbeat Glossary B with how to care for the Dulally Bird
Offbeat Glossary C
Offbeat Glossary DE
Offbeat Glossary F
Offbeat Glossary G
Offbeat Glossary HILM
Offbeat Glossary NO with Never Fail Cake Recipe
Offbeat Glossary P
Offbeat Glossary QRST
Offbeat Glossary U
Offbeat Glossary V
Offbeat Glossary WXYZ

Offbeat Glossary HILM
Herbal Lawn
Hiving a new swarm
Intercropping
Ladybirds
Microclimate
Monoculture
 

Offbeat Glossary NO
Nitrogen-fixing plants
Nitrogen-fixing trees
 

Offbeat Glossary A
Accumulator plants
Allelochemics
Allium
Auxins
 

Offbeat Glossary P
Pinching back
Poisonous Plants
 

Offbeat Glossary B
Bay
Bromeliad

DuLally Bird
 

Offbeat Glossary QRST
Rabbits
Raised bed
Shade
Succession planting
Two-level companion planting
Two-season planting
 

Offbeat Glossary C
Catch Crop
Compost
Cover crop
Crop Rotation

Offbeat Glossary U
U-Gardens
 

Offbeat Glossary DE
Diatomaceous Earth
Plants least favoured by Deer

Offbeat Glossary V
Veganic
Vertical gardening
 

Offbeat Glossary F
French Intensive Gardening
 

Offbeat Glossary WXYZ
Weeds
 

Offbeat Glossary G
Green Manure
 

 

 

Herbal Lawn

Ground Cover Herbs from Seed

By Conrad Richter

I often get asked what herbs are suited as ground covers. Customers tell me, "I hate cutting grass," or "I like trying something completely different, and I don't mind if my neighbours think I'm crazy to dig up my lawn." Herbal ground covers are very different, but their pleasing leaf textures and often showy masses of colour are becoming more popular in place of grass. Being the tough little critters they are, they need next to no care once established. And if you don't mind foliage and flowers that tickle your ankles and beyond, you can dispense with the weekly trysts with the lawnmower to keep things trim and proper.

The biggest problem with herbal lawns is the start up cost. Regrettably, some of the finest low growing herbs are only increased by cuttings or division – the flowerless variety of english chamomile, Treneague, is a notable example. You need the payroll of a CEO to afford enough plants for an instant lawn. Or, you need the patience for many seasons of divide and spread to cover much ground starting with a few plants.

Fortunately there are several good choices for herbs you can grow from seed. By far the most popular is wild thyme (Thymus praecox subsp. articus), also known as mother-of-thyme. It grows 4 to 6 inches high, has masses of rose-pink flowers in July, and grows fast enough to crowd out weeds. At 110,000 seeds per ounce, the seeds are very fine, much smaller than grass seeds, so it is a good idea to mix seeds with a filler like sand to avoid dropping 90% of your seed in 10% of the area to be covered. We recommend an ounce of seed per 1000 square feet. In the kitchen wild thyme is not commonly regarded as a culinary herb in North America, but European cooks have long used it in meat dishes just like the more famous English and French thymes (Thymus vulgaris). If nothing else, wild thyme will at least drive you from drink should you dare to consumer alcohol and the leaves at the same time. The combination causes a mother-of-a-hangover!

Another popular choice for lawnless lawns is yarrow (Achillea millefolium). While its white, red or pink flowering stalks can reach a foot in height, its dense, many-divided leaves make for a cushion lawn that just invites a picnic, a snooze or other prostrate activities. I have seen yarrow used very successfully in small urban settings. especially under partial shade. If the flowers get too high, one or two runs a season with the lawnmower will keep things in check. Yarrow seeds are small and light, lighter than wild thyme. there are 175,000 seeds per ounce, and an ounce per 2500 square feet is the recommended sowing rate. Yarrow tea is insurance for colds and flus, which is a good thing if you are going to lie around in your lawn a lot.

If you don't mind a more rangy and taller cover, Fassen's catnip (Nepeta x faassenii) is a good aromatic choice, growing up to 12 inches in height. Don't worry, cats are not as enamoured by this variety as they are by the much taller growing regular catnip (Nepeta cataria). Sow an ounce per 600 square feet.

Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) is a good choice for warmer, sunny locales. It is a perennial, hardy to zone 6, with finely divided emerald leaves. The small daisy-like flowers are, of course, used to make the popular herbal tea. Be forewarned, there are those who insist that tea made from the Roman (sometimes also known as 'English') is superior to the annual German or Hungarian variety (Matricaria recutita), and there are others who argue just as strenuously the other way. As sides ten to fall along ethnic lines, we prefer to stay out of the debate! In any case, a Roman chamomile lawn is pure enchantment in many landscape settings. Again the seed are very fine – 155,000 per ounce – and one ounce will cover 2000 square feet. As with all seeds this small, it is crucial not to plant too deep; best simply to press the seeds, once broadcast, into the soil using a board or other object with a flat surface.