Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Shrubs Gallery:
Blue Flowers in December

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a46a4a1e1e1a

 

" What plants need :- Although this article was written with house plants at Christmas in mind,  it could apply to out door trees and shrubs as they all need the same five growing conditions!

House plants broadly fall in to two groups:-

  • Those that are in full flower now when given and have the 'wow' thank you, factor. 
  • Then you have your 'run of the mill' Green foliage plants which might flower at some point, not necessarily showy.

But all plants (including outside garden plants) need five things in varying proportions to survive given the right conditions / proportions they will grow well even thrive. To much of any one or take one away and the results are the same, the plant will die! So what are these magic ingredients :-

  • Light,
  • Water, 
  • Food/Soil, 
  • Heat, 
  • Co2 (Carbon dioxide) 

Nothing complicated

Light.
To much light and even the toughest plant can get sun burnt if moved from shade into full Sun. Plants get used to their conditions and move them from a shady position to a very light situation and the cells get scorched and they don't recover. New leaves are what they have to grow. The good news is that in Winter and in doors you cant give them too much light.
There is just not enough sunshine with short days and cloud, This then becomes a limiting factor on the plants ability to grow, which again depending on your point of view could be a good thing as the flowers will last longer, if the plant is not growing fast.

Water.
All plants need water, not least, like us they are mostly made up of it! The main problem is the speed at which water is transpired out of the leaf (which is linked to temperature) In most situations whether the pot is wet or not; water is drawn out of the leaf faster than the roots can suck it in and move it up the stem and along the leaf from cell to cell. So the edge of leaf will turn brown as the cells dry out, Lack of moisture in the air, with log fires, central heating and agars belting out the heat all day and night, is the main reason, the plants just cant cope indoors.

Food and soil.
Plants come with there roots in compost and have grown to the size they are from that compost, but it's a fair bet that they are running out of food by the time you get hold of them. So a small amount of liquid feed (usually tomato food) is a good idea. Never feed on to dry compost. The salts and sugars will already be more concentrated in dry compost. So water first with clean tepid water. 

Heat.
Most house plants are more exotic than our garden plants . So they cannot stand any cold temperature - that's below 10'C 50'F - by the same token with a lack of humidity they don't want to be over 21'C 70'F. It's a combination of the above condition in varying amounts which causes plants to thrive or die.                        

The fifth element all plants need to grow is Carbon dioxide.
This is normally provided by you breathing it out.
For photosynthesis to happen you need all five of these elements in varying amounts; a balance is what we are looking for. And just to make things complicated all the different plants need / require different conditions; this is what makes one plant cope with one situation and another might struggle to survive.

Watering House plants
How much and when?
Too much water no water at all the results are the same plants die! No water at all, and the leaves wilt still no water leaves dry up - plant dies.  Sad but true the answer, water the plant at first sign of wilting great. This time you have one of those pot covers and more water was applied than necessary the poor plant is sanding in water - for two weeks now. Sooner or later the roots start to rot (roots need air as well as water) now if the roots rot they cannot take up any moisture so the foliage starts to wilt you give it a drink (after all its wilting) compounding the situation the plant continues to suffer.

The best way to water, let the plant dry out between watering then soak the soil thoroughly, by plunging the whole plant pot in water for five minutes, this forces the old stale air out of the compost. Then remove and as it drains in the sink, it sucks fresh air back into the now wet compost. Tomorrow you can give it some liquid feed. The best way is to put the pot inside another with crocks separating the 2 from each other. Put a candle wick between the bottom pot and the the top pot, so that the water in the reservoir in the bottom pot is wicked up to the pot above as it is required. Make a hole in the side of the outer pot to just below the bottom of the inner pot. Then put the 2 pot combination on a a tray. You may then water the reservoir or the inner pot. Any excess water will then drible out of the the side hole in the the outer pot onto the tray. This makes sure that the plant in the inner pot has a constant stream of water and does not not suffer either too little water or too much for very long. It also stops the inner pot from having its sides heated too much during the days and then cooled too much at night time.
What ever you do with house plants be confident that what you are doing is right. Changing positions every three days over feeding and dusting only serve to upset them but it wont show for a week or two by which time you don't know which treatment upset them and which was good for them. Put them in one place and let them settle in. The more plants you have the better they all get on as they create there own micro climate of moist air so moisture transpiring from one leaf condensates on the one above, so then the moisture on the leaf dries up and not the water in the leaf. Spraying with a hand mister will do the same job, and is a good idea if you have the time, and you think its too hot. Don't do it if there is no heating in the room in the depths of Winter.

Christmas house plants:-
There are lots of them and they all have their funny little ways so here are some to look out for:-

  • Cyclamen in flower looks great, they like a cool well lit room or conservatory but there are too many stems all coming out of the same spot , splash water in here and within days the hole plant is rotting off. All you can do is pull off the rotting stems and water by standing in 3cm of water for ten minutes twice a week, look at it every day and continue to remove leave and spent flower stalks completely.
  • Poinsettias they could already be dead when you get them! The cold is there enemy below 53'F that's 12'C and the flower parts in the middle of the bracts will be frosted, look carefully there should be globules of nectar. The problem is open air markets or the journey from the garden centre to your car two minutes stood chatting to a friend the cold air will have got to it! Plants that have been frosted (12'C or below) will last till mid January early February those few that are good and are looked after properly will go on 'flowering' until next November when you should throw it away and buy a new one.
  • Azaleas. At Christmas there are always loads of Indian evergreen Azaleas on the market from Holland I don't know how they grow them or what they do to them, but they always seem to be in a state of suspended animation, then again they do last a long time. You can never give these plants too much water. Plunge the clay pot in tepid water for at least 15 minutes three times a week and with global warming they can survive outside next winter.
  • Chrysanthemum  for a six week flowering house plant you can't go wrong just splash some water on once a week."

from Stuart Holder.
 

Table from Shrub Heather Index Gallery

(o) in front of Page Name or Index Page No in this Main Menu Table indicates that all pages linked to from that cell have content.

HEATHER EVERGREEN SHRUB
INDEX GALLERY PAGES

Index Page No.


Site Map

Introduction

Index Page No.

Click on Colour below to change to its Heather Flower Colour Page with Flower and Flower Stalk

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers

 

FLOWERING SEASON
with Flower and Flower Stalk

 

(o) H0
White
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Index Page No.

(o) H1 Amethyst
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Index Page No.

H2
Mauve
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1a1a1a

Index Page No.

Andromeda

(o) 1

(o) January
Winter

(o)
1 2

(o) 1

(o) 1

1

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia changed to
Erica spiculifolia

1

(o)February
Winter

(o)
1 2

(o) H3
Lavender
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1c1a1a

(o) 1

H4
Lilac
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1d1a1a

1

H5
Ruby
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1f1a1a

1

(o) Calluna

(o) 1

(o) March
Spring

(o)
1 2

(o) Daboecia

(o) 1

(o) April
Spring

(o)
1 2

H6
Cerise
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1g1a1a

1

(o) H7
Rose Pink
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1h1a1a

(o) 1

(o) H8
Pink
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1i1a1a

(o) 1

Erica Hardy Heaths:-

 

(o) May
Spring

(o) 1

Erica x afroeuropea

(o) 1

(o) June
Summer

(o) 1

(o) H9
Beetroot
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(o) 1

(o) H10
Purple
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(o) 1

(o) H11
Lilac Pink
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1l1a1a

(o) 1

Erica andevalensis now treated as Erica mackayana ssp andevalensis

1

(o) July
Summer

(o) 1

(o) Erica arborea

(o) 1

(o) August
Summer

(o) 1

(o) H12 Heliotrope
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1m1a1a

(o) 1

H13 Crimson
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1

(o) H14 Magenta
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(o) 1

(o) Erica x arendsiana

(o) 1

(o) September
Autumn

(o) 1

(o) Erica australis

(o) 1

(o) October
Autumn

(o) 1

H15 Salmon

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1

(o) H16
Shell Pink

item2e1a1i1a1a1a1b1a1a

(o) 1

(o) H17 Multi-Coloured
item2e1a1i1a1a1a1e1a1a1

(o) 1

(o) Erica azorica
(Syn.
Erica scoparia subsp. azorica)

(o) 1

(o) November
Autumn

(o) 1

(o) Erica carnea

(o)
1 2

(o) December
Winter

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(o) Erica ciliaris

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and
User Guidelines

 

 

 

(o) Erica cinerea

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(o) Erica x darleyensis

(o) 1

The 2 rows of "Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms) and Comment" state the Heather Description from 'Handy Guide to Heathers Descriptions & Suppliers of over 1000 varieties" by David & Anne Small, published in 1992 by Denbeigh Heather Nurseries (ISBN 0-9519160-0-9). This gives the official Heather Society flower colour(s) and foliage colour(s).
Photos from Chris Garnons-Williams are added to that respective flower colour or foliage colour page in the Shrub Heather Gallery and the relevant index page in this gallery IRRESPECTIVE OF THE ACTUAL FLOWER COLOUR OR FOLIAGE COLOUR (stated in the Handy Guide) IN THE IMAGE THAT WAS TAKEN BY CHRIS GARNONS-WILLIAMS.

(o) Erica erigena

(o) 1

 

 

The Shrub Heather Index Gallery describes other heathers.

 

 

 

 

SPRING FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

Index Page No.

AUTUMN FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

Index Page No.

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers
Erica Hardy Heaths:-

Index Page No.

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers
Erica Hardy Heaths:-

Index Page No.

Spr-Bronze

1

(o) Aut-Bronze

(o) 1

Erica garforthensis

(o) 1

Erica tetralix

1

(o) Spr-Green

(o) 1

(o) Aut-Green

(o)
1 2

Erica gaudificans

(o) 1

Erica umbellata

1

Spr-Grey

1

(o) Aut-Grey

(o) 1

(o) Erica x griffithsii

(o) 1

Erica vagans

1

(o) Spr-Orange

(o) 1

Aut-Orange

1

Erica krameri

(o) 1

Erica veitchii

1

Spr-Red

1

Aut-Red

1

(o) Erica lusitanica

(o) 1

Erica watsonii

1

(o) Spr-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Aut-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Erica mackayana

(o) 1

Erica williamsii

1

(o) Spr-Other Colour

(o) 1

Aut-Other Colour

1

Erica maderensis

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

(o) Erica manipuliflora

(o) 1

 

 

SUMMER FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

 

WINTER FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

 

Erica multiflora

1

SEED COLOUR

 

(o) Sum-Bronze

(o) 1

(o) Win-Bronze

(o) 1

(o) Erica
oldenburgensis

(o) 1

Seed

1

(o) Sum-Green

(o)
1 2

(o) Win-Green

(o)
1 2

Erica platycodon

1

 

 

Sum-Grey

1

Win-Grey

1

Erica scoparia

1

BED PICTURES

 

Sum-Orange

1

(o) Win-Orange

(o) 1

Erica sicula

1

Garden

1

Sum-Red

1

(o) Win-Red

(o) 1

(o) Erica spiculifolia

(o) 1

 

 

(o) Sum-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Win-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Erica stuartii

(o) 1


(o) COMMENTS

Sum-Other Colour

1

(o) Win-Other Colour

(o) 1

Erica terminalis

1

"Anyone during the summer months, who has walked over the moor lands throughout the British Isles will appreciate the magnificent mass of colour provided by Heathers. Heathers are native to not only the British Isles, but also much of mainland Europe to northern Italy and as far north as Iceland. Due to seed of our native Calluna vulgaris (Scotch Heather) being accidentally introduced on packaging materials, it has also become naturalised in parts of Nova Scotia and Eastern Canada.

We had better point out that there are more heather species (Erica) in South Africa than anywhere else in the world. Many of these have been introduced and sold as pot grown house plants, which if after flowering they are planted out in the garden, then they will die during the winter months. So do make sure the heather you are purchasing is hardy enough to be grown outdoors in the garden.

Most of the heathers require a fertile, moist, but not waterlogged, acid soil. By incorporating plenty of composted bark, or peat, we grow them quite successfully in a sandy loam of pH 6.5, which is almost neutral. If you garden on soils with a high lime content, it is better to create beds raised 15/20cm above your normal soil level and infill this with half and half John Innes No. 3 compost and composted bark, or peat. Heathers can also be grown in tubs, or troughs, but Calluna’s and Erica cinerea hate hot feet, but both species like an open sunny site and will not produce so many flowers if grown in dense shade. The winter flowering heather, Erica carnea, is a mountain plant consequently it will tolerate drier soils and warmer sites and will grow in fertile soils of pH 7 with less bark, or peat being used.

FLOWERING TIMES
Erica carnea is a superb winter flowering, dwarf evergreen shrub. Over 130 named forms have been introduced varying in size, foliage and flower colour. Flowering time is usually from December to March when there is little else in flower.

Erica erigena is a strong growing shrub, which will attain between 75 cm and 2 metres and flowers during April and May. It has sported a number of foliage and flower cultivars, but they will not tolerate wet feet and exposed sites, but the hybrids between this species and Erica carnea are named Erica x darleyensis and these - although almost as tough as Erica carnea - are much stronger growers growing between 45 and 70cms in height. The x darleyensis cultivars produce flowers from white through to dark amethyst - all flower from December to May.

The tree heather, Erica arborea forms a small tree in Southern Europe where its roots are used to make briar pipes, but it is very tender. However, the variety alpina has been growing in our nursery showground for many years where - if left to its own devices - would attain 2-3 metres in height. It is massed with honey scented white flowers in April-May.

Erica cinerea is a superb low growing shrub which, according to cultivar, is massed with flowers of varying colours from June to September. Daboecia cantabrica also flowers at this time with attractive urn shaped flowers. The sub species scotica is lower growing and freer flowering.

Although there is only one species in Calluna vulgaris; over 600 named cultivars have been introduced, varying from dwarfs of 7cms to those which attain 60cms and with foliage of green, silver, or yellow. The flowers also vary from white to beetroot-red and appear from late June to September. Erica vagans, the Cornish Heath brings the season to a close; its stiff, upright branches produce masses of white, lavender, or pink flowers in September-October.

PRUNING
All of the summer flowering heathers can be pruned after flowering, or the brown seed heads left on until April. Erica arborea alpina and the x darleyensis hybrids can if room allows, be left to their own devices. If room is restricted they can be pruned over as soon as their flowers have faded. " from Goscote Nurseries.


"My interest in heathers expanded into acid-loving plants in general, and the family Ericaceae in particular. For the garden-lover, plantsman and botanist alike, the Ericaceae have an incredible amount to offer, and it would be a formidable challenge for anyone to collect just one example of each genus (currently standing at 124 genera, I believe). These 124 genera truly range from A to Z (from Andromeda to Zenobia), encompassing almost any shape and size of plant one could wish for. For example, at one extreme there is the tiny, Arctic moss heather Harrimanella hypnoides (formerly Cassiope) which I managed to keep outside for a few years, and at the other extreme there are large trees, such as Oxydendron arboreum which can reach 50ft in height (my own, grown from seed, stands at 10ft after 15 years).

For a few years I set about collecting as many examples of the Ericaceae as I could, already having, of course, Calluna, Erica, Daboecia and Rhododendron to start my collection. The first obvious additions were the other heath-type genera Andromeda, Cassiope, Pltyllodoce and Bruckenthalia (now Erica), and these were followed quickly by such familiar and readily available shrubs as Pieris, Enkianthus, Gaultheria and Vaccinium, and the strawberry tree, Arbutus unedo. However, thereafter other genera became increasingly difficult to find, and proved very challenging, but at one stage I did manage to put together a collection of 43 genera. Alas, not all proved to be as undemanding as the heathers, and today only a small percentage of these remain. For those blessed with acid soil, I can recommend trying various species of Enkianthus (flowers and autumn colour), Kalmia (unusually attractive flowers), Lyonia (flowers and autumn colour), Vaccinium and Gaultheria (foliage and berries) and Zenobia pulverulenta (for its unusual silvery-green foliage and scented, pure white flowers). My all-time favourites are the blueberries (Vaccinium), which provide everything one could want in a shrub: neatness with minimal pruning, abundant flowers, intense autumn colour, and of course attractive, edible berries, which are both extremely good for you and delicious. " from John Griffiths in Heathers: Yearbook of the Heather Society.
 

 

Clay soil will absorb 40% of its volume in water before it turns from a solid to a liquid. This fact can have a serious effect on your house as subsidence.

A mixture of clay, sand, humus and bacterium is required to make soil with a good soil structure for your plants.

The rain or your watering can provides the method for transportation of nutrients to the roots of your plants. Soil organisms link this recycling of nutrients from the humus to the plant.

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen as gas is used and expired by the roots of plants into a soil which has airspace in it in order for those plants to grow.

Understanding the above provides you with an action plan for you to do with your own soil.

 

A more in-depth explaination of how soil works:-

"Plants are in Control

Most gardeners think of plants as only taking up nutrients through root systems and feeding the leaves. Few realize that a great deal of energy that results from photosynthesis in the leaves is actually used by plants to produce chemicals they secrete through their roots. These secretions are known as exudates. A good analogy is perspiration, a human's exudate.

Root exudates are in the form of carbohydrates (including sugars) and proteins. Amazingly, their presence wakes up, attracts, and grows specific beneficial bacteria and fungi living in the soil that subsist on these exudates and the cellular material sloughed off as the plant's root tips grow. All this secretion of exudates and sloughing off of cells takes place in the rhizosphere, a zone immediately round the roots, extending out about a tenth of an inch, or a couple of millimetres. The rhizosphere, which can look like a jelly or jam under the electron microscope, contains a constantly changing mix of soil organisms, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and even larger organisms. All this "life" competes for the exudates in the rhizosphere, or its water or mineral content.

At the bottom of the soil food web are bacteria and fungi, which are attracted to and consume plant root exudates. In turn, they attract and are eaten by bigger microbes, specifically nematodes and protozoa who eat bacteria and fungi (primarily for carbon) to fuel their metabolic functions. Anything they don't need is excreted as wastes, which plant roots are readily able to absorb as nutrients. How convenient that this production of plant nutrients takes place right in the rhizosphere, the site of root-nutrient absorption.

At the centre of any viable soil food web are plants. Plants control the food web for their own benefit, an amazing fact that is too little understood and surely not appreciated by gardeners who are constantly interfereing with Nature's system. Studies indicate that individual plants can control the numbers and the different kinds of fungi and bacteria attracted to the rhizosphere by the exudates they produce.

Soil bacteria and fungi are like small bags of fertilizer, retaining in their bodies nitrogen and other nutrients they gain from root exudates and other organic matter. Carrying on the analogy, soil protozoa and nematodes act as "fertilizer spreaders" by releasng the nutrients locked up in the bacteria and fungi "fertilizer bags". The nematodes and protozoa in the soil come along and eat the bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. They digest what they need to survive and excrete excess carbon and other nutrients as waste.

The protozoa and nematodes that feasted on the fungi and bacteria attracted by plant exudates are in turn eaten by arthropods such as insects and spiders. Soil arthropods eat each other and themselves are the food of snakes, birds, moles and other animals. Simply put, the soil is one big fast-food restaurant.

Bacteria are so small they need to stick to things, or they will wash away; to attach themselves they produce a slime, the secondary result of which is that individual soil particles are bound together. Fungal hyphae, too, travel through soil particles, sticking to them and binding them together, thread-like, into aggregates.

Worms, together with insect larvae and moles move through the soil in search of food and protection, creating pathways that allow air and water to enter and leave the soil. The soil food web, then, in addition to providing nutrients to roots in the rhizosphere, also helps create soil structure: the activities of its members bind soil particles together even as they provide for the passage of air and water through the soil.

Without this system, most important nutrients would drain from soil. Instead, they are retained in the bodies of soil life. Here is the gardener's truth: when you apply a chemical fertilizer, a tiny bit hits the rhizosphere, where it is absorbed, but most of it continues to drain through soil until it hits the water table. Not so with the nutrients locked up inside soil organisms, a state known as immobilization; these nutrients are eventully released as wastes, or mineralized. And when the plants themselves die and are allowed to decay in situ, the nutrients they retained are again immobilized in the fungi and bacteria that consume them.

Just as important, every member of the soil food web has its place in the soil community. Each, be it on the surface or subsurface, plays a specific role. Elimination of just one group can drastically alter a soil community. Dung from mammals provides nutrients for beetles in the soil. Kill the mammals, or eliminate their habitat or food source, and you wont have so many beetles. It works in reverse as well. A healthy soil food web won't allow one set of members to get so strong as to destroy the web. If there are too many nematodes and protozoa, the bacteria and fungi on which they prey are in trouble and, ultimately, so are the plants in the area.

And there are other benefits. The nets or webs fungi form around roots act as physical barriers to invasion and protect plants from pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Bacteria coat surfaces so thoroughly, there is no room for others to attach themselves. If something impacts these fungi or bacteria and their numbers drop or disappear, the plant can easily be attacked.

 

 

Negative impacts on the soil food web

Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides affect the soil food web, toxic to some members, warding off others, and changing the environment. Important fungal and bacterial relationships don't form when a plant can get free nutrients. When chemically fed, plants bypass the microbial-assisted method of obtaining nutrients, and microbial populations adjust accordingly. Trouble is, you have to keep adding chemical fertilizers and using "-icides", because the right mix and diversity - the very foundation of the soil food web - has been altered.

It makes sense that once the bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa are gone, other members of the soil food web disappear as well. Earthworms, for example, lacking food and irritated by the synthetic nitrates in soluble nitrogen fertilizers, move out. Since they are major shredders of organic material, their absence is a great loss. Soil structure deteriorates, watering can become problematic, pathogens and pests establish themselves and, worst of all, gardening becomes a lot more work than it needs to be.

If the salt-based chemical fertilizers don't kill portions of the soil food web, rototilling (rotovating) will. This gardening rite of spring breaks up fungal hyphae, decimates worms, and rips and crushes arthropods. It destroys soil structure and eventually saps soil of necessary air. Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link: if there is a gap in the soil food web, the system will break down and stop functioning properly.

Gardening with the soil food web is easy, but you must get the life back in your soils. First, however, you have to know something about the soil in which the soil food web operates; second, you need to know what each of the key members of the food web community does. Both these concerns are taken up in the rest of Part 1" of Teaming with Microbes - The Organic Gardener's Guide to the Soil Food Web by Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis ISBN-13:978-1-60469-113-9 Published 2010.

This book explains in non-technical language how soil works and how you can improve your garden soil to make it suitable for what you plant and hopefully stop you using chemicals to kill this or that, but use your grass cuttings and prunings to mulch your soil - the leaves fall off the trees, the branches fall on the ground, the animals shit and die on the land in old woodlands and that material is then recycled to provide the nutrients for those same trees, rather than being carefully removed and sent to the dump as most people do in their gardens leaving bare soil.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tree and Shrub Plant Care

Young plants need extra phosphorus (P the second number on the fertilizer bag) to encourage good root development. Apply recommended amount for each plant per label directions; in the soil at time of planting.
Fertilizers that are high in Nitrogen (N), will promote green leafy growth. Excess nitrogen in the soil can cause excessive vegetative growth on plants at the expense of flower bud development. It is best to avoid fertilizing after July, otherwise it can force lush, vegetative growth that will not have a chance to harden off before the onset of the cold weather in October.

Unless a site is completely exposed, light conditions will change during the day and even during the year. The northern and eastern sides of a house receive the least amount of light, with the northern exposure being the shadiest. The western and southern sides of a house receive the most light and have the hottest exposure due to the intense afternoon sun.
For best plant performance, it is desirable to match the correct plant with the available light conditions. Plants which do not receive sufficient light may become pale in color, have fewer leaves and a "leggy" stretched-out appearance. You can also expect plants to grow slower and have fewer blooms when light is less than required. Plants can also receive too much light. If a shade loving plant is exposed to direct sun, it may wilt and/or cause leaves to be sunburned. Full Sun is defined as exposure to more than 6 hours of continuous, direct sun per day.

Types of tree and shrub pruning include: pinching, thinning, shearing and rejuvenating.

  • Pinching is removing the stem tips of a young plant to promote branching. Doing this avoids the need for more severe pruning later on.
  • Thinning involves removing whole branches back to the trunk. This may be done to open up the interior of a plant to let more light in and to increase air circulation that can cut down on plant disease. The best way to begin thinning is to begin by removing dead, damaged or diseased wood. Then remove one of each set of 2 crossing branches - remembering to keep the natural vertical or horizontal orientation of the branch structure.
  • Shearing is leveling the surface of a shrub using hand or electric shears. This is done to maintain the desired shape of a hedge or topiary.
  • Rejuvenating is removal of old branches or the overall reduction of the size of a shrub to restore its original form and size. It is recommended that you do not remove more than one third of a plant at a time. Remember to remove branches from the inside of the plant as well as the outside.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A water ring is a mound of compacted soil that is built around the circumference of a planting hole once a shrub/tree has been installed. The water ring helps to direct water to the outer edges of a planting hole, encouraging new roots to grow outward, in search of moisture. The height of the mound of soil will vary from a couple of inches for 10 ltr potted shrubs, to almost a foot for balled and burlapped trees, especially those planted on a slope. Mulching over the ring will help to further conserve moisture and prevent deterioration of the ring itself. Once a plant is established, the water ring may be leveled, but the mulch should continue beneath the plant during each spring and summer.

Water when normal rainfall does not provide the preferred 1 inch (2.5 cms) of moisture most plants prefer per week from March to October. The first two years after a plant is installed, regular watering is important. It is better to water once a week and water deeply using drip irrigation (thoroughly soaking the soil until water has penetrated to a depth of 6 to 7 inches (15-18 cms)), than to water frequently for a few minutes. With container grown plants, apply enough water to allow water to flow through the drainage holes, or preferably put the pot inside a larger pot on pot legs to raise it 1 inch above the bottom of the outside pot with a wick from the bottom of the outer pot up through to the middle of the inner pot and replenish the 1 inch (2.5 cms) depth of water in the outside pot. The outside pot has a hole 2 inches (5 cms) above its base to allow for drainage of excess irrigation water or rain. Water plants early in the day or later in the afternoon to conserve water and cut down on plant stress. Do water early enough so that water has had a chance to dry from plant leaves prior to night fall. This is paramount if you have had fungus problems. Do not wait to water until plants wilt. Although some plants will recover from this, all plants will die if they wilt too much (when they reach the permanent wilting point). Mulches can significantly cool the root zone and conserve moisture.

Waterlogged soil occurs when more water is added to soil than can drain out in a reasonable amount of time. This can be a severe problem where water tables are high or soils are compacted. Lack of air space in waterlogged soil makes it almost impossible for soil to drain. Few plants, except for bog plants, can tolerate these conditions. Drainage can be improved by creating a French Drain (18 inch x 12 inch - 45 x 30 cms - drain lined with Geotextile like Plantex or Weed Control Fabric filled with coarse gravel and the weed control fabric overlaid on the top before mulching the top with 3 inch depth of Bark) in the boggy area and extending this drain alongside an evergreen hedge. The hedge will abstract the water over the whole year. Over-watered plants have the same wilted leaves as under-watered plants. Fungi such as Phytophthora and Pythium affect vascular systems, which cause wilt.

Further details about how soil works is in the Soil Topic.

SHRUB - EVERGREEN GALLERY PAGES

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)
Blue
(o)Orange
(o)Other Colours
(o)Pink
(o)Red
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
Black
Blue
Brown
Bronze
(o)Green
(o)Grey
(o)Purple
(o)Red
Silver
(o)Variegated White
(o)Variegated Yellow
White
(o)Yellow
(o)4 Season Colour

FORM
(o)Mat-forming
(o)Prostrate
(o)Mound-forming
(o)Spreading
Clump-forming
(o)Upright
Climbing
(o)Arching

SHAPE
Columnar
Oval
(o)Rounded
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

FRUIT COLOUR
(o)Fruit

FLOWER BED PICTURES
(o)Garden

 

Website Structure Explanation and
User Guidelines

EVERGREEN SHRUB GALLERY PAGES

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

7 Flower Colours (Red, Pink and Purple in same Page) per Month in Colour Wheel below. Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

colormonth8hpub

 

 

 

 

 


Evergreen Shrub Height from Text Border
 

Brown =
0-12 inches
(0-30 cms)

Blue =
12-36 inches
(30-90 cms)

Green =
36-60 inches
(90-150 cms)

Red =
60-120 inches
(150-300 cms)

Black =
120+ inches
(300+ cms)


Evergreen Shrub Soil Moisture from Text Background
 

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil


The Plant Height Border in this Gallery has changed from :-
Blue = 0-2 feet, Green = 2-6 feet, Red = 6+ feet to:-

  • Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms) for Prostrate Creeping Shrubs,
  • Blue = 12-36 inches (30-90 cms) for Dwarf Shrubs,
  • Green = 36-60 inches (90-150 cms) for Small Shrubs,
  • Red = 60-120 inches (150-300 cms) for Medium Shrubs
  • Black = 120+ inches (300+ cms) for Large Shrubs
     


Click on
thumbnail to change to the Plant Description Page of the Evergreen Shrub named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Evergreen Shrub Description Page details where that Evergreen Shrub is available from.
 

 

Evergreen Shrub Name

Flower Colour

Flower
Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Seed Thumbnail

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot
12 inches = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Form and Form Thumbnail

Foliage Colour

Foliage Thumbnail

Use

A

Abutilon mega-potamicum
(Trailing Abutilon, Flowering Maple, Parlour Maple)

Sand or Chalk. If your soil is particularly free draining, improve it by adding some well rotted manure or garden compost.
 

Lantern shape with Yellow petals,
Red calyces

abutilonmegapotamicumflot9

July, August, September,
October, November,
December

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Arching Form. Pruning Group 9. Pruning Group 13 for wall-trained on a South or West facing wall or fence.

abutilonformmegapotamicum1

Bright Green

Arching shoots carry bright green semi evergreen foliage and spectacular flowers that resemble miniature Chinese lanterns

abutilonfolmegapotamicum1

When growing Abutilon in patio containers, use a loam based compost such as John Innes No. 2. Repot the plants at their original soil level and firm well into the new container. Water well and position in sun or semi shade. Ideal for conservatories and perfect in patio containers which can be moved to a frost free position in winter.

Andromeda

See Andromeda in Heather Shrub Gallery

 

B

Berberis
darwinii

Sand, Chalk. Tolerates Clay if free-draining. Part Shade

Fragrant Orange-Yellow followed by spherical, blue-glaucous, black fruit

berberisflodarwinii

April, May

Bird (berries and shelter), bee, butterfly nectar, butterfly caterpillar and moth caterpillar plant

berberisfruitdarwinii1

144 x 144
(360 x 360)

Erect form. Rounded Shape. Pruning Group 8.

berberisfordarwinii1

Bright, shiny, very prickly holly-like, dark green leaves. New foliage tinged red turning green with age.

berberisfoldarwinii1

Use for vandal-proof 6 feet high hedging, back of border or in pots. Attracts wildlife to feed or nest.

C

Calluna

See Calluna in Heather Shrub Gallery and below

 

Camellia
japonica
(Common Camellia)

Acid, Peaty and Sand

Red flowers appear along the branches, particularly towards the ends, and have very short stems.

camelliajaponicaflott

April

336 x 300
(840 x 750)

Upright form. Pruning Group 8.

camelliafoljaponica1a

Glossy alternate, leathery, Dark Green

camelliafoljaponica1

Use as speciman in lawn or informal hedge.

It looks good with Skimmia japonica 'Rubella' and Pieris japonica 'Mountain Fire'.

Choisya
ternata
(Mexican Orange Blossom)

Well-drained Chalk or Sand. Use in protected site in sun or part shade, although in shade it may not flower.

Fragrant, star-shaped, White

choisyaternataflot1

April, May

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Erect or Upright form. Pruning Group 8.

choisyaforternata1

Bright Green

choisyafolternata1

Choisya ternata 'Sundance' has good yellow evergreen foliage.

The glossy, evergreen leaves provide an excellent backdrop for medium-sized perennials and pale-grey or purple foliage plants.

Cistus x
purpureus
(Purple-flowered Rock Rose)

It will tolerate chalky soil and salty air.

3.5 inch (9 cm), pinky-purple, papery flowers

cistuspurpureusflot9

June, July, August

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Erect form. Pruning Group 8 or 9.

cistusfortpurpureus1

Gummy-feeling, narrow, Dark Green

cistusfoltpurpureus1

Try this rounded, sun-loving, evergreen rock rose towards the front of a sheltered, sunny, well-drained border, or in a container. Ideal planted alone or in drifts on hot sunny bank.

D

Daboecia

See Daboecia in Heather Shrub Gallery and below

 

Dryas
octopetala
(Mountain avens, Creeping Oak, White-flowered dryad)

Sand, Stony and limey soil

8 petals of Creamy-White

dryasflotoctopetala

June, July

followed by fluffy seed heads

dryasfrutoctopetala1

4 x 36
(10 x 90)

Mat-forming form.

dryasfortoctopetala1

Dark Green, leathery and silver underneath

dryasfoltoctopetala1

Carpeting plant for rock garden, wall or border edge.

E

Erica

See Erica in Heather Shrub Gallery and below

 

Escallonia

Chalk and Sand. Thrive especially well in coastal areas.

Red flowers and produces an aromatic honey fragrance

escalloniaflot99

June, July
The flowers appear on the new (currant years) growth, so prune the last week of June (after flowering) New growth will flower again in September.

72 x 96
(180 x 240)

Arching form. Pruning Group 9.

Glossy dark green

Escallonia Macrantha is the best evergreen Hedging and Screening plant for the South West of England

Euonymus
fortunei
(Spindle tree)

Clay or Sand

...
Euonymus fortunei cultivars are the ideal evergreen shrubs for planters with their bright, beautiful leaves and attractive growth habits.

...
The Euonymus hedging range bear beautiful pinkish-red fruits that split open to produce fleshy orange seeds, making the Euonymus hedge a haven for birdlife.

48 x 48
(120 x 120)

Mound-forming form. Pruning Group 8.

Toothed glossy dark green variegated with Yellow

euonymusfoltfortunei1

Exhibits rich autumn colours and grows well in most environments, which is why it is the perfect hedging choice.

Euonymus
japonicus
(Japanese Spindle)

Clay or Sand. Full Sun or Part Shade

Light Yellow

euonymusflot4japonicus

May, June
Bears beautiful pinkish-red fruits that split open to produce fleshy orange seeds, making the Euonymus hedge a haven for birdlife

144 x 72
(360 x 180)

Erect form. Pruning Group 8.

Toothed glossy dark green

euonymusfoltjaponicus1

Use for hedging

Euphorbia
characias
(Spurge)

Chalk. Full Sun. This plant can also resist high salinity.

Yellow-Green Flowers in spherical, terminal cymes 10-30cm (4-12in) long.

euphorbiacharaciasflot9

April, May, June, July

48 x 48
(120 x 120)

Upright form. Pruning Group 1.

Linear to oval, grey-green to 13cm (5inches) long.

'Milk' sap tends to cause burning sensation on your skin! so wear rubber gloves when handling it.

Garden varieties are valued in Mediterranean or desert landscaping for not being highly demanding and for looking good despite lack of watering in sunny areas.

Euryops
acraeus
(Euryops evansii)

Sand. Full Sun

Flowers are held in clusters, bright yellow like lovely little daisies.

euryopscflo9acraeus

June, July

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Dome-shaped form. Trim lightly after flowering to restrict growth.

Silvery-grey leaves which are broadly needle-like

euryopsfoltacraeus1

Use as groundcover and infill between other shrubs or yellow-flowered roses

F

Fremontodendron californicum
(Chirantho-dendron californicum, Fremontia californica, Flannel Bush)

Chalk. Full Sun. Dry or Moist

Bright Yellow saucer shaped flowers (6cm across) 2 inches

fremontodendroncflot9californicumfoord

May, June, July, August, September, October

240 x 144
(600 x 360)

Upright form. Pruning Group 1 or Pruning Group 13 if wall-trained. Branches covered in fine spines which may irritate your skin.

Dark Green

fremontodendronfoltcalifornicum1

It's also a good wall shrub, doing well in the rubble around the foundations of a house and trained against a south-facing wall. Branches will require training to encourage a nice fan shape.

G

Gaultheria
'Shallon'
(Shallon, Salal)

Acidic sand or Peaty. Part Shade. Moist soil.

Pink suffused White, heather-bell shaped flowers in racemes at the end of the previous year's growth and in the angles of terminal leaves, followed by bunches of dark purple berries.

June, July

Its tight growing habit allows for great songbird cover while the spring blooming, white to pink, bell-like flowers are a nectar bonanza for native insects.

48 x 60
(120 x 150)

Spreading Form.

Glossy Dark Green

gaultheriafoltshallon1

The plant forms dense thickets, and spreads by underground stems. This shrub is useful for ground cover in moist, shady peaty soils, and can be used as covert for game.

H

Halimiocistus wintonensis 'Merrist Wood Cream'

Sand. Full Sun - shelter from cold drying winds. Dry soil.

Creamy-Yellow

halimiocistuswintonensismerristwoodcreamflot9

June, July
 

24 x 36
(60 x 90)

Spreading clump-forming form. Pruning Group 9.

Oval to lance-shaped, white-woolly, grey-green leaves to 5cm (2inches) long

halmiocistusfoltwintonensismerristwoodcream

Grow at front of border, base of a sunny wall, or in a rock garden.

See the Cistus & Halimium Website (including x Halimiocistus)

Heathers

See Heathers in Heather Shrub Gallery and below

 

Hebe
albicans

Chalk and Sand. Full Sun. Dry soil.
 

Stubby spikes of white flowers

hebealbicansflot9

June, July
 

24 x 36
(60 x 90)
Compact mound-forming. Pruning Group 9 ; requires little or no pruning.
hebefortalbicans1

Grey-Green
hebefoltalbicans

Use as separate plants with upright plants in between to create different plant heights and shape groundcover.

Read Hebes here and there by Graham Hutchins

Hebe
brachysiphon

Chalk and Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil. Perfect for a windy spot by the sea!
 

Small White flowers in racemes

hebebrachysiphonflot9

June, July, August
 

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Dense Round form. Pruning Group 9 ; requires little or no pruning.

Dense Mid-Green foliage

hebefoltbrachysiphon
 

Suitable as a specimen shrub or a low hedge.

Hebe
'Franciscana'
(Francisco hebe)

Chalk and Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.
A valuable plant for seaside landscaping.

Pink-tinged Purple

hebefranciscanaflot9

July, August, September,
October
 

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Dense Round form. Pruning Group 9 ; requires little or no pruning.

Dull Dark Green

hebefoltfranciscana
 

Suitable as a specimen shrub or a low hedge.

Hebe
'Great Orme'

Chalk and Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil

Bright Pink

hebegreatormeflot9

July, August, September,
October, November
 

48 x 48
(120 x 120)

Open Round form. Pruning Group 9 ; requires little or no pruning.

The parallel-sided, spear-shaped, shiny, green leaves are up to 3.5 inches (9 cm) long.

hebefoltgreatorme

A fine choice for containers or as a low hedge.

Hebe 'Youngii'
(Hebe 'Carl Teschner')

Chalk and Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil

Violet-Blue

hebecfloyoungii

June, July

The flowers are a magnet for bees and butterflies.

8 x 24
(21 x 60)
Compact, mat-forming form. Pruning Group 9 ; requires little or no pruning.
hebefortyoungii1

The tiny leaves are shiny mid-green, with a red edge.

hebefoltyoungii

Useful for the rock garden, edging, or ground cover.
Try it planted en masse alongside a path or driveway.

Helianthemum
'Henfield
Brilliant'
(Rock Rose)

Chalk, Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil. Plants must have very good drainage, particularly through the winter.

Terracotta-Orange, saucer-shaped flowers borne in short racemes

helianthemhenfieldbrilliantflot9

June, July,
August
 

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Spreading form. Pruning Group 10, after flowering.
helianthemumforthenfieldbrilliant1

Small-paired Grey-Green leaves

helianthemumfolthenfieldbrilliant1

Suitable for rock garden, raised bed, front of border, or ground cover on sunny bank. Combine with companions like Lavenders, Euphorbias and Origanums.

Helianthemum lunulatum
(Rock Rose)

Chalk, Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.

Clear Yellow

helianthemumlunulatumflot9

June, July
 

6 x 10
(15 x 24)
Spreading form. Pruning Group 10, after flowering.
helianthemumfortlunulatum1a

Grey-Green
helianthemumfoltlunulatum1
 

Suitable for rock garden, raised bed, front of border, ground cover on sunny bank, or a position in an alpine house.

Helianthemum
'Old Gold'
(Rock Rose)

Chalk, sand. Full sun. Dry Soil.

Golden-Yellow

helianthemumoldgoldflot9

June, July

See the Helianthemum collection of Andrew Roberts.

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Spreading form. Pruning Group 10, after flowering.
helianthemumfortoldgold1

Grey-Green

helianthemumfoltoldgold

Suitable for rock garden, raised bed, front of border, or ground cover on sunny bank.

Helichrysum splendidum

Sand, Chalk and Clay. Full Sun. Moist Soil.

Dark Yellow flowers with a slight sweet perfume

helichrysumcflot99splendidum

September, October

48 x 48
(120 x 120)
Erect form. Pruning Group 10.
helichrysumfortsplendidum1

The soft young leaves are covered with grey woolly hairs.

helichrysumfoltsplendidum1

Forming a dense grey mound it can be used as groundcover and as specimans in front of yew hedge

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
(Chinese hibiscus, Rose of China)

Chalk. Full Sun. Moist Soil

Crimson

hibiscussinensisflot9

August, September, October

Further details about Hibiscus plants are from the International Hibiscus Society.

144 x 96
(360 x 240)

Rounded form. Pruning Group 9.

Growing Hibiscus Indoors provides details for growing these in a pot in your home.

Glossy Dark Green

hibiscusfoltrosasinensis

If your area is subject to freezing temperatures, your Chinese hibiscus must either be treated as an annual or brought indoors for the late fall through early spring months.

Hypericum
(St. John's Wort)

Chalk, Sand. Full Sun or Part Shade. Dry Soil

Yellow

hypericumflot1

...
 

...
Spreading form. Pruning Group 8.
hypericumfort1

Green

hypericumfolt1

Makes a dense mound of small, grey-green leaves on upright branching stems in rock gardens.

Hypericum moserianum
'Tricolor'
(Hypericum 'Variegatum', St. John's Wort)

Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil
 

Yellow

hypericumflotmoserianumtricolor

June, July,
August,
September, October
 

12 x 24
(30 x 60)
Spreading and Arching form. Pruning Group 1.
hypericumfortmoserianumtricolor1

Mid Green variegated
with cream, pink
and green
hypericumfoltmoserianumtricolor1

This makes a valuable groundcover plant where space is limited. It grows equally well in sun and shade, but needs protection from cold, drying winds.

Hypericum polyphyllum
(St John's Wort, Aaron's beard)

Any, Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.

Fragrant Bright Yellow

hypericumflotpolyphyllum

June, July, August
Its unique seed-heads, oval and translucent, gleaming with an eerie silver light are coveted by dried-flower arrangers.

18 x 24
(45 x 60)
Upright form. Pruning Group 8.
hypericumfortpolyphyllum1

Blue-Green

hypericumfoltpolyphyllum1

Grow in rock garden, Patio Pots, Banks and Slopes, Cottage Garden, as Ground Cover and as Low Maintenance plant. Shelter from cold, drying winds and excessive winter wet.

I

Iberis saxatilis
(Candytuft)

Chalk or Alkaline Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.

Fragrant White, Purple-tinged
with age

iberisflotsaxatilis

May, June

Pruning Group 10, after flowering. Trim lightly after flowering to maintain compactness.

6 x 12
(15 x 30)
Cushion form.
iberisfortsaxatilis1

Dark Green

Groundcover with different spring, summer and autumn bulbs between each shrub

J

 

 

 

 

 

 

K

Kalmia
angustifolia
(Sheep Laurel, lamb-kill, sheep kill, calf-kill, pig laurel and sheep-poison)

Acid Clay and Peaty, or Acid Sand and Peaty. Part Shade. Wet Soil.

Pale to Deep Red

kalmiaflotangustifolia

June
Andromedo-toxin glycoside toxin is to deter grazing by wild animals. Hence, it can be unwelcome in pastures.

24 x 60
(60 x 150)
Mound-forming form. Pruning Group 8. Tolerates hard pruning.
kalmiafortangustifolia1

Dark Green

kalmiafoltangustifolia1

Use in peat or heather garden.
It is a native plant of America and is a northern bog plant.
The European Kalmia Society has the Laurel Cultivars in its International Kalmia Register and Checklist with cultivation details.

Kalmia
angustifolia alba
(Sheep Laurel)

Acid Clay and Peaty, or Acid Sand and Peaty. Part Shade. Wet Soil.

White

kalmiaflotangustifoliaalba

June
Andromedo-toxin glycoside toxin is to deter grazing by wild animals. Hence, it can be unwelcome in pastures.

24 x 60
(60 x 150)
Mound-forming form. Pruning Group 8.
kalmiafortangustifoliaalba1a

Dark Green

kalmiafoltangustifoliaalba1

Use in peat or heather garden.
It is a northern bog plant.
The European Kalmia Society has the Laurel Cultivars in its International Kalmia Register and Checklist with cultivation details.

L

Lavatera
'Rosea'
(Tree Mallow 'Rosea')

Sand and Chalk. Full Sun. Dry Soil.

Hollyhock-like Flowers to 8cm (3 inches) in width, light pink

lavateraflotrosea

July, August, September

Cut back hard to within 30cm (12in) of ground level in late spring.

72 x 72
(180 x 180)
Rounded form. Pruning Group 6.
lavaterafortrosea1

Deeply lobed, and bright green.

After pruning apply 5-7cm mulch of well-rotted garden compost or manure round the base of the plant.

Grow in shrub border. In cold areas of the country it is best grown against a warm wall to minimise wind and frost damage.

Lonicera
nitida
(Honeysuckle)

Chalk, Sand. Full Sun, or Part Shade to be less prone to aphids. Moist Soil.

Fragrant Creamy-White flowers which grow in pairs.
cloniceraflo1nitida

April, May, June

Not suitable for seaside gardens.

132 x 120
(312 x 300)

Rounded Form. Pruning Group 2.

Glossy Dark Green

lonicerafoltnitida1

Good for hedging and topiary. Trim hedges twice during the summer. Its densely packed leaves, borne on long stems, are tiny so it forms a very dense hedge.

Lupinus
arboreus
(Tree Lupin, Yellow Bush Lupine)

Free-draining Acid Sand. Full Sun or Part Shade. Dry Soil.

Clear Yellow

lupinusflotarboreus

June, July, August

Westcountry Nurseries holds The National Collection of Lupins and have very detailed cultivation information.

72 x 72
(180 x 180)
Rounded form.
lupinusfortarboreus1a

Grey-Green

lupinusfoltarboreus1

Native UK plant. Grow in a border or wild garden. Will self-seed.
Lupin poisoning is a common cause of cattle and sheep deaths.

M

Mahonia
japonica

Chalk or Alkaline Sand. Part or Full Shade. Dry Soil. Mulch to protect roots from frost.

Fragrant Yellow

mahoniaflotjaponica

November, December, January, February,
March
Produces an attractive purple fruit -->

84 x 120
(210 x 300)
Erect Form. Pruning Group 8.
mahoniafrutjaponica1

Dark Green
Sharply toothed leaves deterrs people when used as a hedge.
mahoniafortjaponica1

The flowers shoot out from the ends of leaves, on smaller plants in pots they tend to shoot from the centre of the plant.

Myrtus
communis
(Common Myrtle)

Chalk. Full Sun. Moist Soil.

White

myrtusflotcommunis

August, September,
October
The flower is pollinated by insects, and the seeds are dispersed by birds that eat the purple-black berries

120 x 120
(300 x 300)
Upright Form becoming Arching Form with age. Pruning Group 9, Group 13 if wall-trained.
myrtusfortcommunis1

Glossy Dark Green with a fragrant essential oil.

myrtusfoltcommunis1

A useful and pretty shrub for a sunny border or for growing against a south or west-facing wall.

N

Nandina
domestica
(nandina, heavenly bamboo or sacred bamboo)

Sand or Chalk. Full Sun. Moist Soil.

White

nandinaflotdomestica

August

72 x 60
(180 x 150)
Upright Form. Pruning Group 9.
nandinafortdomestica1

Reddish-Purple when juvenile and in Winter; Light Green in Summer and Autumn
nandinafolt3domestica1

Grow in a sheltered site in a shrub border so that it's flowers, fruit and elegant foliage can be admired. Companions:- Hosta plantaginea, Hemerocallis, Kniphofia caulescens

O

Olearia
numulariifolia
(Daisy Bush)

Chalk and Alkaline Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.
 

Fragrant White. The flowers are carried at the branch tips.

oleariaflotnumulariifolia

August
 

72 x 72
(180 x 180)
Dense Rounded Form. Pruning Group 9.
oleariafortnumulariifolia1

Bright Green juvenile turning Dark Green above, White to Yellow woolly beneath. Trim lightly to maintain a compact habit.

Isolate close to a path or lawn in a shrub border to show off it's flowers and fragrance. Could grow as border hedge in Coastal areas to provide wind protection.

Olearia x
haastii
(Daisy Bush)

Chalk and Alkaline Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.
 

White. Flower heads of white daisy flowers

oleariaflothaastii

August,
September
 

60 x 72
(150 x 180)
Dense Rounded Form. Pruning Group 9; trim lightly to maintain a compact habit.

Glossy Dark Green above, White-felted beneath
oleariafolthaastii1

Isolate close to a path or lawn in a shrub border to show off it's flowers. Grow as border hedge in Coastal areas to provide wind protection.

Olearia x
scilloniensis
(Daisy Bush)

Chalk and Alkaline Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.

White Flowers to 6cm (2½in) across with yellow centres in corymbs to 7cm (3in) across.

oleariaflotscilloniensis

May

72 x 72
(180 x 180)
Dense initially Upright then Rounded Form. Pruning Group 9; trim lightly to maintain a compact habit.

Dark Green above, Pale Green and densely-felted beneath
oleariafoltscilloniensis1

Isolate close to a path or lawn in a shrub border to show off it's flowers. Grow as border hedge in Coastal areas to provide wind protection.

P

Prunus
laurocerasus
(Cherry Laurel)
Alkaline Clay or deep soil over Chalk. Full Sun or Part Shade. Moist or Dry Soil.

Fragrant White

prunusflotlaurocerasus

May, June

Bees, hoverflies, ants and wasps are attracted to the flowers and several species of birds eat the berries. Laurel provides cover for birds and small mammals.

72 x 72
(180 x 180)
Dense Rounded Form becomes Spreading with age. Pruning Group 8 for shrubs and trim hedges in April-May.
prunusfortlaurocerasus1

Leaves are dark green, leathery, shiny, (5–)10–25(–30)cm long and 4–10cm broad.
prunusfoltlaurocerasus1

It is often used for hedges, as a screening plant, and as a massed landscape plant. Grow as a dense security hedge about 3 feet wide and shoulder height to make cutting the hedge easier from the ground.

Q

 

 

 

 

 

 

R

Rosmarinus
officinalis

Light (sandy) , medium (loamy) soils and prefers a well-drained soil. Acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Purple-Blue to White

rosmarinusflotofficinalis1a

May, June, July

Pollinated by bees. Seeds ripen from August to October.

The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Dense Upright to Rounded Form

rosmarinusfortofficinalis1

Aromatic Dark Green

rosmarinusfoltofficinalis1

Trim hedges after flowering. Suitable for Coastal gardens. Grow in a herb garden, against a sunny wall or this compact form of rosemary makes a fabulous, low, evergreen, flowering hedge for a sunny, well-drained site dividing the Flower Garden from the Vegetable or Fruit garden.

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

T

Thymus
cilicicus
(Sicily Thyme)

Alkaline Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.

Large clusters of pale magenta-pink flowers.

thymusflotcilicicus

June, July

Attractive to bees.

6 x 8
(15 x 21)
Compact Cushion-forming Form. Pruning Group 10, in spring.
thymusfortcilicicus1

Dark Green, finely hairy beneath and at the margins
thymusfoltcilicicus1

Grow half-way down a sandy slope to prevent roots from being drowned in winter, or an alpine house if winter wet protection is not available.

Thymus
polytrichus
(Wild Thyme)

Chalk or Alkaline Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.
 

Pale to Deep Purple, occasionally Off-White

thymusflotpolytrichus

July, August
Attractive to bees. It is the food plant of the Large Blue Butterfly, the Tawny Wave, Thyme Pug, Annulet, Ashworth's Rustic and Transparent Burnet Moths.

2 x 24
(6 x 60)
Creeping Mat-forming Form. Pruning Group 10, in spring.
thymusfortpolytrichus1

Dark Green fringed with minute hairs
thymusfoltpolytrichus1

Plant in paving crevices, where it releases its fragrance when trodden on. Use equal parts loam, leaf mould and grit for the planting area.

U

 

 

 

 

 

 

V

Vaccinium
vitis-idaea
(Cowberry, Lingonberry)

Acid, Peaty or Sand. Full Sun or Part Shade. Moist Soil.

White to Deep Pink followed by red berries. Lingonberry is a food that is traditionally associated with its native Scandinavia.

vacciniumflotvitisidaea1

June, July

It is noted for attracting wildlife.

10 x indefinite
(24 x indefinite)
Creeping Form shrub that spreads by means of underground rhizomes. Pruning Group 8.

Glossy Dark Green

vacciniumfoltvitisidaea1

They need a harsh winter in order to survive, so they really cannot be grown in the warmer climates of the world. Grow in borders beneath the canopy of trees or taller plants, as they tolerate shade well.

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

XYZ

Yucca
gloriosa
(Spanish Dagger)

Chalk or Alkaline Sand. Full Sun. Dry Soil.

Purple-tinged
White, bell–shaped

yuccaflotgloriosa

August,
September
Known as Adam's needle, this will make an excellent focal point for a sunny, well-drained Mediterranean-style garden.

72 x 72
(180 x 180)
Erect Form.
yuccafortgloriosa1

Blue-Green maturing to Dark Green
yuccafoltgloriosa1

Use as speciman plant to display the upright 2 feet long densely-rosetted, ferocious spine-tipped, lance-shaped leaves.

 

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Ceanothus
(Californian lilac)

Fertile, well drained, dry chalk soil, in a full sun position for the best results. Mulch in late winter or spring with bulky organic matter, such as garden compost or well-rotted manure.

Blue

ceanothuscflot99

May

Bees love Ceanothus.

From 60 to 240 x 36 to 144 (150-600 x 90-360)
Spreading form.
 

Dark Green

ceanothusfolt1

Ceanothus is often best planted against a south-facing wall.

The top three darkest ceanothus cultivars are 'Dark Star', 'Puget Blue' and 'Concha'.


HEATHER EVERGREEN SHRUB COMPARISON GALLERY PAGES
 


"Handy Guide to Heathers
- Descriptions & Suppliers of over 1000 varieties" by David & Anne Small. Published in 1992 by Denbeigh Heather Nurseries in the UK. ISBN 0-9519160-0-9.
It provides a handy reference to descriptions of heathers in the genera Andromeda, Bruckenthalia, Calluna, Daboecia and Erica which are commercially cultivated in Britain, Europe and North America. The information has very largely come from the work of the Heather Society on producing an International Register of all heather names irrespective of whether they are in commercial use or not.

(o) Heather COMMENTS

 

Some heathers besides having flowers have foliage colours that change from 1 season to the next season in the UK -

  • Spring (March, April, May),
  • Summer (June, July, August),
  • Autumn (September, October, November) and
  • Winter (December, January, February).


This Comparison Gallery provides comparison pages of the:-

  • 18 flower colours with flower and flower stalk as shown in the menu table above,
  • 18 flower colours with flower and flower stalk in each of the months that heather flowers,
  • 7 foliage colours with foliage stalk and form per season as shown in the menu table above, and
  • Each of the Heather Cultivar Groups with flowers

and the Index for the heathers shown in each of these Comparison Pages is in 1 or more Index Pages in the relevant Heather Evergreen Shrub Index Gallery instead of being in the same Comparison page, due to their being too many to include within the available space.
THIS COMBINATION OF FOLIAGE COLOUR CHANGE CAN BE USED IN YOUR GARDEN DESIGN TO AID DIFFERENT GROUNDCOVER FOLIAGE COLOURS IN DIFFERENT SEASONS, together with the months of flower buds before flowering and the post months of seedheads.

 

 

 

 

Flower Colour
H0 to H16 are the Flower Colour Codes from The Heather Society - see the colours in the Heather Gallery
or
in the Table on the left

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heather
Evergreen Shrub Species Name with link to its Comparison Page
or
Cultivar or Hybrid Name with link to its Description Page

Flower Colour

Flowering Months

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms)

Foliage Colour

Spring

Summer

Autumn

Winter

Andromeda polifolia

"A dwarf plant of the northern hemisphere found in Europe, North America ad Japan. The majority of the species grown in gardens emanate from the Japanese population where they are found on well separated mountains, each having distinctive groups of plants."

Andromeda polifolia 'Alba'

White - H0

May,
June

6 x 16
(15 x 40)

Dark Grey

Dark Grey

Dark Grey

Dark Grey

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia

"A dwarf, heather like shrub with tiny dense foliage with flowers displayed above the plant in short compact racemes. Ideal for the heather garden with a flowering season earlier than most Daboecia and Erica cinerea."

"Erica spiculifolia (Bruckenthalia) - Bruckenthalia's beautiful name has been changed to plain old Erica." from Heaths and Heathers.

See Erica spiculifolia below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calluna vulgaris are listed in the Calluna vulgaris B Gallery Pages
A-C
D-G
H-L
M-R
S-Z

"Calluna prefers light acid soils. It will grow in any lime free soil but growth is less vigourous in heavier soils. Calluna will perform better in open sunny situations, this being particularly true for those exhibiting foliage colour variations."

'Boskoop' - H3
callunavulgarisboskoopflot9a

Lavender - H3

August, Sep-tember

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Rich Gold

Rich Gold

Rich Gold

Orange with Red tints

'Bunsall' - H2
callunacflosbunsalldeeproot

Mauve - H2

August, Sep-tember

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Yellow

Yellow

Yellow

Orange and Brown

'Coccinea' - H10
callunavulgariscoccineaflot9a

Purple - H10

August, Sep-tember,
October

10 x 10
(25 x 25)

Dark Grey-Green

Dark Grey-Green

Dark Grey-Green

Dark Grey-Green

'County Wicklow' - H16
callunacfloscountywicklowdeeproot1

Shell Pink (H16)

August, Sep-tember, October, November

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

'Cuprea' - H3

Lavender - H3

August, Sep-tember,
October

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Copper

Copper

Copper

Warm bronze red

'John F. Letts' - H3

Lavender - H3

Sep-tember, October

4 x 10
(10 x 25)

Gold

Gold

Bronze

Red and Orange

'Orange Queen' - H3
callunacflosorangequeendeeproot1

Lavender - H3

August, Sep-tember

14 x 18
(35 x 45)

Golden-Yellow

Golden-Yellow

Bronze

Orange

'Red Pimpernel' - H13
callunacflosredpimperneldeeproot1

Crimson - H13

August, Sep-tember, October, November

8 x 18
(20 x 45)

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

'Sirsson' - H8

Pink - H8

August, September

12 x 20
(30 x 50)

Gold

Gold

Gold

Orange to Red

'Stefanie' - H0
callunacflosstefaniedeeproot1

White - H0

Sep-tember, October,
November

10 x 14
(25 x 35)

Bright Green

Bright Green

Bright Green

Bright Green

'Sunset' - H11

Lilac-Pink - H11

August, Sep-tember,
October

8 x 18
(20 x 45)

Bronzing

Gold

Red

Red

'Velvet Fascination' - H0
callunacflosvelvetfascinationdeeproot1

White - H0

August, Sep-tember

20 x 28
(50 x 70)

Soft, Silvery Grey-Green

Soft, Silvery Grey-Green

Soft, Silvery Grey-Green

Soft, Silvery Grey-Green

'White Lawn' - H0
callunacflo99vulgariswhitelawngarnonswilliams

White - H0

August, Sep-tember

2 x 16
(5 x 40)

Clear Green

Clear Green

Clear Green

Clear Green

'Winter Chocolate' - H3

Lavender - H3

August, Sep-tember,
October

8 x 18
(20 x 45)

New growth is Salmon

Gold foliage with Pink tips

Gold foliage with Pink tips

Intense Red

Daboecia azorica

"This species is found growing in the azores up to a height of 2000m, but despite this, clones so far collected are easily damaged by -5 degrees C frosts. It is distinguished from Daboecia cantabrica by being a more diminuative plant with smaller leaves and flowers with no hairs on the corolla. Plants sold under this name are usually Daboecia x scotica."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daboecia cantabrica

"St. Daboec's heath has broad leaves, white on the underside, and large flowers which drop when finished. They will tolerate a little shade but should not be planted directly under trees. They are remarably resistant to drought. Some cultivars suffer in winter if planted in heavy ground, frost hollows, or in cold windy aspects."

'Bicolor' - H0 and H9
daboeciaflotcantabricabicolor

White, Pink and Beetroot Red - H17

July, August,
Sep-tember, October,
November

12 x 24
(30 x 60)

Mid-Green

Mid-Green

Mid-Green

Mid-Green

Daboecia x scotica

"This group of plants consist of hybrids between Daboecia cantabrica and Daboecia azorica. They have the compactness of Daboecia azorica and hardiness of Daboecia cantabrica. Cultural details as for Daboecia cantabrica."

'Bearsden' - H11
daboeciacflosbearsdendeeproot1a

Lilac-Pink - H11

June, July, August, Sep-tember, October, November

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Erica arborea

"A tree heath which in our UK climate may reach 3-5 metres. It is not as tolerant of lime as is commonly supposed and is best grown in acid conditions. Young plants should be shaped in the early years to avoid untidy growth. It is not generally very hardy but there are exceptions. Can be damaged by heavy snowfalls but will break from the base again."

'Estrella Gold' - H0
ericacflo99arboreaestrellagoldkavanagh

White - H0

April, May

48 x 30
(120 x 75)

Lime-Green tipped bright Yellow

Lime-Green

Lime-Green

Lime-Green

Erica australis

"Tree heaths with rather straggly growth preferring acid soils. However, their flowers, large and showy, are outstanding. Prone to snow and wind damage."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erica carnea are listed in the Erica carnea Gallery

"One of the hardiest of all heaths and very easy to grow in almost any soil. All exhibit a dwarf carpeting habit and with few exceptions rarely require pruning. Care must be taken when pruning as Erica carnea buds as early as July in the UK. It is safer to prune immediately after the flowers have faded. Prune around the edges and very lightly over the top of the plant. The flowering times of Erica carnea vary markedly, plants in milder climates being as much as 2 months earler than in colder conditions. Generally they can be expected to show flower for 6-8 weeks within the time span stated."

Erica
carnea
'Barry Sellers'

10 x 12
(25 x 30)

ericacarneacflosbarrysellersdeeproot1a1
Magenta - H14

January, February,
March, April

Erica
carnea
'Carnea'

6 x 14
(15 x 35)


Shell Pink - H16
 

March, April

Erica
carnea 'Challenger'
6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacfloschallengerdeeproot1a1a
Crimson - H13

January, February,
March, April

Erica
carnea
'December Red'

8 x 18
(20 x 45)
 

ericacarneacflosdecemberreddeeproot1a1
Heliotrope - H12

December, January, February

Erica
carnea
'Foxhollow Fairy'
6 x 14
(15 x 35)

ericacarneacflosfoxhollowfairydeeproot1a1
Pink - H8

December, January, February, March, April

Erica
carnea
'Golden Starlet'
6 x 16
(15 x 40)

ericacarneacflosgoldenstarletdeeproot1a
White - H0

December, January,
February, March

Erica
carnea
'Heathwood'

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Ericacarneaheathwoodcflogarnonswilliams1a
Lilac Pink - H11

February, March, April

Erica
carnea
'Ice Princess'
6 x 14
(15 x 35)

ericacarneacfloiceprincessdeeproot1a1
White - H0

February, March, April

Erica
carnea
'Isabell'

6 x 14
(15 x 35)

ericacarneacflosisabelldeeproot1a1
White - H0

February, March, April

Erica
carnea
'James Backhouse'

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Ericacarneacjbackhousecflogarnonswilliams
Lavender - H3

March, April

Erica
carnea
'John Pook'
6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacflosjohnpookdeeproot1a
Lilac Pink - H11

January, February, March

Erica
carnea
'King George'
6 x 10
(15 x 25)

ericacarneacfloskinggeorgedeeproot1a
Pink - H8

December, January,
February, March

Erica
carnea
'Martin'

6 x 16
(15 x 40)

Ericacarneamartincflogarnonswilliams1a
Pink - H8

February, March, April

Erica
carnea
'Myretoun Ruby'
8 x 18
(20 x 45)

Ericacarneamyretounrubycflo1garnonswilliams1a
Heliotrope - H12

January, February,
March, April, May

Erica
carnea
'Nathalie'
6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacflosnathaliedeeproot1a1
Purple - H10

January, February,
March, April

Erica
carnea
'Orient'

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacflosorientdeeproot1a1
Lilac Pink - H11

February, March, April

Erica
carnea
'Porter's Red'

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacflosportersreddeeproot1a1a
Magenta - H14

January, February,
March, April, May

Erica
carnea
'Robert Jan'
6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacflosrobertjandeeproot1a1
Purple - H10

December, January, February

Erica
carnea
'Rosalie'

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacflosrosaliedeeproot1a1
Pink - H8

January, February,
March, April

Erica
carnea
'Rosantha'

6 x 14
(15 x 35)

ericacarneacflosrosanthadeeproot
Rose Pink - H7

January, February,
March, April

Erica
carnea
'Rotes Juwel'
6 x 12
(15 x 30)

ericacarneacflosrotesjuweldeeproot1a1
Beetroot - H9

November, December,
January, February,
March, April

Erica
carnea
'Rubra'

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

ericacarneacflosrubradeeproot1a1
Cerise - H6

January, February, March

Erica
carnea 'Schneesturm'
6 x 16
(15 x 40)

ericacarneacflosschneesturmdeeproot1a1a
White - H0

February, March, April

Erica
carnea
'Sherwood Creeping'

6 x 10
(15 x 25)

ericacarneacflossherwoodcreepingdeeproot1a1a
Lavender - H3

January, February,
March, April

Erica
carnea
'Snow Queen'
6 x 10
(15 x 25)

ericacarneacflossnowqueendeeproot1a1
White - H0

December, January, February, March, April, May

Erica
carnea
'Springwood White

8 x 24
(20 x 60)

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1
White - H0

December, January, February, March, April, May

Erica
carnea
'Vivellii'

9 x 14
(22.5 x 35)

ericacarneacflosvivelliideeproot1a1
Magenta - H14

January, February,
March, April, May

Erica
carnea
'Wentwood Red'
6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacfloswentwoodreddeeproot1a1a
Pink - H8

January, February, March

Erica
carnea 'Winterfreude'
6 x 16
(15 x 40)

ericacarneacfloswinterfreudedeeproot1a1
Crimson - H13

November, December,
January, February,
March, April

Erica
carnea 'Wintersonne'
6 x 18
(15 x 45)

ericacarneacfloswintersonnedeeproot1a1a
Lilac Pink - H11

February, March, April, May

Erica ciliaris

"This species occurs naturally in moist acid sunny positions, but experience has shown that, in cultivation, it can withstand drought as well as any other Erica. This species has the largest bells of our native UK heaths."

'Globosa' - H11
ericaciliariscflosglobosadeeproot1a

Lilac Pink - H11

August, Sep
tember
,
October, November

12 x 20
(30 x 50)

Mid-Green

Mid-Green

Mid-Green

Mid-Green

Erica cinerea are listed in the Erica cinerea Gallery

"A species commonly found on the drier parts of moors and heathlands but fares no better than other ericas during periods of drought. Whilst the majority of the cultivars have rather drab dark green foliage, they are well worth growing for the great richness and range of their flowers. Acid soil is essential to grow this species successfully."

Erica
cinerea
'Apricot Charm'
6 x 8
(15 x 20)

See Heather Description Page
Mauve - H2
 

July, August

Erica
cinerea
'C.G. Best'
12 x 28
(30 x 70)

ericacinereacgbestflot9a1
Rose-Pink - H7

June, July, August, September, October

Erica
cinerea
'Next Best'
12 x 24
(30 x 60)

ericacinereanextbestflot9a1
Rose-Pink - H7

June, July, August, September, October

Erica x darleyensis

"One of the easiest heathers to grow. It is suitable for all soils and particularly good at smothering weeds. These cultivars are hybrids between Erica carnea and Erica erigena and, like all sterile hardy hybrids, have coloured young foliage and a long flowering period. Hardy"

'Arthur Johnson' - H8
ericadarleyensiscflosarthurjohnsondeeproot1a

Pink - H8 , which deepen with age to heliotrope

December, January, February, March, April

18 x 30
(45 x 75)

Mid Green tipped Cream

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

'Darley Dale' - H16
ericadarleyensisdarleydaleflot9garnonswilliams1

Open
Shell Pink - H16 and darken to Pink

November, December,
January, February,
March, April

15-18 x 36 (37.5-45 x 90)

Mid Green with Cream tips

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

'Dunreggan' - H0
ericadarleyensiscflosdunreggandeeproot1

White - H0

January, February,
March, April, May

18 x 20
(45 x 50)

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

'Epe' - H11
Ericadarleyensisepecflogarnonswilliams

Lilac Pink - H11

January, February,
March, April, May

12 x 24
(30 x 60)

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

'George Rendall' - H8
Ericadarleyensisgeorgerendallcflo1garnonswilliams

Open
Pink - H8 darkening to heliotrope

November, December,
January, February,
March, April, May

15 x 26
(37.5 x 65)

Mid Green tipped red initially, fading to pink and cream

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

'Ghost Hills' - H8
ericadarleyensiscflosghosthillsdeeproot1

Mauve - H2 deepen on aging to heliotrope

November, December,
January, February,
March, April, May

18 x 36
(45 x 90)

Light Green with Cream tips

Light Green

Light Green

Light Green

'Jack H. Brummage' - H10
ericadarleyensiscflosjackhbrummagedeeproot1a

Reddish Purple - H10

January, February,
March, April, May

12 x 24
(30 x 60)

Golden Orange-Yellow

Golden Orange-Yellow

Golden Orange-Yellow

Golden Orange-Yellow becoming Bronze-tinted

'James Smith' - H10
Ericadarleyensisjamessmithcflogarnonswilliams1

Deep Pink to reddish Purple - H10

December, January, February, March, April

14 x 22
(35 x 55)

Medium Green tipped Pink and Cream

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

'Kramer's Rote' - H14
ericadarleyensiscfloskramersrotedeeproot1

Magenta - H14

January, February,
March, April

15 x 24
(37.5 x 60)

Dark Bronze/Green

Dark Bronze/Green

Dark Bronze/Green

Dark Bronze/Green

'Margaret Porter' - H4
ericadarleyensiscflosmargaretporterdeeproot1a

Lilac - H4

December, January, February, March, April, May

8-10 x 18
(20-25 x 45)

Mid Green with Cream tips

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

'Mary Helen' - H8
Ericadarleyensismaryhelencflogarnonswilliams1

Pink - H8

February, March, April

10 x 18
(25 x 45)

Yellow/Gold

Yellow/Gold

Yellow/Gold

Yellow/Gold foliage bronzing

'Silberschmelze' - H0
Ericadarleyensissilberschmeizecflogarnonswilliams1

Ashen White - H0

December, January, February, March, April, May

14 x 32
(35 x 80)

Mid Green with Cream tips

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green tinged Red

'White Glow' - H0
ericadarleyensiscfloswhiteglowdeeproot1a

White - H0

December, January, February, March, April, May

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

'W.G. Pine' - H12
Ericadarleyensiswgpinecflogarnonswilliams1

Pink to Heliotrope - H12

December, January, February, March, April

8 x 20
(20 x 50)

Dark Green tipped Red

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Erica erigena

"A species useful in alkaline soils and providing some of the better 'architectural' heaths. Not as hardy as Erica carnea and Erica x darleyensis and damage is caused by frosts greater than -10 degrees C. Damage can also be caused by heavy snow as branches are rather brittle."

'Irish Silver' - H4

Lilac - H4

April, May, June

16 x 16
(40 x 40)

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

'Superba' - H16
ericaerigenasuperbaflot9garnonswilliams1

Shell Pink - H16

April, May, June

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Erica lusitanica

"A tree heath found naturally on acid soil in Portugal, Northern Spain and South West France and has the lngest flowering period of any tree heath. Capable of withstanding a considerable amount of drought."

Erica lusitanica
Ericalusitanicacflo1garnonwilliams

White - H0

March, April, May

40 x 28
(100 x 70)

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

'George Hunt' - H0
Ericalusitanicageorgehuntcflogarnonwilliams

White - H0

March, April

28 x 18
(70 x 45)

Bright Yellow

Bright Yellow

Bright Yellow

Bright Yellow

Erica mackaiana

"Another lime hater found naturally in boggy ground in western Ireland and north-west Spain. It provides neat ground cover, but is suspect in very dry conditions. It produces new shoots from the roots, which can be detached to form new plants."

'Maura' - H12
ericamackayanamauraflot9a

Heliotrope - H12

July, August,
Sep-tember

10 x 14
(25 x 35)

Mid Grey-Green

Mid Grey-Green

Mid Grey-Green

Mid Grey-Green

Erica manipuliflora

"An eastern Mediterranean species which is lime tolerant, and happily grows on magnesium deficient soils (unlike Erica vagans). There are 2 distinct populations now classified as sub-species"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erica spiculifolia

"Erica spiculifolia (Bruckenthalia) - Bruckenthalia's beautiful name has been changed to plain old Erica.  This is probably the hardiest heath of all.  When all others are damaged, Bruckenthalia remains unharmed.  Needs good drainage, acid soil and sun.  The flowers are held above the plants in short compact racemes.  It is an early season bloomer and sometimes blooms again in the fall.  They rot off at the base branch by branch if too wet. Zone 4 (-30 below) - probably Zone 3 - and warmer." from Heaths and Heathers.

"A dwarf, heather like shrub with tiny dense foliage with flowers displayed above the plant in short compact racemes. Ideal for the heather garden with a flowering season earlier than most Daboecia and Erica cinerea." from The Handy Guide to Heathers by David and Anne Small.

'Balkan Rose' - H12

Heliotrope - H12

June,
July

6 x 12
15 x 30)

Dark Gray Green

Dark Gray Green

Dark Gray Green

Dark Gray Green

Erica x stuartii

"A natural hybrid between Erica mackaiana and Erica tetralix in Connemara and Donegal, Ireland. It is apparently absent fromnorthe-west Spain, the only site where the 2 parents co-exist."

'Connemara' - H14

Magenta - H14

July, August, Sep-tember

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Dark Grey Green

Dark Grey Green

Dark Grey Green

Dark Grey Green

Erica terminalis

"A tree heath found from southern Spain to southern Italy which nevertheless is the hardiest of all tree heaths. It quickly forms an erect bush, which if pruned frequently in the early years forms a good shape suitable for low hedging and specimen planting. Lime tolerant."

Erica terminalis - H11

Lilac Pink - H11

July, August, Sep-tember

72-96 x 36 (180-240 x 90)

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

Mid Green

Erica tetralix

"The third most widespread native UK heath, often found in boggy areas. In the garden, however, it is tolerant of drier conditions but does require acid soil. The flowers of this very hardy species are typically held in terminal umbels."

'Delta' - H7

Rose-Pink - H7

July

4 x 8
(10 x 20)

Grey Green

Grey Green

Grey Green

Grey Green

Erica umbellata

"A very useful and colourful species as it flowers between Erica carnea and Erica cinerea. It will grow in alkaline soils but requires a well-drained soil. It can withstand drought and is fairly hardy provided the soil is free draining. It flowers profusely especially if it is not trimmed"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erica vagans

"A native UK species found on the serpentine and gabbro rocks of the Lizard Peninsula in Cornwall, but will be successful in any soil containing a high content of magnesium. It provides a very useful range of colours during September and October. The faded bells of many cultivars become an attractive russet in winter."

'Holden Pink' - H16
ericavaganscflosholdenpinkdeeproot1a

Shell Pink - H16

August, Sep-tember, October

10 x 24
(25 x 60)

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

'Leucantha' - H0

Off White - H0

August, Sep-tember, October

16 x 28
(40 x 70)

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

Medium Green

'Lyonesse' - H0

White - H0

August, Sep-tember, October

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Bright Green

Bright Green

Bright Green

Bright Green

'St Keverne' - H8
ericavaganscflosstkevernedeeproot1

Pink - H8

August, Sep-tember, October, November

8 x 18
(20 x 45)

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

Erica x veitchii

"Hybrids between Erica arborea and Erica lusitanica which are generally not quite hardy, severe damage occurring at -15 degrees C to some of the cultivars."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erica x watsonii

"A sterile hybrid occurring naturally between Erica ciliaris and Erica tetralix, first found in Cornwall in 1831. The form and habit amongst the cultivars varies considerably, but generally they have a long flowering period and are hardy."

'Claire Elise' - H14
Ericawatsoniiclaireelisecflogarnonswilliams

Magenta Pink - H14

July, August, September, October

8 x 18
(20 x 45)

Dark Green with striking dark Red tips

Dark Green

Dark Green

Dark Green

'Dorothy Metheny' - H4
Ericawatsoniidorothymethenycflogarnonswilliams

Pale Lilac - H4 deepening with age

June, July, August, September, October

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Bright Green with Yellow tips

Bright Green

Bright Green

Bright Green

Erica x williamsii

"A naturally occurring sterile hybrid between Erica vagans and Erica tetralix first found near St. Keverne, Cornwall in 1860 and known nowhere else but on the Lizard Peninsula. It will tolerate some alkaline soils."

'Gold Button' - H11

Lilac Pink - H11
- no flower photos

August, September

2 x 4
(5 x 10)

Golden-Yellow

Golden-Yellow

Golden-Yellow

Golden-Yellow

 

The 2 rows in the Shrub Heather Index Gallery Pages of "Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms) and Comment" state the Heather Description from 'Handy Guide to Heathers Descriptions & Suppliers of over 1000 varieties" by David & Anne Small, published in 1992 by Denbeigh Heather Nurseries (ISBN 0-9519160-0-9). This gives the official Heather Society flower colour(s) and foliage colour(s).
Photos from Chris Garnons-Williams are added to that respective flower colour or foliage colour page in this Shrub Heather Gallery and the relevant index page in Shrub Heather Index Gallery IRRESPECTIVE OF THE ACTUAL FLOWER COLOUR OR FOLIAGE COLOUR (stated in the Handy Guide) IN THE IMAGE THAT WAS TAKEN BY CHRIS GARNONS-WILLIAMS.

Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia

...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree

...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape

Evergreen Shrub *
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
......Gallery,
......Species Index Page with
......Pages describing each Heather of that Species Index Page

......Andromeda
.........Andromeda In
......
Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
.........Index AC
.........AB-AP,
.........AP-BU,
.........BU-CW,
.........
Index D-G
.........DB-FA,
.........FA-GO,
.........GO-GU,
.........
Index H-L
.........HA-IN,
.........IN-LO,
.........LO-LY,
.........
Index M-R
.........MA-PA,
.........PA-RO,
.........RO-RU,
.........
Index S-Z
.........SA-SO,
.........SP-WH,
.........WI-YV

......Daboecia
.........Daboecia In
.........Index
.........cantabrica
.........x scotica

......Erica: Carnea
.........Carnea Index
.........AD-JO
.........JO-RO
.........RU-WI
......Erica: Cinerea
.........Index
.........AM-HE,
.........HO-RO,
.........RO-WI

......Erica: Others
.........Others Index
.........Others 1
.........Others 2
.........Others 3
.........Others 4
.........
Darleyensis In
.........darleyensis 1
.........darleyensis 2
.........
Tetralix Index
.........tetralix
.........
Vagans Index
.........vagans
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index

Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries. So one might avoid disappointment if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

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