Ivydene Gardens Infill Plants Index Gallery:
Alpine - Alpine Shrubs and Conifers - Page 2 on Alpine Conifers

Case Studies
Companion Planting
Garden Construction
Garden Design
Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries


Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12

All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12

All Foliage 212
All Spring Foliage 212

All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212
Rock Plant Flowers 53


Your chosen Garden Style then changes your Plant Selection Process

Garden Style
Infill Plants *
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form


Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery


Cultivation Requirements of Plant

Outdoor / Garden Cultivation


Indoor / House Cultivation


Cool Greenhouse (and Alpine House) Cultivation with artificial heating in the Winter


Conservatory Cultivation with heating throughout the year


Stovehouse Cultivation with heating throughout the year for Tropical Plants



Sun Aspect

Full Sun


Part Shade


Full Shade



Soil Type

Any Soil


Chalky Soil


Clay Soil


Lime-Free Soil


Peaty Soil


Sandy Soil


Acid Soil


Alkaline Soil


Badly-drained Soil



Soil Moisture








Position for Plant

Back of Shady Border


Back of Shrub Border




Bog Garden


Coastal Conditions / Seaside


Container in Garden


Front of Border


Ground Cover 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)


Ground Cover 24-72 inches (60-180 cms)


Ground Cover Over 72 inches (180 cms)


Hanging Basket




Hedge - Thorny


Pollution Barrier




Pot in House, Greenhouse, Conservatory or Stovehouse


Raised Bed


Rest of Border


Rock Garden


Scree Bed


Speciman on Lawn


Sunny Border


Tree for Lawn


Tree for Small Garden









Use of Plant

Pollen or nectar for Bees


Hosts to Butterflies


Encouraging birds / wildlife, providing food and shelter


Bee-Pollinated plants for Hay Fever Sufferers


Berries / Fruit


Dry Site in Full Sun


Dry Shade


Filtering noise


Flower Arrange-ments


Fragrant Flower


Language of Flowers


Low maintenance


Moist Shade


Moist and swampy Sites


Nitrogen fixing plants


Not Fragrant Flower




Speciman Plant




Tolerant of Poor Soil



Plant Foliage

Aromatic Foliage


Autumn Foliage


Finely Cut Leaves


Large Leaves


Yellow Variegated Foliage


White Variegated Foliage


Red / Purple Variegated Foliage


Silver, Grey and Glaucous Foliage


Sword-shaped Leaves




Flower Shape

Number of Flower Petals



1 Petal


2 Petals


3 Petals


4 Petals


5 Petals


Above 5



Flower Shape - Simple





Cups and Saucers




Goblets and Chalices















Flower Shape - Elaborated

Tubes, Lips and Straps


Slippers, Spurs and Lockets


Hats, Hoods and Helmets


Standards, Wings and Keels


Discs and Florets















Natural Arrangements

Bunches, Posies, Sprays


Columns, Spikes and Spires


Whorls, Tiers and Candelabra


Plumes and Tails


Chains and Tassels


Clouds, Garlands and Cascades


Spheres, Domes and Plates



Shrub, Tree Shape





Rounded or Spherical


Flattened Spherical


Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal


Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal


Ovoid /


Broad Ovoid


Narrow Vase-shaped / Inverted Ovoid


Fan-Shaped /Vase-Shaped


Broad Fan-Shaped / Broad Vase-Shaped


Narrow Weeping


Broad Weeping





Conifer Cone























Poisonous Plant




Click on text in cells below to jump to that page detailing those infill plants of that plant type for that Cultivation requirement.

Plant Type


Alpines for Rock Garden (See Rock Garden Plant Flowers)

Alpine Shrubs and Conifers

The Alpine Meadow
Page 1
Page 2
Page 3

The Alpine Border

Alpine Plants for a Purpose

The Alpines that Dislike Lime

Alpines and Walls
Page 1
Page 2
Page 3

Alpines and Paving

Sink and Trough gardens

(Water Plants) for

Anti-erosion Riverbank

Marginal Plants (Bog Garden Plants)

Oxy-genating Weeds

Water Lilies

Floating Plants

Waterside Plants
and Plants for Dry Margins next to a Pond

Wildlife Pond Plants

Annual for


Plants for Cut Flowers in

Exposed Sites

Sheltered Sites with Green-house Annuals from 1916

Extra Poor Soil with Half-Hardy Annuals from 1916

Very Rich Soil with Biennials from 1916

Gap-filling in Mixed Borders with Hardy Annuals from 1916

Patio Containers

Cut Flowers Page 1
Page 2 Everlasting Flowers with Red Flowers from 1916

Attracting beneficial insects

Scent / Fragrance with Annuals for Cool or Shady Places from 1916

Low-allergen Gardens for Hay Fever Sufferers

Annual Plant Pairing Ideas

Low-Growing Annuals

Medium-Growing Annuals

Tall-Growing Annuals with White Flowers from 1916

Black or Brown Flowers

Blue to Purple Flowers

Green Flowers with Annuals and Biennials from 1916

Red to Pink Flowers
Page 1
Page 2

White Flowers

Yellow or Orange Flowers

Decorative Foliage

Moist Soil


House-plants with Yellow Flowers from 1916

Edging Beds

Hanging Baskets

Vining Annuals


Bedding for

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Autumn/ Winter Bedding

Bedding for Light Sandy Soil

Bedding for Acid Soil

Bedding for Chalky Soil

Bedding for Clay Soil

Black Flowers

Blue Flowers

Orange Flowers

Pink Flowers

Long Flowering

Coloured Leaves

Attractive to Wildlife including Bees, Butterflies and Moths

Purple Flowers

Red Flowers

White Flowers

Yellow Flowers

Multi-Coloured Flowers

Aromatic Foliage or Scented Flowers

Bedding Plant Use

Flowers with 2 Petals

Flowers with 3 Petals

Flowers with
4 Petals

Flowers with 5 Petals

Flowers with 6 Petals

Flowers with more than 6 Petals

Use in Hanging Baskets

Flower Simple Shape

Shape of

Shape of
Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Shape of
Globes, Goblets and Chalices

Shape of
Trumpets and Funnels

Shape of
Bells, Thimbles and Urns

Use in Pots and Troughs

Flower Elaborated Shape

Shape of
Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Shape of
Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Shape of
Hats, Hoods and Helmets


Use in

Use in
Window Boxes

Shape of
Standards, Wings and Keels

Shape of
Discs and Florets

Shape of
Pin-Cushions and Tufts

Shape of
Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons

Cut Flowers

Use in Bedding Out

Use in
Filling In

Biennial for

Cottage and Other Gardens

Cut Flower with Biennials for Rock Work from 1916

Patio Containers with Biennials for Pots in Greenhouse / Conservatory

Beneficial to Wildlife with Purple and Blue Flowers from 1916

Scent with Biennials for Sunny Banks or Borders from 1916



Bulb for
Explanation Intro to Bulbs
725 Blue, White, Yellow, Unusual Colour, or Red-Purple-Pink flowering Bulbs in each month they flower.

Indoor Bulbs for

Indoor Bulbs for

Bulbs for

Indoor Bulbs for September

Bulbs in Window-boxes

Hardy Bulbs

Half-Hardy Bulbs

Plant Bloom Dec-Jan

Plant Bloom Apr-May

Plant Bloom

Smallest of Gardens Plant Bloom

Plant Bloom September

Green-house, Stove Bulbs

Bulbs for Bedding

Bulbs in the Border

Bulbs naturalised in Grass

Bulbs in the Woodland Garden

Bulbs in the Rock Garden

Bulbs in the Alpine House

Bulbs in Green-house

Bulbs in Bowls

Climber 3 sector Vertical Plant System with flowers in
Jan, Feb,
Mar, Apr,
May, Jun,
Jul, Aug,
Sep, Oct,
Nov, Dec

The Base -
Base of Wall Plants


Herbs and Vegetables

Cut flowers, Cut Foliage

Scented flower or foliage

Foliage use only


The Prime - Wall Shrubs

Fruit trees

The Higher Reaches -
House-wall Ramblers

Non-House-Wall - Climbing Twiners

Non-House-Wall - Self-clinging Climbers

Raised Bed for Wheelchair Users

Plants for Wildlife-Use as well

Fern for

Dry Shade

Moist Shade


Other Good Ferns

Planting Scheme Using Ferns



Grass for

Full Sun, Year Round

Partial Sun, Year Round

Giant Grasses

Coastal Sites, Year Round

Hot and Dry Conditions
, Year Round

Moist Conditions



Wildlife Support

Other Good Grasses

Grasses Scheme






Full Sun, Year Round

Shade, Year Round

Hot and Dry Sites, Year Round

Poor Soil, Year Round

Rich Soil, Year Round

Other Good Ground-cover Plants

Ground-cover Schemes

Herb for








Odds and Sods for








Perennial for

Full Sun, Winter and Spring

Full Sun, Summer and Autumn

Full Sun, year round

Tall perennials for Partial Sun, Year Round

Medium Perennials for partial Sun, year Round

Violas and Pansies

Tall Perennials for deep shade, year round

Tall Perennials for light shade, year round

Medium and Short Perennials for Light Shade

Tall Perennials for Sun, Year round

Medium Perennials for Sun, year round

Very Exposed situations, year round

Sheltered Situations, Year Round


Coastal Sites, Year Round

Rock and Gravel, Year Round

Year Round

Limy Soil, Year Round

Lime-free Soil, Year Round

Low Water Require-ments

Attracting beneficial insects

Sustain-able Gardening

Low-Allergen Planting

Natural Repellent Properties


Spring Perennials with others for Summer/Autumn

Evergreen Foliage

Variegated Foliage

Golden Leaf Colour

Red-Purple Leaf Colour

Blue-Grey Leaf Colour

Other Good Perennials

The Autumn Climax



Shrub for

Large Shrub for Full Sun, Winter and Spring

Large Shrubs for Full Sun, Summer and Autumn

Large Shrubs for partial Sun, All Year

Large Shrubs for Shade, All year


Large Shrubs for Sheltered Sites, All Year

Large Shrubs for Extra Hot and Dry Sites, All Year



Large Shrubs for Evergreen Sculpture, All Year

Large Shrubs for Other Problem Sites, All Year


Medium Shrubs for Full Sun, Winter and Spring

Medium Shrubs for Full Sun, Summer and Autumn

Medium Shrubs for Partial Sun, Winter and Spring


Medium Shrubs for Shade, Winter and Spring

Medium Shrubs for Shade, Summer and Autumn

Medium Shrubs for Hot and Dry Sites, Year Round

Medium Shrubs for Very Exposed Sites,Year Round

Medium Shrubs for Very Sheltered Sites, Year Round


Medium Shrubs for South or west wall, Climbing, Year Round


Medium Shrubs for East Wall, Climbing, Year Round

Medium Shrubs for North Wall, Climbing, Year Round

Medium Shrubs for Evergreen Sculpture, Year Round


Small Shrubs for Full Sun, Year Round

Small Shrubs for Partial Sun, Year Round

Small and Dwarf Shrubs for Shade, Year Round


Small Shrubs for Hot and Dry Sites, Year Round


Small Shrubs for Exposed Sites, Year Round

Small Shrubs for Sheltered Sites, Year Round

Shrubs for Coastal Sites

Shrubs for Containers
, Year Round

Shrubs for Low Allergen Planting


Shrubs tolerant of Air Pollution

Shrubs for Wildlife Value

Shrubs for Screening

Shrubs for Autumn Berries

Shrubs with Variegated Foliage

Shrubs with Golden Foliage

Shrubs with Purple-Red Leaves


Shrubs with Blue-Grey Leaves

Other Shrubs

Rubus cock-burnianus with Other Herbaceous Plants

Different Effects for Different Seasons from the Same Plants

Floral Friend-ships

Floral Hot-Spots


Soft Fruit for








Top Fruit for








Tree for

Large Trees for Exposed Sites

Large Trees for Sheltered Sites

Large Trees for Acid Soil

Large Trees for Lime Soil

Large Trees

Medium Trees for Exposed Sites

Medium Trees for Sheltered Sites


Medium Trees for Acid Soil, Year Round

Medium Trees for Lime Soil, Year Round

Medium Trees

Small Trees for Exposed Sites, Year Round

Small Trees for Sheltered Sites, Year Round

Small Trees for Acid Soil, Year Round

Small Trees for Lime Soil, Year Round


Small Trees

Trees for Coastal or Badly Exposed Sites

Trees for Containers

Trees with Columnar Shape

Trees with a Weeping Shape

Trees Tolerant of Air pollution

Trees for Low Allergen Planting


Trees for Best Wildlife Value


Trees for Best Berries (Fruits)

Trees for Orna-mental Bark

Trees for Spring Blossom

Trees for Autumnal Colour

Trees with Golden Leaves


Trees with Red/Purple Leaves

Trees with Blue-Grey Leaves

Other Trees





Vegetable for








Wildflower for








Gardening with Alpines by Stanley B. Whitehead. Garden Book Club. Published in 1962. It provides most of the data about the Alpines.

Essential Annuals The 100 Best for Design and Cultivation. Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell. ISBN 0-517-66177-2, provides data about annuals.

Ivydene Gardens Infill Plants Index Gallery:
Alpine - Alpine Shrubs and Conifers - Page 2 on Alpine Conifers

Botanical Plant Name

with link to
UK or
European Union
mail-order supplier for you to contact to buy this plant

Flower Colour
and Background Colour nearest to main petal colour from 212 foliage colours /

followed by
Sun Aspect:- Full Sun,
Part Shade, Full Shade

with link to external website for photo/data

Flowering Months in UK

with link to
USA or
mail-order supplier

Height with Spacings or Width (W) in inches (cms)

1 inch =
2.5 cms
12 inches = 30 cms
40 inches = 100 cms

Foliage Colour

and Background Colour nearest to middle-aged leaf colour from 212 foliage colours /

followed by
Soil Moisture:-

with link to Australia or New Zealand mail-order supplier

Plant Type is:-

A for Aquatic
Ann for Annual / Biennial
Ba for Bamboo
Bu for Bulb
Cl for Climber
Co for Conifer
F for Fern
G for Grass
H for Herb
P for Perennial
Rh for Rhodo-dendron, Azalea, Camellia
Ro for Rose
Sh for Shrub
So for Soft Fruit
To for Top Fruit
Tr for Tree
V for Vegetable
W for Wildflower

followed by:-
E for Evergreen,
D for Deciduous,
H for Herbaceous,
Alpine for being an Alpine as well as being 1 of above Plant Type /

Acid for Acidic,
Alk for Alkaline,
Any for AnySoil

with link to
ALL PLANTS Index Gallery page


A plant of first-class merit, suggested as 'First Choices'

Adjacent Planting

Plant Associations

It is sad to reflect that in England so few gardens open to the public label their plants or label them so that the label is visible when that plant is in flower, so that visitors can identify; and then later locate and purchase that plant.

Few mail-order nurseries provide the detail as shown in my rose or heather galleries.

If you want to sell a product, it is best to display it. When I sold my Transit van, I removed its signage, cleaned it and took photos of the inside and outside before putting them onto an advert in Autotrader amongst more than 2000 other Transit vans - it was sold in 20 minutes.

If mail-order nurseries could put photos to the same complexity from start of the year to its end with the different foliage colours and stages of flowering on Wikimedia Commons, then the world could view the plant before buying it, and idiots like me would have valid material to work with.

I have been in the trade (until ill health forced my Sole Trader retirement in 2013) working in designing, constructing and maintaining private gardens for decades and since 2005 when this site was started, I have asked any nursery in the world to supply photos. R.V. Roger in Yorkshire allowed me to use his photos from his website in 2007 and when I got a camera to spend 5 days in July 2014 at my expense taking photos of his roses growing in his nursery field, whilst his staff was propagating them. I gave him a copy of those photos.


A choice of Dwarf Trees and Conifer

True alpine regions are beyond the tree line, and any specimens seen in nature are usually isolated, dwarfed by wind and weather and often distorted. This does not mean that it is wrong to introduce trees and conifers into the garden conception of the rock garden, but it does indicate that their use should be rather sparing, and preferably lower down than on the sky-line.

Of true dwarfs, there are few among the trees, and only 2 kinds are suggested here. Some of the loveliest trees for the rock garden can be drawn from the dwarf Japanese Maples, Acer palmatum vars., notable for their finely shaped and coloured foliage. Care is needed, however, for, although they are slow-growing, some of them can attain to 15-20 feet = 180-240 inches = 450-600 cms in time, and such specimens can spoil the rock garden with their spreading roots and overhanging shade.

Acer palmatum dissectum (Japanese Maple)

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA - MrMaple.com is a family run Japanese Maple Mail-order nursery based out of Western North Carolina. We graft and propagate over 1000 selections of Japanese maples.






Dwarf Tree

For the smaller rock garden, it is as well to concentrate on the dissectum forms, which make mushroom-shaped small trees and will take many years to grow beyond 48 inches (120 cms). In the larger rock garden, it is possible to introduce the septemlobum forms, of which osakazubi is probably the finest for colour.

These dwarf maples, while normally hardy, do need positions well sheltered from the colder drying north and east winds, especially when planted in the east and north of Britain.

MrMaple is a member of the Maple Society and
International Plant Propagators Society


Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Garnet'

Français : Érable palmé (cultivar) à l'arboretum de la Vallée-aux-Loups (Hauts-de-Seine, France). By Liné1 via Wikimedia Commons.

Betula nana (Mountain Birch, Dwarf Birch in Birch Wildflower Family)

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Dwarf Tree

Betula nana is a genuine dwarf Birch of the northern reaches of Europe and Asia, usually growing with upright stems in bushy manner 24-48 inches (60-120 cms) tall, with tiny, dark glossy green rounded and toothed leaves, and will grow elegantly in a moist part of the rock garden.

There is also Betula nana 'Glengarry' - A dwarf, spreading Birch, golden leaves in autumn.

Miniforest.com in USA:-

"LiveScale©Choice Trees and Shrubs for Miniature Gardens and Bonsai Enthusiasts

Effective for Garden Railroads, Bonsai, Saikei, rock gardens, troughs and windowbox scenes. Our division of size is based on the International Conifer Guide. Miniature is under 3 feet in 10-15 years. Dwarf is under 6 feet in 10-15 years. Intermediate is 15 feet in 10-15 years. Large is more than 15-20 feet in 10-15 years. We have taken the liberty to apply this division to shrubs and broad leaf trees."


Betula nana photographed on a hike north of the village Upernavik Kujalleq and north-east of the mountain Kingigtoq, Greenland. By Kim Hansen via Wikimedia Commons.


Dwarf Conifers

The planting of dwarf conifers in the rock garden is a matter of personal taste, and when attempted, should be done with caution. The difficuly is that many so-called slow-growing and dwarf conifers do make surprising growth in 10-15 years, and when a conifer begins to dwarf the scale of the rock garden, it becomes a blot on the landscape.

The true dwarfs that remain dwarf can do much to enhance the rock garden scene. If however, the deceptive dwarfs - usually termed slow-growing in catalogues - are to be planted, it must be with the firm determination to root them out as soon as they begin to get too big. The perfect cone-shaped Picea albertiana conica is perfectly charming in its youth, but is no joke when it reaches 72-144 inches (180-360 cms) as it is capable of doing in 15-20 years.

Conifers may be broadly divided into those of

  • upright growth, with cone, pyramidal, columnar or spire-like shape;
  • the rounded, globose or bun-shaped; and
  • the prostrate of low spreading growth, broader than tall.

Since it is, in part, for their shapeliness that they are grown, their placing should receive much thought. It is usually more effective to plant erect-growing conifers on ledges, in pockets or in terraces against a background of rock, rather than on the sky-line.

Conifers look better planted within the rock garden than out at the boundaries. In the case of real dwarfs, it is often effective to make a group planting either of a kind or of contrasting shapes and foliage colours.

The prostrate varieties of conifers can be effectively used to spread their branches over wide stones on ledges or terraces. Used low down in the rock garden, they help to make a rock garden or outcrop look as if it did actually grow out of the soil.

It is with these principles in mind that the following short list of suitable conifers is suggested. The average rock garden soil compost suits, where drainage is good. After planting, young conifers should have their foliage syringed once or twice daily when dry weather comes in the spring and early summer, for drying winds and drought are lethal to these plants.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana v. ellwoodii. (Lawson False, Ellwood Cypress)

Supplier in UK






Beautiful,dense, fine feathery blue-grey foliage, slenderly pyramidal at first, more columnar as it ages. Often characterized as slow-growing, but can reach 6 feet = 72 inches = 180 cms in 7 years, and 180 inches (450 cms) in 20, so only really suitable for large rock gardens. Can be readily propagated, however, from cuttings, yielding replacements for overgrown specimens.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana is poisonous.


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana: Female (pollen) cones. By Sten Porse via Wikimedia Commons.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana minima aurea

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Minima Glauca'

Supplier in UK






Compact, broadly rounded and conical, with fans of soft gold foliage twisted sideways, growing to 72 inches (180 cms) tall, 84-96 inches (210-240 cms) wide at the base in time, so needs adequate room.
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana minima glauca is bluish-grey in foliage, and subject to the same defect of growing too big for most home rock gardens in time.



Chamaecyparis lawsoniana: Male (pollen) cones. By Sten Porse via Wikimedia Commons.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana nana






Rounded conical, with rich green foliage, and slow-growing to 48 inches (120 cms).



Chamaecyparis 'Pygmaea Argentea'

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Low, semi-globose habit, with dark blue-green foliage, tipped silver when young; growing slowly to 24-36 inches (60-90 cms) with as much spread.



Chamaecyparis obtusa 'Caespitosa'

Supplier in New Zealand

Chamaecyparis obtusa nana

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA

Chamaecyparis obtusa pygmaea

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA
Supplier in Australia, who grows more than 600 varieties of conifers






Bun-shaped cushion of dense tufted rich green foliage, and a true miniature not growing more than 4-6 inches (10-15 cms) high in 12 years.
Chamaecyparis obtusa nana, compact and very dwarf, with rich green leaves in fan-like whorls; and
Chamaecyparis obtusa pygmaea, low-growing, with looser fans of bright green, are both good dwarfs, growing well under 12 inches (30 cms), even after many years.

First Choices


The purpose of the American Conifer Society is to promote the use of conifers in the garden and landscape and to educate the public about their care and preservation.


Chamaecyparis pisifera
'Filifera Nana'

Supplier in UK
Supplier in Australia
Supplier in Canada
Supplier in Poland
Supplier in New Zealand
Supplier in Germany - Bruns has 320 highly skilled and experienced members of staff.
You will be inspired by our projects and references.
In our plant information section you can access descriptions of more than 4000 plant species.






Low, rounded, wide dome-like hummock of thread-like green foliage, growing very slowly to 12-18 inches (30-45 cms), with 15-21 inches (38-53 cms) spread at the base.

First Choices


Sawara Cypress var. 'Filifera Nana' (Chamaecyparis pisifera 'Filifera Nana'). By Athantor via Wikimedia Commons.

Chamaecyparis thyoides 'Ericoides'

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Pyramidal, compact, greyish-green foliage, tending to turn bronzy in winter; slow-growing but ultimately reaching 48-72 inches (120-180 cms), and 48 inches (120 cms) spread at base.



Cryptomeria japonica






Good dwarf, roughly outlined bush form, with green foliage with leaves at tips of shoots white; 24-36 inches (60-90 cms) tall in time. Likes moist soil, out of hot sun.



Cryptomeria japonica

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Irregularly pyramidal, with greyish-green foliage retaining its colour the year round; 48-72 inches (120-180 cms) tall, 36-48 inches (90-120 cms) spread in 15-20 years. Likes moist soil.



Juniperus communis 'Compressa'

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Supplier in USA






Erect, closely packed, elliptical cone-shaped pillar of fine blue-grey foliage, taking very many years to reach 24 inches (60 cms), a height not often exceeded. Poisonous Plant.

First choice for trough gardens, and all small rock gardens.


Juniperus communis hornibrookii (Juniperus communis prostrata)

Supplier in UK
Supplier in New Zealand






Attractive, creeping mat-like variety, with grey-green foliage, rarely more than 12 inches (30 cms) high, but spreading up to 72 inches (180 cms) unless checked. Poisonous Plant.

First Choices


Juniperus horizontalis procumbens nana

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Flat, wide-spreading, fresh green foliage, rarely more than to 18 inches (45 cms) high, but can spread 72-96 inches (180-240 cms) wide.



Juniperus sabina tamariscifolia

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Supplier in USA






Prostrate-growing, slowly, with branches in wide-spreading tiers of feathery lightish green foliage. May reach 36 inches (90 cms) high with a 72-96 inch (180-240 cms) spread in 20 years. Poisonous Plant.



Picea abies 'Gregoryana'

Supplier in UK

Picea abies humilis

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Godd dwarf, dense, hummock-shaped, broad-based, with needle-like, grey-green leaves, radiating spirally on shoots; very slow-growing to 18 inches (45 cms) high, with up to 24 inches (60 cms) spread.
Picea abies humilis is even more dwarf and slow-growing, dense cushion-like growth.

First Choices


Picea abies 'Albertiana conica'






Pleasing conical shape, down to the gound, with closely packed heads of lightish green needle-like leaves, but can outgrow small rock gardens in 10-15 years, and look dominatingly out of place.



Pinus sylvestris 'Pygmaea' (Pigmy Scots Pine)

Supplier in Canada






Dwarf, low rounded bush form of the Scots Pine, with somewhat shaggy grey-green leaves, growing slowly to 6 inches (90 cms) in time.

Two Needle Pines by Swindon & District Bonsai


Pinus sylvestris 'Beauvronensis'

Supplier in USA






Pinus sylvestris beauvronensis is similar but taller - growing eventually to 54 inches (135 cms), with a spread of 60-72 inches (150-180 cms).



Taxus baccata 'Adpressa Aurea'

Supplier in UK






A dwarf, bush-like yew, with golden-green foliage, growing to 48-72 inches (120-180 cms), and spreading somewhat wider, in about 12 years.



Taxus baccata fastigiata standishii

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Although growing to 48-60 inches (120-150 cms) tall in time, remains a narrow pillar, less than 12 inches (30 cms) through, with bright gold foliage. Planted low in a rock garden, it is always attractive.

The following is from the Royal Horticultural Society advice on Yew:-
Taxus baccata ‘Standishii’ AGM: (female) is a slow-growing selection of ‘Fastigiata’. It is ideal for a sunny site, has a columnar habit with golden yellow leaves. It will eventually reach a height of 1.5m (5ft) by 60cm (2ft) wide. A useful cultivar for creating an ‘exclamation mark’ in the garden.

First Choices


Taxus baccata 'Fastigiata' in the Arboretum de Chèvreloup in Rocquencourt. By Matthieu Sontag via Wikimedia Commons.

Taxus baccata pygmaea

Supplier in UK






Dwarf, egg-shaped bush, with green foliage, growing to 18 inches (45 cms) high, 12 inches (30 cms) through.

First Choices


Thuja occidentalis ellwangeriana 'Rheingold'

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Conical, upright habit, with beautiful golden foliage that turns bronze in winter, growing to about 36 inches (90 cms) in 10 years. Easily propagated from cuttings.

First Choices


Thuja orientalis 'Minima Glauca' (Platycladus orientalis redirected from Thuja orientalis)

Supplier in Australia
Supplier in USA






Completely dwarf, globose in shape, with minute grey-green leaves, turning bronze in winter, up to 9 inches (23 cms) tall.

First Choices


Thuja plicata 'Hillerieri'

Supplier in UK
Supplier in USA






Dwarf with densley packed branchlets, sometimes modified into slender, whippy tip shoots; growing slowly up to about 24 inches (60 cms).




The Rhododendron Species Foundation & Botanical Garden is in Washington, USA:-

"The Rhododendron Species Foundation & Botanical Garden is a non-profit membership organization dedicated to the conservation, public display, and distribution of Rhododendron species. Home to one of the largest collections of species rhododendrons in the world, the garden displays over 700 of the more than 1,000 species found in the wilds of North America, Europe, and Asia, as well as the tropical regions of southeast Asia and northern Australia. Conservation has come to be of primary importance in recent years with the destruction of Rhododendron habitat in many areas of the world."


Slow Growing and Dwarf Conifers from The Gardeners Guild - The Trade Network for Qualified Gardeners (The Gardeners Guild is a national trade network for professionally qualified gardeners. Our members are self-employed gardeners who offer garden and grounds maintenance as part of their services.):-

There are so many conifers to choose from it is difficult to know where to begin. With so much choice comes variety with many different shapes, colours and sizes. The cheapest conifers are often the conifers that grow most quickly but these can quickly get out of hand. Below is a list of dwarf and slow growing conifers ideal for specific positions in your garden where the size of the mature plant needs to be predictable.


Abies balsamea - ‘Nana’
Abies koreana - ‘Compact dwarf’
Abies koreana - 'Nana'
Abies koreana - 'Oberon'
Abies koreana - 'Silberlocke'
Abies nordmanniana - 'Golden Spreader'

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Aurea Densa’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - 'Cream Glow'
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Ellwoodii’
Chamaectparis lawsoniana - ‘Ellwoods Gold’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Ellwoods Gold Pillar’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Ellwoods Pillar’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Ellwoods Treasure’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Gimbornii’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - 'Gnome'
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - 'Golden Pot'
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Green Globe’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Minima Aurea’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Minima Glauca’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Nana Albospica’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - 'Nymph'
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Pygmaea Argentea’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Silver Threads’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Snow White’
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - ‘Springtime’

Chamaecyparis obtusa

Chamaecyparis obtusa - 'Aurea'
Chamaecyparis obtusa - 'Confucius'
Chamaecyparis obtusa - ‘Karamachiba’
Chamaecyparis obtusa - 'Kosteri'
Chamaecyparis obtusa - ‘Nana Aurea’
Chamaecyparis obtusa - ‘Nana Gracillis’
Chamaecyparis obtusa - 'Nana Lutea'
Chamaecyparis obtusa - ‘Templehof’
Chamaecyparis obtusa - 'Tonia'

Chamaecyparis pisifera

Chamaecyparis pisifera - ‘Boulevard’
Chamaecyparis pisifera - 'Curly Tops'
Chamaecyparis pisifera - 'Devon Cream'
Chamaecyparis pisifera - 'Honiton Lace'
Chamaecyparis pisifera - ‘Nana’
Chamaecyparis pisifera - ‘Nana Aureovariegata’
Chamaecyparis pisifera - 'Plumosa Aurea Nana'
Chamaecyparis pisifera - 'Compressa'
Chamaecyparis pisifera -‘Plumosa Juniperoides’
Chamaecyparis pisifera - ‘Sungold’

Chamaecyparis thoides

Chamaecyparis thyoides - ‘Andelyensis’
Chamaecyparis thyoides - ‘Rubicon’
Chamaecyparis thyoides - 'Top Point'

Cryptomeria japonica

Cryptomeria japonica - 'Compressa'
Cryptomeria japonica - ‘Golden Promise’
Cryptomeria japonica - ‘Vilmoriniana’

Juniperus chinensis

Juniperus chinensis - ‘Pyramidalis’

Juniperus communis

Juniperus communis - 'Brynhyfryd Gold'
Juniperus communis- ‘Compressa’
Juniperus communis - ’Gold Cone’

Juniperus Squamata

Juniperus squamata - 'Blue Star'

Picea abies

Picea abies ‘Hystrix'
Picea abies ‘Little Gem'
Picea abies - ‘Nidiformis’
Picea abies - ‘Remontii’

Picea glauca

Picea glauca - 'Alberta Blue'
Picea glauca - ‘Albertiana Conica’
Picea glauca ‘Albertiana Globe’
Picea glauca - 'JW Daisy's White'
Picea glauca - 'Laurin'
Picea glauca - 'Sanders Blue'

Picea mariana

Picea mariana - 'Nana'

Picea Pungens

Picea Pungens - 'Globosa'

Pinus densiflora

Pinus densiflora - 'Alice Verdake'
Pinus densiflora - ‘Umbraculifera’

Pinus leucodermis

Pinus leucodermis - ‘Compact Gem’
Pinus leucodermis - 'Smidtii'

Pinus mugo

Pinus mugo - ‘Gnom’
Pinus mugo - 'Hibernica'
Pinus mugo - 'Humpy'
Pinus mugo - 'Lodge Hill'
Pinus mugo - ‘Mops’
Pinus mugo - 'Ophir'
Pinus mugo - 'Pumilo'

Pinus parviflora

Pinus parviflora - ‘Adcocks Dwarf’
Pinus parviflora - ‘Glauca’

Pinus sylvestrus

Pinus sylvestrus - ‘Fastigiata’


Podocarpus - ‘Blaze’
Podocarpus - ‘County Park Fire’
Podocarpus - ‘Cover Girl’
Podocarpus - ‘Kilworth Cream’
Podocarpus - 'Otari'
Podocarpus - 'Prince'
Podocarpus - ‘Red Tip’

Taxus baccata

Taxus baccata - ‘Aureomarginata’
Taxus baccata - ‘Fastigiata Aurea’

Thuja occidentalis

Thuja occidentalis - 'Amber Glow'
Thuja occidentalis - ‘Danica’
Thuja occientalis - ‘Hetz Midget’
Thuja occidentalis - ‘Rheingold’
Thuja occidentalis - 'Sunkist'
Thuja occidentalis - ‘Teddy’
Thuja occidentalis - ‘Tiny Tim’
Thuja occidentalis - ' Trompenburg'

Thuja orientalis

Thuja orientalis - ‘Aurea Nana’
Thuja orientalis - ‘Autumn Glow’
Thuja orientalis - 'Minima’

Tsuga Canadensis

Tsuga canadensis - 'Fantana’
Tsuga canadensis - 'Jeddolah’ "


Find Me Plants in the UK has the page with links to these Plant Top Tens Pages:-

"Welcome to FindMePlants at a glance plant listings. These listings exist as an add-on to our plant finder and provide the gardener with plant suggestions for very particular - usually difficult - conditions. Click on the links below to view our top ten planting suggestions. Or if you are looking for the best way to find the ideal plants for your particular garden, give our Plant Finder a try.

  • Low maintenance tough shrubs for dry sandy soil & full Sun
  • Drought tolerant herbaceous plants for dry sandy soil & sunny exposed locations
  • Drought tolerant ground cover for dry sandy soil & sunny exposed locations
  • Acid tolerant shrubs for border & specimen planting
  • Acid tolerant herbaceous flowering plants for herbaceous planting & mixed borders
  • Acid tolerant ground cover plants for low borders and mixed planting
  • Clay tolerant herbaceous flowering plants for herbaceous borders & mixed planting
  • Clay tolerant trees and shrubs for heavy problem soils
  • Clay tolerant low maintenance ground cover plants for borders and problem areas
  • Shrubs that will tolerate shallow chalk or alkaline soils in exposed locations
  • Herbaceous plants and flowers that will tolerate shallow chalk or alkaline soils
  • Low growing ground cover plants that will tolerate shallow chalk or alkaline soils
  • Shrubs that can tolerate very exposed coastal planting conditions
  • Herbaceous flowers, ground cover and architectural plants that will tolerate exposed coastal planting
  • Fast growing shrubs that will provide privacy and quick screening
  • Low growing shrubs to cover the ground in full sun on hot dry soil
  • Evergreen low growing shrubs to cover the ground in part sun or shade
  • Shade tolerant shrubs for mixed border, woodland or specimen planting
  • Herbaceous flowering plants that will flourish in shade and suit borders or planting under trees
  • Ground cover and low growing plants for Shade
  • Shrubs with scented blossom for mixed borders, wall planting and as specimen plants
  • Herbaceous flowering plants and herbs with scented blossom
  • Climbers with scented blossom for training up walls or pergolas
  • Trees that will flourish in wet and occasionally water logged soil
  • Grasses for dry sandy soils and sunny hot planting locations
  • Herbaceous flowers and herbs with attractive scented foliage
  • Shrubs with impressive ornamental fruit for winter colour
  • Herbaceous plants that will tolerate wet and occasionally water logged soil
  • Drought tolerant herbaceous plants for dry soils in full sun
  • Herbaceous flowering plants for compacted and waterlogged heavy clay soil
  • Shrubs that will flourish on well drained acid soils
  • Shrubs that will tolerate heavy clay soils
  • Summer flowering nectar rich shrubs to attract bees and other insects
  • Trees that will tolerate shallow chalk or alkaline soils in exposed locations
  • Herbaceous perennials with aromatic foliage
  • Herbaceous perennials for winter foliage impact
  • Plants For Hot Dry Sun And Dry Droughty Soils
  • Trees & Shrubs For Acid Soils
  • Herbaceous Plants for Heavy Clay
  • Trees & Shrubs For Heavy Clay
  • Trees & Shrubs For Alkaline, Chalky Soils
  • Herbaceous Perennials For Chalky Alkaline Soils
  • Plants For Extreme Coastal Conditions
  • Plants For Screening
  • Drought Tolerant Trees And Shrubs For Dry Sandy Soil And Full Sun
  • Drought Tolerant Herbaceous Plants For Dry Sandy Soil & Sunny Exposed Locations"





























Ivydene Gardens Infill Plants Index Gallery:
Alpine - Alpine Shrubs and Conifers - Page 2 on Alpine Conifers

"When the stones are in place and the soil filled in and firmed, it is timely to consider the foundation plantings. These are the plants that are likely to remain with us many years, even a lifetime, and by their permanence vitally and everlastingly influence the character and appeal of the garden and its setting.

In the rock garden these plants are the dwarf alpine shrub and conifers. They are in the nature of living furnishings, and

  • by their shape and habit can do much to clothe the bare rawness of rocks,
  • soften harsh lines,
  • give a year-round interest to the rock garden scene,
  • strike a note of accent here,
  • lend harmony there, and
  • provide floral or foliage colour too.

These plants are usually the first to go in;

  • the deciduous shrubs may be planted from late October to March whenever the weather is mild enough, and the soil can be worked and trodden on without being puddled or unduly compacted;
  • the evergreen shrubs and conifers may be planted in September to early November if the ground is ready for them, but otherwise should be planted in April-May just before their new growth starts.

The technique of planting is similar to that for other trees and shrubs. A planting hole should be made at least half as wide again as the present spread of the roots of the plant, with a rounded base like an inverted saucer. Most dwarf shrubs can be set with their lowest shoots or branches just resting on the soil surface, but conifers and plants on a single stem should be placed so that the soil reaches only to the soil mark on their stems made by the nursery planting.

Soil is sifted in and firmed with finger pressure to the roots, and pressed down when completed without making it ironhard. Evergreens and conifers provided with roots in a soil ball only need to have the outer wrapping of hesian or polythene removed. Plants out of pots need drainage crocks removed with a pointed stick, and any roots wrapped around the inside wall of the pot should be straightened out with a minimum disturbance of the soil. After planting, a careful soaking of the soil will help further to settle it to the roots."

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


The Propagation of Alpines by Lawrence D. Hills. Published in 1950 by Faber and Faber Limited describes every method of propagation for 2,500 species.

Unlike modern books published since 1980, this one states exactly what to do and is precisely what you require if you want to increase your alpines.

Site design and content copyright ©July 2016. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  




Links in Table below are available in Shrub Tree Shape Index Gallery

Site Map

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

Click on number in cells below to jump to that page detailing those cultivated plants with that plant type and their botanical name starts with that letter.

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Bedding and RHS Mixed Border Beds


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Evergreen Tree






























Herbaceous Perennial and RHS Mixed Border Beds















Odds and Sods










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Plants used by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterflies in the UK

Shrub and Small Tree

Botanical Names Page

Common Names Page

Companion Planting
























Pest Control by Companion Planting

The following 2 books (written by Louise Riotte 1909-1998 who was one of North America's most beloved gardeners) provide a wealth of extra information telling you what plants to put together for what purpose and how it does it (The only wasted information on each page is the page number!!!):-

Carrots love Tomatoes: Secrets of Companion Planting for Successful Gardening by Louise Riotte Second Edition (Storey Publishing 1998) ISBN-13: 978-1-58017-027-7

Roses love Garlic: Companion Planting and other Secrets of Flowers by Loiuse Riotte Second Edition (Storey Publishing 1998)
ISBN 1-58017-028-5