Ivydene Gardens Garden Design:
The Colour Wheel

colour wheel diagramHow colours relate to each other is best illustrated in the colour or spectral wheel.

First, there is the harmony of adjacent colours. If blue is a dominant colour, for instance, then blue mixed with green and blue mixed with purple will harmonise.

Second, there is the contrast of opposite colours: yellow with purple, orange with blue, red with green...

Thirdly, there is the harmony of triads. For example, if one takes yellow as the initial colour, then the triad harmony colours are red and blue.

As with every guideline, principle or rule, the spectral wheel should be followed with care. For instance, the three primary colours, if used in their most dominant forms, will overpower any other colour included with them, even if those colours are related in some way on the wheel. For that reason, modern planting practice favours the more subtle pastel shades.

Psychologically, the colour blue is cold, yellow is thoughtful and red is violent. It is advisable to keep these colours together with white and black closest to the house, with the very light pastel colours towards the end of the garden to provide an illusion of extra length.

If you want to choose any type of plant by flower colour alone, then this colour wheel will aid that:-

Most of the plants of this website will have their Common Name, Botanical Name and Months of Flowering in one of the 52 colour index pages in the Colour Wheel - Flowers Gallery.

Click on number or WILD WHITE in the Colour Wheel for Flowers below:-

colourwheelclickexported2Primary Colours:-

Red.
Yellow.
Blue.

 

Secondary Colours:-

Orange.
Green.
Violet.

 

Tertiary Colours:-

Red Orange.
Yellow Orange.
Yellow Green.
Blue Green.
Blue Violet.
Red Violet.

 

 

 

 

 

Each of the 12 Colour Sections has been split into 4 Colour Groups:-

  • Dark Tone or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.
  • Mid-Tone (Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours
  • Pure Hue (the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours
  • Pastel (Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

plus these 5 colours -
Black,
Gray234,
Gray 5,
Pure White 2 for the Cultivated Flowers,
Pure White 6 for the Cultivated Flowers and
Wild White for the Wildflowers in the White and Black Colour Sections.

The Common Name in the Index at the top of each comparison page will be in Red if it is a Wildflower,
The Botanical Name will link to its Plant Description Page and
each Flower Month will link to the respective Flower Colour Comparison Page in the relevant Gallery.

If the Flower Petal is Multi-Coloured,
then it will be placed in the Multi-Coloured Row of a Colour Wheel Colour Page that appears to have the majority space of that colour on the petal.

If you want to choose any type of plant with a particular flower colour in a or more months, then this colour wheel will help:-

Many of the plants will have their Flower Thumbnail, Botanical Name and Months of Flowering in each month of one of the 12 flower colour pages in the 12 Bloom Colours per month Gallery, that they flower in.
Click on the 1 in the relevant Flower per month Colour in the Colour Wheel below to change to that comparison page.

bloomsmonth2a

Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour

Besides the colour of the flower, you could also use the:-

  • number of petals,
  • the shape of the flower and
  • its natural arrangement

This is the menu for the Herbaceous Perennials:-

Ivydene Gardens Herbaceous Perennial Flower Shape Gallery:
Elaborated Shape of Flower is Hats, Hoods or Helmets

 

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2

irisflotpseudacorus

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord

anemonecflo1hybridafoord

anemonecflo1blandafoord

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1

stachysflotmacrantha1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora

aquilegiacfloformosafoord

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1

lathyrusflotvernus

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock

androsacecflorigidakevock

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow

armeriacflomaritimakevock

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a
ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala

astilbepurplelancecflokevock

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

and there is also the Evergreen Perennials Shape Gallery.

 

Besides the colour of the flower, you could also further refine the list of

  • Bulbs for plants that grow, flower and the foliage dies off shortly afterwards, so that other plants can provide their focus:-

From Flower Bulbs for Year-Round Pleasure by Francine Raymond 10 August 2010 in The Telegraph:-

Type of Bulb

When to Plant

Flowers

Narcissi

September

May

Forced Narcissi

October

December

Autumn Crocus

September

October

Forced Hyacinths

October

December

Tulips

October

April/May

Cyclamen

September

October

Amaryllis

September

January

Snakeshead fritillaries

October

May

Cymbidium orchids

September

February

Bluebells

March

May

Aconites

September

January

Alliums

October

June

Snowdrops

March

February

Camassia

September

June

Dwarf Iris

September

March

Lilies

October

July

Anemone blanda

September

March

Agapanthus

April

August

Muscari

September

April/May

Nerine

August

September

Daffodils

September

March

Colchicums

August

September

 

as well as the use of that plant:-

What about using the different colours of groundcover foliage provided by heathers in each of the 4 seasons?

Some heathers besides having flowers have foliage colours that change from 1 season to the next season in the UK -

  • Spring (March, April, May),
  • Summer (June, July, August),
  • Autumn (September, October, November) and
  • Winter (December, January, February).


The Shrub Heather Gallery provides comparison pages of the:-

  • 18 flower colours with flower and flower stalk,
  • 18 flower colours with flower and flower stalk in each of the months that heather flowers,
  • 7 foliage colours with foliage stalk and form per season:-
    Yellow Autumn Foliage:-
    Ericaerigenagoldenladyfolautkavanagh

    ACIDIC SAND,
    DEEP CHALK SOIL
    Erica erigena
    'Golden Lady'
    SUN
    White - H0
    flowers in
    February-April
    12 x 16 (30 x 40)
    Golden Yellow Foliage



    Ericaerigenagoldenladyforautkavanagh
  • and Each of the Heather Cultivar Groups with flowers

and the Index for the heathers shown in each of these Comparison Pages is in 1 or more Index Pages in the relevant Heather Evergreen Shrub Index Gallery instead of being in the same Comparison page, due to their being too many to include within the available space.


THIS COMBINATION OF FOLIAGE COLOUR CHANGE CAN BE USED IN YOUR GARDEN DESIGN TO AID DIFFERENT GROUNDCOVER FOLIAGE COLOURS IN DIFFERENT SEASONS, together with the months of flower buds before flowering and the post months of seedheads.

 

During 2013, H. Kavanagh and I took photos of the Mixed Border in the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) garden at Wisley. I have split the plants into 3 types:-

  • 176 Permanent Herbaceous Perennials, (The Permanent plants stay from year to year until either they are too old, they get overgrown by bindweed in this bed or the Soft Landscaping team decide to change the plant.)
  • 70 Other Permanent Plants including the Hornbeam hedge used as a background foil and separator of this bed and other garden areas; and
  • 99 Bedding Plants, which are normally inserted in May and removed in November-December.

The Permanent Herbaceous Perennial Index indexes the 176 Permanent Herbaceous Perennials. It also summarises the distribution of Blue, Orange, Pink, Red, Unusual Flower Colour, White and Yellow during each month -

 

 

Number of parts of the 71 parts of the Mixed Borders with flowers of the following colours in the following months:-

 

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

White and other colour

Pink and Red

2 col-ours with-out White as 1 of them

3 col-ours with White as 1 of them or not 1 of them

4 or more
col-ours with White as 1 of them or not 1 of them

Month

176
Per-manent Herbac-eous Peren-nials

3

 

2

 

5

 

4

 

 

1

 

 

May

13

2

17

20

35

21

23

6

2

16

17

2

Jun

28

2

40

25

53

37

25

2

12

8

22

24

Jul

33

2

48

24

57

38

36

1

13

3

27

26

Aug

20

2

53

18

47

34

28

3

11

9

37

7

Sep

9

2

23

12

19

16

13

9

3

9

5

 

Oct

 

 

6

3

7

3

1

2

 

 

 

 

Nov

99 BEDding

 

 

8

5

12

6

 

3

 

3

 

 

May

 

3

10

21

29

11

 

4

2

2

3

1

Jun

8

6

11

35

41

17

6

4

4

9

7

2

Jul

8

6

11

37

41

17

6

4

6

11

6

2

Aug

6

6

11

35

44

13

6

4

5

8

7

1

Sep

4

6

11

28

33

8

6

1

6

9

2

2

Oct

 

 

2

11

7

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nov

73
OTHer Perma-nent plants of other Plant Types

 

 

2

 

1

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

May

3

 

11

4

12

11

5

2

 

1

1

 

Jun

7

 

16

6

24

20

7

5

 

3

5

1

Jul

7

 

16

6

26

26

14

9

 

7

5

1

Aug

7

 

14

8

17

22

5

6

 

4

3

 

Sep

 

 

7

4

4

2

5

1

 

 

 

 

Oct

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Nov

176
Per-manent Herbac-eous Peren-nials
+
99
BEDding
+
73
OTHer Perma-nent plants of other Plant Types

3

 

11

5

17

13

4

2

 

8

1

 

May

16

5

28

31

49

37

27

5

12

13

15

19

Jun

39

7

48

40

58

52

31

3

23

4

4

46

Jul

35

5

54

37

63

53

39

2

24

3

10

53

Aug

23

8

54

34

61

45

31

 

23

9

21

35

Sep

13

5

33

28

36

20

21

7

11

15

18

9

Oct

 

 

9

11

14

6

4

1

3

 

1

2

Nov

 

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

White and other colour

Pink and Red

2 col-ours with-out White as 1 of them

3 col-ours with White as 1 of them or not 1 of them

4 or more
col-ours with White as 1 of them or not 1 of them

Month

 


H. Kavanagh walked 5 paces, turned and took a photo of the Mixed Border bed from the path adjacent to a Mixed Border bed of the Mixed Border bed opposite across the lawn and its adjoining path. She repeated this 71 times - walking up 1 side and then down the other - and that is how the 71 parts of the Mixed Border beds were created. This does of course mean that the side areas of each of these photos will overlap with the side areas of the adjacent parts.

 

The following design concepts from my anaylsis of the Royal Horticultural Garden at Wisley may be useful to you together with the rest of the data on that page concerning that part of the East or West Border:-

Garden Design Comments on RHS Garden at Wisley in the 71 pages of the EAST and WEST Borders in the MIXED BORDERS

Flower Colours in each of the 71 Parts of the Mixed Borders - with area indicating that the respective colour has not been used in this part .
 

More (See un-labelled bedding) than 102 plants (This is 29%, which is almost a third) were missing their identity when in flower in 2013 out of 348 in 768 square metres of Mixed Borders garden beds - These herbaceous borders are 6 metres (20 feet) deep and 128 metres (427 feet) long.

Part Number of East and West Mixed Borders

 

Each page provides details and photos of every plant used in that part

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Number of either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Each page may also detail a
Design Concept

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

49 mis-sing out of 176

19 mis-sing out of 73

34 mis-sing out of 99

East 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal style required in moving people from Entrance to outlying areas

East 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Position plants with tiny flowers close to the lawn or path

Provide plant support structures

East 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

Make plant labels visible to aid plant sales and

No plant labels on Pansy / Viola Display

East 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

Create History of each garden bed, so that planting errors can be corrected

East 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

1

1

Use a system to select your plants from their flower colour

East 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

Use the colours of the buds, flowers and seedheads with different foliage colours in Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn of each heather for your groundcover and background

East 7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

1

 

Use

to choose from

East 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

Use turf protected paths instead of slabbed paths for small gardens

East 9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Make your flowers all the same colour like White to harmonise as your flower colour in the simplest flower colour scheme

East 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Bulbs can provide flowers from January through to May in the bare ground round the permanent shrubs and perennials

East 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Replace bedding and perennials with wildflower lawn edged with normal lawn to reduce gardening time to 1 hour a week

East 12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

With limited garden space, put a wildflower lawn on the roof of your shed / garage / leanto or concreted area on ground to provide flowers

East 13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

Create fun version of Snakes and Ladders game using clock flowers

East 14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

Further reasons to create garden bed Histories

East 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

Create track and use the Square Foot Gardening system for:-

  • wheelchair-bound disabled to use for radio-controlled models on the ground-level of the garden
  • wheelchair-bound children/adults to maintain and replant the raised beds, whilst sitting with their knees under each raised bed
  • school pupils to learn to grow plants
  • wheelchair supported children/adults recovering in hospital, rest or care home to go outside, view them and/or maintain those beds themselves
  • transport the raised bed into the patient's room, so that the patient can admire close-up what they normally see outside from their bed; and then for them to maintain or simply view for a while before that raised bed is returned outside that same day
  • infirm children, adults or pensioners to maintain and replant the raised beds, when they do not need to kneel down, bend their knees or reach above their shoulders

East 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

East 17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

Create game using Slider Signs that alternate turning left or turning right at each Path Row Junction for you to pick your fruit, flowers, grasses or vegetables.

East 18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

Turf protection from wear by people walking or standing on it

East 19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Balance Income with Expenditure in Garden

East 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

Safety - If a visitor reports a safety concern, then do not ignore it

East 21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

East 22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

 

East 23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

 

East 24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

East 25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

 

Hide unwanted views of buildings or other areas of garden

East 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

East 27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

East 28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

East 29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

East 30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

East 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

East 32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

East 33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

Select tender plants and then provide Plant Protection from Frost

East 34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

Control human movement through areas

Part Number

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Unlabelled Bedding plants

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

Further Plant Label and Path Foundation Comments

WISLEY WISLEY Rose Classification System

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

West 35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

West 36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

West 37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

 

 

West 38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

West 40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

West 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

West 42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

West 43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

West 44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

Build soil fertility and structure with legumes and mulches

West 47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

West 49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

West 50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Split garden area into separate shapes

even when a public path goes through the garden

West 53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Use Companion planting with Green Manure to deter Pests / Diseases and

Another Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

West 54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Use long-flowering Speciman Roses as a backdrop

West 55

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West 56

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West 57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

 

West 60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

West 61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

West 62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

West 63

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Reduce time for garden maintenance by avoiding mixing plants together

West 64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

West 65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

West 66

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

West 67

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

West 70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

West 71

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Provide irrigation facilities to water plants and clean paths

Part Number

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Confidential email replies from the Royal Horticultural Society to emails from Chris Garnons-Williams with their following instructions for everybody else:-
The contents of this email and any files transmitted with it are confidential, proprietary and may be legally privileged. They are intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to whom they are addressed. If you have received this email in error please notify the sender. If you are not the intended recipient you may not use, disclose, distribute, copy, print or rely on this email. The sender is not responsible for any changes made to any part of this email after transmission. Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the Society.

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

 

Just looking at the distribution of those flower colours for the Permanent Herbaceous Perennials as shown above, I am unable to see any coordinated flower colour scheme in any part of these Mixed Border beds -

but

then I have had no training or gained any educational qualification which would have included softlandscaping design,
and therefore I should only marvel at what the Royal Horticultural Society with its expertise and highly qualified personnel have created and continue to create! Bloom Boom, Boom!

Previous Page....Next Page

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended October 2012. Added Mixed Borders flower colour data April 2016. Chris Garnons-Williams.
 

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

rhododendronyakushimanumflo1a

 

Rhododendron yakushimanum

 

As the number of plants in a Plant Gallery increases,
then that gallery will have subsidiary galleries added to it (each subsidiary gallery name is preceeded by ... in the Main Menu of each page, after that Gallery collection is accessed).
The first access to that collection of galleries will be to the site map of the gallery that contains the index of all the plants in that collection together with comparison pages of all the Flower Colours for that plant type per Month.
So, if you want a Yellow Flower on a Herbaceous Perennial in June then you should inspect that page.

Garden Design Pages

Introduction
Site Map
Before You Start
Designing for a Purpose
Questionnaire
Site Survey
The Design Itself
Broad Design
Low Maintenance Style
Cottage Garden Style
Wildlife Garden Style
Japanese Garden Style
Hard and Soft Landscaping
Detailed Design
The Soil
Changing the Microclimate
Plant Selection
The Colour Wheel
Plant Quantities
Companion Planting
Bibliography and further Design Concepts

 

 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

Topic
Case Studies
Companion Planting
Garden Construction

Garden Design *
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials

......Other Plants

Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
Soil
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Colour Wheel

 

Your chosen Garden Style then changes your Plant Selection Process

Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index



Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Fern
Grass
Hedging

Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley

...Flower Shape

Herb
Odds and Sods

Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Vegetable
Wild Flower

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly

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