Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion
Planting

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design *
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1

(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech

(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest

(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Ivydene Gardens Garden Design:
Changing the Microclimate

Garden Design Pages

Introduction
Site Map
Before You Start
Designing for a Purpose
Questionnaire
Site Survey
The Design Itself
Broad Design
Low Maintenance Style
Cottage Garden Style
Wildlife Garden Style
Japanese Garden Style
Hard and Soft Landscaping
Detailed Design
The Soil
Changing the Microclimate *
Plant Selection
The Colour Wheel
Plant Quantities
Companion Planting
Bibliography and further Design Concepts

 

 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

 

Climate

foxgloves pictureThe climate in the south east of England is temperate, with up to 0.5m (20in) of rainfall and a minimum temperature of -6 to -1°C (20 to 30°F), and so require drought tolerant frost hardy plants. (For the climate of your local area, you can consult a library or local horticultural society.)

Changing the microclimate

You cannot do much to alter the local temperature, rainfall or prevailing winds, but you can modify their effect on the garden to create different plant habitats within the garden.

Creating shelter from the wind is a requirement in most gardens. It can be achieved by building walls or fences and by planting trees and hedges along the garden boundaries or within the garden to make separate enclosures. When planning beds and borders, aim to create south-facing niches between shrubs for smaller, vulnerable plants.

A wall has the advantage of providing a solid vertical surface on which to train climbing plants and, if built of brick, it will retain warmth from the sun and confer some degree of frost protection. This can make all the difference between success and failure with plants of doubtful hardiness. The wall’s warmth also helps to ripen the wood on young shoots, making them more cold resistant.

However, a wall is not a good windbreak as a solid barrier causes turbulence on the leeward (sheltered) side. A semi-open fence, a hedge or an informal belt of tall shrubs is more effective: it can provide effective wind reduction over a distance equal to five times its height.

A small group of trees, or even a single tree in the right place, will create an environment where woodland plants will thrive. A heap of stones covered with a thin layer of soil will provide a site for plants from the Mediterranean and other arid parts of the world. The main requirement for such plants is very well-drained soil, and in a relatively dry site they can survive surprising extremes of cold. It is cold, wet soil that kills them.

If there are barriers in the garden running more or less east to west they will have a south-facing side where one can grow sun-loving plants sheltered from the cold winter wind and a north facing side where shade-loving plants can be grown. Hedges or groups of plants as low as 0.6m (2ft) will provide ample shelter for small plants and a vegetable garden (See Case 6 Vegetable Garden over 7 Years)

.

 

Relationship between bees and plants.

"The majority of flowering plants need to be cross-fertilised to ensure genetic variation, and this involves the transfer of pollen (male gametes) from one plant to the receptive sexual organs of another plant to fertilise the female gametes. A flower is defined technically as a specialised, determinate, reproductive shoot found in flowering plants that produces seed within it.

Flowering plants share the following features:-

  • The reproductive organs are found within flowers
  • The ovules are enclosed in a protective structure called the ovary
  • They are seed-bearing, the seeds being formed as a result of fertilisation
  • The seeds are enclosed within fruits

" from Plants and Honey Bees their relationships by David Aston and Sally Bucknal (ISBN 0-393-30879-0).

If you grow apples, runner beans or strawberries, then these need fertilising usually by bees for you to get the fruit enclosing the seeds. Bees eat plant-derived pollen for protein and nectar for energy; both collected by the workers. The nectar is stored in honeycombs in a concentrated form we call honey.

For honey bee colonies to thrive, they need a regular supply of nectar and, more importantly, continuity of pollen availability throughout the brood-rearing season from February to October.

A minor point to remember - if the bees do not pollinate the flowers to produce the seed with the fruit that you eat, you would not be alive since you eat those vegetables/fruit/seeds and the animals who eat vegetation, which also has to be pollinated.

 

British Floral Sources of importance to Honey Bees and
see other bee-pollinated plants in
Bee-Pollinated Bloom in Month Gallery and
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers .

Plant Name with links

Febru-ary/ March

April

May

June

July

August

Septe-mber/ October

Comments

Deciduous and Evergreen Trees suitable for Small Gardens page provides that list. Those trees could be grown in containers rather than the ground to reduce their mature height and spread, as could the larger trees in this table.

Alder

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pollen Source only. Normally too big a tree for small gardens, but it might be growing outside but near to your garden. Grow beside water in acidic soil.

Almond

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buy as a bush to grow 12-15 feet in height and spread. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Alyssum (Sweet Alison)

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Use as an edging plant.

When linking to the Family Pages in the Wildflower Photo Galleries note the following links in the rows of their columns:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier,
Flowering Months to view photos, and 
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

Anchusa

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Use this 3 feet high herbaceous perennial as a drought-tolerant ground-cover.

Apple

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Buy as a cordon or espalier to grow alongside your boundary or minarettes if you want many varieties in a small garden. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Arabis (Garden Arabis)

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Use this mat-forming 6 inch high grey-green foliage perennial as a foil between other plants in chalk soils.

Ash

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Pollen Source only. Normally too big a tree for small gardens.

Aubretia

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Use this perennial as border edging, on dry banks or overflowing retaining walls.

Autumn crocus

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

The introduction page provides details of where to grow these great corms.

Balsam

 

 

 

 

 

*

*

Useful plant next to streams or ponds.

Beech

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Pollen Source only. Normally too big a tree for small gardens but can be used as a hedge. See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Bell heather

 

 

 

 

*

*

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Use on thin acidic sandy soils and under pine trees.

Berberis

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Use for vandal-proof 6 feet high hedging. See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Bergamot

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

Use as long-flowering 3 feet high shrubs.

Bilberry

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Buy this bush to either grow in poor acidic soils or in a pot with ericaceous compost. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Bindweed

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

A weed that needs to be removed not planted in your garden, since it is extremely rampant.

Birch

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Pollen Source only. Normally too big a tree for small gardens.

Bird's-foot-trefoil (Common Bird's-foot Trefoil)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Use to edge lawns to create transition between lawn and flowerbed.

Blackberry (Bramble)

 

 

 

 

*

*

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Buy this climber to attach to a chainlink fence 5 feet high. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Blackthorn

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Use as shoulder height hedge. Prune after it has flowered in April. See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Bluebell

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Grow in deciduous woodland or under deciduous shrubs.

Borage

 

 

 

 

*

*

*

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. "Borage is good companion plant to have in the vegetable garden as the insects it attracts make good pollinators for crops. It is a very useful companion plant to strawberries, as they are believed to stimulate each other's growth. 
As a companion plant to tomatoes, it is believed that borage deters tomato worm, and is thus a natural form of pest control. Borage is attractive to blackfly, this can be used to advantage by planting it as a decoy close to one's fruits and vegetables to prevent them being blighted - an excellent companion plant for beans and peas.
Borage is also good as a green manure. Its long taproot brings up nutrients from the subsoil that remain in the leaves. Before the plant flowers the plants can be dug back into the ground to release the nutrients back into the topsoil." from Seedaholic.com

Brassicas (Wild Cabbage, Bargeman's Cabbage, Rape and Black Mustard)

 

 

*

*

*

*

 

Grow by rivers and ponds. Provides winter fodder for hungry sheep.

Broom (Common Broom)

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Grow as an erect shrub on acidic sandy soils.

Buttercup (Meadow Buttercup, Jersey Buttercup, Creeping Buttercup, Bulbous Buttercup, Corn Buttercup, Hairy Buttercup, Small-flowered Buttercup and Celery-leaved Buttercup)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Many appear in established lawns. Please leave them for the bees by mowing a third of the lawn every 3 weeks, you may get buttercups flowering.

Campanula (Giant Bellflower, Nettle-leaved Bellflower, Creepin Bellflower, Clustered Bellflower, Harebell, Spreading Bellflower and Canterbury Bell)

 

 

 

 

*

*

 

Sow in flower beds between shrubs or in pots.

Cat-mint (Wild Catmint)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Use on hedgebanks on chalk soil. Relished by cats.

Ceanothus

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Use this Californian Lilac as a shrub or as a hedge.

Celandine (Greater Celandine, Lesser Celandine)

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Put in dampish soil in its own bed to provide bee food in the Spring

Cherry

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Buy as a fan to grow on a warm south, south-west or west-facing wall or fence. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Crab apple

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Could use as a shoulder-height hedge to make pruning easier. See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Crane's-bill (Meadow Cranesbill, Wood Cranesbill, Bloody Cranesbill, Cut-leaved Cranesbill)

 

 

 

*

*

 

 

Hardy Geraniums to fill between shrubs in flower beds.

Crocus (Autumn Crocus, Sand Crocus and Spring Crocus)

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

The introduction page provides details of where to grow these great corms.

Currants

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Buy as a bush to grow 4 feet in height and spread. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Damson

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Buy as a bush tree, pyramid or fan. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Dandelion

 

 

*

*

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Flowers throughout the year in your lawn, so benefits the bee and provides you with yellow flowers.

Dead-nettle (Red Dead-nettle, Cut-leaved Dead-nettle, Spotted Dead-nettle, White Dead-nettle)

*

 

*

*

*

 

 

White dead-nettle regularly flowers throughout the winter months. Use as groundcover.

Doronicum (Leopardsbane)

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Use in wooded area.

Dwarf Gorse (Lesser Gorse)

 

 

 

 

 

*

*

Spiny evergreen shrub on sandy soil

Elm (Common Elm, Small-leaved Elm, Wych Elm)

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Could use as a shoulder-height hedge to make pruning easier. See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Escallonia

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

Could use as a shoulder-height hedge to make pruning easier. See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Fennel

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

Grow as culinary herb especially in coastal areas.

Field bean (Vicia faba)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Winter field bean is a green manure that can be sown to cover bare soil either between crops or in the time before you sow your next crop. Winter field beans can be grown on heavy soils such as clay, in areas that are sunny to a slight shade.

Figwort (Common Figwort, Water Figwort)

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

Common figwort in woods and dampish shady places. Water figwort plant by rivers and ponds.

Forget-me-not (Water Forget-me-not, Common Forget-me-not)

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Water Forget-me-not in wet places and Common Forget-me-not in dry dunes and in woods.

Fuschia

 

 

 

 

 

*

*

Use as hedging.

Golden rod, Garden Golden-rod, Early Golden-rod

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Use between shrubs.

Gooseberry

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Buy as a bush to grow 12-15 feet in height and spread. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Gorse (Gorse, Western Gorse)

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Use as spiny hedge on acidic sandy soils.

Hawthorn

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Hazel (Hazel cobnuts -Butler, Gunslebert and Kent Cob)

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pollen Source only. Use as fruiting hedge of 6-8 feet high. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Hogweed

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

Tall perennial at back of border in chalk soils

Holly

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Hollyhock (Alcea rosea)

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

Short-lived very tall perennial of the cottage garden. Grow from seed and the seed produced by the plant will self-propagate it.

Horse-chestnut

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Normally too big a tree for small gardens. A small one could be grown in an insulated (to prevent the roots from being cooked by the sun) barrel as its container.

Ivy (Hedera)

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Ivy can produce a useful supply of nectar from October until the first frosts. Do not put onto a house wall. Plant either on wall/fence at end of garden or cut off branches leaving 3 inch stumps of one side of Leylandii hedge, grow ivy up that side. When it reaches 5 feet high, cut off all the branches on the other side and that Leylandii will have provided support for a hedge of any height but less future maintenance.

Jacob's-ladder (Polemonium caeruleum)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Use in limestone scree and chalky soils in part shade towards back of border.

Knapweed (Greater Knapweed, Cornflower, Hardhead, Star Thistle)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Plant these thistles on chalk soil away from the path since they are spiny.

Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus)

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes. Use as boundary hedge and prune with secateurs instead of shears. Its leaves are very large and when cut in the middle it dies off to a brown colour.

Lavender (Thrift)

 

 

 

 

*

*

 

Grow thrift in rock garden or on chalky soils. Grow lavender in full sun or in pots. Use dried lavender in the house as an air freshener rather than canned or plug-in products.

Lime

 

 

 

*

*

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Normally too big a tree for small gardens.

Ling heather (Calluna vulgaris)

 

 

 

 

 

*

*

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Grow in acidic sandy soil as groundcover.

Lucerne

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Use alfalfa as a green manure.

Mallow (Musk Mallow, Common Mallow, Dwarf Mallow Marsh Mallow)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Fruits are disc-shaped, whence the name 'Cheesecakes'. Grow in herbaceous border.

Maple (Acer campestre)

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Normally too big a tree for small gardens but use it in a hedge.

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Sow as herb in chalky soil.

Meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria)

 

 

 

*

*

*

 

Pollen Source only. Tall perennial of damp or wet habitats like chalk meadows and banks of streams

Michael-mas daisy (Aster novi-belgi)

 

 

 

 

 

*

*

Plant in groups to provide autumn flowers.

Mint (Spear-mint, Peppermint, Apple Mint)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Plant near house to provide mint to make mint sauce for lamb and mint leaves to boil with potatoes.

Mullein (Common Mullein - Verbascum thapsus)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Plant in chalky soil to produce a rosette of large fuzzy leaves and a flower spike 8 feet tall. Mullein tea is a traditional treatment for respiratory problems, such as chest colds, bronchitis and asthma.

Mustard (White Mustard)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Fodder crop or green manure. Seeds used in White Mustard.

Oak

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Normally too big a tree for small gardens. The mature English Oak tree supports a larger number of different life forms than any other British tree. This includes up to 284 species of insect. Up to 324 taxa (species, sub-species or ecologically distinct varieties) of lichens, growing on the bark of any one tree. Why not try it as a hedge?

Oil-seed rape autumn sown

 

*

*

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Normally grown in fields as source for vegetable oil.

Oil-seed rape spring sown

 

 

 

*

*

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Normally grown in fields as source for vegetable oil.

Onion (Chives)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Chives is a herb used for flavouring. Grow in chalk soil. Garlic belongs to the same genus and can be planted with roses to ward off aphids.

Pear

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Buy as a minarette, cordon or espalier. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Phacelia

 

 

 

*

*

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Use phacelia as a green manure.

Plantain (Hoary Plantain)

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Occurs in lawns where it flowers in May. Please leave until end of June so that bees can use it and the seed can be self-sown for next year. Can be purchased as seed.

Plum

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Buy as a minarette which can be planted as close as 3 feet apart. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Poppy

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

Pollen Source only. Useful in cottage garden.

Privet

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes. Very easy to maintain. Cut one side back to its trunks one year, then the other side the next year after 7 years of growth.

Prunus (Cherry-Plum, Wild Cherry, Wild Plum, Morello Cherry, Bird Cherry)

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes. Prune back after fruit has been eaten by birds and before October.

Purple-loosestrife

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Grow in bog garden.

Pyracantha

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Use for vandal-proof 6 feet high hedging. Provides flowers for bees and fruit for birds to eat in the Autumn/Winter. See Hedging Gallery Site Map for details of different hedges for different purposes.

Ragwort

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

There are at least 30 species of wildlife invertebrates who are totally dependent on ragwort. It is worth looking at the UK law on Ragwort before growing it.

Raspberry

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Buy this upright plant to attach to a 5 feet high chainlink fence at 45 degrees to persuade it to produce more fruit. "Grow Your Own Fruit Book" by Ken Muir includes full growing instructions and is supplied free with first tree, cane or vine order.

Red clover

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Very useful when added to lawns and as a Green Manure.

Rock-rose

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Pollen Source only. Small shrubs for dry and sunny habitats on poor soil. Use as groundcover.

Sage (Wood-Sage)

 

 

 

 

*

*

 

Grows on acidic sandy soil as clump-forming groundcover. It is very attractive to bees.

Scabious (Field Scabious, Small Scabious, Devilsbit scabious)

 

 

 

 

*

*

 

Grow on damp chalk soil as Groundcover and they attract butterflies.

Sea-lavender

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

In coastal regions, sea lavender will yield good nectar producing a light-coloured honey. Can be grown in pots and between shrubs.

Snowdrop

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grow different varieties in damp woods and shady river banks.

Sunflower

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

The sunflower is the state flower of the US state of Kansas, and one of the city flowers of Kitakyūshū, Japan. Easy to grow from seed for children.

Sweet Chestnut

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

Normally too big a tree for small gardens. Use as an avenue beside the drive to a large house in many acres of grounds or as a 6 feet high hedge.

Thistle

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Spiny plants to use near chainlink boundary fences.

Thrift (Armeria maritima)

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Sow in dry, sunny, sandy soil as a rock garden plant.

Thyme (Wild Thyme)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Grow on chalk soil as groundcover. Some varieties have a culinary use.

Toadflax (Common Toadflax)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Use in gravel garden.

Traveller's Joy (Clematis vitalba)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

'Oldmans Beard' Woody climber of hedgerows on chalk and limestone.

Veronica (Veronica alpina, Veronica peregrina, Veronica chamaedrys, Veronica praecox, Veronica beccabunga)

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

500 species as filler between shrubs.

Vetch

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Kidney vetch is a small shrub for chalky soils in a flower bed or rock garden.

Violet (Viola species)

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grow on chalky shaded soils in wooded areas.

Viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Number one bee plant with Blue flowers on sand dunes and chalk soil. Use in your lawn where it comes to a fence, or boundary hedge since it is difficult to mow right up to the boundary.

Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

This is a climber that should not be allowed to grow on your house as you can see from the photo in Peppy's Developments Blog. Use it on your fence, or boundary wall at the end of the garden to provide superb autumn red foliage.

Wallflower (Cheiranthus cheiri)

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

Superb cheap flowering plant, which thrives on neglect and drought conditions.

White bryony (Bryonia dioica)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Sow in hedge. Home to the Bryony Ladybird.

White clover

 

 

 

*

*

 

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Use as Green Manure or add to lawns.

Wild rose (Field Rose, Burnet Rose, Dog Rose, Downy Rose, Sweetbriar)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Pollen Source only. Use Dog Rose and Rosa rugosa in a boundary hedge.

Willowherb

 

 

 

 

*

*

 

Major bee plant, widespread or locally significant. Useful near ponds or in bog gardens. Evening Primrose and Fuchsia - a deciduous shrub - are in this family.

Winter aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flowers from January-March in damp woodlands. Perfect for naturalising under decuous shrubs and trees.

Winter heaths (Irish Heath)

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grow Erica carnea varieties in acidic sandy soil as groundcover and to provide flowers in the winter.

Wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa)

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Acidic sand or clay in woodlands.

Wood-sage (Teucrium scorodonia)

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Neat clumps in well-drained acidic sandy soils. Very attractive to bees.

Yellow melilot (Golden Melilot - Melilot altissima)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

Grows in grassland and is food for the Large Green Case-bearer Moth. It can be one of the plants in creating a wildflower meadow to help bumblebees in your front garden.

 

 

What do bees need?

  • Undisturbed nesting sites
  • Solitary bees may burrow into the ground, into mortar in brick and stonework, or use hollow bramble stems, or beetle borings in rotten wood.
  • Social bees, such as bumblebees, may construct their nests in old mouse, vole and mole holes; under hedge vegetation; beneath moss or grass tussocks, and under piles of cut vegetation.
  • Honey bees will use beehives, cavities in old trees or walls, roof spaces and chimneys.
  • Locations where the queen bumblebees can over-winter, dry and undisturbed.
  • Consistent supplies of pollen and nectar sources from early spring to late autumn.
  • Unpolluted water.

 

Many private front gardens in new housing estates have a drive to the garage, a path to the front door and an area of lawn. Except for you going to clean the windows, go to the garage or leave the house, the front garden is unused.

Mow a mowing strip round the outside of the lawn, dig up and turn over the rest of the lawn. Then either do strips of the following or just one of the following:

Mowing on this area is then best carried out between October and February where practical. This protects the bee food in spring and summer, avoids damage to their nests, and minimises the destruction of queens that hibernate at ground level.

Annex III of Plants and Honey Bees their relationships by David Aston and Sally Bucknall (ISBN 0-393-30879-0) provides recommended wildflower and grass seed mixtures to benefit bees on field margins or grassland sites of specific soil types.

Hooper and Taylor 'The Beekeepers' Garden' (1988) provides comprehensive information on suitable plants for gardens; also useful is the classic text of Howes, 'Plants and Beekeeping', (reprinted in 1979).

 

Previous Page....Next Page

.

 

 

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended October 2012. Garden Design Summary added to each page April 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.
 

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

The 3 rows below provide a

Garden Design Work-flow Diagram

indicating which pages in this site help with each respective section:-

 

rhododendronmacabeanumflo1a1a1

Rhododendron macabeanum

 

 

When you buy a house, you would not paint your toilet in a Gaugin Style with many colours without thinking that you wanted Magnolia paint colour in the rest of the house, because it would look out of place.

This design process hopefully persuades you to think as carefully about your use and enjoyment of the garden as you do about your lounge, kitchen and bedroom and prepare plans that will be acceptable to the whole family.

The most important design consideration is who and how long per week is maintenance on the garden going to be done. One hour-garden by Joanna Smith book helps in this part of the design process.

If you decide that you would like to redesign all or only a part of your garden

then ----->

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

otherwise

It might be useful to read the following pages in this Design Topic:

This page followed by these:-
Introduction

Before You Start
Designing for a Purpose
Questionnaire
Site Survey

|
|
V

 

 

 

 

You may decide to simply add more plants to your existing beds

like plants to Rock Gardens using
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos Galleries.

|
|
V

Then, you can decide on the Garden Style that you wish to use in your garden, so these pages in this Design Topic may help:

The Design Itself
Broad Design
Low Maintenance Style
Cottage Garden Style
Wildlife Garden Style
Japanese Garden Style

Additional Garden Design Concepts have been written using the beds at Wisley to provide examples:-

Using the Mixed Border, Jubilee Rose Garden and Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden in the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Garden at Wisley for examples, I am still creating The Mixed Borders Garden Design Topic . The Mixed Borders Garden Design topic may help you in planning your garden, especially if you decide to show your garden to the public - i.e Make plant labels visible in your garden to aid your own plant sales.

RHS Mixed Borders

as well as from

Garden Style

|
|
V

In choosing your style, there are other considerations to take into account like

If you suffer from hay fever, then bee-pollinated plants and very little grass would be useful

|
|
V

 

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

Then, view these Garden Design Pages in this order or any order you want


Hard and Soft Landscaping
Detailed Design
The Soil
Changing the Microclimate
Plant Selection
The Colour Wheel
Plant Quantities
Companion Planting
Bibliography and further Design Concepts

before

choosing 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

7. Your chosen Garden Style then changes your Plant Selection Process:-

Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

I have moved on in March 2016 to create the Garden Style and the other design galleries for the New Plant Selection Process number 7.

Bee-Pollinated Plants information in this website using the Bee-Pollinated Bloom in Month Colour Wheel Gallery:-

Besides the plants in the
British Floral Sources of importance to Honey Bees
and
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
the following 3 sets of Bee-pollinated plants are suitable for Hay-fever Sufferers; except for the 2 grasses in the second list:-

  • The Bee-pollinated Bloom in Month gallery compares the photos from 13 flower colours per month for many plants from the other Galleries, by clicking on the 1 in the relevant Flower per month Colour in the Colour Wheel down on the right of its pages,
  • the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery provides the tabular index of another 264 plants with the relevant colour in that respective month:-
    • 51 ANNUALS
    • 2 ANNUAL - VEGETABLE
    • 4 AQUATIC PLANTS
    • 11 BIENNIALS
    • 21 BULBS, CORMS, OR RHIZOMES
    • 4 CLIMBERS
    • 31 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS
    • 26 DECIDUOUS TREES
    • 9 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS
    • 22 EVERGREEN SHRUBS
    • 2 EVERGREEN TREES
    • 2 GRASSES which cause hayfever
    • 4 SEMI-EVERGREEN SHRUBS
    • 66 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
    • 9 PERENNIAL HERBS
      followed by
  • Click on these extra bee-pollinated plant names:-

 

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

 

or

 

when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-