Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers List
Flowers in the Summer between
June-August Page 2 of 2

See Wildflower Garden Use Page for other bee-pollinated or insect-pollinated list of plants.

If a plant is polinated by a bee, then it is not wind-pollinated. This means that the plants mentioned on this page and in the book "Garden Plants Valuable to Bees" (written by the International Bee Research Association) will be suitable for people who suffer from hay fever.

You can compare the flower colour of the bee-pollinated plants with all the other bee-pollinated plants (who have Plant Description Pages in this website) using the Bee-pollinated 12 colours of Bloom in each Month Gallery. There are also 218 additional bee-pollinated plants (who may not have any Plant Description Page in this website) in the 12 colours per month pages of the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery.

The importance of garden plants yielding nectar and pollen is that together they provide a continuous food supply - from willows and crocuses in early spring to ivy in late autumn. Colonies of bees need food through their active season , so that they can develop and rear new bees. This food supply used to be provided by pastures that came into flower before they were cut, by verges and hedgerows, and by abundant weeds. Nowadays the efficiency of agriculture has greatly reduced these resources for the bees.

The list for gardens exclude most crop plants, most fruits and all very invasive plants that are difficult to control.

It is designed for Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands.

"Ordinary garden soil" is pH 5-7 and contains some humus-forming material.

The report below details which plants in Greater San Francisco Bay Area Region of the USA were visited by each different bee family; and therefore will aid you in selection of plants that are bee-pollinated rather than wind-pollinated, besides the ones that I have listed in my table below:-


Compiled by Laura Arneson


Landscape Noise Reduction

Road Noise, Airport Noise, Industrial Units and Railway Noise next to gardens is detrimental to humans living in those houses within those gardens. There are 4 methods commonly used for sound attenuation (the reduction of intensity of outdoor sounds before they reach the receiver) :-

  • Sound Absorption. This method uses plants to entrap or absorb sound vibrations.
  • Sound Deflection and Reflection. This method causes the noise to be bounced away from the recipient and sometimes back toward the source.
  • Sound Refraction. This little known effect occurs when noise is dissipated, diffused or dispersed by striking a rough surface on any plain.
  • White Noise. It is designed to create sound that is appealing to the human brain as a mask for undesirable noise. The most widely used method is a fountain that makes loud splashes.

Using these bee-pollinated plants between estates in the public ambling area and between the houses/gardens and the noise will reduce that relevant noise level using the Sound Absorption Method; and be suitable for everyone including Hay Fever sufferers:-

  • 1. Install chain link fence on strong supports with 12 inch (30 cms) gap at bottom (to allow local wildlife - hedgehogs, foxes, badgers, frogs and newts access) and 48 inch (120 cms) chainlink between 12 and 60 inch (30 and 150 cms) from ground on estate boundary. Add 4th Line Wire on top links to prevent that chainlink from sagging. Plant ivy, Rosa with it's 'Single Flowers' cultivars (see below) and thornless blackberries so that they can then climb onto that chainlink fencing within the inside of that public ambling area.
  • 2. Plant mixture of bulbs, evergreen perennials, herbaceous perennials, deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, which grow between 18 and 96 inches (45 and 240 cms) high - add the eventual width of a pair and divide that by 2 as the planting distance between them. This combined with their different heights will produce a random effect in this minimum-width of 96 inches (240 cms) area and 72 inch width (180 cms) of area 4. It is also most likely that viewing from one side to the estate boundary, you are unlikely to see the bottom of the chainlink. Use 30% evergreen and the rest is herbaceous/deciduous to provide a change throughout the year for the estate inhabitants to enjoy on their rambles. The blackberries on the estate boundary and the fruit from each of the 3 cherries, 3 apple and 3 pear for each estate can either be enjoyed by the humans or the wildlife. Mulch the area with 4 inch thick (10 cms) of Bark before planting and thoroughly soak the ground after planting. Then, sow White Clover (see Green Manure) over the whole of both areas 2 and 4 to provide Nitrogen to the other plants and reduce evaporation of the irrigated water in between the 2 soakings each year.
    Thoroughly soak the ground in August to provide the shrubs and fruit trees with the water to be stored in their roots and then be used during the spring foliage production. Thoroughly soak the ground again in April to provide their water supply during the later spring and summer.
  • 3. 48 inch wide (120 cms) path using Cedargravel. After the Cedargravel is installed, use different coloured pea-shingle to create games like snakes and ladders, hopscotch or noughts and crosses or a picture. This path allows the rain to drain through and be used by the plants on either side. If you wear women's high heels, you will have no problem walking on this path. You can also use it for remote-controlled model cars or landing remote-control model aircraft.
  • 4. A repeat of of 2. without the blackberries or fruit trees - If the fruit is only on the other side of the path, then the fruit pickers will not be tempted to try the home owners side.
  • 5. Install chain link fence on strong supports with 72 inch (180 cms) chainlink on top of ground level on private garden boundary. Add 4th Line Wire on top links to prevent that chainlink from sagging. Plant ivy so that it can then climb onto that chainlink fencing from inside the public ambling area.

If the house owner has a noise problem from outside their property, then they can use the same solution as above using 1, 2, 3 and 4 only. Their sheds and storage facilities can be installed in area 4 with path 3. leading to them.


Single flowered cultivars (some are marked as 'Single Flowers') are more useful to bees than double flowered cultivars.
Bloom type depends on the number of petals for Roses:-

  • Single blooms are fully opened and almost flat, consisting of 1-7 petals per bloom.
  • Semi-double blooms consist of 8-15 petals in two rows.
  • Double blooms consist of 16-25 overlapping petals in three or more rows.
  • Full: 26-40 petals in three or more rows.
  • Very full: 40+ petals in three or more rows.


The final column shows the value of the plant to bees (honeybees and hive bees):

  • N and P indicate that they collect Nectar and Pollen, respectively.
  • Plants especially used by Bumble Bees are marked B.
  • The absence of all 3 entries (N,P,B) for a few plants reflects insufficiency of observations as to what it is that bees collect from that plant.

Plant Name

with link to mail-order nursery in UK / Europe

Common Name

Flowering Months of Plant Named but not "and it's cultivars"

Flowering Colour of Plant Named but not "and it's cultivars"

Height x Spread in inches (cms).
Plants between
24 and 72 inches (60 and 180 cms) in Height

Plant Type
(Per = Perennial)
with link to
Plant Description Page,
Companion Planting Page, Rock Garden Index Page
and/or Wildlife Family Page in this website


The RHS has compiled this list of plants that will provide nectar and pollen for bees and many other types of pollinating insects:-
Compiled by Andrew Halstead, RHS Principal Entomologist.
The plants detailed below start with the plants from the above list which flower in
Summer Jun-Aug

N for Nectar
P for Pollen
B for Bumble Bee

Hyssopus officinalis








Iberis amara








Ilex aquifolium

Native plant. Holly







Inula ensifolia








Inula hookeri








Inula magnifica








Jasminum officinale

Common jasmine







Kalmia latifolia

Calico bush





Honey produced by bees from Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) is toxic to humans.


Knautia arvensis

Native plant. Field scabious







Knautia macedonica








Koelreut-eria paniculata

Golden-rain tree







Laurus nobilis

Bay tree







Lavandula x intermedia








Lavatera olbia

Shrubby mallow







Lavatera trimestris








Leucanth-emum x superbum Open-centred forms








Leucanth-emum vulgare

Native plant. Ox-eye daisy







Ligustrum ovalifolium








Ligustrum sinense








Limnathes douglasii

Poached egg plant







Limonium latifolium

Sea lavender







Linaria purpurea

Purple toad-flax







Lobularia maritima

Sweet Alyssum







Lonicera periclymenum

Native plant. Common honey-suckle







Lychnis coronaria

Rose campion







Lysimachia salicaria

Native plant. Purple loose-strife







Lysimachia vulgaris

Native plant. Yellow loose-strife







Lythrum virgatum 'Dropmore Purple'








Malope trifida

Annual mallow







Malva moschata

Native plant. Musk mallow







Matthiola incana








Mentha spicata

Garden mint







Mentha aquatica

Native plant. Water mint







Monarda didyma








Myosotis species








Nemophila menziesii

Baby blue-eyes







Nepeta x faassenii








Nicotiana alata








Nigella damascena








Oenothera biennis

Evening primrose







Olearia x haastii

Daisy bush







Onorpordum acanthium

Giant thistle







Origanum 'Rosen-kuppel'








Origanum vulgare

Native plant. Majoram







Papaver orientale

Oriental poppy







Papaver rhoeas

Native plant. Field poppy







Partheno-cissus quinque-folia

Virginia creeper







Partheno-cissus tricuspidata

Boston ivy







Penstemon cultivars








Perovskia atriplicifolia








Persicaria amplexi-caulis








Persicaria bistorta

Native plant. Bistort







Phacelia tanacetifolia








Phaseolus coccineus

Runner bean







Polemonium caeruleum

Native plant. Jacob's ladder







Potentilla fruticosa

Native plant. Shrubby potent-illa







Potentilla 'Gibson's Scarlet'








Ptelea trifoliata

Hop tree







Pyracantha coccinea








Reseda odorata








Robinia pseudo-acacia

Blac locust / false acacia







Rosa canina

Native plant. Dog rose







Rosa rubiginosa

Native plant. Sweet briar rose







Rosa rugosa

Hedgehog rose







Rosmarinus officinalis








Rubus fruticosus

Native plant. Edible black-berry







Rubus idaeus








Rudbeckia fulgida








Rudbeckia hirta








Rudbeckia laciniata Open-centred forms








Salvia horminum

Annual clary







Salvia nemerosa








Salvia officinalis

Common sage







Scabiosa caucasica








Scabiosa columbaria

Native plant. Small scabious







Sedum spectabile

Ice plant







Sedum telephium

Native plant. Orpine







Sidalcea malviflora








Solidago species and cultivars

Golden rod







Sorbus aria

Native plant. White-beam







Sorbus aucuparia

Native plant. Mountain ash / rowan







Spiraea japonica








Stachys byzantina

Lamb's ears







Stachys macrantha








Symphori-carpos albus








Tagetes patula

French Marigold







Tamarix ramosissima








Tanacetum vulgare

Native plant. Tansy







Telekia speciosa








Tetradium daniellii








Teucrium chamaedrys








Thymus serpyllum and cultivars

Native plant. Thyme







Tilia x europaea

Common Lime







Tilia cordata

Native plant. Small-leaved lime







Tilia maximo-wicziana

Lime tree







Tilia oliveri

Lime tree







Tilia platyphyllos

Large-leaved lime







Tilia tomentosa

Lime tree







Tithonia rotundifolia

Mexican sunflower







Verbascum olympicum








Verbascum thapsus

Native plant. Common mullein







Verbena x hybrida








Verbena bonariensis








Verbena rigida








Veronica longifolia








Veroni-castrum virginicum








Viburnum lantana

Native plant. Wy-faring tree







Viburnum opulus

Native plant. Guelder rose







Vicia faba

Broad bean







Weigela florida








Zausch-neria californica

Calif-ornian fuchsia







Zinnia elegans

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia

Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (an emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica, Astralagus species, Cuscuta species, Cyrilla racemiflora, Solanum nigram, Veratrum cailfornicum, Zygadenus cenesosus, Corynocarpus laevigata, Angelica triqueta, Astralagus lentiginosus, Camellia thea, Ochrama lagopus, Sophora microphylla, Tillia species, Verartrum californicum, Asclepias species, Astralagus miser v. serotibus.









Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. External and Internal links added May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

The bee can pollinate the flower, which can then produce a seed. Hymn 881 then instructs the seed:-

Push, little seed,
push, push, little seed,
till your head pops out of the ground.
This is the air,
and now you are there
you can have a look round.
You'll see God's sky,
you'll see God's sun,
you'll feel his raindrops one by one,
as you grow, grow, grow, grow,
grow to be wheat for bread.
So push, little seed,
push, push, little seed,
that the world may be fed.


"Plants For Bees BOOK

(By WDJ Kirk and FN Howes; Published by IBRA)

This is a ‘must-have’ book for anyone serious about gardening for bees

This would make an ideal gift for any budding gardener, with some emphasis on which plants are suitable for growing in the British Isles, though would be applicable to any country with a similar temperate climate, as honeybees around the world have pretty much the same tastes and tongue-length. Bumblebees will also forage on any plant which provides nectar, and pollen, to their liking within reach of their tongue, regardless of the origin of the plant. So bees are not prejudiced against non-native plants. Nor should we be, as long as their benefits outweigh any capacity to become invasive weeds, of course.

It is an extremely well researched work; though the author is quick to remind us that this volume by no means contains all the bees favourite plants; though it contains enough to keep us very busy and bees very happy (review by Sarah Holdsworth)" from Bee Happy Plants.

"Bee Happy Plants based at Lakehayes Organic Nursery, is a small family run business, established and put into Soil Association organic conversion in 2002. Now run by Sarah and daughter Joy, with help from other family members, various local part-time and seasonal workers; all have contributed to what has become an efficient production line of seed-raised, organic, wild species plugs, plants and more seeds.

Sarah (with experience on organic farms since the 1980’s and RHS Level 3 at Bicton Agricultural College), would say the inspiration behind Bee Happy Plants began way back on the isolated smallholding of her childhood, in countryside untouched by modern agriculture. Watching parents, Fitz and Brygid and salt-of-the-earth land-worker Fred Shire care for 25 acres: planting trees, wild and formal gardens, fruit and vegetable garden, and maintaining permanent pasture and orchard, with nothing much more than a few grazing animals, a fork, a scythe and a sense of humour. It was this idyllic, magical place brimming with wildlife in all its weird and wonderful forms, from the gentle and regular hoot of owls, to the humming and buzzing of insects.

The shock came later when it dawned that the place of her childhood was unique. Few other places like this jewel of unspoilt countryside still exist. Instead the ‘green deserts’ of monoculture expand; where weeds, insects and wildflowers are no longer welcome, birds no longer gather, and bees go hungry. Understanding that it is down to ordinary people like us, in our own gardens, to nurture something wild or heritage – we can all help to save bees’ favourite plants. Bee Happy Plants was conceived to help us do this. Sarah Holdsworth 2014  ".

For my recommendation on what to do with your prunings, kitchen scraps and grass mowings see Compost Bins in Companion Planting Page C, instead of composting them in a small 1 cubic yard domestic garden compost bin.

Site Map

Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2



Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture

Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Erect or Upright

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Photos - Wildflowers

Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Photos - Bamboo

Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Photos - Vegetable


Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.



Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -

Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ


Then, finally use
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."


The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.


There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.


"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.



Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-


1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.


2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.


3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower


4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form

Flower Shape


5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-



6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.




7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-



Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary

Plants *
...Extra Plant Pages
...Poisonous Plants
...Subsidence by

...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.



(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels


(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)


(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses


(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Orange Flowers


Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers


Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers


Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers


Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.

Yellow Flowers

Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Wild Flower.



Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Human Perspiration,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.