rosaredcoatflorogerltd

See further photos in table on the right.

Flower. Photo from R.V. Roger Ltd

Plant Name

Rosa 'Red Coat'

Common Name

---

Soil

Roses prefer acidic soil of pH 6.5 (sand) but will tolerate alkaline soils up to pH 7.5 (chalk). Mix 25 litres farmyard manure, or pulverized tree bark with bone meal, in soil before planting. Broadcast rose fertilizer in early Spring.

Tolerant of Poor Soils, so broadcast rose fertilizer in early summer as well.

Sun Aspect

Full Sun - continuous, direct exposure to 6 hours or more of sunlight per day.

Soil Moisture

Moist - Soil is moist without being soggy because the texture of the soil allows excess moisture to drain away. Most plants like about 1 inch of water per week. Amending your soil with compost will help improve texture and water holding or draining capacity. A 3 inch layer of mulch will help to maintain soil moisture and studies have shown that mulched plants grow faster than non-mulched plants.

Plant Type

Modern Roses: 2 Modern Shrub Recurrent Cluster-Flowered from the Rosa rugosa species

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

60 x 48 (150 x 120)

Foliage

Dark Green

Flower Colour in Season. Hips

Large, single, rich crimson flowers produced in clusters and in great profusion throughout the summer.

Flowering is Repeat or Recurrent throughout the summer. Slightly fragrant.

Comment

Growth upright and thorny.

"Large, bright crimson single flowers. The colour is very fresh at first, later becoming rather less bright. The overall effect is rather like a mass of butterflies have decended on a shrub. For sheer productivity and colour, there can be few better roses than this. Seen in the mass, it is very effective. Slight musk fragrance. 5 x 4 ft." from David Austin Rose Nursery Limited.

 

"Redcoat is one of the early David Austin English roses. I have two shrubs which used to grow in a mixed border. They were far too straggly, so I shifted them to lean on a small fence by the woodshed - much better. In a large garden bright red is a fabulous colour, and Redcoat's particular red is bright and strong, with just a hint of cherry. It forms the perfect background for my vegetable garden.

My big book of roses says that Redcoat's flowers have ten petals, and that it has 'hooked, brown thorns'. It hardly has anything else to say - Redcoat is obviously not in favour. Pity! It's a really good country garden rose, and I haven't spied a single blackspot yet." from Mooseys Country Garden.

 

"Rich red. Raised by David Austin in 1973." from R.V. Roger Ltd.

 

"Bred by David C. H. Austin (United Kingdom, 1973).

Floribunda, Shrub.  English Rose Collection.  

Red.  Mild fragrance.  Blooms in flushes throughout the season.  

Height of 5' to 6' (150 to 185 cm).  Width of up to 5' (up to 150 cm).

USDA zone 5b through 10b.  " from Help Me Find.

 

Suitable for growing:

 

Available from
David Austin Rose Nursery Limited and
R.V. Roger Ltd (Open ground roses despatched between November and March, Containerised roses despatched between May and October) in the UK with
Help Me Find in America.

For further details on the cultivation of roses, consult the Royal National Rose Society.

"A website devoted to roses, clematis and peonies and all that is gardening related, including selecting, buying, breeding, caring for and exhibiting.  We have cataloged over 44,000 roses and have more than 160,000 photos along with thousands of Rose nurseries, public and private gardens, Rose societies, authors, breeders, hybridizers and publications from all over the world." from Help Me Find in America.

See further data table below:-

Ivydene Gardens Rose Plant Gallery:
Click on links below to see roses in other colours and different rose use:-

Flower
Colour

Other Colours

Orange

Pink

Red

White

Yellow

2 or More Colours Page 1

2 or More Colours Page 2

 

Rose
Use

Bedding

Climber / Pillar

Cut-Flower

Exhibition , Speciman

Ground-Cover

Grow in a Container

Hedge

Climber in Tree

Woodland

Edging Borders

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Tolerant of Shade

Back of Border

Adjacent to Water

On North-Facing Wall

Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.

FRAGRANT ROSES Page 1 and FRAGRANT ROSES Page 2 - The roses inserted into each page are described as Moderately Fragrant or Very Fragrant in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.

NOT FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Slightly Fragrant or No Fragrance or nothing mentioned about fragrance in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.
 

 

Rose Classification Number

Rose Classification

1
1a
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
2
3
4
5
6
6a
...
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
19a
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Modern Roses: 1 Modern Shrub Recurrent Large-Flowered
Modern Roses: 1a Modern Shrub Roses. Peter Beales Roses are split into the following not officially recognised World Federation of Rose Societies Rose Classes: "There are four main groups of rose.
 

  • 1a Bush and Shrub roses tend to be about as wide as they are tall and are perfect for growing in borders or as large specimen plants.
  • 14a Climbing roses grow up to around 2m (6ft) to 3m (12ft), can repeat flower and tend to flower on the current years growth. They are great for growing up pergolas and arches.
  • 12a Rambling roses can grow up to 10m (40ft) and tend to flower on the previous years growth and their size and vigor lends themselves to covering large areas such as dead trees and unsightly buildings.
  • 3a Ground covering roses tend to "scramble" low and are perfect for covering low fences and for cascading along the ground."



Modern Roses: 2 Modern Shrub Recurrent Cluster-Flowered
Modern Roses: 3 Ground-Cover Recurrent
Modern Roses: 4 Large-Flowered (Hybrid Tea Shrub)
Modern Roses: 5 Cluster-Flowered (Floribunda Shrub)
Modern Roses: 6 Dwarf Cluster-Flowered
Modern Roses: 6a Dwarf Large-Flowered (Mini-flora in the
American Rose Society)
Modern Roses: 7 Polyantha (Shrub)
Modern Roses: 8 Miniature Bush
Modern Roses: 9 Modern Shrub Non-Recurrent Large-Flowered
Modern Roses: 10 Modern Shrub Non-Recurrent Cluster Flowered
Modern Roses: 11 Ground Cover Non-Recurrent
Modern Roses: 12 Rambler Recurrent
Modern Roses: 13 Large-Flowered Climber Recurrent
Modern Roses: 14 Cluster-Flowered Climber Recurrent
Modern Roses: 15 Climbing Miniature Recurrent
Modern Roses: 16 Rambler Non-Recurrent
Modern Roses: 17 Large-Flowered Climber Non-Recurrent
Modern Roses: 18 Cluster-Flowered Climber Non-Recurrent
Modern Roses: 19 Climbing Miniature Non-Recurrent
Modern Roses: 19a English Roses - David C.H. Austin OBE
(born 1926) is a rose breeder and writer who lives in Shropshire,
England. His emphasis is on breeding roses with the character and
fragrance of Old Garden Roses (Gallicas, Damasks, Alba roses, etc.)
but with the repeat-flowering ability and wide colour range of
modern roses such as Hybrid Teas and Floribundas. Though Austin's
roses are not officially recognised as a separate class of roses by,
for instance, the Royal National Rose Society or the American Rose
Society, they are nonetheless commonly referred to by rosarians,
at nurseries, and in horticultural literature as 'English Roses'
(the term he uses) or 'Austin Roses'.
Old Garden Roses: 20 Alba (Shrub)
Old Garden Roses: 21 Bourbon (Shrub)
Old Garden Roses: 22 Boursalt (Shrub)
Old Garden Roses: 23 China (Shrub)
Old Garden Roses: 24 Damask (Shrub)
Old Garden Roses: 25 Gallica (Shrub)
Old Garden Roses: 26 Hybrid Perpetual (Shrubs)
Old Garden Roses: 27 Moss (Shrubs)
Old Garden Roses: 28 Portland (Shrubs)
Old Garden Roses: 29 Provence (Centifolia) (Shrubs)
Old Garden Roses: 30 Sweet Briar (Shrubs)
Old Garden Roses: 31 Tea (Shrubs)
Old Garden Roses: 32 Ayrshire
Old Garden Roses: 33 Climbing Bourbon (Climbers)
Old Garden Roses: 34 Climbing Boursalt (Climbers)
Old Garden Roses: 35 Climbing Tea (Climbers)
Old Garden Roses: 36 Noisette (Climbers)
Old Garden Roses: 37 Sempervirens (Climbers)
Wild Roses: 38 Wild Roses Non-Climbing
Wild Roses: 39 Wild Roses Climbing

Some of the Roses in the other borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley are in the Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden (identified as 3 in the map below) or the Jubilee Rose Garden - which is below and to the left of the Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden:-

boweslyonmap1a1a1a1a1a

and this detailed map of the Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden from the RHS sign in the garden, which shows it upside down from the above map:-

boweslyonmap2b1a1a1a1a

 

Above map with A-Z or 1-9 identifying each flowerbed location in the Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden:-

 

boweslyonmap2a1a1a1a1a1

Click for furher details on WISLEY WISLEY Rose Plant Classification System:-

Rosa Wisley 2008 'AUSbreeze' is:-

  • Wisley 2008 is the Exhibition Name, the name it is introduced to the public by, the name that is used in retail and its cultivar name.
  • 'AUSbreeze' is the Registration Name, which is AUS to indicate that David Austin Roses Limited was its breeder and breeze was its name. Rosa England's Rose 'Auslounge' is described as England's Rose Varietal Name : Auslounge by Roses UK. So, besides the Registration Name, we also have the Varietal Name - see further naming problems in Rosa 'England's Rose' (AUSrace) page.

 

Normal Rose Plant Classification System:-

Now you should not confuse the above system with the usual retail name of Rosa 'Wisley 2008' (Ausbreeze) by Austin Roses where

  • 'Wisley 2008' is the cultivar name and
  • (Ausbreeze) is its Registration Name ( This is used in the trade to make absolutely certain that they know what the rose is). To differentiate the 2 parts of the Registration Name Ausbreeze would normally appear as AUSbreeze.

 

G.
Gay Gordons Not available to buy in June 2014
2 Colours 1

Gentle Touch
Pink Pot Hed

Gertrude Jekyll
Pink Hed

Giggles
Pink Cut Exh Pot

Gioia

Gipsy Boy
Red Cli

Glad Tidings
Red Bed Cut Pot Hed

Glenfiddich
Yellow Bed Pot Hed

Gloire de Dijon
2 Colours 1 Pot

Gloria Dei

Glowing Amber
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Exh Pot

Golden Chersonese
Yellow Bed

Golden Rambler
Yellow Cli Tre

Golden Showers
Yellow Cli

Golden Wedding
Yellow Bed

Goldilocks
Yellow Bed

Grace Abounding
2 Colours 1 Bed Pot Hed

Grace de Monaco
Pink Bed Pot

Grace Donnelly
2 Colours 2 Bed

Graham Thomas
Yellow Pot Hed

Great Double White

Gwent
Yellow Gro Pot
 

 

N.
Nevada
White Cli Hed Woo

New Dawn
Pink Cli

Nozomi
Pink Gro Pot
 

 

U.

 

Roses in this Gallery
Link Index contains the following:-

Rose Name Link followed by Rose Colour Link on next line:-

Other
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Yellow
2 Colours 1
2 Colours 2

followed by Rose Use:-

Bed for Bedding
Cli for Climber/Pillar
Cut for Cut-Flower
Exh for Exhibition , Speciman
Gro for Ground-Cover
Pot for Grow in Container
Hed for Hedge
Tre for Climber in Tree
Woo for Woodland

If there is no colour following the plant name, this indicates that this name is either
a synonym of a Rose with a different retail name and its Rose Description Page already exists in this website
or
it is the Registration Name used by the Trade and the Rose Description Page of its retail name already exists in this website

.......................

 

Rose INDEX Page includes bloom colour thumbnail, rose use, height and width with link to its Rose Description Page.

 

A.
Acapulco
2 Colours 1 Bed

Adelaide d' Orleans
Pink Cli Hed Tre

Admiral Rodney
Pink Exh Woo

Affirm
Pink Bed Exh

Alba Maxima
White Hed Woo

Alberic Barbier
White Cli Pot Tre

Albertine
Pink Cli Tre

Alchymist
Yellow Cli

Alecs Red
Red Bed

Alexander
Red Hed Cut

Alistair Stella Gray

Aloha
Pink Cli Cut

Amber Queen
Yellow Bed Cut Pot

Amber Star
2 Colours 1 Bed
Cut Exh Pot

Amber Sunset
2 Colours 1 Bed
Cut Exh Pot

American Pillar
Pink Cli Gro Tre

Anabell
Orange Bed

Andeli

Annabelle

Apple Rose

Apricot Silk
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut

Apricot Sweet Dream

Arizona Sunset
2 Colours 2 Bed
Cut Exh Pot

Armosa

Arthur Bell
Yellow Bed Cut
Pot Hed

Arthur Bell Climbing
Yellow Cli Hed Tre

Arthur Merrill
Red Bed

Austrian Copper

Autumn
2 Colours 1 Bed
 

 

H.
Halle
Orange Bed Hed

Handel
2 Colours 1 Cli

Hannah

Hannah Hauxwell
Pink Pot

Hanne
Red Bed

Harry

Harry Wheatcroft
2 Colours 2 Bed

Heaven Scent
Red Bed Cut Pot Hed

Helens Trust
Red Bed Exh

Henri Martin
Red Hed

Hermosa
Pink

Hilde
Red Cut Exh

Honorine de Brabant
2 Colours 1 Cli

HORjemma

HORlexstrip

HORluisbond

HORminstrel

Hot Chocolate
Other Bed Pot

Hot Tamale
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Exh Pot
 

 

O.
Old Glory
Red Cut Exh

Orangeade
Orange Bed Hed

Orange Sensation
Orange Bed Hed
 

 

V.
Veilchenblau
Other Cli Tre

Vera Parker
Red Exh

Voice of Thousands
2 Colours 1 Bed
 

 

 

 

Roses in this Gallery
Link Index contains the following:-

Rose Name Link followed by Rose Colour Link on next line:-

Other
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Yellow
2 Colours 1
2 Colours 2

followed by Rose Use:-

Bed for Bedding
Cli for Climber/Pillar
Cut for Cut-Flower
Exh for Exhibition , Speciman
Gro for Ground-Cover
Pot for Grow in Container
Hed for Hedge
Tre for Climber in Tree
Woo for Woodland

 

.......................

 

Rose INDEX Page includes bloom colour thumbnail, rose use, height and width with link to its Rose Description Page.

 

B.
Baby Bio
Yellow Bed Pot Hed

Baby Boomer
Pink Bed

Baby Carnaval

Baby Katie
2 Colours 2 Bed
Cut Exh Pot

Baby Masquerade
2 Colours 1 Bed
Cut Pot

Ballerina
2 Colours 1 Bed

Baron Girod de L'Ain
Red Hed

Barry Stephens
2 Colours 1 Bed
Cut Exh

BATamy

BATmercury

Behold
Yellow Bed Cut
Exh Pot

Benardella's Pearl

BENben

BENday

BENfebu

BENfig

BENhile

BENmagic

BENmfig

BENpete

Berkshire
Red Gro Pot

Berolina

Betty's Smile
Pink Bed

Big Chief
Red Cut Exh

Birthday Girl
Other Bed Pot Hed

Black Jack
2 Colours 1 Cli
Cut Exh

Blanc Double de Coubert
White Pot Hed

Blessings
Pink Bed Cut

Blossomtime

Blossom Time
2 Colours 1 Cli

Blue Monday

Blue Moon
Other Bed Cut Exh Pot

Blush Noisette
Pink Cli

Bob Woolley
2 Colours 1 Cut Exh

Bobby Charlton
Pink Cut Exh Pot

Bonica
Pink Gro Pot Hed

Bonn
Red Hed

Bonny Prince Charlies Rose

Breath of Life
Orange Cli Cut

BRIincog

BRIman

BRIstar

Buff Beauty
Yellow Pot Hed

Burnet Rose
 

 

I.
Iceberg (Climber)
White Cli

Iceberg (Shrub)
White Bed Cut Pot Hed

Incarnata

Incognito
2 Colours 1 Cut Exh

Ingrid Bergman
Red Bed Cut Pot

Irenes Delight
Pink Bed Cut

Irish Beauty

Irish Wonder

Irresistible
White Cut Exh
 

 

P.
Paddy McGredy
Red Bed Pot Hed

Party Girl
2 Colours 2 Cut Exh

Pascali
White Bed Cut Pot

Paul Crampel
Orange Gro Pot Hed

Paul Grampel


Pauls Himalayan Musk
Other Cli

Pauls Lemon Pillar
2 Colours 1 Cli Cut

Pauls Scarlet
Red Cli Tre

Pax
White Hed

Peace
2 Colours 1 Cut Exh Hed

Pearl

Pearl Drift
White Gro Pot

Peer Gynt
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Exh Pot Hed

Penelope
Pink Pot Hed

Peppermint Ice
White Bed Cut

Perle d'Or
2 Colours 1 Exh

Phoebe's Frilled Pink

Picasso not available to buy in June 2014
2 Colours 1

Pierrine
Pink Cut Exh

Pink Grootendorst
Pink Pot Hed Woo

Pink Parfait
Pink Bed Cut Pot Hed

Pink Perpetue
Pink Cli

Pirouette

Portland Trailblazer

Premiere Ballerine

Prestige
Red Exh Hed

Prima Ballerina
Pink Bed Cut

Prosperity
White Hed

Provence Rose
 

 

W.
Warm Welcome
Red Cli Pot

Wedding Day Climbing
White Cli Tre
Woo

Wendy Cussons
Red Cut Exh

Whisky Mac
Yellow Bed
Cut Pot

White Baby Rambler

White Bath
White Pot Hed

White Moss

White Rose of York

Wilhelm
Red Hed

Winchester Cathedral
White Bed Pot Hed

Woburn Abbey
2 Colours 1 Bed
Cut Pot Hed

World Rose
 

 

 

 

Roses in this Gallery
Link Index contains the following:-

Rose Name Link followed by Rose Colour Link on next line:-

Other
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Yellow
2 Colours 1
2 Colours 2

followed by Rose Use:-

Bed for Bedding
Cli for Climber/Pillar
Cut for Cut-Flower
Exh for Exhibition , Speciman
Gro for Ground-Cover
Pot for Grow in Container
Hed for Hedge
Tre for Climber in Tree
Woo for Woodland

 

.......................

 

Rose INDEX Page includes bloom colour thumbnail, rose use, height and width with link to its Rose Description Page.

 

C.
Cabbage Rose
Pink Woo

Caledonian
2 Colours 1 Bed

Camaieux
2 Colours 1 Cut
Pot Hed

Cantabrigiensis
White Woo

Caribia

Castle of Mey
Orange Bed

Catherine Cookson
2 Colours 1 Bed
Cut Exh

Cecile Brunner White
White Bed Pot

Chanelle
White Bed Hed

Chapeau de Napoleon

Charismatic

Charlotte
Yellow Bed

Chelsea Belle
2 Colours 2 Cut Exh

Cheshire Rose

Chicago Peace
Yellow Bed Cut Hed

Childs Play
2 Colours 2 Bed
Cut Exh

Chinatown
Yellow Bed Hed

Chloe Star
Yellow

City of Leeds
Pink Bed Hed

Clifton Moss

COCbaden

Coeur d'Amour

Columbian Climber
Pink Cli Cut Pot

Compassion
2 Colours 1 Cli Cut

Complicata
Pink Cli Exh Hed

Copper Delight
2 Colours 1 Bed

Cornelia
Pink Pot Hed

Crimson Glory
Red Bed

Crimson Glory Climber
Red Cli Cut

Crimson Rambler
Red Tre

Cuisse de Nymphe
 

 

J.
Jacobite Rose

JACnor

JACorca

JACpoy

James Mason
Red Pot Hed

Jan Guest
2 Colours 2 Bed

Jean Kenneally
Other Cut Exh

Jean Mermoz
Pink Bed Gro Pot

Jemma Giblin
Yellow Pot

Jilly Jewel
Pink Bed Cut Exh Pot

Jiminy Cricket
Red Bed Pot Hed

Josephine Bruce
Red Bed Pot

Just Jenny
Other Pot

Just Joey
Orange Bed Pot
 

 

Q.
Queen Elizabeth
 

 

X.
X Rated
2 Colours 1
Cut Exh
 

 

 

 

Roses in this Gallery
Link Index contains the following:-

Rose Name Link followed by Rose Colour Link on next line:-

Other
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Yellow
2 Colours 1
2 Colours 2

followed by Rose Use:-

Bed for Bedding
Cli for Climber/Pillar
Cut for Cut-Flower
Exh for Exhibition , Speciman
Gro for Ground-Cover
Pot for Grow in Container
Hed for Hedge
Tre for Climber in Tree
Woo for Woodland

 

.......................

 

Rose INDEX Page includes bloom colour thumbnail, rose use, height and width with link to its Rose Description Page.

 

D.
Daily Sketch
2 Colours 1 Bed Hed

Dancing Flame
2 Colours 2 Bed
Cut Exh Pot

Danse de Feu
Red Cli

Darius

Darling Jenny
2 Colours 1 Cut Exh

Dawn Chorus
Orange Bed

Daybreak
Yellow Pot Hed

Dearest
Pink Bed Hed

Debbie Thomas
Pink Cut Exh

Deep Secret
Red Bed Cut

Deidre Hall
Other Bed Cut Exh

Dianthiflora

DICjem

DieKOR

Die Welt
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut

Doctor Dick

Dog Rose
Pink Hed Tre

Don Charlton
Pink Bed Cut Exh

Doreen
2 Colours 2 Bed

Doris Morgan
Red Bed Pot

Doris Tysterman
Orange Bed Cut Pot Hed

Dorothy Perkins
Pink Gro

Double Delight
2 Colours 2 Cut Pot

Double French Rose

Double Gold
Yellow Cut Exh Pot

Dr Dick
2 Colours 2 Bed
Cut Exh

Dr John Dickman
Other Bed Cut
Exh Pot

Dublin Bay
Red Cli Hed

Duftzauber

Dutch Gold
Yellow Bed Cut Exh
 

 

K.
Katharine Zeimet
White Gro Hed

Katherina Zeimet

Katherine Zeimet

Kathleen
Pink Exh

Kathleen Harrop
Pink Bed Cli

Kazanlik
Pink Woo

Kiftsgate
White Cli Gro Tre

Kim
2 Colours 1 Bed Pot Hed

KINfancy

Kitty Hawk
Pink Cut Exh

Konigliche Hoheit

KORbell

Korona
Red Bed Pot Hed

KORpriwa

Korresia
Yellow Bed Pot Hed

Kristin
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Exh
 

 

R.
Rachel Kathleen
Red Bed Hed

Rambling Rector
White Hed Tre Woo

Red Coat
Red Cli Hed Woo

Red Devil
Red Cut Exh

Red Dorothy Perkins

Red Moss

Red Rose of Lancaster

Red Splendour
Red Bed

Regensberg
2 Colours 1 Bed Pot

Remember Me
2 Colours 1 Bed

Rosa arvensis

Rosa banksiae lutea
Yellow Cli

Rosa canina Dog Rose

Rosa x cantabrigiensis

Rosa x centifolia muscosa
Pink Exh

Rosa eglanteria

Rosa foetida bicolor
Orange Bed Cli Pot

Rosa gallica officinalis
Red Cut Pot Hed

Rosa gallica versicolor
2 Colours 1 Cut Pot Hed

Rosa glauca
Pink Cut Hed Woo

Rosa hugonis
Yellow Woo

Rosa lutea punicea

Rosa mulliganii
White Cli Gro Tre

Rosa multi-bracteata Cerise Bouquet
Red Cli Exh Woo

Rosa moyesii
Red Cli Woo

Rosa Mundi

Rosa nutkana Plena
Pink Pot Woo

Rosa pimpinellifolia
White Pot Hed Woo

Rosa pomifera

Rosa pteragonis cantabrigiensis

Rosa rubrifolia

Rosa rubiginosa

Rosa rugosa
Pink Hed Woo

Rosa rugosa alba
White Hed Woo

Rosa rugosa atropurpurea
Other Hed Woo

Rosa rugosa rubra

Rosa villosa
Pink Exh

Rosa x centifolia

Rosa x centifolia 'Cristata'

Rose Baby

Rosemary Rose
Red Bed Cut Pot Hed

Rose of Provins

Roseraie de l'Hay
Other Hed Woo

Rosy Cushion
Pink Gro Pot

Royal Gold
Yellow Cli Cut

Royal Highness
Pink Bed Cut Exh

Royal Salute
Red Cut Exh

Royal William
Red Bed Cut Pot

Ruby Baby
2 Colours 2 Cut Exh

Ruby Pendant
Other Cut Exh Hed

Ruby Wedding
Red Bed Cut Pot
 

 

Y.
Yellow Banksia

Yellow Cecile Brunner

Yorkshire Lady
2 Colours 1
Cut Exh
 

 

 

 

Roses in this Gallery
Link Index contains the following:-

Rose Name Link followed by Rose Colour Link on next line:-

Other
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Yellow
2 Colours 1
2 Colours 2

followed by Rose Use:-

Bed for Bedding
Cli for Climber/Pillar
Cut for Cut-Flower
Exh for Exhibition , Speciman
Gro for Ground-Cover
Pot for Grow in Container
Hed for Hedge
Tre for Climber in Tree
Woo for Woodland

 

.......................

 

Rose INDEX Page includes bloom colour thumbnail, rose use, height and width with link to its Rose Description Page.

 

E.
Eglantine Rose

Elizabeth of Glamis
Orange Bed Cut Hed

Emily Gray
Yellow Tre

Ena Harkness
Red Bed

Ena Harkness Climbing
Red Cli Cut

Engineers Rose

English Miss
Pink Bed Pot Hed

Escapade
Other Bed Cut
Exh Pot Hed

Etoile de Hollande Climbing
Red Cli

Evelyn Fison
Red Bed Pot Hed

Excelsa
Red Gro Tre
 

 

L.
Lady Sylvia
2 Colours 2 Bed Cut Cut Pot

Lady Sylvia Climbing
Pink Cli Hed Tre

Lady Penzance
Pink Woo

Landora

La Seduisante

Laura Ford
Yellow Cli Pot

La Virginale

L.D. Braithwaite
Red Cut Gro Pot

Leicester Abbey
Red Bed

Liberty Bell
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Exh Pot

Lili Marlene
Red Bed

Lincolnshire Poacher
2 Colours 1 Bed

Linville
2 Colours 2 Cut Exh

Little Amy
2 Colours 2 Bed Cut Exh Pot

Little Dorrit
Pink Bed Pot

Little Jackie
2 Colours 2 Cut Exh

Little Muff
Pink Cut Exh

Living Fire
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Hed

Lord Penzance
2 Colours 1 Hed Woo

Luis Desamero
Yellow Cut Exh

LYOgi
 

 

S.
Sanders White

Sanders White Rambler

White Gro Tre

Sarah Van Fleet
Pink Pot Hed Woo

SAVachild

SAVadouble

SAVahold

SAVahowdy

SAVamor

SAVascent

SAVor

Scentsational
Other Cut Exh

Schneelicht
White Hed Woo

Schneewittchen

Schoolgirl
Orange Cli

Scotch Briar

Seagull
White Tre

SEAsoon

Selfridges
Yellow Cut Exh

Shailer's White Moss
White Cli

Sherired

Signature
Pink Bed Exh

Silver Anniversary
White Cut Exh

Silver Jubilee
Pink Bed Pot Hed

Silver Wedding
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Pot

Sir Neville Marriner
Pink Bed

Sissi

Skyrocket

Someday Soon
Yellow Cut Exh

Southampton
2 Colours 2 Bed Pot Hed

Souvenir de Claudius Denoyel
Red Cli

Spanish Beauty

Sparkle Berry

Spectacular

St Cecilia
Pink Bed Cut Pot Hed

Starship
Yellow Bed Cut Exh Pot

Sunbird

Sunblest
Yellow Bed Cut Pot

Sunset Boulevard
Pink Bed

Sunsprite

Super Star
Red Bed Cut Pot Hed

Susan Ann

Sweet Briar
Pink Pot Hed Woo

Sweet Caroline
2 Colours 1 Cut Exh

Sweet Dream
Other Bed Pot Hed

Sweet Dreams
 

 

Z.
Zephirine Drouhin
Pink Cli Tre

Zigeunerknabe
 

 

 

 

Roses in this Gallery
Link Index contains the following:-

Rose Name Link followed by Rose Colour Link on next line:-

Other
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Yellow
2 Colours 1
2 Colours 2

followed by Rose Use:-

Bed for Bedding
Cli for Climber/Pillar
Cut for Cut-Flower
Exh for Exhibition , Speciman
Gro for Ground-Cover
Pot for Grow in Container
Hed for Hedge
Tre for Climber in Tree
Woo for Woodland

 

.......................

 

Rose INDEX Page includes bloom colour thumbnail, rose use, height and width with link to its Rose Description Page.

 

F.
Fairhope
Yellow Bed Cut Exh

Fancy Pants
2 Colours 2 Bed
Cut Exh Pot

Fantin Latour
Pink Hed Woo

Fee des Neiges

Felicia
Pink Exh Pot Hed

Fifi
2 Colours 1 Bed
Cut Pot

Figurine
2 Colours 2 Bed
Cut Exh Pot

Fimbriata
White Hed Woo
Hed

FOUmich

Fragrant Cloud
Red Bed Pot

Fragrant Delight
Pink Bed Pot Hed

Francois Juranville
Pink Gro Tre

Frau Astrid Spath
Pink Bed Pot

Frau Dagmar Hartopp

Freddie Mercury
2 Colours 2 Bed

Freddy Mercury

Fred Loads
Pink Exh Hed

Freedom
Yellow Bed Pot

Fresia

Friesia

Fru Dagmar Hartopp
Pink Gro Pot Woo

Fru Dagmar Hastrup
Pink

Fruhlingsduft
2 Colours 1 Hed
Woo

Fruhlingsgold
Yellow Hed Woo

Fruhlingsmorgen
2 Colours 1 Hed
Woo

FRYhunky

FRYminicot
 

 

M.
MACros

Madamme Alfred Carriere
2 Colours 1 Cli Cut Tre

Madamme A Meilland

Madamme Caroline Testout Climbing
Pink Cli

Madamme Gregoire Staechelin
Pink Cli

Madamme Isaac Periere
Pink Cli

Mme Neumann

Maidens Blush Great
Pink Cli Cut Hed Woo

Maidens Blush Small
Pink Cut Pot Hed Woo

Maigold
Yellow Cli Tre

Mainzer Fastnacht

Maltese Rose

MANglow

Margaret Hall
Pink Bed Cut Exh

Margaret Merril
White Bed Cut Pot Hed

Margo Koster
Orange Bed Gro Pot Hed

Marguerite Hilling
Pink Cli Hed Woo

Marlena
Red Bed Gro Pot Hed Hed

Masquerade
2 Colours 1 Bed Pot Hed

Masquerade Climbing
2 Colours 1 Cli

Matangi
2 Colours 1 Bed Hed

Max Graf
Pink Gro

McGredy's Sunset
2 Colours 1 Bed

McGredys Yellow
Yellow Bed Cut

Melanie Lemaire

Merlot
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Exh

Mermaid
Yellow Cli

MICaroline

Michel Cholet
Other Cut Exh

Michelle Chole
t

Michele Meilland
2 Colours 1 Bed Cut Pot

MICpie

Mignon

Mike Thompson
Red Cut Exh

Minnie Pearl
Pink Cut Exh Pot

Miss Flippins
2 Colours 1 Cut Exh

Moonlight
White Hed

Morning Jewel
Pink Cli

Mother's Love
Pink Cut Exh

Mrs Herbert Stevens Climbing
White Cli Cut

Mrs Sam McGredy Climbing
Red Cli Cut

Muff's Pet
Pink Cut Exh

Myra
2 Colours 1 Bed
 

 

T.
TALchelsea

TALfairhope

Tanbakede

Tequila Sunrise
2 Colours 1 Bed Pot Hed

Thats Jazz
Red Cli Pot Tre

The Apothecay's Rose

The Blue Rose

The Crested Provence Rose
Pink Woo

The Fairy
Pink Bed Gro Pot Hed

The Field Rose
White Gro Hed Woo

The Queen Elizabeth Rose
Pink Cut Pot Hed

The Sweetheart Rose

The World

Thinking of You
Red Bed

This is The Day
Red Bed Cut Exh Pot

Tickled Pink
Pink Bed Exh

Tina Turner
2 Colours 1 Bed

TINeally

TINlove

TINluis

TINresist

TINx

Tip Top
Pink Bed Pot Hed

Tom Foster
Yellow Bed

Tony Jacklin
Red Bed Cut Exh Hed

Topsi
Red Bed Pot Hed

Tour de Malakoff

Trigintipetala

Tropical Twist
2 Colours 1 Cut Exh

Tropicana

Trumpeter
Red Bed Pot Hed

TUCflame

TUCkflip

Turners Crimson

Tuscany Superb
Red Cut Pot Hed

Twice in a Blue Moon
Other Bed Cut Pot

Typhoon
2 Colours 1
 

 

Roses in this Gallery
Link Index contains the following:-

Rose Name Link followed by Rose Colour Link on next line:-

Other
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Yellow
2 Colours 1
2 Colours 2

followed by Rose Use:-

Bed for Bedding
Cli for Climber/Pillar
Cut for Cut-Flower
Exh for Exhibition , Speciman
Gro for Ground-Cover
Pot for Grow in Container
Hed for Hedge
Tre for Climber in Tree
Woo for Woodland

 

.......................

 

Rose INDEX Page includes bloom colour thumbnail, rose use, height and width with link to its Rose Description Page.

Site design and content copyright ©November 2009. Page structure amended in September 2012. Mail-order Nursery links updated June 2013 and again in May 2014. RHS Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden Rose Index added on right hand side in May 2014. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services is not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

 

 

ROSE USE GALLERY PAGES
Rose Use Site Map of pages with content (o)


FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Green 1

(o)Green 2
(o)Green 3

MODERN SHRUB ROSE TYPE SHAPE
(o)1 Recur Large-Flo

(o)2 Recur Cluster-Flo
(o)3 Ground-Cover Recur
(o)4 Hybrid Tea
(o)5 Floribunda
6 Dwarf Cluster-Flo
(o)6a Dwarf Large-Flo
(o)7 Polyantha
(o)8 Miniature and Patio
9 Non-Recur Large-Flo
(o)10 Non-Recur Cluster-Flo
(o)11 Ground-Cover Non-Recur

MODERN CLIMBER ROSE TYPE SHAPE
(o)12 Rambler Recur

(o)13 Large-Flo Recur
(o)14 Cluster-Flo Recur
15 Miniature Recur
(o)16 Rambler Non-Recur
(o)17 Large-Flo Non-Recur
(o)18 Cluster-Flo Non-Recur
19 Miniature Non-Recur
19a English Roses - Austin Roses

 

ROSE USE GALLERY PAGES

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines



OLD GARDEN SHRUB ROSE TYPE SHAPE

(o)20 Alba

(o)21 Bourbon
22 Boursalt
(o)23 China
(o)24 Damask
(o)25 Gallica
26 Hybrid Perpetual
(o)27 Moss
(o)28 Portland
(o)29 Provence
(o)30 Sweet Briar
(o)31 Tea

OLD GARDEN CLIMBER ROSE TYPE SHAPE
32 Rambler Ayrshire

33 Bourbon
34 Boursalt
35 Tea
(o)36 Noisette
(o)37 Sempervirens

WILD ROSE TYPE SHAPE
(o)38 Non-Climbing
(
o)39 Climbing

HIP COLOUR
(o)Hip Colour

BED PICTURES
(o)Garden Pictures

rosaredflobud1coatgarnonwilliams

Closed Bud.
Photo from Pickering, North Yorkshire by Chris Garnons-Williams within 21-25 July 2014.

rosaredflobud2coatgarnonwilliams

Opening Bud.
Photo from Pickering, North Yorkshire by Chris Garnons-Williams within 21-25 July 2014.

rosaredflobud3coatgarnonwilliams

Opening Bud.
Photo from Pickering, North Yorkshire by Chris Garnons-Williams within 21-25 July 2014.

rosaredflo1coatgarnonwilliams

Juvenile Flower.
Photo from Pickering, North Yorkshire by Chris Garnons-Williams within 21-25 July 2014.

rosaredflo2coatgarnonwilliams

Middle-aged Flower.
Photo from Pickering, North Yorkshire by Chris Garnons-Williams within 21-25 July 2014.

rosaredflo3coatgarnonwilliams

Mature Flower.
Photo from Pickering, North Yorkshire by Chris Garnons-Williams within 21-25 July 2014.

rosaredfol1coatgarnonwilliams

Juvenile Burgundy Foliage.
Photo from Pickering, North Yorkshire by Chris Garnons-Williams within 21-25 July 2014.

rosaredfol2coatgarnonwilliams

Middle-aged Foliage maturing to Dark Green Mature Foliage.
Photo from Pickering, North Yorkshire by Chris Garnons-Williams within 21-25 July 2014.


There are 3 groups of roses, whose Rose Use Flower Images are compared in Rose Use Gallery and whose Flower Colour and Rose Type Shape are compared in the Rose gallery

There are 720 roses in this website:-


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use *
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Comment

"Bush roses were bred for use in formal rose beds. The large-flowered bushes are best for formal rose beds near the house, and for cutting. Cluster-flowered bushes are ideal for beds of showy colour and could also be planted in groups at the front of a shrub border, or even singly. Cluster-flowered bushes are better suited to poor conditions, especially wet areas, because their flowers withstand rain better.

Choosing bush roses is a matter of personal taste, but there are do’s and don’ts. Choose either large-flowered bushes or cluster-flowered bushes. Do not mix them – the results can be very messy. Neither should varieties of large-flowered bushes be mixed in the same bed because mixed colours take from the effect of formal elegance.

The more showy cluster-flowered bushes can be mixed, but stick to two or three varieties – avoid the ‘fruit-salad’ effect. Try to match the varieties for height – use the taller ones to the back, or the middle of a bed, mixed border or island bed – and choose complementary colours. Research the variety and try to see it growing – visit St. Anne’s Rose Garden, Clontarf, Dublin, or a rose nursery during the flowering season.

Standard roses are used in the middle, or at the back of large rose beds, to add some height. They have long been used as specimens on their own, but less so nowadays. They could also be used in groups, or singly, in a shrub border behind low, non-competitive plants to give summer colour.

Being true shrubs, the shrub roses are best placed among other flowering and non-flowering shrubs. They bring colour to a shrub border in late spring and early summer. The shrub roses can also be planted as specimens on their own and some of them make good informal, secure hedges

The climbing habit of growth of climbing and rambling roses makes them ideal for covering walls and unsightly large objects. They can also be grown on flowering garden trees to give more interest, or on an old tree stump, pillar or pergola.

Miniature roses have become very popular for patio and container growing. They can also be used on rockeries, and as house plants." from Using Roses in the Garden by Ireland's Gardening Community.


There are 2 retail roses called Mermaid.
This demonstrates the reason why there needs to be a rose classification system where a member of the public can uniquely identify the correct rose for buying from retail sources.