Ivydene Gardens:-

A. Comparisons of Evergreen Perennials, Alpine Evergreen Perennials from this website in this
5 flower colour groups per month Gallery and then in
the Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery and
the WildFlower Shape Gallery,

with

B. Comparisons of other plants from this website in this
5 flower colour groups per month Gallery and then in
the WildFlower Shape Gallery:

Yellow Flowers in May

alyssumflosaxatilefoord1

alliumpflosmolyjeaninervroger
anti-aphid

anemonepforlipsiensispallidakevock

anemonepflosranunculoidesrvroger1a1
Yellow Flower with mid-green foliage in autumn, winter and spring

 

 

 

 

CHALK, SAND.
Alyssum saxatile

SUN

Apr-Jun

Ever-green Peren-nial.
Alpine House, rock garden, edge, wall crevice. Grey leaves

ANY SOIL.
Allium moly 'Jean-nine' SUN, PART SHADE

May-Jun

Bulb

Cut flower, bee and butterfly, rock garden, edge, pot, ground cover

SAND, CHALK.
Anemone lipsiensis 'Pallida'
PART SHADE

Mar-May

Bulb

wood-land, rock garden. foliage is dormant jul-feb. spreads slowly between decid-uous shrubs

ANY SOIL.
Anemone ranuncu-loides
PART SHADE

Apr-May
Decid-uous Rhizome Ground Cover from PLANTS
rock garden, peaty soil near water-fall for abund-ant moisture

 

 

 

 

achilleaflopmoonshine51

achilleacflospclypeolatamoonshinereadcoblands1a1
Yellow flowers with feathery, grey-green foliage. It self-seeds, which are eaten by birds. Toxic to cat, dog and horse

pgenistalydiacflogarnonswilliams
bright yellow, pea-like flowers with blue-green foliage

cytisusbeaniicflot1
golden yellow flowers on previous year's wood with dark green leaves divided into 3 leaflets

 

 

 

 

SAND. Achillea 'Moon-shine'
SUN

Apr-Aug

Ever-green Perenn-ial from
Plant with Photo Index
. These buds turn into dark Yellow Flowers

SAND. Achillea 'Moon-shine'
SUN

Apr-Aug
Ever-green Perenn-ial Ground Cover from PLANTS, clump.
Cut fresh/ dry (from winter garden) flower, bee, butterfly

CHALK, CLAY, SAND.
Genista lydia
SUN

May-Jun decidu-ous shrub. rounded. dry scree slopes, in poor soil for its semi-prostrate main branches to spread with upright shoots

CLAY, SAND.
Cytisus beanii
SUN

Apr-Jul decidu-ous shrub. arching mat. bean's broom can be used as edging, ground cover, coastal, scree garden.

Many brooms become straggly with age. to avoid this prune back immed-iately after flowering, but DO NOT go back into the old, hard wood. Broom can be grafted onto laburnum to make standards. Ashwood Charitable Trust

 

 

 

achilleaflos2pfilipendulacoronationgoldgarnonswilliams
Gold
flowers with silver foliage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

any well-drained.
Achillea 'Coron-ation Gold'
SUN

May-Aug
Herbac-eous Per-ennial Ground Cover from PLANTS, clump.
Cut
flower. contrast with eupat-orium purpu-reum

Achilleas attract bee, butt-erfly, fresh and dried cut flower, smaller Achilleas for scree beds in rock gardens. Compan-ions - asiatic lilies, erygium, salvia, orna-mental grasses, rudbeckia, phlox, phygelius, dahlia, hemero-callis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

kerriaflotjaponicamay68 golden-yellow flowers evenly spaced on fresh growth followed by fruit, with mid green, doubly serrated margin leaves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a46b

CHALK, SAND. Kerria japonica
SUN AND PART SHADE

Apr-May decid-uous shrub. suckers and arches. grows in thickets on mountain slopes. cottage garden, wood-land garden

compan-ions - tone down its yellow flowers with white in front like daphne mezer-eum f. alba, pulmon-aria 'sissing- hurst white', snow-drops or white helle-bores. Plantlust has cultivars.

 

 

 

 

 

 

acercflospdavidiifoord

Yellow. Green bark with white striations. New growth is coral-red. Bright green foliage in spring turns to bright red in autumn

acercflopp99davidiifoord

corokiacflot9cotoneaster
fragrant yellow flowers followed by red or yellow fruits with small silvery-grey leaves.

 

 

 

 

ANY SOIL.
Acer davidii
FULL SUN

May

Decid-uous
Tree from
Chalk Garden

ACID CLAY, SAND, PEAT.
Acer capill-ipes
SUN, PART SHADE

May

Decid-uous Tree Ground Cover from PLANTS, rounded.

one of the Trees for Lawns

ANY SOIL.
Acer davidii
SUN

May

Decid-uous Treel from
Plant with Photo Index
.
Yellow flowers

CHALK.
Corokia coton-easter
SUN

Apr-Jun Decid-uous shrub. rounded. coastal and exposed gardens. hedge.

see corokia growing guide.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fremontodendronflotcalifornianglory
deep yellow with dark green foliage

gelsemiumcflossempervirensroseland
fragrant, pale to deep yellow flowers with darker orange throat with ovate, glossy, light green foliage. killed by frost

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHALK, SAND. Frem-ontode-ndron 'Califor-nia Glory'
SUN

May-Sep Rambler ever-green climber train on trellis or wire /vine-eye support on wall

ACIDIC SAND. Gelsem-ium semper-virens SUN AND PART SHADE

Apr-Jul twining self clinger ever-green climber not on house walls. poisonous plant in conserv-atory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Links to above Bedding Plant Uses:-

Ivydene Gardens:-

A. Comparisons of Evergreen Perennials, Alpine Evergreen Perennials from this website in this
5 flower colour groups per month Gallery and then in
the Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery and
the WildFlower Shape Gallery,

with

B. Comparisons of other plants from this website in this
5 flower colour groups per month Gallery and then in
the WildFlower Shape Gallery:

Yellow Flowers in May

Pale Yellow streaked with red in a single standard, 2 wings and a keel flower

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAND.
Asarina procum-bens
PART SHADE

Apr-Oct
Ever-green Alpine Ground Cover from PLANTS
trail over walls, pots, raised bed or shady bank

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14b1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yellow 5 pointed sepals and 5 petals with spurs and ferny mid green leaves

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANY
WELL-DRAINED
Aquilegia chrys-antha PART SHADE

Apr-Sep
Herb-aceous Perennial Ground Cover from PLANTS
in shady borders with leaf-mould for Butter-flies and Bumble-bees

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14b1c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PERENNIAL - EVERGREEN GALLERY PAGES

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
Orange
(o)Other Colours
(o)Red
(o)Pink
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
Black
Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Bronze
(o)Green1
(o)Green2
(o)Grey
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)Silver
(o)Variegated White
Variegated Yellow
White
Yellow
Autumn Colour
4 Season Colour

FORM
(o)Mat-form
(o)Prostrate
(o)Mound-form
(o)Spreading
(o)Clump-form
Stemless
(o)Upright
Climbing
Arching

FRUIT COLOUR
(o)Fruit

FLOWER BED PICTURES
(o)Garden

Garden Plant Use
is given in the next column

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries
in the Topic Table for photos to aid your plant choice

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders is in the Topic Table, then you can use

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL GALLERY PAGES

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

 

PLANT USE AND FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY
compares the use and flower shape of plants in this website
- WHICH ARE THOSE PLANTS FROM OTHER GALLERIES BESIDES THE WILDFLOWER SHAPE GALLERY -
combined with those already compared in
Bedding,
Bulb,
Evergreen Perennial,
Herbaceous Perennial and
Roses
pages as linked to in row
Topic - Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process
in the TOPIC table - on the extreme left - at the end of this page with this Tip Colour background.


7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below

  • for Evergreen Perennials only prior to July 2022,
  • from July 2022 it will compare every plant with flowers in this website
    in this EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

I have updated the plant type and plant use for the Evergreen Perennials by February 2023,

  • then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie ISBN 1 85626 326 6
    into the relevant 3 Galleries:-
  •  
  • 1. 104 Ground-cover Plants have been inserted into Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within Evergreen Perennial Gallery including those of foliage only in January Unusual Flower.

  •  
  • colormonthbulb9a1a1a1
  •  
  • Ground Cover from PLANTS is within the text box under the thumbnail, and by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail, the page shall be changed
  •  
    • to its descriptive row within one of these pages in PLANTS Topic -
      1000 Ground
      ...Cover A, B, C,
      ...D, E, F, G, H, I,
      ... J, K, L, M, N,
      ...O, P, Q, R, S, T,
      ...U, V, W, XYZ

      ...with Ground
      ...Cover for 14
      ...Situation
      s
      1 Dry Shade
      2 Damp Shade
      3 Full Sun
      4 Banks and Terraces
      5 Woodland
      6 Alkaline Sites
      7 Acid Sites
      8 Heavy Clay Soil
      9 Dry Sandy Soil
      10 Exposed Sites
      11 Under Hedges
      12 Patios and Paths
      13 Formal Gardens
      14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts.
      Also, Use
      ...Ground Cover
      ...in Landscape
      ...noise reducti
      on

       
  • 2. into Wildflower Shape Gallery pages in this Table:-
     

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE in Royal Blue -
WILDFLOWER FLOWER SHAPE in Blue -
Click on Text link

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1a1a

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1a1a

irishcflobladderwort1a1a

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a2a

Petal-less
Petal-less

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4 and could be cross-shaped

5
5

Above 5
Above 5

 

Flower Shape - Simple

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1a1a

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1a1a

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a

Stars
Stars

Bowls
Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes
Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets
Trumpet

Funnels
Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1a1a

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1a1a

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a

 

 

 

Bells
Bells

Thimbles
Thimbles

Urns
Urns

Salver-form
Salver-form

 

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a2a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2a

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1a1a

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1a1a

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1a

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1a1a

melancholycflothistle1a1a

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards , Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts
Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a2a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a2a

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1a1a

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1a1a

 

 

Flower stem termin-ating with
a Single Flower

Cushion
Cushion

Umbel
Umbel

Buttons
Buttons

Pompom
Pompom

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1a1a

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1a1a

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1a1a

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a2a

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Cloud, Garland and Cascade

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

From the
Topics Table:-

Plants detailed in this website by:-

Botanical Name

A,

in Chalk Soil
A,

Plants :-

in
Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
A-F1,

Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index

and

Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Bulb
A1,

1000 Ground Cover
A,


in Heavy Clay Soil
A-F,

Companion Planting
A,

Evergreen Perennial
A,
with Evergreen Perennials compared in Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A,


Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
A-F,
 

Rose
Rose Use

and

Plant with Camera Photo Index by Ivydene Gardens
A 1,
 

Herbaceous Perennial
A1,

and

UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names .

Continuing from October 2023
All
use of plants will be compared in Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery,
Flower colour/month in Evergreen Perennial Gallery and
Flower Shape in Wildflower Flower Shape Gallery


in
Light Sand So
il
A-F,

and

Poisonous Plants

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
with plants detailed in
Infill Plants

followed by continuing to insert all the plants with flowers from Camera Photo Galleries as indicated by
"
Plant with Photo Index" from
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187 A 1, 2, Index
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Blue
having started in January 2023.

I will continue to insert all the plants planted in chalk as indicated by
"
from Chalk Garden" from
GARDEN CONSTRUCTION Index using
'A Chalk Garden' by F C Stern. Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd in 1960
into the Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in black.

then the following plants shall be added from

  • Aquatic,
  • Bamboo,
  • Bedding,
  • Bulb,
  • Climber,
  • Conifer,
  • Deciduous Shrub,
  • Deciduous Tree,
  • Evergreen Shrub,
  • Evergreen Tree,
  • Fern,
  • Grass,
  • Hedging,
  • Herbaceous Perennial,
  • Herb,
  • Odds and Sods,
  • Rhododendron,
  • Rose,
  • Soft Fruit,
  • Top Fruit,
  • Vegetable and
  • Wildflower

    Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
    ...Flower Shape,
    ...
    Uses in USA,

    - after the entries have been completed in the Landscaping List Pages.
     

finally - I am inserting these from February 2023, I will continue to insert all the plants
from the following book on planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials. She is writing about perennials for use in America.
into the Landscaping List Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and
into the Flower Colour per Month Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in royal blue.

Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0.

 

Evergreen Perennials Height from Text Border in this Gallery

Brown =
0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue =
12-24 inches
(30-60 cms)

Green =
24-36 inches
(60-90 cms)

Red =
36-72 inches
(90-180 cms)

Black =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Evergreen Perennials Soil Moisture from Text Background in this Gallery

 

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

The Plant Height Border in this Gallery has changed from :-
Blue = 0-2 feet (0-24 inches), Green = 2-6 feet (24-72 inches), Red = 6+ feet (72+ inches) to

  • Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)
  • Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)
  • Green = 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)
  • Red = 36-72 inches (90-180 cms)
  • Black = 72+ inches (180+ cms)
     
  • Climber 3 Sector Vertical Plant System has the following 3 sectors on a House Wall or High Wall, with further details in table on the right
  • Cyan = 0-36 inches (0-90cms) for The Climber Base
  • Magenta = 36-120 inches (90-300cms) for The Climber Prime Site
  • Orange 3 = 120+ inches (300cms) for The Climber Higher Reaches

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).
Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Evergreen Perennial named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Evergreen Perennial Description Page details where that Evergreen Perennial is available from.

 

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL INDEX

Evergreen Perennial Name.

Alpine Evergreen Perennial if Text Background is Blue

Flower Colour

Flower Thumb-nail

Flowering Months

/ Form

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot
12 inches = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Foliage Colour

Comments

A

Acaena buchananii

Yellow

See large photo on
Foord Garden Flowers Page 1

acaenacflobuchananiifoord

July, August

Mat-form

1.2 x 16
(3 x 40)

Grey-Green
acaenacfol1buchananiifoord

Plant in crevices of paving stones, in walls, on banks and slopes as a ground cover, in pale coloured gravel, in a Rock Garden or Containers at 12" spacing.

Acaena inermis
'Purpurea'

Brownish-Green , then click on plant name for photo

Photo required

July, August

Mat-form

5 x 12-36
(13 x 30-90)

Purple-brown to
pale olive
acaenacfolinermispurpureakevock

A fantastic small scale evergreen groundcover with leaves shaded in deep purple/red.

Acaena magellanica
georgia-australis

Brownish-Green

Photo required

July, August

Mat-form

5 x 12-36
(13 x 30-90)

Grey-Green
acaenacfolmagellanicageorgiaaustraliskevock

Leaves that reach 2 inches in length with 11-15 tiny, light grey-green deeply blunt toothed leaflets

Acaena microphylla

Black

acaenacflomicrophyllafoord

July, August

Mat-form

2-4 x 24
(5-10 x 60)

Green
acaenacfolmicrophyllafoord

Native from montane river gravels with grassland and herbfield in North Island, New Zealand. The spiny burrs (fruit) may be a nuisance to pets and sheep.

Acantholimon
glumaceum

Pink and Purple
 

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1

July

acantholimoncforglumaceumfoord
Mat-form

3 x 6-12
(8 x 15-30)

Mid to Dark Green
acantholimoncfolglumaceumfoord

Only Acantholimon glumaceum and Acantholimon venustum (1993) have generally proved themselves reliable in the open, requiring sharp drainage and either a scree or a vertical crevice or dry wall facing South or West. It is best to put young plants in their permanent positions and leave them undisturbed thereafter.

Acantholimon
venustum

Pink

acantholimoncflo1venustumfoord

July, August,
September

acantholimoncforvenustumfoord
Cushion

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Blue-Grey to Grey-Green
acantholimoncfolvenustumfoord

Achillea chrysocoma

Bright Yellow

achilleacflochrysocomafoord

July

achilleacforchrysocomafoord
Clump-form

8-12 x 12
(20-30 x 30)

Green
achilleacfolchrysocomafoord

Excellent cut flower in fresh or dry arrangements. To dry, cut and hang upside down in a dark area with good ventilation.

Aethionema
armenum

Pink, sometimes white,
veined
 

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1

May, June, July

aethionemacforarmenumfoord
Cushion

4-8 x 18
(10-20 x 45)

Blue-Grey
aethionemacfolarmenumfoord

Ideal for the rock garden, bedded in gravel, raised bed, trained up a dry wall or pot plant in the Alpine House. Plant with Arenaria montana, Aster alpinus 'Pinkie' and Campanula portenschlagiana

Aethionema
grandiflorum

Pink

 

aethionemacflograndiflorumkevock

May, June, July,
August

aethionemacforgrandiflorumkevock
Spreading

12-18 x 18
(30-45 x 45)

Grey-Green
aethionemacfolgrandiflorumkevock

Aethionema
'Warley Rose'

Pink
 

aethionemacflowarleyrosekevock

May, June, July,
August

aethionemacfloswarleyrosekevock
Mat-form

4-6 x 20 (10-15 x 50)

Blue-Grey

Agapanthus
africanus blue

Deep Blue

agapanthuscfloafricanusbluefoord

July, August,
September

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluefoord1
Clump-form

32 x 18
(80 x 45)

Light Green
agapanthuscfolafricanusbluefoord

Excellent cut flower. Contrasts well with yellow flowers. Easily combined with kniphofia, crocosmia, phygelius, potentilla, iris and tropical foliage.

Agapanthus
africanus 'Albus'

White
 

agapanthuscfloalbuskevock

July, August,
September

agapanthuscflosalbuskevock1
Clump-form

24-36 x 24
(60-90 x 60)

Dark Green
agapanthuscfolalbuskevock

Excellent cut flower. Combine with Echinops ritro 'Veitch's Blue' and Hemerocallis 'Pink Damask'. Plants for pest control against slugs and snails in Companion Planting.

Ajuga genevensis

Violet-blue, can be
pink or white

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord

May, June

ajugacforgenevensisfoord
Mat-form

8-10 x 24 (20-25 X 60)

Dark Green
ajugacfolgenevensisfoord

Mat-form plant that grows on the edges of dry woods, as well as in thickets and grasslands. Combine Ajuga with pink, pale blue and mauve flowers.

Ajuga pyramidalis
'Arctic Fox'

Violet-blue, can be
pink or white

Photo required

April, May, June

Mat-form and slowly Spreading

6 x 6
(15 x 45)

Cream leaves with Dark Green margin
ajugacfolpyramidalisarcticfoxkevock

A good edge-softener for polygonatum, Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam', Hosta 'Sum and Substance', bronze fennel, ornamental grasses, iris, lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea', round bulbs, under fruit trees, alongside woodland paths or in the shady border.

Ajuga reptans
 

Dark Blue

centaurea montana flower

May, June

ajugareptanscforkevock1
Mat-form

6 x 30
(15 x 75)

Dark Green

Partner with late narcissi, soft yellow primroses (Primula veris), cowslips, ornamental comfrey (Symphytum ibericum), Lenten Rose (Helleborus x hybridus), Chionodoxa forbesii 'Pink Giant', Dianthus Allwoodii Alpinus Group, Erysimum hieraciifolium, Iris pallida 'Argentea Variegata', Tulipa clusiana var. chrysantha.
Then later,
with autumn crocuses, colchicums (colchicum agrippinum) and Origanum vulgare 'Aureum'.

Ajuga reptans
'Atropurpurea'

Dark Blue

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea

April, May, June

ajugaforreptansatropurpurea1
Mat-form

6 x 36
(15 x 90)

Reddish-Purple

Ajuga reptans
'Braunherz'

Light Blue

ajugareptansbraunherzcflocoblands

May, June

ajugareptansbraunherzcforcoblands1
Mat-form

3.5 x 30
(9 x 75)

Purple with Bronze tint
ajugareptansbraunherzcfolcoblands1

Ajuga reptans
'Burgundy Glow
'

Deep Blue, petall-less, flowers in whorls within tiers

Photo required

April, May
 

6 x 30
(15 x 75)

Silver-Green, flushed Red
calluna vulgaris cuprea foliage

Ajuga reptans
'Catlin's Giant
'

Deep Blue

ajugareptanscatlinsgiantcflorvroger

May, June

ajugareptanscatlinsgiantcforrvroger1
Mat-form

8 x 15
(20 x 38)

Bronze-Purple
ajugareptanscatlinsgiantcfolrvroger1

A good edge-softener for Polygonatum, Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam', Hebe pinguifolia 'Pagei', Hosta 'Sum and Substance', bronze-foliaged Fennel, Ornamental Grasses, Iris and Lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea'. Use under fruit trees with bulbs. Also useful as a groundcover between larger perennials and shrubs.

Ajuga reptans
'Rainbow'

Dark Blue

centaurea montana flower

May, June

ajugareptansrainbowcforkevock1
Mat-form

4.75 x 30
(12 x 75)

Variegated Bronze-Green, Cream and Pink
ajugareptansrainbowcfol2kevock1

Ajuga reptans
'Valfredda'

Dark Blue

Photo required

May, June

ajugareptansvalfreddacforkevock1
Mat-form

4.75 x 30
(12 x 75)

Chocolate-Brown
ajugareptansvalfreddacfolkevock1

Ajuga reptans
'Variegata'

Dark Blue
 

ajugacfloreptansvariegata

April, May, June

ajugacfforp91reptansvariegata
Mat-form

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Grey-Green leaves margined and splashed Cream
ajugafolreptansvariegata1

Alyssum montanum

Golden Yellow

alyssumflo1montanumfoord

June

alyssumfortmontanumflowermay84a
Mat-form
 

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Grey
alyssumfoltmontanumflowermay84a

Alpine House Cultivation Alyssum do well in Compost A (Equal parts of loam, leafmould and sand. This is a suitable mixture for plants which require a light, open, porous soil with good drainage. A good mixture for troughs in a sheltered position in part shade.) over good drainage. They need
1) a ample amount of water in spring and summer,
2) from September to April give only enough water to keep the compost dry but not from becoming arid in winter.

Alyssum saxatile

Bright Yellow

alyssumflosaxatilefoord

April, May, June

alyssumcforsaxatilefoord
Mat-form

12 x 36
(30 x 90)

Grey-White
alyssumcfolsaxatilefoord

Anchusa cespitosa

Deep bright blue

anchusacflocespitosafoord

May, June, July

anchusacforcespitosafoord
Cushion

2 x 9
(5 x 23)

Deep Green
anchusacfolcespitosafoord

Use in rock garden, raised bed, scree or alpine house. Pair Anchusa azurea 'Loddon Royalist' with Papaver orientale for early summer counterpoint., then add some orange Geums, deep blue Siberian Iris, with a little Euphorbia griffithii 'Fireglow' nearby - to produce an eye-popping combination.

Androsace albana

Pale pink or white

androsacecfloalbanakevock1

July, August

androsacecforalbanakevock
Cushion

4-10 x 4 (10-25 x 10)

Mid-Green
androsacecfolalbanakevock

Ideal for the rock garden and raised bed (Rock Garden FAQS). High alpine species need vertical crevices in rock work, a dry wall or scree bed conditions.

Androsace bulleyana

Purple-red

androsacecflobulleyanakevock1

June, July

androsacecforbulleyanakevock
Mat-form

4-12 x 4 (10-30 x 10)

Grey-Green
androsacecfolbulleyanakevock

Androsace require sharply drained sandy soil in vertical crevices in rock work, a dry wall or a scree bed.

Androsace delavayi

Pink or white
 

androsacecflodelavayikevock1

May, June

androsacecfordelavayikevock
Cushion

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Dark Green
androsacecfoldelavayikevock

Neatly cushion-form; older plants spreading to form mats. Fragrant.

Androsace
jacquemontii

Deep pink

androsaceflojacquemontiikevock

May, June

androsacecforjacquemontiikevock
Clump-form

1 x 8
(2.5 x 20)

Grey-Green
androsacecfoljacquemontiikevock

Thrives outside in a raised scree bed as a clump; ideally with a pane of glass to keep off the winter wet. Can be grown in an Alpine House.

Androsace laevigata
'Gothenburg'

Rose-pink to
rose-purple

androsacecflolaevigatakevock1

May, June

androsacecforlaevigatakevock
Mat-form

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Dark Green
androsacecfollaevigatakevock

Densely mat-form and compact, to about 1 foot across. Androsace World aims to exhibit a photograph of every known species of Androsace.

Androsace
lanuginosa

Lilac-pink

androsacecflolanuginosakevock1

June, July,
August

4 x 18
(10 x 45)

Grey-Green

An easily grown and attractive species for the rock garden, thriving even in clay soils with a modicum of grit. Plant vertically where possible so that rain and other water doesn't sit in the rosettes of the plant. This is a sure way to kill them off. Always water from beneath the leaves. Hates wet winters.

Androsace
mucronifolia

White to deep pink

androsacecflomucronifoliafoord1

June, July,
Mid-August

androsacecformucronifoliafoord
Cushion

4 x 15
(10 x 38)

Pale Green
androsacecfolmucronifoliafoord

Pale green foliage rosettes almost globular up to 0.5 inches across. Green leaves obovate, round tipped and mucronate (mucronate is an adjective meaning ending in a mucro, or sharp point). Habitat among rocks, screes and alpine meadows.

Androsace
pyrenaica

White

androsacecflopyrenaicafoord1a

May, June

androsacecforpyrenaicafoord
Cushion

4 x 9
(10 x 23)

Grey-Green
androsacecfolpyrenaicafoord

It favours acid rocks, being generally found on granite cliffs above 2500 metres in the Pyrenees. Perfect for alpine troughs. See details on its Alpine House Cultivation.

Androsace rigida

Bright pink

androsacecflorigidakevock1

April, May, June

androsacecforrigidakevock
Mat-form

4 x 8
(10 x 20)

Deep Green
androsacecfolrigidakevock

Native from South-Western China, in the drier subalpine zone on open grassy slopes, in rock crevices at forest margins and also in open mossy forests. Loosely mat to open cushion-form, in the wild sometimes up to 8 inches tall. Grows quite well outside with winter wet protection, but young growth can be frost damaged.

Androsace
rotundifolia

White fading to pink
or pink-red

androsacecflorotundifoliakevock1

June, July

androsacecforrotundifoliakevock
Spreading

5 x 3
(13 x 8)

Mid-Green
androsacecfolrotundifoliakevock

Native from North Western Himalaya; Kashmir to Nepal and Bhutan; in varied habitats from open hillsides to shady rock ledges and open woodland at altitudes of 1500-3600 metres.

Androsace
sarmentosa

 

Bright pink
to carmine

androsacecflo2sarmentosafoord

July, August

androsaceforsarmentosakevock
Mat-form

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Deep Green
androsacefolsarmentosakevock

It is one of the easiest and most rewarding of the species suitable for rock garden and raised beds.
Sharply drained sandy soil in vertical crevices in rock work, rock garden or a scree bed.
The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.The plant prefers basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Androsace
sempervivoides

Pink to
mauve-pink

androsacecflosempervivoideskevock1

May

androsacecforsempervivoideskevock
Mat-form

6 x 2
(15 x 5)

Deep Green
androsacecfolsempervivoideskevock

It quickly spreads by runners to give a mat of rosettes, and does not need winter protection.
It requires a habitat of sharply drained sandy soil in vertical crevices in rock work, a dry wall or a scree bed.

Androsace
spinulifera

Magenta-red
to purple

androsacecflospinuliferakevock1

June, July

androsacecforspinuliferakevock
Clump-form

3-12 x 5
(8-30 x 13)

Light Green
androsacecfolspinuliferakevock

A plant from Yunnan, form small rosettes of spine-tipped, closely imbricated leaves in winter, these elongating to more loose, narrow spine-tipped large leaves in spring. Flowers on 6 inch stems in umbels. Quite easy in Compost A (Equal parts of loam, leafmould and sand. This is a suitable mixture for plants which require a light, open, porous soil with good drainage. A good mixture for troughs in a sheltered position in part shade). They need

  • a sufficiency of water in spring and summer with full sun conditions,
  • from September to April give only enough water to keep the compost dry but not from becoming arid in winter.

Androsace
strigillosa

White

androsacecflostrigillosakevock1

May, June
July

androsacecforstrigillosakevock
Clump-form

10 x 12
(25 x 30)

Mid-Green
androsacecfolstrigillosakevock

"The reverse of the petals are deep dusky pink outlined with white. It has grown well outside for many years, eventually making a wide clump." from Kevock Garden Plants .

Androsace studiosorum
'Doksa'

White

androsacecflostudiosorumdoksakevock1

April

androsacecforstudiosorumdoksakevock
Mat-form

3 x 3
(8 x 8)

Grey-Green
androsacecfolstudiosorumdoksakevock

Hairy grey-green foliage rosettes which are interlinked with fine red stems to make dense mats in sharply drained sandy soil in vertical crevices in rock work, a dry wall or a scree bed.

Androsace tapete

White
 

 

June, July

androsacecfortapetekevock
Cushion

3 x 6
(8 x 15)

Light Green
androsacecfoltapetekevock

Forms compact moundlike cushions and is native from dry meadows and gravelly mountain slopes. In the wild, it takes at least 10 years from first budding for this plant to form a rounded cushion about 3 inches high and 10 inches wide in the limestone gravel at arid heights.

Androsace
vandellii

White
...

androsacecflovandelliikevock1

April

androsacecfor1vandelliikevock
Cushion

2 x 4
(5 x 10)

Light Green

A tightly cushion-form species up to 6 inches across. Native from the Alps, in non-calcareous or igneous rock fissures, often in shaded sites but also stands full exposure. In its early years a relatively easy and popular species which can be grown outside in vertical crevices, or a scree bed, ideally with winter rain protection using a sheet of glass.

Androsace villosa

White fading to pink

androsacecflovillosakevock1

March, April, May

androsacecforvillosakevock
Mat-form

6 x 9
(15 x 23)

Mid-Green
androsacecfolvillosakevock

Hairy, mid-green foliage in rosettes, ideally with winter rain protection using a sheet of glass. Plant firmly in good, free soil, with lime rubble and sandstone fragments to keep it well drained.
Alpine House Propagation - By cuttings taken in July. Repot every other year after flowering.

Androsace
yargongensis

Pink or
White

androsacecfloyargongensiskevock1

June, July

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1
Cushion

1 x 4
(2.5 x 10)

Dark Green
androsacecfolyargongensiskevock

3 -5 White or Pink flowers in each cushion in June-July.
Dense cushions from regularly branched purplish-brown shoots and crowded dark green leaf rosettes 0.125-0.5 inches in diameter.
Soil - Sharply drained sandy soil in a limestone scree bed

Anemone blanda

Blue,
purple, white
or pink

anemonecflo1blandafoord1

March, April

anemonecfor1blandafoord
Clump-form

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Dark Green
anemonecfol1blandafoord

Entire plant is poisonous.
For spring-flowering Anemones - bulbs, aquilegia, dicentra, helleborus, omphalodes, ranunculus ficaria, trillium and primula.
For late summer and autumn-flowering Anemones - grasses, hardy fuchsias, aster, dahlia, eupatorium, phlox and astrantia.

Anemone x hybrida
 

Pale pink

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1

August, September, October

anemonecfor1hybridafoord
Upright

48-60 x indef-inite (120-150 x indef-inite)

Mid-Green
anemonecfol1hybridafoord

The Japanese Anemone requires well-drained, humus-rich, Sand or Chalk; with moist soil that does not dry out. A Mulch with 4 inch depth of compost in November and top it up in March will accomplish this. Ideal for the border.

Anemonella
thalictroides

White (pink forms
are known)

anemonellacflothalictroidesfoord1

March, April,
May, June

anemonellacforthalictroidesfoord
Clump-form

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Olive-Green
anemonellacfolthalictroidesfoord

Clump or colony-form, slowly spreading to 12 inches or more across. Need to be protected from competition in the root zone. Plants disappear by midsummer (Summer dormant), earlier if they don't get enough moisture. Remove dead foliage and mark location of plants; even when dormant, they need to be kept moist. Tubers may rot in very wet soils like clay or alongside streams, rivers or lakes. Grow in a woodland garden, underplanting in a shady shrub border or a rock garden. See Nursery of Perennials, Ferns and Bulbs for Shade for other plants to put in the shade.

Anthericum liliago

White

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

May, June

anthericumcforliliagofoord
Clump-form

24-36 x 12
(60-90 x 30)

Grey-Green

St. Bernard's Lily is superb when naturalised in grass with a mixture of native and exotic bulbs and perennials. Along with understated narcissus cultivars ('Hawera' is a beautifully simple flower), it will sit well with Camassia cusickii, Allium sphaerocephalon and, for later colour, Liatris spicata.

Aquilegia atrata

Deep Purple, almost black

aquilegiacflo1atratafoord1

June

aquilegiacfor1atratafoord
Mat-form

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Dark Green
aquilegiacfol1atratafoord

All aquilegia seeds and roots are poisonous.
Excellent mat-form plant between small shrubs. Native in open woodland and rocky places on limestone in Southern Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Italy, France and Switzerland.

Aquilegia canadensis

Red and Yellow

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord1

April, May, June

aquilegiacforcanadensisfoord
Mat-form

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Pale Green
aquilegiacfolcanadensisfoord

Excellent plant for between small shrubs, in a rock garden and in the Alpine House. Native to Eastern USA on roadside banks and in dappled shade, North America and Canada on rocky outcrops and woodland.
Plant any of the Allium family nearby to ward off aphids.

Aquilegia flabellata
'Kurilensis'

Blue-Purple

aquilegiacflo1flabellatakurilensisfoord1

June

aquilegiacfor1flabellatakurilensisfoord
Mat-form

10-12 x 12 (25-30 x 30)

Dark Green
aquilegiacfol1flabellatakurilensisfoord

Excellent mat-form plant for the rock garden and Alpine House. Companions with Viola, alchemilla mollis, geranium, hemerocallis, paeonia, digitalis, hosta, euphorbia and pulmonaria.

Aquilegia formosa

Red

aquilegiaflo1formosafoord1a

April, May, June, July, August

aquilegiacfolformosafoord1
Clump-form

8-32 x 15 (20-80 x 38)

Blue-Green
aquilegiacfolformosafoord

Excellent clump-form plant for woodland garden, between small shrubs, or by the pond and stream. Requires Moist soil - Don't let the soil dry out since it appreciates stream banks.

Aquilegia vulgaris
 

Pink, blue-violet or
white through pinks and purple to almost black

aquilegiacflo1vulgarisfoord1

May, June

aquilegiacfor1vulgarisfoord
Clump-form

18-30 x 18-24
(45-75 x 45-60)

Grey-Green
aquilegiacfolvulgarisfoord

Excellent erect clump plant for inserting between roses and small shrubs.
Available as seed from The Seed Site. Usually comes true from seed.

Arenaria balearica

White

arenariabalearicaflot9

April, May, June

4 x 20
(10 x 50)

Dark Green

Good dark green background, but versatile for use in mixed containers, rockeries, borders and paved gardens.

Arenaria tetraquetra

White

 

May, June

arenariacfortetraquetrafoord

0.5 x 12-15
(1 x 30-45)

Grey-Green
arenariacfoltetraquetrafoord

Dense, hard green mat of tetragonus leaves; many white, stem-less flowers in May. Use as a mat to intergrow with something larger such as dianthus or bulbs.

Arisarum proboscideum

White tubed, Purple striped spathes

arisarumcfloproboscideum

April, May

arisarumcforproboscideumfoord
Mat-form

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Bright Green

Forms a slowly spreading mat of bright green heart-shaped leaves, emerging in spring shortly before the flowers. These are about 3 cm high, with a dark brown spathe, shading to white in the lower half, and with a very long brown tail extending from the top of the spathe

Armeria juniperifolia

Light Pink

armeriacflojuniperifoliafoord

March, April, May

armeriacfor2juniperifoliafoord
Mat-form

2-4 x 4-6
(5-10 x 10-15)

Dark Green
armeriacfolrubifoliakevock

Compact, hardy, evergreen perennial which forms low-growing mats. Ideal for rock gardens, gravel gardens, raised beds, containers and for edging beds. As this plant grows by the sea, it's ideal for coastal gardens. The pretty pink flowers open in late spring and are very attractive to bees, beetles, hoverflies, butterflies and moths.

Armeria juniperifolia 'Bevan's Variety'

Rosy-Pink

armeriacflojuniperifoliabevansvarietyfoord

March, April, May

armeriacforjuniperifoliabevansvarietyfoord
Cushion

2 x 4
(5 x 10)

Grey-Green
armeriacfoljuniperifoliabevansvarietyfoord

Very tight compact green dome with almost sessile pink flowers in profusion in May. A real beauty, ideal for trough, crevice, wall or raised bed. Salt tolerant, it can be planted along coastlines.

Armeria maritima
'Alba'

White
...

armeriamaritimaalbacflo1a

May, June
July, August

armeriacformaritimaalbafoord
Mat-form

6-12 x 12 (15-30 x 30)

Dark Green
armeriacfolmaritimaalbafoord

Ideal for the rock garden, raised bed, scree as an edging plant and alpine house. Cut off flowers and stems immediately after the flowers fade, and they will rebloom. Replace plants after they become loose and straggly. Poke sections of stem into the soil in the spring, where they will root to produce your next plants.

Artemesia pedemontana

Yellow

artemesiacflospedemontanafoord

June, July,
August

artemesiacfor1pedemontanafoord
Cushion

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Silver
artemesiacfol2pedemontanafoord

The silky wormwood forms a low mound of mink-fur-soft much dissected silver leaves. We grow a patch of it at the edge of a path in our dry climate garden. Whilst it looks delicate it is in fact easy to grow as long as it is given full sun and doesn’t sit in sodden soil for long periods. Silky Wormwood is equally happy in the rock garden as in the border.

Artemisia
stelleriana

Yellow
...

 

August,
September

artemesiacforstellerianakevock
Mat-form

18-30 x 24 (45-75 x 60)

Greyish-White
artemesiacfol1stellerianakevock

Companions of Ornamental grasses, lilies, allium, aster, sedum and nepeta. Also use with plants that have white flowers.

Asarum caudatum

Purple

asarumcflocaudatumfoord

July, August

asarumsforcaudatumfoord
Clump-form

12 x 4
(30 x 10)

Apple Green
asarumcfol1caudatumfoord

Wild Ginger is a useful ground-cover plant for deep shade, spreading by its roots. It spreads by rhizomes that travel on the surface of the ground or just slightly beneath.

Asperula nitida

Pink

asperulacflo2nitidafoord

July, August

asperulacfornitidafoord
Spreading

4 x 8
(10 x 20)

Light Green
asperulacfol1nitidafoord

Woodruff is a hardy plant which grows horizontally and low to the ground. It requires a medium and well drained soil, preferring semi-shade, sun, and a position in an alpine house, in a container or bedded in gravel or in a raised bed or in a rock garden.

B

Bergenia 'Autumn Magic'

Mid-Pink
 

bergeniaautumnmagiccflocoblands

March, April,
May

bergeniaautumnmagiccforcoblands1
Clump-form

12 x 16
(30 x 40)

Mid Green that turns Dark Red in Winter
bergeniaautumnmagiccfolcoblands1

Bergenia is a tough and hardy grower that thrives in just about any position. It can’t be beaten as an evergreen ground cover plant.

Bergenia 'Bressingham White'

Pure White
 

bergeniabressinghamwhitecflocoblands

March, April

bergeniabressinghamwhitecforcoblands1
Clump-form

18-24 x 26 (45-60 x 65)

Dark Green
bergeniabressinghamwhitecfolcoblands1

Companion plants to Bergenias are Omphalodes, Brunnera macrophylla, Hamamelis, Primula, Helleborus, Ophiopogon and Chaerophyllum.

Bergenia cordifolia

Red

bergeniacordifoliacpflocoblands

March, April

bergeniacordifoliacpforcoblands1
Clump-form

18-24 x 24 (45-60 x 60)

Dark Green, bronze tinged
bergeniacordifoliacpfolcoblands1

Bergenias are good for softening edges of beds, at their best when mass planted. Use with bulbs whose flowers will rise above the leaves.

Bergenia cordifolia 'Purpurea'

Purplish-Red

bergeniacordifoliapurpureacflorvroger

March, April

bergeniacordifoliapurpureacforrvroger1
Clump-form

21 x 24
(52 x 60)

Reddish-Green foliage that turns Purple in Winter
bergeniacordifoliapurpureacfolrvroger1
 

Leave the dead bergenia leaves on to provide the ground cover and prevent light reaching annual weed seeds to germinate them.. This plant has "bright magenta flowers. Inter-planted with yellow tulips will form an absolutely stunning display in Spring.

Bergenia 'Morning Red'

Bright Carmine-Pink

bergeniamorningredCflocoblands

April, May

centaurea montana form
Clump-form

15 x 15
(38 x 38)

Dark Green
bergeniamorningredcfolcoblands1

How to divide Bergenias.

Further details about Bergenia species from Wikipedia.

Bergenia purpurascens

Purple-Red

bergeniapurpurascensflot9

March, April

bergeniaforpurpurascens1
Clump-form

18 x 12
(45 x 30)

Dark Green in Spring, then Purple foliage in winter.
bergeniafolpurpurascens1

Clump-form form. Harbours snails!!

See Pest Control in Companion Planting to provide plants to ward off snails.

Bergenia 'Silver Light'

White turning Pink with age, Red centre

bergeniasilverlightcflocoblands

April, May

bergeniasilverlightcforcoblands1
Clump-form

12-18 x 26 (30-45 x 65)

Dark Green
bergeniasilverlightcfolcoblands1

Strong grower.

Common names of Elephant's Ears, Pigsqueak, Megasea.

Brachyscome rigidula

Pale mauve, pink, purple-blue or white

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a

May, June,
July, August, September

Clump-form

6 x 8
(15 x 20)

Light Green

Tufted to small clump-form plant with erect to ascending stems, that grows as a native plant in well-drained soils at higher elevations in dry pastures of Eastern Australia. Use in rock garden.

D

Dianthus
erinaceus

Pink

dianthuserinaceusflot9a

June, July,
August
dianthusforterinaceus1a
Cushion

2 x 20
(4 x 50)

Mid-Green
dianthusfolterinaceus1a

Cushion-form form. Sparse production of flowers in cool climates.

E

Erinus alpinus

Pink, Purple or
White

erinusflotalpinus1

June, July
June, July
erinusfortalpinus1a
Mat-form

3 x 4
(8 x 10)

Dark Green
erinusfoltalpinus1a

Mat-form form. Self-seeds. Ideal for rock garden, a wall, or paving crevices.

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G

Geranium cinereum
'Ballerina'

Purplish-Red

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a

June, July
geraniumfortcinereumballerina1
Mat-form

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Grey-Green
geraniumfoltcinereumballerina1

Excellent Rock Garden plant with long flowering season. More information about hardy geraniums can be obtained from Hardy Geraniums for the Garden by the Hardy Plant Society ISBN 0 901687 06 5.

L

Lavatera
maritima
 

Pink or
...
...
White

lavateracflomaritima

September, October,
November
September, October,
November

Upright

60 x 36
(150 x 90)

Grey-Green
lavaterafoltmaritima1

Combine with
Aconitum x cammarum 'Bicolor, Buddleja davidii 'Nanho Petite Purple', Cistus x argenteus 'Blushing Peggy Sammons' and Dahlia 'Gerrie Hoek'

Limonium
minutum

Purple
 

limoniumflotminutum

July

Cushion

4 x 6
(10 x 15)

Dark Green

Use in herbaceous, annual border, trough or rock garden and for naturalizing in a gravel garden.

P

Phlox subulata
'Temiskaming'

Deep Magenta
 

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming2

June, July
phloxfortsubulatatemiskaming1
Cushion

4 x 20
(10 x 50)

Bright Green
phloxfoltsubulatatemiskaming1

Grow in rock garden, alpine house, dry wall, or as edging. Companion plants with Eupatorium, Salvia, Aster, Echinacea, Geranium, Hardy Fuchsia and Aconitum.

Phuopsis
stylosa

Pink
 

phuopsisflotstylosa

June, July,
August
phuopsisfortstylosa1
Mat-form

6 x 20
(15 x 50)

Pale Green
phuopsisfoltstylosa1

Ground cover on a bank, in a rock garden, or at the front of a border. Slugs in Spring can be a problem, so plant Rosemary, White Hellebore or Wormwood alongside to reduce it.

Prunella
grandiflora

Purple
 

prunellaflotgrandiflora2

July, August,
September
prunellafortgrandiflora1
Spreading

6 x 36
(15 x 90)

Deep Green
prunellafoltgrandiflora1

Ground cover on a bank, at the front of a border, or in a wild garden, where attract bees and butterflies.

R

Raoulia
australis

Sulphur-Yellow

raouliaflotaustralis

July, August,
September

Mat-form

0.5 x 12
(1 x 30)

Grey-Silver
raouliafoltaustralis1

Use in a rock garden, raised bed or a scree bed (comes from screes in New Zealand).

S

Explaination of the 15 Saxifraga Generic Sections is in Saxifraga apiculata

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga Section 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga Section 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga cymbalaria

Bright Yellow

saxifragaflotcymbalaria

April
saxifragafortcymbalaria1
Cushion

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Bright Green
saxifragafoltcymbalaria1

Use in the border between taller perennials or shrubs to provide the part shade or in a woodland setting and in a rock garden.

Saxifraga Section 3-6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga Section 7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga apiculata

Yellow

saxifragaflotapiculata

March, April
saxifragafortapiculata1
Cushion

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Lime-encrusted Deep Green
centaurea montana foliage

Companion plants for saxifragas are Ferns, Hosta, Primula, Arisaema, Geranium, Astilbe, Aruncus aethusifolius, Viola cornuta and Hakonechloa.

Saxifraga burseriana

White

saxifragaflotburseriana

March
saxifragafortburseriana1
Cushion

2 x 6
(5 x 15)

Grey-Green
saxifragafoltburseriana1

Grow in a Rock Garden, trough, Alpine House or tufa. Mulch round it with grit for drainage.

Saxifraga burseriana
'Gloria'

White

saxifragaflotburserianagloria

March
saxifragafortburserianagloria1
Cushion

2 x 6
(5 x 15)

Grey-Green
saxifragafoltburserianagloria1

Growing medium required is Chalk, Sand or in Alpine House in 2 parts John Innes No 1 and 1 part limestone chippings

Saxifraga burseriana
var. major

White
 

saxifragaflotburserianamajor

March, April
saxifragafortburserianamajor1
Cushion

3 x 6
(8 x 15)

Grey-Green
saxifragafoltburserianamajor1

Lime-encrusted, Grey-Green foliage with 5-petalled White flower in March-April on red stems.

Saxifraga burseriana 'Sulphurea'

Yellow
 

saxifragaburserianasulphureacflot

March
saxifragafortburserianasuplhurea1
Cushion

2 x 6
(5 x 15)

Grey-Green
saxifragafoltburserianasuplhurea1

Lime-encrusted, Grey-Green foliage with Yellow 5-petalled flowers in March on short red stems

Saxifraga x irvingii 'Jenkinsiae'

Pale Pink
 

saxifragaflotirvingiijenkinsiae

March
saxifragafortirvingiijenkinsiae1
Cushion

2 x 8
(6 x 20)

Grey-Green
saxifragafoltirvingiijenkinsiae1

Grow in rock garden or trough. Very floriferous.

Saxifraga oppositifolia 'Splendens'

Rich Rose-Purple
 

saxifragaflotoppositifoliasplendens

April
saxifragacfor1oppositifoliasplendenskevock
Mat-form

2 x 12
(6 x 30)

Dark Green
saxifragafoltoppositifoliasplendens1

Originated in the Pyrenees. Grow in scree or rock garden as a fine garden plant.

Saxifraga Section 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga cochlearis

Red-spotted White
 

saxifragaflotcochlearis

June
saxifragafortcochlearis1
Cushion

8 x 6
(20 x 15)

Mid Green
saxifragafoltcochlearis1

Use in rock garden, trough, alpine house or tufa. Intolerant of winter wet.

Saxifraga cotyledon

White marked Red

saxifragaflotcotyledon

June, July
saxifragafort1cotyledon1
Cushion

24 x 8
(60 x 20)

Pale Green
saxifragafoltcotyledon1

White marked red 5-petalled flowers in branched and pyramidal groups in June-July. The flowering foliage rosette dies after blooming.

Saxifraga paniculata

Creamy-White

saxifragaflotpaniculata

July
saxifragafortpaniculata1
Mat-form

6 x 10
(15 x 24)

Grey-Green
saxifragafoltpaniculata1

Use in rock garden, trough, alpine house or tufa. Intolerant of winter wet.

Saxifraga
'Southside Seedling'

White, heavily
spotted Red

saxifragaflotsouthsideseedling

May, June
saxifragafortsouthsideseedling1
Mat-form

16 x 8
(40 x 20)

Pale Green
saxifragafoltsouthsideseedling1

Grow in a rock garden partly shaded by higher plants.

Saxifraga Section 9-10

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga Section 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga x urbium

Pink-flushed White

saxifragaflotxurbium

July
saxifragafortxurbium1
Spreading

12 x indef-inite
(30 x indef-inite)

Mid Green
saxifragafoltxurbium1

Spreading mat form. Use as groundcover in rock garden or border to create a green carpet.

Saxifraga Section 12-14

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga Section 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saxifraga cebennensis

White

saxifragaflotcebennensis

July
saxifragafortcebennensis1
Cushion

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Dark Green
saxifragafoltcebennensis1

Makes a tight green "mossy" dome for growing in an alpine house or outside on tufa with shade from the midday sun. Seeds profusely.

Saxifraga 'Dubarry'

Crimson
 

saxifragaflotdubarry

May, June
saxifragafortdubarry1
Cushion

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Mid Green
saxifragafoltdubarry1

Use in rock garden, trough, alpine house or tufa. Intolerant of winter wet.

Saxifraga exarata

Cream
 

saxifragaflotexerata

July
saxifragafortexerata1
Cushion

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Mid Green
saxifragafoltexerata1

From the Latin "saxum" (Rock) and "frago" (to break); those growing naturally in rock crevices appear to have broken the rocks.

Saxifraga 'Pixie'

Bright Pink or
White

saxifragaflotpixie

May
saxifragafortpixie1
Cushion

1 x 6
(3 x 15)

Bright Green
saxifragafoltpixie1

Bright Green notched leaves and use in rock garden, trough, alpine house or tufa.

Saxifraga
'Pixie Alba'

Creamy-White

saxifragaflotpixiealba

May
saxifragafortpixiealba1
Cushion

1 x 6
(3 x 15)

Bright Green
saxifragafoltpixiealba1

Use in rock garden, trough, alpine house or tufa. Intolerant of winter wet.

Saxifraga rosacea
var. hartii

White

saxifragaflotrosaceavarhartii

May
 

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Light Green
saxifragafoltrosaceavarhartii1

Compact Cushion Form. Native of maritime cliffs of Aranmoor in Northwestern Ireland and a fairly easy grower in a garden bed.

Saxifraga
'Winifred Bevington'

White dotted
with Red

saxifragaflotwinifredbevington

April
 

2 x 5
(6 x 12)

Dark Green
saxifragafoltwinifredbevington1

A neat little plant with flattish prostrate rosette form with 6 inch high flowering stems.

The explaination of 12 Sedum Generic Sections is in Sedum acre

 

 

 

 

 

From the Latin "sedo" (to sit), referring to the manner in which some species attach themselves to stones or walls.

Sedum Section 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sedum Section 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sedum kamtschaticum

Deep Golden-Yellow

sedumflotkamtschaticum

June, July, August

Mat-form

5 x 12
(12 x 30)

Mid Green
sedumfoltkamtschaticum1

Use on stony slopes in a rock garden with a grit mulch. You can use Sedum yourself or get it erected on evergreen roof gardens.

Sedum Section 3-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sedum Section 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sedum acre

Bright Yellow

sedumflotacre

July, August,
September
sedumfortacre1
Mat-form

2 x 24
(5 x 60)

Light Green
sedumfoltacre1

Grown in dry grassland, sand-dunes, shingle, walls and rocks.

Sedum hispanicum

White with Pink to Purple veins

sedumflothispanicum

June, July
sedumforthispanicum1
Cushion

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Dense pinky glaucous-grey, often finely spotted purple
sedumfolthispanicum1

Sedums below 1 foot in height are suitable for the Rock Garden or at the front of the border. Use the remainder in the Autumn Border. Usually very free-flowering.

Sedum rupestre

Yellow with
Red-tipped keels

sedumflotrupestre

July
sedumfortrupestre1
Mat-form

4 x 24
(10 x 60)

Grey-Green
sedumfoltrupestre1

Spreads freely; best in a large rock garden. The Sedum Society provides further data.

Sedum spathulifolium 'Cape Blanco'

Yellow
 

sedumflotspathulifoliumcapeblanco

July, August,
September
sedumfortspathulifoliumcapeblanco1
Mat-form

4 x 24
(10 x 60)

Silvery-Green, frequently suffused Purple
sedumfoltspathulifoliumcapeblanco1

Companion Plants for sedums are Dwarf Conifers, Low-growing Ornamental Grasses, Aster, Nepeta ,Penstemon, Salvia, Scabiosa, Heuchera, Carex.

Sedum Section 6-12

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shortia uniflora

Pink

shortiaflotuniflora

April
shortiafortuniflora1
Mat-form

6 x 10
(15 x 24)

Mid-Green
shortiafoltuniflora1

Woodland plants in the wild.
A summary of the genus Shortia.

Silene acaulis

Deep Pink

sileneflotacaulis

July
silenefortacaulis1
Cushion

2 x 12
(5 x 30)

Bright Green
silenefoltacaulis1

Put with Low-growing Ornamental Grasses, short Campanulas, Erigeron, Euphorbia myrsinites, Dianthus deltoides, Iirs germanica and Iris siberica.

Sisyrinchium graminoides

Deep to Light Purple with a Yellow Eye

sisyrinchriumflotgraminoides

June, July, August
sisyrinchriumfortgraminoides1
Clump-form

19 x 6
(48 x 15)

Deep Green
sisyrinchriumfoltgraminoides1

Further details about this plant and its cultural requirements. Grow in herbaceous border.

Stachys macrantha
 

Pinkish-Purple

stachysflotmacrantha1a

July, August,
September, October
stachysfortmacrantha1
Upright

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Dark Green
stachysfoltmacrantha1

Grow in mixed shrub/Perennial Border or Herbaceous Border. Attractive to bees and butterflies.

T

Tradescantia Andersoniana Group

Blue, Purple, Rose-Pink to Rose-Red, or White

tradescantiaflot4andersoniana

May, June, July, August, September
tradescantiafortandersoniana1
Clump-form

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Mid Green
tradescantiafoltandersoniana1

Grow with Fern, Hosta, Iris foetidissima, Iris siberica, Ligularia, Heuchera, Brunnera and Hemerocallis liliaasphodelus in the Summer Border.

V

Veronica
pectinata

White-eyed Deep Blue
 

veronicaflotpectinata

July, August,
September

8 x 8
(20 x 20)

Grey
veronicafoltpectinata1

Use as groundcover. Slugs in early Spring can be a problem, so plant Rosemary, White Hellebore or Wormwood alongside to reduce it.

Veronica
pectinata 'Rosea'

Pink
 

veronicaflotpectinatarosea

July, August,
September
veronicafortpectinatarosea1
Mat-form

8 x 8
(20 x 20)

Grey
veronicafoltpectinatarosea1

Grow with Miscanthus, Pennisetum, Molinia, Hosta, Primula, Paeonia, Carex, Narcissus, Lathyrus vernus, Phlox paniculata, Aconitum, Aster, Geranium, Stachys and Campanula.

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These 4 rows show that plants need access to the air, water and nutrients in the ground for mycorrhizal fungi to exchange with them for 30% of the plants production of sugars and lipids. If the ground is covered with tarmac, concrete or stone, it will stop this exchange to the detriment of the plant and the fungi.

 

The following is from
This Book is a Plant
How to grow, learn and radically engage with the natural world
by different authors.
Published in 2023 by Profile Books Ltd in association with Wellcome Collection.
ISBN 978 1 78816 692 8 :-

"Some time around 600 million years ago, green algae began to move out of shallow fresh waters and onto the land. They were the ancestors of all land plants... Today, plants make up to 80% of the mass of all life on Earth and are the base of the food chains that support nearly all terrestrial organisms....

But the algal ancestors of land plants had no roots, no way to store or transport water, and no experience in extracting nutrients from solid ground. How did they manage the fraught passage onto dry land? ... It was only by striking up new relationships with fungi that algae were able to make it onto land.

These early alliances evolved into what we now call mycorrhizal relationships. Today, more than 90% of all plant species depend on mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal associations are the rule not the exception: a more fundamental part of planthood than fruit, flowers, leaves, wood or even roots....

For the relationship to thrive, both plant and fungus must make a good metabolic match. In photosynthesis, plants harvest carbon from the atmosphere and forge the energy-rich carbon compounds - sugars and lipids - on which much of the rest of life depends. By growing within plant roots, mycorrhizal fungi acquire privileged access to these sources of energy: they get fed. However, photosynthesis is not enough to support life. Plants and fungi need more than a source of energy. Water and minerals must be scavenged from the ground - full of textures and micropores, electrically charged cavities and labyrinthine rot-scapes. Fungi are deft rangers in this wilderness and can forage in a way that plants can not. By hosting fungi within their roots, plants gain hugely improved access to these sources of nutrients. They, too, get fed. By partnering, plants gain a prosthetic fungus, and fungi gain a prosthetic plant. Both use the other to extend their reach.... By the time the first roots evolved, the mycorrhizal association was already some 50 million years old. Mycorrhizal fungi are the roots of all subsequent life on land.

Today, hundreds of millions of years later, plants have evolved, faster-growing, opportunistic roots that behave more like fungi. But even these roots cannot out-manoeuvre fungi when it comes to exploring the soil. Mycorrhizal hyphae are 50 times finer than the finest roots and can exceeed the length of a plant's roots by as much as a 100 times. Their mycelium makes up between a third and a half of the living mass of soils. The numbers are astronomical. Globally, the total length of mycorrhizal hyphae in the top 10 centimetres (4 inches) of soil is around half the width of our galaxy (4.5 x 10 to the power 17 kilometres versus 9.5 x 10 to the power 17 kilometres). If these hyphae were ironed into a flat sheet, their combined surface area would cover every inch of dry land on Earth 2.5 times over....

In their relationship, plants and mycorrhizal fungi enact a polarity: plant shoots engage with the light and air, while the fungi and plant roots engage with the solid ground. Plants pack up light and carbon dioxide into sugars and lipids. Mycorrhizal fungi unpack nutrients bound up in rock and decomposing material. These are fungi with a dual niche: part of their life happens within the plant, part in the soil. They are stationed at the entry point of carbon into terrestrial life cycles and stitch the atmosphere into relation with the ground. To this day, mycorrhizal fungi help plants cope with drought, heat and many other stresses life on land has presented from the very beginning, as do the symbiotic fungi that crowd into plant leaves and stems. What we call 'plants' are in fact fungi that have evolved to farm algae, and algae that have evolved to farm fungi....

Mycorrhizal fungi can provide up to 80% of a plant's nitrogen, and as much as 100% of its phosphorus. Fungi supply other crucial nutrients to plants, such as zinc and copper. They also supply plants with water, and help them to survive drought as they have done since the earliest days of life on land. In return, plants allocate up to 30% of the carbon they harvest to their mycorrhizal partners....

And yet mycorrhizal fungi do more than feed plants. Some describe them as keystone organisms; others prefer the term 'ecosystem engineers'. Mycorrhizal mycelium is a sticky living seam that holds soil together; remove the fungi, and the ground washes away. Mycorrhizal fungi increase the volume of water that the soil can absorb, reducing the quantity of nutrients leached out of the soil by rainfall by as much as 50%. Of the carbon that is found in soils - which, remarkably, amounts to twice the amount of carbon found in plants and the atmosphere combined - a substantial proportion is bound up in tough organic compounds produced by mycorrhizal fungi. The carbon that floods into the soil through mycorrhizal channels supports intricate food webs. Besides the hundreds or thousands of metres of fungal mycelium in a teaspoon of healthy soil, there are more bacteria, protists, insects and arthropods than the number of humans who have ever lived on Earth.

Mycorrhizal fungi can increase the quality of a harvest. They can also increase the ability of crops to compete with weeds and enhance their resistance to diseases by priming plant's immune systems. They can make crops less susceptible to drought and heat, and more resistant to salinity and heavy metals. They even boost the ability of plants to fight off attacks from insect pests by stimulating the production of defensive chemicals...

But over the course of the twentieth century, our neglect has led us into trouble. In viewing soils as more or less lifeless places, industrial agricultural practices have ravaged the undergound communities that sustain the life we eat.... A large study published in 2018 suggested that the 'alarming deterioration' of the health of trees across Europe was caused by a disruption of their mycorrhizal relationships, brought about by nitrogen pollution." from Before Roots chapter by Merlin Sheldrake.

 

 

"We do know, that this fragile, generative world has been damaged by intensive farming, pollution, deforestation and global heating. A third of the planet's land has been severely degraded and 24 billion tons of fertile soil are destroyed every year through intensive farming, according to the Global Land Outlook. Topsoil is where 95% of the planet's food is grown and is very delicate. It takes more than 100 years to build 5mm of soil, and it can be destroyed shockingly easily. This destruction and degradation of the soil is created by intensive farming practices such as heavy mechanised soil tilling, which loosens and rips away any plant cover, leaving the soil bare. It is also caused by the overgrazing of animals, as well as forest fires and heavy construction work. These factors disturb the soil and leave it exposed to erosion from wind and water, damaging the complicated systems underneath its top layer...

We are losing good soil at an estimated 100 times faster rate than we can remake and heal it. The world's soils are thought to store approximately 15 thousand million tonnes of carbon - 3 times as much as all of our planet's terrestrial vegetation combined. Soils hold twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and when soil disintegrates, the carbon is released. In the last 40 years the soil in the UK's croplands lost 10% of the carbon it could store. In a time of climate crisis, soil's quiet potency, its ability to store carbon safely, is utterly essential to our future survival....

We know that soils are being destroyed, and that with that comes a higher risk of floods, and a more unpredictable and unreliable food and water system. An Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecostem Services report in 2018 told us clearly that land degradationis already putting the welfare of two-fifths of humanity at risk, and that urgent action is needed to avoid further danger. There are many things we can do to protect soils, and the organisms, plants and connections that thrive within them. Actions that can support and heal soil structure include

  • planting 'cover crops',
  • planting hedgerows or ley strips and
  • encouraging the habitats of animals such as earthworms, which act as 'ecosystem engineers' and aerate the soil as they burrow into it
  • Using reduced till or no-till regimes in farming can also help to prevent the destruction of organic matter in the soil.

Such regimes allow soil structure to remain intact, and protect the soil by allowing crop residues to stay on the surface. " from Strange Soil chapter by Rebecca Tamas.
 


Due to intensive farming techniques and chemical fertilisers this has occurred:-
A 2004 US study found important nutrients in some garden crops are up to 38% lower than there were at the middle of the 20th Century. On average, across the 43 vegetables analysed, calcium content declined 16%, iron by 15% and phosphorus by 9%.
The BBC has produced an article as to why modern food has lost its nutrients.
 


The following about trees in pavements show why when the roots are denied access to air, water and nutrients even the fungi cannot work to support the trees.
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166
 

soil14a1

The following addition of this mulch improved the clay soil, so that
neither the fungi nor the plants would drown.
 

A 150mm deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

The following was then sent to me in October 2004:-

An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was need in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.

 

The following 2 rows come from Climber Plant Gallery.
This 3 Sector Vertical Plant System from Infill3 Gallery gives detailed information on this system at looking at what plants besides climbers can be used for a vertical support system on a wall.

So, besides Climbers being compared in Climber Plant Gallery,
then other plant types are also compared where they fit into this vertical plant system.

 

3 Sector Vertical Plant System from Infill3 Gallery

The Gardener's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Climbers & Wall Shrubs - A guide to more than 2000 varieties including Roses, Clematis and Fruit Trees by Brian Davis. Published by Penguin Books Ltd. in 1990. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 is providing more climbers to add to the ones from Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0) which describes how to choose, plant and nurture over 500 high-performance climbing plants and wall shrubs, so that more can be made of your garden if you think not just laterally on the ground but use the vertical support structures including the house as well.

Warning - Just as it is a mistake to try to keep a tiger in a dog's kennel, it can be a disaster to plant a rampant grower in a site that it will very quickly outgrow. Strong climbers, especially self-supporting ones (Ivy, Ampelopsis, Parthenocissus and Vitis), can quickly get to the eaves, where they may sabotage gutters, and if allowed to get onto the roof, distort or even dislodge tiling. Climbing roses must be supported by humans tying them to structures since the roses cannot do it themselves (keep the top of the structures 36 inches (90 cms) below the eaves so that annual pruning can reduce the risk of the odd stem reaching the guttering!! See Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages 1, 2, 3, 4 ).

There are 3 sectors on a house wall or high wall:-

  • 0-36 inches (0-90 cms) in height - The Base. This gives the most sheltered conditions in the garden, with soil and air temperatures above those of the surrounding area. This area will suffer less buffeting from wind. Soil care will be ensuring a high humus content - to enrich the nutrient value and help to create reservoirs of moisture. Light intensity will depend on the aspect of the wall (North-facing will get very little sunlight) with the surrounding buildings and plants, including trees.
    The following pages in InFill3 gallery cover
    The Base:
  • 36-120 inches (90-300 cms) in height - The Prime Site. As the plant moves upwards to about 6 feet, conditions change: plants still benefit from the reflected heat and stored heat of walls warmed by the sun but have more light and air. Many climbers will have established a trunk below and now begin to spread themselves. This middle section is visually important, because it is at eye level and just below that that we should display those items to which we want to draw most attention. Most of the shrubs that are suitable for growing against walls are between 3 and 10 feet in height.
    The following pages in Infill3 gallery cover
    The Prime Site:
  • Above 120 inches (300+ cms) in height - The Higher Reaches. This is only likely to occur on house walls and other tall buildings with climbers and trained trees/shrubs covering all the way up to 36 inches from the guttering at roof level ( to prevent ingress to the internal roof space or blockage of the guttering).
    The following pages in Infill3 gallery cover
    The Higher Reaches:

The climbers in this gallery have been placed into one of these 3 heights with the Text Box Boundary in:-

  • Blue for 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)
  • Green for 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)
  • Red for above 10 feet.

This Gallery splits the climbers into their following ways of climbing:-

  • Ramblers/Scramblers - These climbers lean on other plants or need artificial supports to climb - Roses, Jasmine, Espalier-trained Fruit Tree/Fruit Ramblers. These are suitable for house or building walls where vine-eye and wire or 1 inch square timber trellis support structures can be erected up to 3 feet below the gutter for the climbers to be tied to with natural twine (not plastic or metal wire - stems grow sideways but plastic and metal contrict this, whereas natural twine will eventually rot or be broken by the expanding stem), or they can be trained on chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or arbours. Herbaceous Clematis has been added since the top growth dies off completely in the Autumn and Non-Climbing Clematis since it will require being tied to a support structure. In theInfill3 Plants Index Gallery, these climbers go into the
    3a House-Wall Ramblers
     
  • Self-Clingers: Aerial Roots - A series of roots are produced along the length of its stems. These attach themselves very strongly to the surfaces they find - Ivy (Hedera).
    Self-Clingers: Sucker Pads - Tendrils are produced along the young growing stems, opposite the leaves. The main tendril stem divides into a number of slender filaments, each of which has a scarcely perceivable pad at its tip.Once the tips have established contact, the tiny pad is much expanded and becomes a significant sucker, which fits so strongly to the surface that if the stem is pulled away the suckers are left behind- Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia).
    Self-Clingers: Twining - Many climbers find support simply by twining their stems around any object they find - Wisteria and Honeysuckle.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Leaf-Stem - Some climbers make do with sensitive leaf stalks which wrap themselves around objects for support - Clematis. Others establish themselves with thorns, hooks, spines and prickles.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Tendrils - A group of climbers climb by producing a series of tendrils. These are touch sensitive and will curl round any small object they come into contact with and thus enable the plant to climb securely on itself or other plants or manmade support structures - Chinese Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus henryana), Sweet Pea and the Pea Family (Leguminosae).
    All these Self-Clingers are suitable for garden walls, chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or fedges, but not for House-Walls. In the Infill3 Plants Index Gallery, these climbers go into the
    3b The Higher Reaches - Non-House-Wall Climbing Twiners 1, 2 Page or
    3c The Higher Reaches - Non-House-Wall Self-Clinging Climbers Page.
     

Climber 3 Sector Vertical Plant System Use Pages:-


These are split into the following in the
Climber Plant Comparison Pages (since the pages use a fixed template format, then if the Title of the Page has a White Background and its a Twiner you are looking for, the photos will be at the bottom of the page with blanks before it. A Page Title with a Green Background indicates an empty page) :-

This plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of climber flowers in the following colours per month:-

 

If you click on a thumbnail the window changes to one with 9 larger images (Flower, Foliage and Form - for Flower, Foliage and Form pages) and the following plant description:-

  • Plant Name
  • Common Name
  • Soil
  • Sun Aspect
  • Soil Moisture
  • Plant Type
  • Height x Spread in inches (cms)
  • Foliage
  • Flower Colour in Month(s). Fruit.
  • Comments - Form Type, Pruning Group, Native UK Plant. There are further details on pruning of climbers in the Pruning Page of the Plants Section.
     

Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0. Jane Taylor and her husband grew plants in their garden of 2.5 acres of acidic shale mine waste on ground most of which could not retain water or nutrients and would scarcely sustain even the most tenacious of weeds.
A typical British garden with its flowery borders and green lawns needs the equivalent of 1 (2.5 cms) of rain every 10 days to look its best. By choosing from the plants in the above book, canny gardeners will quickly learn to give their gardens the best chance of looking respectable even through prolonged dry spells.
Start by improving your soil in your garden by studying the
diagram showing the interaction between clay, organic matter, silt and sand to make soil and then follow the advice on how to improve your clay, chalk or sandy soil lower down the same page; before reading how you can provide the soil nutrients, including those for clay soil.
Then, choose your plants from:-

  • Trees and Shrubs to form the framework,
  • Palms and Cycads,
  • Conifers,
  • Climbers to provide backdrops, shade and cover for vertical surfaces,
  • Perennials and Ephemerals for filling the garden with flower and foliage,
  • Grasses for vertical outlines as foils and contrasts,
  • Bulbs for companion, underplanting and massed display,
  • Succulents and Xerophytes; and
  • Dry Garden Maintenance - Starting with the Soil, Planting, Windbreaks, Lawns and Lawn Substitutes, and Irrigation Techniques.

Each ground cover plant of this 1000 has further details from her book, if it is in there.


1/3 of the food we eat
is made possible by bees' pollination and
in its entire lifetime,
1 bee will produce approximately 1/12 of a teaspoon of honey.

  • Single flowered cultivars (some are marked as 'Single Flowers')
    are useful to honeybees,
    but double flowered cultivars are
    no benefit at all.
    Single rose blooms are fully opened and almost flat, consisting of 1-7 petals per bloom.
    Wild roses and single-flowered garden roses yield
    pollen for honeybees.
  • Semi-double rose blooms consist of 8-15 petals in two rows and are of
    little benefit to honeybees.
  • Double rose blooms consist of 16-25 overlapping petals in three or more rows and
    no benefit to honeybees at all.
  • Full rose blooms: 26-40 petals in three or more rows and
    No benefit to honeybees
  • Very full rose blooms: 40+ petals in three or more rows and
    No benefit to honeybees.

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers are in the following galleries
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month, and its Index
 

 

 

The following comes from Bee Bloom Index Gallery Site Map:-

Bee-Pollinated Plant Set 1. Set 1 has been completed in both the Bloom in Month and Index Galleries.

These 264 plants are from the other Galleries:-

  • 51 ANNUALS, then
    NEMOPHILA flowering in April-June and
    NIGELLA flowering in July-September
  • 2 ANNUAL - VEGETABLE
  • 4 AQUATIC PLANTS
  • 11 BIENNIALS and
    MALVA SYLVESTRIS flowering in June-September
  • 21 BULBS, CORMS, OR RHIZOMES, then
    CROCUS flowering in September-April,
    DAFFODIL flowering in December-May,
    DAHLIA flowering in June-November
    DUTCH HYACINTH flowering in March-April
  • 4 CLIMBERS and
    HEDERA HELIX flowering in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year and
    ROSES flowering in June-October
  • 31 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS, then
    CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA flowering in March-May,
    CYDONIA OBLONGA flowering in April-June
    HELIANTHEMUM flowering in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
    HIBISCUS in August-September,
    PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers flowering in June and
    ROSES flowering in June-October
  • 26 DECIDUOUS TREES, then
    ACER flowering in March-April and
    PRUNUS CERASIFERA flowering in February-March
  • 9 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS, then
    HEUCHERA flowering in May-September
  • 22 EVERGREEN SHRUBS and
    HEATHERS flowering in every month
    PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS flowering in April-June and
    PYRACANTHA COCCINEA flowering in May-June
  • 2 EVERGREEN TREES, then
    ILEX flowering in May-June
    MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA flowering in August-September
  • 2 GRASSES which cause hayfever
  • 4 SEMI-EVERGREEN SHRUBS
  • 66 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS, then
    CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA flowering in March-May
    HELLEBORUS flowering in January-March and
    HELENIUM flowering in June-October
    POLEMONIUM flowering in April-June
    SALVIA SUPERBA flowering in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant
  • 9 PERENNIAL HERBS, then
    MENTHA flowering in July-August
  • SOFT FRUIT, then
    RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) flowering in May-June

Bee-Pollinated Plant Set 2 of 3 groups.

The plants in Table 10 , then - This group has been completed in the Index Gallery only

there are Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in these pages within the Index Gallery
transferred from
Plants Topic and are inserted in Brown. This group is being inserted into the Index Gallery
0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches (180 cms)


Photos -
Bloom per Month
 

bloomsmonth2a2a1a1a

Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour

and the following are inserted in Blue:- This group has been completed in the Index Gallery only
ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
with Acer pseudo-platanus (Sycamore) in April-May (Green)
and Acer campestre (Maple, Field Maple) Native in Maple Family in May-Jun (Green)
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
in Above 72 inches (180 cms) page
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
with Crocus vernus (Crocus purpureus, Spring Crocus, Purple Crocus) -
Crocus vernus 'Flower Record' in Feb-Apr (Purple) from
Bee pollinated flowers in winter Nov-Feb in Plants Folder and
in Colchicum/ Crocus Gallery
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in May (White to soft Rose)
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May (Yellow, White or Orange) in Narcissus Gallery
and Daffodils in Daffodil Family.
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November (Many different colours and colour combinations).
46 out of 57,000 dahlia tubers detailed in Dahlia Gallery.
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April (Blue, White, Pale Yellow, Pink, Red or Purple flowers)
with Hyacinthus orientalis 'Blue Festival) in Mar-Apr (Blue)
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
with Calluna vulgaris (Unusual) from Heather calluna Gallery,
and Erica species like Erica cinerea (Purple) - Native in Heath Family -
with Erica cinerea Index of cultivars with its other flower colours ranging from
white through pink to red and
other Heathers in
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November (Green) as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
and native in Ivy Family
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in May-Sep (Yellow) - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
and Native in Rockrose Family
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October in Bee Pollinated Plants between 24 and 72 inches
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March in Bee Pollinated Plants between 0 and 24 inches
and native in Buttercup Family in March-May (Yellow)
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September in Bee Pollinated Plants between 0 and 24 inches
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
with Hibiscus rosa sinensis in August-Oct (Crimson)
For further details see International Hibiscus Society , American Hibiscus Society and
Australian Hibiscus Society
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-August (White)
and Periodical clipping of holly hedges prevents flowering. Clip in July instead
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
with Lavendular angustifolia in July-September (Purple)
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
with Lavatera trimestris and it's cultivars in Bee Pollinated Plants between 24 and 72 inches
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
with Leptosiphon aureus in March-June (Yellow)
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
with Magnolia grandiflora and its cultivars in Bee Pollinated Plants above 72 inches
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-September (Purple)
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
with Mentha aquatica (Water Mint, Mentha hirsuta) in June-September (Unusual)
but Fields of mint are harvested before they flower.
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
with Nemophila menziesii in June-July (Blue) Native to western North America
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
with Nigella damascena and it's cultivars in Bee Pollinated Plants between 24 and 72 inches
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
with Philadelphus and its cultivars in Bee Pollinated Plants between 24 and 72 inches
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
with Polemonium caeruleum in June-July (Blue)
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
with Prunus cerasifera 'Pissardii' in Bee Pollinated Plants above 72 inches
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June (White)
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June (White)
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
with Roses in
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
and Rosa canina (Dog Rose, Rosa coriifolia, Rosa stylosa, Rosa obtusifolia) in June-July (Pink),
which is Native in Rose 2 Family
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in June-August (White)
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant -
with Salvia x superba and it's cultivars in Bee Pollinated Plants between 24 and 72 inches
for those plants.
 

Bee-Pollinated Plant Set 3 of 3 groups. This set has not been started yet (6-Oct-2022)

In addition the extra plants used by bees from the following sections of my website will be inserted in Blue:-

in the 12 flower colours per month Index pages of this Bee-pollinated Index Gallery in the table above.

 

TABLE A with white background column

Pre July 2022, the
Evergreen Perennials used this
gallery only.

The Evergreen Perennials have

  • Plant Description Pages
  • their flower colour compared in a 7 Flower Colour per month Gallery
  • their Flower Shape compared in a Gallery, and
  • their Plant Use compared in another Gallery

The following Column cells with White Background explains the above process in this table.
The next 2 tables (TABLE B and TABLE C) support this explaination.

If both 'Evergreen Perennials' and
'Every Plant detailed in this website' use the same Flower Colour per Month Gallery or
flower shape table,
then the 2 cells are joined together)

This TABLE A will be appended to every page
(TABLE B and TABLE C will be appended
only to the site map pages)
comparing Evergreen Perennials in
the following galleries:-

P-Evergreen A-L Evergreen Perennial
Plant Descriptions

P-Evergreen M-Z
Evergreen Perennial
Plant Descriptions
.

Evergreen Perennial for 7 flower colours per month .

Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape
for
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape
.

Evergreen Perennial Plant Use .
 

 

TABLE A with yellow background column

Post July 2022, then
'Every plant detailed in this website' will also use this gallery.

Every Plant detailed in this website has

  • Plant Description Pages or row in a table
  • their flower colour compared in a 7 Flower Colour per month Gallery
  • their Flower Shape compared in a Gallery, and
  • their plant Use compared in another Gallery

The following Column cells with Yellow Background explains the above process in this table.
The next 2 tables (TABLE B and TABLE C) support this explaination

If both 'Evergreen Perennials' and
'Every Plant detailed in this website' use the same Flower Colour per Month Gallery or
flower shape table,
then the 2 cells are joined together)

This TABLE A, TABLE B and TABLE C will be appended only to the site map pages in the remaining galleries and to the site map pages comparing 'Every Plant detailed in this website' in the following galleries:-

Plants detailed in this website by Botanical Name as shown in the next row,
Wildflowers detailed in their Common Name and Botanical Name in the second row down, and the third row down shows even more.

Evergreen Perennial 7 flower colours per month .

Wildflower Flower Shape for
Flower Shape
.

Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape for Plant Use .
 

 

Their Plant Description Pages in

 

...P-Evergreen A-L

...P-Evergreen M-Z
with the following
Evergreen Perennial and Alpine Evergreen Index Pages
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
 

Their Plant Description Page or row in

 

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,

 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

Continuing from October 2023
All
use of plants will be compared in Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery,
Flower colour/month in Evergreen Perennial Gallery and
Flower Shape in Wildflower Flower Shape Gallery

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

 

 

 

The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages

  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers -
    The Index and Flower Colour per month plants are detailed in the Yellow background of Table 4 in the next Table on the right.
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O,
    P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
    The Header Row for the above Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
    O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
  • Plants that grow in Chalk -
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
    O, P, QR, S, T, UV, WXYZ ,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers -
    A, B, C, D, E, F, G,H, I, J, K, L, M,
    NO, PQ, R, S, T,UVWXYZ ,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the previous column of this table.

    Also, the plants detailed
    in the yellow background of Table 1 in the next table on the right.

    Also the plants detailed in
    All Plants Index Gallery
    in the aquatic colour background of Table 1 in the next table on the right.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen as detailed in Table 6 below in the previous column
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System as detailed in Table 8 in the next table on the right
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders as detailed in the yellow background of Table 7 in the next table on the right
  • Lists from from Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. She is writing about perennials in America as detailed in the yellow background of Table 2 in the next table on the right

 

 

The following Extra Index of Bulbs is created in the
Bulb Plant Gallery, to which the Bulb found in the above list will have that row copied to.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-
A 1, 2, 3, B, C 1, 2, D, E, F, G, H, I, J,
K, L 1, 2, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries, which comes from the list
Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc
in the second row of Topic Table, which is usually positioned as the first table on the left:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

 

Their 7 flower colours per month compared in Evergreen Perennial
with the
Evergreen Perennial and Alpine Evergreen Index - pre July 2022 -
in each page

Their 7 flower colours per month compared in Evergreen Perennial
 

I have updated the plant type and plant use for the Evergreen Perennials by February 2023,

then,
I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using
'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into these relevant 3 GALLERIES:-

 

GALLERY 1. FLOWER COLOUR PER MONTH
Flower Colour per Month Comparison Page within Evergreen Perennial Gallery
including those of foliage only in January Unusual Flower. This compares the Flower Colour per month for
both the Evergreen Perennials prior to July 2022 and
all plants detailed in the rest of the website including Evergreen Perennials


 

colormonthbulb9a1a1a1a

 

Ground Cover from PLANTS is within the text box under the thumbnail, and by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail, the page shall be changed

 

  • to its descriptive row within one of these pages in PLANTS Topic -
    1000 Ground
    ...Cover A, B, C,
    ...D, E, F, G, H, I,
    ... J, K, L, M, N,
    ...O, P, Q, R, S, T,
    ...U, V, W, XYZ
    ...with Ground
    ...Cover for 14
    ...Situation
    s
    1 Dry Shade
    2 Damp Shade
    3 Full Sun
    4 Banks and Terraces
    5 Woodland
    6 Alkaline Sites
    7 Acid Sites
    8 Heavy Clay Soil
    9 Dry Sandy Soil
    10 Exposed Sites
    11 Under Hedges
    12 Patios and Paths
    13 Formal Gardens
    14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts.
    Also, Use
    ...Ground Cover
    ...in Landscape
    ...noise reducti
    on

     

 

Their Flower Shape compared in Evergreen Per Shape Gallery
...Flower Shape

Every Plant in this website has their Flower Shape compared in
Wildflower Flower Shape

 

 

GALLERY 2. FLOWER SHAPE
Evergreen Per Shape Gallery for Evergreen Perennials and into
Wildflower Shape Gallery pages for all the other plants in this website:-
 

 

 

GALLERY 3. GARDEN USE OF PLANT
into pages in the
...Flower Shape for Plant Use

 

 

Most of the
Plant Selection by Garden Use of different types of plant in
Level 2c and Level 2cc from the PLANTS and PLANTS EXTRA Topic in Table 5 (End Table on the right for the complete PLANTS and EXTRA Topic Menus) have been transferred to
Evgr Per Shape Gallery:-

Garden Plant Use
ANIMAL RESISTANT PLANTS ,
Aquatic ,
Aromatic Foliage ,
ATTRACTS BEES ,
ATTRACTS BUTTERFLIES ,
Back of Shady Border ,
Bedding ,
Bog Garden ,
Coastal Conditions ,
Containers in Garden ,
COTTAGE GARDEN ,
Crevice Garden ,
CUT FLOWERS ,
Desert Garden ,
EDGE OF BORDER ,
Edibles in Containers ,
Finely Cut Leaves ,
FRAGRANT FLOWERS ,
Front of Border ,
Hanging Basket ,
Hedge ,
Large Leaves ,
Non-Green Foliage 1 ,
Non-Green Foliage 2 ,
Other Garden ,
Pollution Barrier 1, 2 ,
Raised Bed ,
Rest of Border ,
Rock Garden ,
Scree Bed ,
Specimen Plant ,
Sword-shaped Leaves ,
Thorny Hedge ,
Trees for Lawns ,
Trees for Small Garden ,
Wildflower ,
Windbreak ,
Woodland .

 

Alpines without a Garden as detailed for their uses in the white background of Table 3 in the next table on right

 

Lists from from Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. She is writing about perennials in America as detailed for their uses in the yellow background of Table 2 in the next table on the right.

 


Table 6
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

 

followed by continuing to insert all the plants with flowers from Camera Photo Galleries as indicated by
"
Plant with Photo Index" from
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187 A 1, 2, Index
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Blue
having started in January 2023.
Menu in Table 6 in the previous column

I will continue to insert all the plants planted in chalk as indicated by
"from Chalk Garden" from
GARDEN CONSTRUCTION Index using
'A Chalk Garden' by F C Stern. Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd in 1960
into the Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in black.

The following plants shall be added to the Flower Shape pages of this gallery
from



Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...Uses in USA,

after the entries have been completed in the Landscaping List Pages.
 

 

 

 

Add these plants from PLANTS topic from the soil it prefers:-
Information for its Plants - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Information for its Plants -
Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z
Information for its Plants - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z
Information for its Plants - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Poisonous Plants
Rose Rose Use

 

FINALLY
I am inserting these from February 2023, I will continue to insert all the plants
from the following book on planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials. She is writing about perennials for use in America.
into the Landscaping List Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and
into the Flower Colour per Month Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in royal blue.
Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0.

The above will take time!!!

 


The following design concepts from my anaylsis of the Royal Horticultural Garden at Wisley may be useful to you together with the rest of the data on that page concerning that part of the East or West Border of the MIXED BORDERS:-
 

Garden Design Comments on RHS Garden at Wisley in the 71 pages of the EAST and WEST Borders in the MIXED BORDERS
Flower Colours in each of the 71 Parts of the Mixed Borders - with area indicating that the respective colour has not been used in this part .

More (See un-labelled bedding) than 102 plants (This is 29%, which is almost a third) were missing their identity when in flower in 2013 out of 348 in 768 square metres of Mixed Borders garden beds - These herbaceous borders are 6 metres (20 feet) deep and 128 metres (427 feet) long.
 

Part Number of East and West Mixed Borders

 

Each page provides details and photos of every plant used in that part

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Number of either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Each page may also detail a
Design Concept

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

49 mis-sing out of 176

19 mis-sing out of 73

34 mis-sing out of 99

East 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal style required in moving people from Entrance to outlying areas

East 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Position plants with tiny flowers close to the lawn or path

Provide plant support structures

East 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

Make plant labels visible to aid plant sales and

No plant labels on Pansy / Viola Display

East 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

Create History of each garden bed, so that planting errors can be corrected

East 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

1

1

Use a system to select your plants from their flower colour

East 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

Use the colours of the buds, flowers and seedheads with different foliage colours in Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn of each heather for your groundcover and background

East 7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

1

 

Use

to choose from

East 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

Use turf protected paths instead of slabbed paths for small gardens

East 9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Make your flowers all the same colour like White to harmonise as your flower colour in the simplest flower colour scheme

East 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Bulbs can provide flowers from January through to May in the bare ground round the permanent shrubs and perennials

East 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Replace bedding and perennials with wildflower lawn edged with normal lawn to reduce gardening time to 1 hour a week

East 12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

With limited garden space, put a wildflower lawn on the roof of your shed / garage / leanto or concreted area on ground to provide flowers

East 13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

Create fun version of Snakes and Ladders game using clock flowers

East 14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

Further reasons to create garden bed Histories

East 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

Create track and use the Square Foot Gardening system for:-

  • wheelchair-bound disabled to use for radio-controlled models on the ground-level of the garden
  • wheelchair-bound children/adults to maintain and replant the raised beds, whilst sitting with their knees under each raised bed
  • school pupils to learn to grow plants
  • wheelchair supported children/adults recovering in hospital, rest or care home to go outside, view them and/or maintain those beds themselves
  • transport the raised bed into the patient's room, so that the patient can admire close-up what they normally see outside from their bed; and then for them to maintain or simply view for a while before that raised bed is returned outside that same day
  • infirm children, adults or pensioners to maintain and replant the raised beds, when they do not need to kneel down, bend their knees or reach above their shoulders

East 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

East 17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

Create game using Slider Signs that alternate turning left or turning right at each Path Row Junction for you to pick your fruit, flowers, grasses or vegetables.

East 18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

Turf protection from wear by people walking or standing on it

East 19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Balance Income with Expenditure in Garden

East 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

Safety - If a visitor reports a safety concern, then do not ignore it

East 21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

East 22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

 

East 23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

1

 

East 24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

East 25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

 

Hide unwanted views of buildings or other areas of garden

East 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

East 27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

East 28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

East 29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

East 30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

East 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

East 32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

East 33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

Select tender plants and then provide Plant Protection from Frost

East 34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

Control human movement through areas

Part Number

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Unlabelled Bedding plants

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

Further Plant Label and Path Foundation Comments

WISLEY WISLEY Rose Classification System

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

West 35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

West 36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

West 37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

 

 

West 38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

West 40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

West 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

West 42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

West 43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

West 44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

Build soil fertility and structure with legumes and mulches

West 47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

West 48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

West 49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

West 50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Split garden area into separate shapes

even when a public path goes through the garden

West 53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Use Companion planting with Green Manure to deter Pests / Diseases and

Another Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

West 54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Use long-flowering Speciman Roses as a backdrop

West 55

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West 56

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West 57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

1

 

West 60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

West 61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

West 62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

West 63

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Reduce time for garden maintenance by avoiding mixing plants together

West 64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

West 65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

West 66

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

West 67

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

 

 

West 68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

West 69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

West 70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

West 71

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Provide irrigation facilities to water plants and clean paths

Part Number

 

 

 

 

Unu-sual Col-our

 

 

Either invisible or missing identity when in Flower

Confidential email replies from the Royal Horticultural Society to emails from Chris Garnons-Williams with their following instructions for everybody else:-
The contents of this email and any files transmitted with it are confidential, proprietary and may be legally privileged. They are intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to whom they are addressed. If you have received this email in error please notify the sender. If you are not the intended recipient you may not use, disclose, distribute, copy, print or rely on this email. The sender is not responsible for any changes made to any part of this email after transmission. Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the Society.

Perm-anent Herb-ace-ous Pere-nnial

Other Perm-anent Plants

Bed-ding

 

 

From Annuals and Biennials chapter in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

"I think there is a case to be considered for annuals and biennials in ground-cover schemes so long as they will sow themselves freely.
These suggestions may be useful for large areas outside our gardens where a 'show' for a summer or two is needed, while shrubs and perennial ground-covers are being increased for later permanent planting. They are easy to control if one studies the life-cycle with a view to allowing seed to develop if required or to remove it before it is shed.

Use

Plant

Comments

Lawn and ground-cover under conifer trees

Poa annua

The needles under a cedar tree were weekly swept away and the grass, despite fertilizers, top dressing, re-seading and re-turfing, simply would not grow. The needles were left alone and within 12 months the area became self-sown with a close and permanent sward of Poa nnua. This little grass regenerates itself constantly so that it makes a lawn, though each plant has only a short life.

Oxalis rosea

This is highly successful in the shade of conifers or any other tree

Cyclamen hederifolium

This is a perennial, though sowing itself freely when suited and it is here because plants to grow under cedars and yews, somewhat away from the trunks, are very few.

Temporary ground-cover under trees

Tropaeolum or Eschscholtzia

A sheet of 'Gleam' nasturtiums or eschscholtzia; both are free-flowering and easily pulled up, though like all annuals it may be a year or two later before all dispersed seeds have germinated.

Silene armeria and Iberis amara are equally successful, with Sett Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) creating a dwarf ground-cover carpet in late summer.

Ground-cover under trees with high rainfall

Claytonia sibirica (Montia sibirica)

This grows under trees where the grass is thin at high altitude and high rainfall. It covers the area - interpersed with primroses and Oxalia acetosella - with a mass of pinky-white stars a few inches (cms) above the ground.

Claytonia perfoliata is an annual; it is usually classed as a weed but is excellent cover in cool, acid soil, but far less conspicuous in flower

Streamsides, river banks and fringes of boggy ground

Impatiens glandulifera (Impatiens roylei, Annual Balsam)

It is a rapid colonizer because its seeds are ejected with some force from the ripe pods. It seeds with great abandon and grows to 72 (180) or more; its many pink flowers make a great show.

Full sun and drier soils than by streamsides

Angelica archangelica

It very quickly produces great green heads in spring, ripening quickly, with the result that the ground is thickly covered with seedlings in late summer.

Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose) will colonize any sunny waste place and produce yellow blooms for weeks in the summer

Lychnis coronaria is a prolific seeder with rosettes of silvery basal leaves.

Erysimum linifolium (Wallflower) produces lilac flowers

Plants that seed about with abandon

 

  • Phytolacca american Poke Weed) has great spikes of shing black seeds
  • Geranium pratense, a soft blue flower, 36 (90) high, with a basal clump of divided leaves
  • Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), old garden herb
  • Borago laxiflora with pale blue flowers
  • on neutral, well-drained soil, Lupinus hartwegii and Lupinus polyphyllus, with Lupinus arboreus (Tree Lupin) are useful
  • temporary ground-cover of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, which are used agriculturally to enrich the land as a 'green manure'.
  • Verbascum nigrum, produces yellow or white 36 (90) high spikes in summer and it makes good basal rosetttes while it sows itself freely.
  • Foxgloves (Digitalis) and honesty (Lumaria) seed themselves freely and in a way will act as a ground-cover on account of their large basal leaves.

 

 

 

 

From Appendix II Lists of plants for special conditions in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

Plant

Plant

Plant

 

1. Plants requiring lime-free soils


On limy soils it is wiser not to attempt to grow the genera in this list. They are mainly woodland plants and thrive best in soil in which humus has been mixed.
Species of Ceanothus, Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cytisus, Iris, Lupinus, Pimelia and Myosotideum are not so dependent on humus so long as the soil is acid or neutral.

Arctostaphylos.
Azalea - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Berberis thunbergii and varieties.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Bruckenthalia.
Calluna.
Camelia.
Carex pendula.
Cassiope.
Chaenomeles.
Claytonia sibirica.
Clethra.
Comptonia.
Cornus canadensis.
Cyathodes.
Cytisus scoparius prostratus (Sarothamnus).
Daboecia.
Dicentra.
Empetrum.
Epigaea.

Erica.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea macrophylla.
Iris douglasiana.
Iris innominata.
Leiophyllum.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lithospermum diffusum.
Lupinus.
Luzula.
Meconopsis.
Mitchella.
Myosotideum.
Ourisia.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Pernettya.

Philesia.
Pieris.
Pimelia.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Sarothamnus, see Cytisus.
Schizocodon.
Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
Soldanella.
Tanakaea.
Vaccinium.
Woodwardia.

 

2. Plants which will thrive in limy soils


While it may be taken that any genus not mentioned in 1 will tolerate lime, many, such as Rosa, prefer the soil to be neutral. The following will thrive in soil that is actively limy, even over chalk, though they will grow equally well without lime.

Acaena.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Adiantum.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum saxatile.
Anaphalis.
Anchusa.
Anemone.
Antennaria.
Arabis.
Armeria.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aubretia.
Aucuba.
Ballota.
Berberis (except Berberis thunbergii and varieties).
Bergenia.
Brunnera macrophylla.
Caltha.
Campanula.
Cardamine.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
Cistus.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Convolvulus.
Cornus alba.
Cotoneaster.

Cotula.
Crambe.
Crataegus.
Cyclamen.
Daphne.
Dianthus.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
Epimedium.
Erigeron.
Erodium.
Euonymus fortunei.
Euphorbia.
Festuca.
Forsythia.
Fuchsia.
Genista hispanica.
Geranium.
Gymnocarpium.
Gypsophila.
Halimum.
Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Houttuynia.
Hydrangea villosa.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum.
Juniperus.
Lamium.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Liriope.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Nepeta.
Osmanthus.
Othonnopsis.

Paeonia.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Phlomis.
Phlox.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Potentilla.
Primula.
Prunus.
Pulmonaria.
Pulsatilla.
Pyracantha.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rodgersia.
Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Salvia.
Sambucus.
Santolina.
Sarcooca.
Scabiosa.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpos.
Symphytum.
Taxus.
Tellima.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Zauschneria.

 

3. Plants which tolerate clay.


Few plants establish quickly on very heavy soils over clay, though many of the following will luxuiriate in maturity, provided the area is reasonably well-drained.

Acanthus.
Aesculus.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Anemone x hybrida.
Anemone tomentosa.
Aruncus.
Asarum.
Astilboides.
Aucuba.
Berberis.
Bergenia.
Brunnera.
Caltha.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster.
Crataegus.
Daphne.
Epimedium.

Euonymus fortunei.
Forsythia.
Geranium.
Hedera.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Hosta.
Lamium.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Malus.
Peltiphyllum.
Petasites.
Phillyrea.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Prunella.
Prunus.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.

Rodgersia.
Rosa.
Rubus.
Salix.
Sambucus.
Sarcocca.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Symphoricarpus.
Symphytum.
Telekia.
Tellima.
Trachystemon.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

4. Plants which will grow satisfactorily in dry, shady places.

Apart from ill-drained clay, this combination of conditions is the most difficult to cope with in the garden.

* indicates those which will not tolerate lime.

Alchemilla conjuncta.
*Arctostaphylos.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Aster macrophyllus.
Aucuba.
*Blechnum spicant.
*Camellia.
*Carex.
*Cornus canadensis.
Cyclamen.
Dryopteris filix-mas.
Duchesnea.
Epimedium.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fatshedera.

Fragaria.
*Gaultheria shallon.
Geranium nodosum.
Hedera.
Hypericum. androsaemum.
Iris foetidissima.
*Linnaea.
Lonicera nitida.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Mahonia.
Myrrhis.
Pachyphragma.
*Pachysandra.
Phyllostachys.
Polypodium.
Prunus laurocerausus varieties.

Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Skimmia.
Thalictrum.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
Vinca minor.
Walsteinia.
Xanthorhiza.

 

5. Plants which thrive on moist soils.

Genera marked * are suitable for boggy positions.

Ajuga.
Aruncus.
*Astilbe.
Astilboides.
Athyrium.
Blechnum chilense.
*Caltha.
Clethra (no lime).
Cornus alba.

Cornus stolonifera.
Filipendula palmata.
Filipendula purpurea.
Gunnera.
Heracleum.
Houttuynia.
*Ligularia.
*Lysichitum.
Matteuccia.

*Onoclea.
Osmunda.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Petasites japonicus.
*Primula florindae.
Primula various.
Ranunculus.
Rheum.
Rodgersia.
*Trollius

 

6. Plants which grow well in shady positions.

The bulk of these are woodland plants, growing well under shrubs and trees, but those marked * are not so satisfactory under trees, though thriving in the shade given by buildings. For those requiring lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Adiantum.
Aegopodium.
Anemone.
*Arabis.
Arundinaria.
Asarum.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aucuba.
*Berberis.
*Bergenia.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Brunnera.
Camellia.
Cardamine.

Carex.
Cassiope.
Chiastophyllum.
*Choisya.
Claytonia.
Comptonia.
Convallaria.
Cornus canadensis.
Cortusa.
Corydalis.
*Cotoneaster.
Cyathodes.
Cyclamen.
Cystopteris.
Dicentra.
Dryopteris.
Duchesnia.

Epigaea.
Epimedium.
Euonymus.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fragaria.
*Fuchsia.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Geranium, most.
Gymnocarpium.
*Hebe.
Hedera.
Helleborus.

Helxine.
X Heucherella.
Hosta.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea.
Hypericum androsaemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
*Iberis sempervirens.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum nudiflorum.
*Jasminum others.
Juniperus x media.
Lamium.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lomaria.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Luzula.
Lysimachia.
Mahonia.
Maianthemum.
Matteuccia.
Meconopsis.
Milium.
Mitchella.
Myrrhis.
Omphalodes.

Onoclea.
Ourisia.
Oxalis.
Pachyphragma.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Patrinia.
Petasites.
Philesia.
Phyllostachys.
Pieris.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
Prunus laurocerasus.
Pseudosasa.
Pulmonaria.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron, larger-leaved kinds, it is toxic to bees and the honey from it is toxic to humans.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Saxifraga.
Schizocodon.
Selaginella.
 

Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
*Soldanella.
Symphytum.
Tanakea.
Tellima.
Thalictrum minus.
Tiarella.
Tolmeia.
Trachystemon.
Vaccinium macrocarpum.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
*Viburnum davidii.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Woodwardia.

 

7. Plants which will thrive in hot, sunny places on dry soils.

Those marked * require lime-free soil.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Alyssum.
Ampelopsis.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
Armeria.
Artemisia.
Aubretia.
Ballota.
Bolax.
Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
Campanula alliariifolia.
Campsis.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
*Chaenomeles.
Choisya.
Cissus.
Cistus.
Clematis flammula.
Clematis x jouiniana.
Convolvulus.
Coronilla.
Cotula.
Crambe.
*Cytisus.
Dianthus

Dimorphotheca.
Elaeagnus.
Elymus.
Ephedra.
Erigeron glaucus.
Erodium.
Erysimum.
Eschscholtzia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Genista.
Geranium x magnificum.
Geranium renardii.
Gypsophila.
Halimocistus.
Halimium.
Hebe.
Helianthemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
Hypericum rhodopeum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis amara.
Iberis sempervirens.
Iris graminea.
*Iris innominata.
Iris japonica.
Iris ruthenica.
Jasminum parkeri.
Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Leptospermum.
Limonium.
Lupinus arboreus.

Lychnis coronaria.
Moltkia.
Muehlenbeckia.
Nepeta.
Oenothera biennis.
Ophiopogon.
Osteospermum, (see Dimporphotheca).
Othonnopsis.
Oxalis rubra.
Paronychia.
Parthenocissus.
Pennisetum.
Pterocephalus.
Ptilotrichum.
Raoulia.
Reynoutria.
Romneya.
Rosmarinus.
Ruta.
Salvia'
Santolina.
Saponaria.
Satureia.
Scabiosa graminifolia.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Silene.
Stachys olympica.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium oxycoccus.
Viola labradorica.
Zauschneria.

 

8. Plants which thrive in maritime districts.

Many of the following will stand wind and salt-spray, particularly those marked *.

Those marked ** will provide shelter for others and shelter is highly important in seaside gardening.

For genera requiring, lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Achillea.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
*Armeria.
*Artemisia.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
 

Aubretia.
*Aucuba.
*Berberis.
Bergenia.
Beschorneria.
Betula.
Blechnum.
Bolax.
Bruckenthalia.
**Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
*Calluna.
Camellia.
Campanula.
Campsis.

Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
*Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
**Cistus.
Clematis.
Convolvulus.
Coprosma.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Coronilla.
**Cotoneaster.
*Crambe.
**Crataegus.
*Cytisus.
*Daboecia.
*Dianthus.
*Dimorphotheca.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
*Elaeagnus.
*Elymus.
Ephedra.
*Erica.
*Erigeron glaucus.
*Eriogonum.
*Eryngium.
Erysimum.
**Escallonia.
*Euonymus.
Euphorbia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Forsythia.
*Fuchsia.
Garrya.

*Genista.
Geranium.
*Gypsophila.
Halimiocistus.
*Halimium.
**Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Hemerocallis.
Heuchera.
*Hydrangea.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis.
Ilex.
Iris.
Jasminum.
*Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
*Leptospermum.
*Limonium.
Liriope.
**Lonicera.
*Lupinus arboreus.
Mahonia.
Myosotideum.
Osteospermum, (see Dimorphotheca).
*Othonnopsis.
Oxalis.
Penstemon.
Petasites fragrans.
Phlox.
Phyllostachys.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
*Potentilla.

Pulsatilla.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
*Romneya.
*Rosa.
*Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Ruta.
**Salix.
Salvia.
Santolina.
Satureia.
Saxifraga.

*Sedum.
**Senecio.
Silene.
Skimmia.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpus.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vaccinium.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

9. Plants which create barriers.

The following by their dense or prickly character will deter small animals and human beings as well as weeds.

Arundinaria anceps.
Berberis.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis montana.
Clethra.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster conspicuus.
Cotoneaster conspicuus 'Decorus'.
Crataegus.
Forsythia suspensa sieboldii.
Gaultheria shallon.
Juniperus x media.
Lonicera nitida.

Mahonia japonica.
Pernettya.
Pyrus.
Rosa 'Macrantha'.
Rosa 'Max Graf'.
Rosa x paulii.
Rosa x polliniana.
Rosa 'Raubritter'.
Rosa rugosa.
Rosa virginiana.
Rosa woodsii fendleri.
Spiraea douglasii.
Spiraea menziesii.

 

 

10. Plants for town gardens.

Genera marked * prefer acid soil;

those marked £ will thrive in impoverished soils. Soil in towns is usually deficient in humus.

£Acanthus.
£Alchemilla.
Anemone.
£Asperula odorata.
£Aucuba.
£Bergenia.
Campanula.
Clematis montana.
Corydalis.
*Dicentra.
£Epimedium.

Euonymus.
£Fatshedera.
£Ferns.
£Geranium.
£Hebe.
£Hedera.
*Hosta.
Nepeta.
Parthenocissus.
Polygonatum.
£Potentilla.

Ribes.
Salix.
Saxifraga, Robertsonia section.
Spiraea.
Tellima.
£Vancouveria.
£Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?
 

  1. Water - All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
  2. Light - All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
  3. Photosynthesis - For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
  4. Oxygen - Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
  5. Air with roots - Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
    • Nitrogen Cycle -
      Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
    • Oxygen Cycle -
      No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
    • Carbon Dioxide -
      Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
  6. Minerals - Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
  7. Temperature - Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

    The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from roots.

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, driveways and patios; then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting their requirements; then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree or other plants.

 

11. Plants suitable for covering rose-beds.

The following are all small plants that will not be strong-growing for the purpose, and will help to make the beds more attractive during the 7 months when Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are not in flower. Small spring-flowering bulbs can be grown through them. The more vigorous shrub roses will tolerate many others among the shorter growing plants in this 1000 ground cover table.

Acaena.
Alyssum saxatile.
Arabis.
Aubretia.
Campanula carpatica.
Campanula portenschlagiana.

Cardamine trifolia.
Corydalis lutea.
Corydalis ochroleuca.
Dianthus.
Lysimachia nummularia.
Phlox subulata.

Primula auricula.
Primula vulgaris sibthorpii.
Pulsatilla.
Saponaria ocymoides.
Saxifraga.
Viola.

 

 

 

Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape Gallery:
 

 

These 2 systems of comparison:-

  • The Evergreen Perennial has a
    • Plant Description Page
    • its flower colour compared in a 7 Flower Colour per month Gallery
    • its Flower Shape compared in a Gallery, and
    • its Plant Use compared in another Gallery.
       
  • Every Plant detailed in this website has a
    • Plant Description Page or row in a table
      but the cell in the same position in the row describing the plant from one photo gallery does not contain the same information in every other photo gallery
      as demonstrated in the procedure to compare ground cover plants, below
       
    • its Flower Colour thumbnail compared in a 7 Flower Colour per month Gallery
    • its Flower Shape thumbnail compared in a Gallery, and
    • its Plant Use thumbnail compared in another Gallery.
      Each of these thumbnails with their accompanying text box can be copied to any of the photo galleries in this website

      are detailed in the TABLE A on the right.

Procedure by Chris Garnons-Williams to compare ground cover plants in flower/foliage colour, flower shape and plant use, then I am executing this:-

  • Load PLANTS TOPIC and transfer table on Groundcover plants B page to this table in Plants Name A page within EVERGR PER GALLERY.
    Then, close PLANTS TOPIC.
  • Load EVERGR PER GALLERY and load this page from it onto Safari.
    Then load WILDFLOWER SHAPE GALLERY.
    Do 3 plants from the Groundcover plants in this page by updating them from the internet and changing each plant row to brown when updated.
    Put the plants flower thumbnail into the relevant pages in these flower colour/month pages and
    then into the relevant flower shape comparison pages in WILDFLOWER SHAPE GALLERY.
    Then close WILDFLOWER SHAPE GALLERY and
    load PLANTS TOPIC.
    Copy 3 changed and updated brown text rows to the respective rows in Ground cover Plants B page.
    Repeat this row until all the plants in that groundcover plant page have been done.
  • When Page B has been done above then, close WILDFLOWER SHAPE GALLERY and
    load EVGR PER SHAPE GALLERY and
    using the thumbnails from this gallery;
    copy them to the relevant plant use pages in the EVGR PER SHAPE GALLERY.
  • When the above has been done, then close EVGR PER SHAPE GALLERY and
    open up the relevant plant type gallery to
    copy the thumbnail to the valid flower colour/month or
    flower colour comparison pages in that gallery.
  • When that has been done, then
    repeat the process for the next groundcover plant page letter.
    .
    .
    .
    .
     
  • Unfortunately, the indices in these plant photo galleries are not in the same format in each of the cells in that row detailing that plant,
    so the following is required to be done to all the plant photo galleries listed below
    (having started this process in 2023),
    before the above procedure can be executed any further


The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages

The following Extra Index of Evergreen Perennials is created on the right hand side of the page in the P-Evergreen M-Z Gallery, to which the Evergreen Perennial found in the above list will have that row copied to.
The following also contains the Index of Evergreen Perennials on the left hand side of the respective page.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

 

 

This version of these links with a white background contains links to the pages in the Evergreen Perennial Shape Gallery, Evergreen Perennial Gallery and the Plants Topic

The version of these links with a yellow background contains links to the pages in the Wildflower Shape Gallery and the Plants Topic


Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials.
Her ideas about Perennials (a plant that lasts for more than 2 growing seasons) include most of the other plant types except Annuals and Biennials for use in America.
She is writing about plants in America and so the descriptions for these plants are based from America with its many zones.
Index:-
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

 

Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
 

Woodland Site

Shady Places
Site

Rock
Garden in Sun
Site.
In Shade Site.

Planting on a Sloping Site

Bog Site

Large Perennial Site

Cut Flower Site

Outdoor Room
Site

Strip
Site

Plans for Beds and Borders
Site

Beds
Site

Borders Site

Plant Roots only get their nutrients and water by being associated with
Mycorrhizal Fungi. Fungi have no access to water, plant dies.

Long Bloomers

White Flower Colour

Blue or Almost Blue Flower Colour

Lavender Flower Colour

Lavender, called Blue Flower Colour

Yellow Flower Colour

Orange Flower Colour

Pink Flower Colour

Red & Scarlet Flower Colour

Maroon Flower Colour

Flowering Stem between 24-48 inches (60-120 cms)

Flowering Stem over 48 inches (120 cms)

Bloom by Season
Jan-Feb

Bloom by Season
Mar-Apr

 

Bloom by Season
May-Jun

Bloom by Season
Jul-Aug

Bloom by Season
Sep-Dec

Foliage
Blue-Green

Foliage Grey-Green

Foliage Grey

Foliage Varie-gated

 

Foliage Height
1-7 inches (2.5-17.5 cms)

Foliage Height
8-23 inches (20-57.5 cms)

Foliage Height
24- inches
(60 and over cms)

Foliage
Bold

Foliage Finely Cut, Delicate or Compound
+
Finely Cut

Foliage Aromatic

 

Perennials for Ground Covering in the Full Sun
+
1, 2

Perennials for Ground Covering in Shade

and 3

 

Long Lived

Bulbs to Combine with Perennials including Corms

Grasses to Grow with Perennials

Subshrubs to Grow with Perennials

Annuals to Use with Perennials

Herbs for Decoration as well as Culinary

 

Annuals, Biennials and Perennials to grow Annually

Perennials which Self Sow

Neat Growers - Good for Beds

 

Perennials which prefer Moisture

Perennials which do best on Margins of Water

Perennials which are Drought Tolerant

Perennials which tolerate Dense Shade

Perennials for Poor Soil, Full Sun

Tough Perennials (or easy Maint-enance)


Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.

Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.

Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.

This white background part of the table is used to incorporate plants that I have detailed in a Plant Description Page or in a row of a Table, therefore it is usually plants with their description for the UK climate with its reduced number of zones.
 

Evergreen Perennial Form

Mat-forming

Prostrate or Trailing.

Climbing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright.

Arching

Evergreen Perennial Use

Other than Only Green Foliage +
1, 2

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

In Water

Coastal Conditions
+
Coastal

Speciman Plant

Under-plant

Indoor House-plant

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Hanging Basket +
Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Attracts Butter-flies
+ Butterfly Usage
of Plants

Attracts Bees +
1, 2, 3
and Forage Calendar

Grow in Scree

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough +

Rock Plant

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Natural-ized Plant Area

Resistant to Wildlife

 

Early Spring Border Special Garden

Spring Epheme-rals Special Garden

Summer Border Special Garden

Cottage Garden Special Garden

Late Summer Border Special Garden

Autumn Border Special Garden

Shade Border and Woodland Garden Special Garden

Back of Border, Alley, and Too Tall for Words Special Garden

Meadow Garden Special Garden

Evergreen Perennial in Soil

Chalk +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Clay +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Sand +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Lime-Free (Acid) +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Peat +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Any +

A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

+ Evergreen Perennials in Pages in Plants

Peony Use
of Peonies in

UK Peony Index

Fragrant Flowers

Flower Arrangers

Hedge

Growing Tree Peonies in Pots

Front of Border

Rest of Border

Not Green Foliage

Rock Garden

Seaside / Coastal

Tree

 

 

This is copied from the Wildflower Shape Gallery
Ivydene Gardens Flower Shape and Use in Landscape for all Wildflower and Cultivated Plants in this Website Gallery

The links have usually changed from linking to pages in the Wildflower Shape Gallery and Plants Topic to the Evergreen Perennial Shape Gallery and Topic Table

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0
for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.

Wildflowers with the same genus name as for the plant in these following lists with their Species will be added to these lists so that you can then use them with those cultivated perennials for the same purpose in your garden. Their botanical names will be in black.
 

Woodland Site

Shady Places
Site

Rock
Garden in Sun Site.
In Shade Site.

Planting on a Sloping Site

Bog Site

Large Perennial Site

Cut Flower Site

Outdoor Room
Site

Strip
Site

 

Early Spring Border Special Garden

Spring Epheme-rals Special Garden

Plans for Beds and Borders
Site

Summer Border Special Garden

Cottage Garden Special Garden

Beds
Site

 

Late Summer Border Special Garden

Autumn Border Special Garden

Borders Site

 

Shade Border and Woodland Garden Special Garden

Meadow Garden Special Garden

These pages in this section of Yellow Background are
List of Perennials by Landscaping Site - xxxx with Plant Type, Evergreen or Herbaceous or Deciduous, Sun Aspect and Listed Species from Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. Her ideas about Perennials (a plant that lasts for more than 2 growing seasons) include most of the other plant types except Annuals and Biennials for use in America.
Index:-
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, X, Y, Z

Long Bloomers

 

Back of Border, Alley, and Too Tall for Words Special Garden

White Flower Colour

Blue or Almost Blue Flower Colour

Lavender Flower Colour

Lavender, called Blue Flower Colour

Yellow Flower Colour

Orange Flower Colour

Pink Flower Colour

Red & Scarlet Flower Colour

Maroon Flower Colour

Flowering Stem between 24-48 inches (60-120 cms)

Flowering Stem over 48 inches (120 cms)

Bloom by Season
Jan-Feb

Bloom by Season
Mar-Apr
 

Bloom by Season
May-Jun

Bloom by Season
Jul-Aug

Bloom by Season
Sep-Dec

Foliage
Blue-Green

Foliage Grey-Green

Foliage Grey

Foliage Varie-gated

 

Foliage Height
1-7 inches (2.5-17.5 cms)

Foliage Height
8-23 inches (20-57.5 cms)

Foliage Height
24- inches
(60 and over cms)

Foliage
Bold

Foliage Finely Cut, Delicate or Compound
+
Finely Cut

Foliage Aromatic

 

Perennials for Ground Covering in the Full Sun
+
1, 2

Perennials for Ground Covering in Shade

and 3

 

Long Lived

Bulbs to Combine with Perennials including Corms

Grasses to Grow with Perennials

Subshrubs to Grow with Perennials

Annuals to Use with Perennials

Herbs for Decoration as well as Culinary

 

Annuals, Biennials and Perennials to grow Annually

Perennials which Self Sow

Neat Growers - Good for Beds

 

Perennials which prefer Moisture

Perennials which do best on Margins of Water

Perennials which are Drought Tolerant

Perennials which tolerate Dense Shade

Perennials for Poor Soil, Full Sun

Tough Perennials (or easy Maint-enance)


Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.

Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.

Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.

Wildflowers with the same genus name as for the plant in these following lists with their Species will be added to these lists so that you can then use them with those cultivated perennials for the same purpose in your garden. Their botanical names will be in black.
 

Wildflower Form and

Evergreen Perennial Form

Wildflower Form and

Evergreen Perennial Form

Mat-
form

Mat-forming

Prostrate or Trail

Prostrate or Trailing.
 

Climb
 

Climbing

Cushion or Mound

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spread or Creep

Spreading or Creeping

Clump- form

Clump-forming

Stem- less.

Stemless.


Sword-shape
Leaf

Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Erect or Upright.

Arching

 

Arching

Wildflower Use and Evergreen Perennial Use

Other than Only Green Foliage +
1, 2

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

In Water

Coastal Conditions
+
Coastal

Speciman Plant

Under-plant

Indoor House-plant

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Hanging Basket +
Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Attracts Butter-flies
+ Butterfly Usage
of Plants

Attracts Bees +
1, 2, 3
and Forage Calendar

Grow in Scree

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough +

Rock Plant

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Natural-ized Plant Area

Resistant to Wildlife

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wildflower in Soil and Evergreen Perennial in Soil

Chalk +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Clay +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Sand +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Lime-Free (Acid) +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Peat +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Any +

A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

+ Evergreen Perennials in Pages in Plants

Peony Use
of Peonies in

UK Peony Index

Fragrant Flowers

Flower Arrangers

Hedge

Growing Tree Peonies in Pots

Front of Border

Rest of Border

Not Green Foliage

Rock Garden

Seaside / Coastal

Tree

 

 

Just as
From Annuals and Biennials chapter in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1 in the Table about Ground Cover in the UK on the right,

then

The Complete Book of Ground Covers - 4000 Plants that reduce Maintenance, Control Erosion, and Beautify the Landscape by Gary Lewis provides the same for America.
Printed in 2022. ISBN 978-160469-460-4.
Besides detailing each plant, providing designing and cultivation chapters, it also provides the following lists:-

  • Winter-growing and spring ephemeral ground covers for multiseason interest
  • Ground covers for tight spaces
  • Ground cover alternatives to lawns
    In the continental United States, turf grass is the most common of all ground covers, occupying about 40,000,000 acres, or 2% of the total land base -
    3 times more than corn and more than any other irrigated crop.
    Americans spend about 30,000,000,000 dollars a year on lawn care including irrigation. Lawns are a green desert for most wildlife, providing little food or habitat.
    If a lawn is not used for recreation and not important for aesthetic reasons, there is no reason it cannot be partially or completely replaced with the ground covers in this list, which are tolerant of foot traffic.
    Ground covers can replace lawns in problem spots such as
    shaded areas where turf grows poorly or in hot,
    dry locations where the lawn dries out too quickly.
    Ground covers can also be valuable on hard-to-maintain steep slopes,
    in wet areas with soft soil,
    in drainage ditches,
    under low-hanging tree branches,
    among exposed tree roots (to stop people using the mowers from cutting these roots. This ground cover can be a legume, so that it will feed those roots as well), and
    where landscape features require awkward repositioning of the mower.
  • Edible ground covers
  • Trailing ground covers
  • Ground covers for green roofs and living walls - see examples in Hedging
  • Ground cover for rain gardens
    Rain gardens are usually shallow depressions that are designed to slow, collect, and hold rainwater runoff from hard, flat surfaces such as roofs, patios, driveways, and parking areas. The collected water can then percolate slowly into the ground, replenishing soil moisture, reducing pressure on the stormwater drainage system, and mitigating the environmental impacts of stormwater drainage into the environment.
  • Fragrant and aromatic ground covers
  • Spring bulb ground cover companions
  • Summer and fall ground companions
  • Ground cover for dry shade
  • Ground cover for sunny slopes
  • Ground cover for hell strips
    The usually narrow, linear spaces between sidewalks and roads have thin, poorly structured soils as a result of road and sidewalk construction, with a high salt content from snow control in cold winter regions and with low soil moisture because irrigation is rarely available
  • Ground covers for saline soils
  • Ground covers for aidic soils
  • Ground covers for alkaline soils
  • Ground covers for moist or wet soils
  • Ground covers resistant to deer and rabbits

 

 

Alpine Plant Gardening

The variety of plants that can be used in alpine gardening is obviously very large and very bewildering at first approach. With a view to easing the task of selection here are lists of alpines most likely to thrive and flourish under certain easily defined conditions and for special purposes, which may be considered first choices, from Gardening with Alpines by Stanley B. Whitehead. Garden Book Club. Published in 1962.

Alpine Plants for a Purpose:-

  • Beginner's Choice for an All-the-year-round-show in
    SPRING,
    SUMMER,
    AUTUMN,
    WINTER.
  • Plants of Foliage Beauty.
  • Alpines for Full Sun, Hot, Dry Positions.
  • Alpines tolerant of Shade.
  • Alpines for Dry Shade.
  • Alpines tolerant of Lime or Chalk.
  • Alpines readily raised from seed.
  • Alpines for the damper places.
  • Alpines for planting between Paving Stones.
  • Scree Plants.

     

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

with the following pages on Alpine Plants

Alpine Shrubs and Conifers

The Alpine Meadow
Page 1
Page 2
Page 3

The Alpines that Dislike Lime 1, 2

Alpines and Walls
Dry Sunny Walls 1a, b
Tops of Walls 2a, b
Dry Shady and Conifers 3a, b

Sink and Trough gardens
1
, 2

The Alpine Border
1
, 2

Alpines and
Paving
1
, 2

 

 

 

 

 

COLOUR WHEEL USES GALLERY PAGES
compares the use of plants in this website
- WHICH ARE THOSE PLANTS FROM OTHER GALLERIES BESIDES THE WILDFLOWER SHAPE GALLERY - combined with those already compared in
Bedding,
Bulb,
Evergreen Perennial,
Herbaceous Perennial and
Roses
pages as linked to in row
Topic - Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process
in the TOPIC table - on the extreme left.

 

 

Bedding Out and Bedding Out of Roses

Bedding for Filling In

Bedding for Screening

Bedding for Pots and Troughs

Bedding in Window Boxes

Bedding in Hanging Baskets

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL
FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

Site Map of pages with content (o)
with the only page in this Gallery containing Tables A, B and C

Introduction

Bedding Foliage

Bedding:- Spring

Summer

Winter

Foliage Only

Other than Green Foliage

Trees in Lawn

Trees in Small Gardens
 

Wildflower Garden

Attract Bird
Attract Butterfly
1
, 2

Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall

Climber in Tree

Rabbit-Resistant
 

Woodland

Pollution Barrier

Part Shade

Full Shade

Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3

Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm

Hedge

Wind-swept

PERENNIAL - EVERGREEN GALLERY PAGES

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
Orange
(o)Other Colours
(o)Red
(o)Pink
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
Black
Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Bronze
(o)Green1
(o)Green2
(o)Grey
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)Silver
(o)Variegated White
Variegated Yellow
White
Yellow
Autumn Colour
4 Season Colour

FORM
(o)Mat-forming
(o)Prostrate
(o)Mound-forming
(o)Spreading
(o)Clump-forming
Stemless
(o)Upright
Climbing
Arching

FRUIT COLOUR
(o)Fruit

FLOWER BED PICTURES
(o)Garden

Covering Banks

Patio Pot

Edging Borders

Back of Border

Poisonous

Adjacent to Water

Bog Garden
 

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Winter-Flowering
 

Fragrant

Not Fragrant

Exhibition

Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'

Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves

Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal

Coastal Conditions

Tolerant on North-facing Wall

Cut Flower

Potted Veg Outdoors

Potted Veg Indoors
 

Thornless

Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
 

Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F,
G-L, M-R,
S-Z

Grow in Acidic Soil

Grow in Any Soil

Grow in Rock Garden

Grow Bulbs Indoors

 

Potted Fruit Outdoors

Potted Fruit Indoors

Fruit Outdoors

Plants for Outdoor
Containers Index
A-C,
D-M,
N-Z

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is copied from the Evergreen Pernnials Gallery Introduction Page:-

 

It is unfortunate that in reading the following in this table,

  • that Glyphosate is detrimental to humans and others.
  • We forget that we eat the fish that have been affected by Glyphosate, and so it enters our bodies. Then, it goes into our brains, and changes the brain's chemical composition.
  • The weeds that are killed by glyphosate pass this glyphosate onto other plants from their decayed bodies and cause problems in them as well. Besides that, we then eat these affected crops, even if the aplication that killed those weeds was applied a year or more ago.
  • The worms that make our soil productive are killed by glyphosate.
  • The human waste mixed with rain is toxic to the oceans it goes into. Those oceans produce the oxygen for us to breathe, but are now becoming less and less able to do so; because of this Nitrogen and other pollution.
  • Because there has been no new water reservoirs and no updating of the waste treatment plants to handle the current requirements for 30 years in the UK, then every new home built may not have any water coming in and all its waste will be going into the sea. But both this current Conservative government and the one after the next General Election for Members of Parliament in 2024 still intend to build 300,000 new homes every year.
  • Strange - that by 2050, the rain that falls on England is going to decrease by 30% for an increase of 30% in its population. We will not have the water required before 2030.

 

This is a copy of Guy's News from Riverford Organic Farms on Monday 12 February 2024.

To Plough or Not To Plough? A modern dilemma.

"For millenia, ploughing has been use to clear crops and create weed-free seedbeds. As the centuries passed, crude wooden tooth shears were replaced by curved steel, which inverted the furrows more efficiently. Horses, mules, and oxen were replaced by tractors, which could work faster and dig deeper. But the arrival of cheap, effective herbicides (especially glyphosate), paired with concerns about the environmental impact of such violent soil disturbance, has led to questioning of the once-noble art of ploughing.

It was traditional to plough in autumn or early winter, leaving the upstanding furrows exposed to frost. Repeated feezing and thawing fractured the coarse clods, then requiring just a light harrowing to prepare the soil for spring crops. An acre was originally defined; as the area one horse could plough in a day. But by 1946, the first Ferguson TE20 'Fergie' tractor was made in Coventry. With its 20-horsepower engine, affordable price, and the revolutionary hydraulic three-point linkage for attaching ploughs, the Fergie soon displaced draft horses and opened the doors to modern agriculture.

Today, a 200-horsepower tractor can plough 30 acres a day; much faster than the horse it has replaced, but is 7 times less efficient in terms of energy. The modern plough will invert 20-25cm (8-10 inches) of soil, compared to the 10cm (4 inches) inverted by horse. In many case, it is only necessary to plough so deeply to remove the compaction and soil damage caused by such heavy machinery in the first place.

With some justification, ploughing is increasingly seen as a plague on soil health;

  • damaging fragile earthworms and fungal hyphae,
  • increasing carbon loss, and leaving soil,
  • without living roots,
  • vulnerable to erosion and
  • nutrient depletion during heavy rain.

Indeed, large-scale 'regenerative agriculture' is chiefly defined by avoiding ploughing as a means to remove vegetation, often replacing it with the world's favourite herbicide, glyphosate (which kills all plants right down to the root tips). An advance for mankind? The evidence is not clear. I am not wholly convinced that ploughing is always bad, and I suspect, even without considering the health impacts of glyphosate, that ploughing would compare more favourably if we simply reduced the depth."

 

This row and the following one explain the view of the Soil Association in the UK on To Plough or Not To Plough:-

First few pages of this Policy Briefing from To Plough or Not To Plough - Tillage and soil carbon sequestration Policy Briefing, November 2018 by the Soil Association:-

"Executive summary
Fertile, healthy soils are vital for our food security. Globally, they store an estimated 9.8 billion tonnes of carbon. If managed well, they can reduce greenhouse gas emissions; but if badly managed, soils turn from a store to a source of emissions. Soils can also help prevent floods and reduce the impact of droughts; but badly managed soils lose the ability to absorb and filter water, damaging water supplies and increasing flood risk. The government is committed to placing soil at the heart of UK farming. The Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), Michael Gove, has said that proposals to improve soil health will have 'as strong an evidence base as possible'. On that basis, he has expressed support for conservation tillage systems, also known as 'min-till' or 'no-till'.

This Soil Association briefing aims to set out the extent of current knowledge.
Key points:

  • Min or no-till has become popular in recent years. Min and no-till systems minimise soil disturbance and are claimed to sequester additional carbon over time, as organic matter increases and with it soil carbon levels.
  • Min till also offers the potential for lower costs of machinery use (lower energy use), less damage to soil structure, less risk of soil erosion, less environmental damage from nitrogen leaching and pesticide run-off from bare (ploughed) land, and environmental benefits such as increased soil fauna and habitats for birds.
  • However, scientific research on conservation tillage does not support the position that min or no-till be adopted as a guaranteed method of cutting farming's greenhouse gas emissions. For example, a study carried out by ADAS for Defra in 2006 concluded that there is only limited scope for additional soil carbon storage/ accumulation from zero/reduced tillage practices and organic material additions, over and above 'present day normal farm practice', and that 'there are questions over the implications of such practices for nitrous oxide emissions and the overall balance of greenhouse gas emissions (expressed on a carbon dioxide 3 equivalent basis)'. Other leading research concluded that the role of no-till in mitigating climate change 'is widely overstated'.
  • Min or no-till systems generally rely on herbicides to kill crop residues and weeds. This may have a damaging impact on soil biodiversity and the surrounding environment - in particular, evidence is emerging of damage to earthworm populations.
  • In the UK, non-organic arable farmers, who use min or no-till systems have frequently suffered severe outbreaks of grass weeds such as blackgrass, leading to a resumption of ploughing. Min or no-till techniques are also used by some organic farmers who do not use herbicides to help manage their tillage systems.
  • Min or no-till is certainly not the only way to increase soil carbon. There is clear scientific evidence that many farming practices - particularly those that are part of organic farming systems, such as winter cover-cropping, use of farm-yard manure and inclusion of grass leys in arable rotations - contribute to raising the levels of soil organic matter and soil carbon.
  • As several studies have reported, the better performance of organic farming in sequestering soil carbon may be because organic systems have between 32% and 84% greater microbial biomass; and organic farming systems appear to have positive effects on soil microbial community size and activity. A long-term study published in 2007 concluded that "organic farming can build up soil organic matter better than conventional no-till farming can". A recent U.S. study found that organically managed soils store more carbon for longer periods and have on average 44% higher levels of humic acid - the component of soil that sequesters carbon over the long term - than soils not managed organically.
  • Min and no-till bring other benefits to soils, including greater concentration of organic matter near the soil surface, better soil structure, enhanced seedling emergence and water infiltration and water retention, making them more resilient in the face of droughts or floods. However, other practices will bring similar benefits, including farming practices inherent in organic farming but available to all farmers, such as tree planting (including integrating trees with farmland - agroforestry), conversion of arable land to grassland, and inclusion of temporary grassland in arable cropping systems.
  • Depending on the starting conditions and soil type, one study found that the rate of increase of soil carbon drops by 50% 10 years after converting from arable to semi-permanent grassland. After 50 years, some soil scientists suggest that the rate is virtually zero when a new soil equilibrium is reached, but new research suggests increases will continue for longer. This is good news in the fight against climate change because to meet internationally-agreed targets, cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are needed over the next 30 years. The French Government initiative, agreed by the UK, is that we should increase soil carbon levels by 0.4% annually to 2050.
  • Despite the use of ploughing on most organic farms, organically-farmed soils have been found to have on average 21% higher levels of soil organic matter than non-organic soils. Recent research found that shallow non-inversion tillage resulted in no significant reductions in yield relative to deep ploughing, with significantly higher earthworm populations and better weed control. The most recent research, published in 2018, concluded that soil organic carbon can be over-estimated if deeper soils are ignored, and that their results "support the message advocated in former studies that the no-till sequestration potential with respect to mitigating climate change is likely to be over-optimistic".
  • Organic farming practices perform significantly better against a range of other soil health indicators, such as abundance of soil microbes. While soils cannot prevent droughts and floods, they can be more resilient in the face of flooding and drought. A 2017 U.S. study found that soils from organic farms had 13% more soil organic matter and 26% more potential for long-term carbon storage than soils from non-organic farms. This document was the final Soil Association briefing that Soil Association Policy Director Peter Melchett worked on before his death in 2018.

 

Last few pages of this Policy Briefing from To Plough or Not To Plough - Tillage and soil carbon sequestration Policy Briefing, November 2018 by the Soil Association.:-

"Can organic methods deliver improvements to soil health?

  • Recent research published in Advances in Agronomy found that organic farming can build SOM (SOM is Soil Organic Matter) better than conventional no-till farming.
  • Organic farming, despite its emphasis on building organic matter, was thought by some to endanger soil carbon stocks because it generally relies on tillage and cultivation - instead of herbicides - to kill weeds. Studies showed that the organic farming system's addition of organic matter through composted manures and plant residues more than offset any possible losses from tillage.
  • Organic soil cultivation has the potential to sequester high levels of carbon. Researchers in Europe have reported that the progressive conversion to 50% of EU land under organic farming by 2030 would offer a mitigation potential of 23% of agricultural GHG emissions through increased soil carbon sequestration and reduced application of mineral fertilisers.
  • One explanation for the better performance of organic farming in sequestering soil carbon may be because, as several studies have reported, organic systems have 32% to 84% greater microbial biomass carbon, and organic farming systems appear to have positive effects on soil microbial community size and activity.
  • A recent study from the U.S. found that organically managed soils store more carbon for longer periods and have on average 44% higher levels of humic acid - the component of soil that sequesters carbon over the long term - than soils not managed organically. This research found that soils from organic farms had 13% more SOM and 26% more potential for long-term carbon storage than soils from conventional farms. There is now also a significant body of evidence to show that organic farming practices perform significantly better against a range of other soil health indicators, such as abundance of soil microbes and resilience against flooding and drought.

Conclusion

  • Sweeping generalisations about soil health are hard to make. There is no 'silver bullet solution' for soil health and there is no short cut for building soil carbon.
  • The government should look to support further research into soil health and associated practices. However, organic farming has been proven to be the most effective way of building soil carbon, and it does not require the high level of agrochemical inputs that can further damage soil and farm wildlife. If the government wants to achieve greater soil health across the UK, it should encourage the wider adoption of organic farming practices and provide support for farmers to encourage a higher level of conversion; and whether using inversion tillage, min or no-till systems, all farmers should take special care to disturb as little of the top layer of their soils as possible.

Contact Sam Packer spacker@soilassociation.org in the Soil Association Policy Department." from To Plough or Not To Plough - Tillage and soil carbon sequestration Policy Briefing, November 2018 by the Soil Association.

 

This row explains the glyphosate's effect and
the row following will explain why the micronutrients have been reduced since 1940
- for the eating public in the UK - by the use of this herbicide on the UK farmland.

Glyphosate: Its Environmental Persistence and Impact on Crop Health and Nutrition by National Library of Medicine (An Official website of the United States government) and published online November 13 2019.

3. Glyphosate’s Effects on Crop Health

  • Among several concerns pertaining to unintended effects of glyphosate, its negative effects on nontarget plants are of serious concern among producers. Glyphosate applied to control weeds can reach the nontarget areas through several routes. The primary route is through undirected spray applications or “spray drift”, which can directly carry the herbicide chemical to crops. Research has demonstrated that off-target movement or drift of glyphosate during application can be up to 10% of the applied rate in crops like soybean and cotton [16,53]. Although herbicide exposure during application drift would be considered sublethal, response can be potentially severe for susceptible crops. For instance, drift from glyphosate has been found to cause distorted fruit (often termed as “cat-facing”) to develop in tomatoes at sublethal rates of exposure [54].
  • Another potential route for glyphosate accumulation and stabilization in soils is represented by the release of glyphosate from plant residues of glyphosate-treated weeds. As glyphosate is fairly stable and not immediately metabolized in many plant species, substantial amounts can be extensively translocated to regions of active growth and accumulate, particularly in young tissues [55]. After weeds eventually die, it ends up in the soil following the decay of plant parts. More intensive evaluations have revealed that glyphosate is translocated within plants, accumulated in roots, and eventually released into the rhizosphere [56,57,58]. From the soil, glyphosate may also be reabsorbed by the target or nontarget plants back through the roots after the initial application. There are a few studies that have investigated the effects of root-zone exposure of glyphosate on crops, including cotton [59], maize [60], and rapeseed [61]. These studies indicate there is a likelihood for glyphosate’s root absorption into crops. However, most of the conclusions were drawn from observations in hydroponic nutrient solutions, and hence additional research would be valuable for better understanding the uptake of glyphosate from soils and its ensuing effects on crop functioning.
  • Glyphosate blocks the synthesis of essential amino acids through binding and subsequent inactivation of an enzyme (EPSPS) that is critical in the shikimate pathway [28]. An array of phenolic compounds that play a significant role in plant immunity are derived from the same metabolic pathway. By disrupting the synthesis of such defense compounds in plants, glyphosate predisposes the crops to attack by soil-borne pathogens [62]. Hence, it could be argued that continuous crop exposure to glyphosate may increase plant susceptibility to diseases [15,63]. Excessive glyphosate application has been linked to disease development in many crops. For instance, glyphosate applications were found to be the main factor in the development of diseases such as Fusarium head blight in agronomic crops [64]. There are documented reports of increased colonization of pathogen in wheat and barley roots correlated with burndown applications of glyphosate before planting [65]. Moreover, the effects of sublethal doses of glyphosate on perennial plants sometimes take a year after exposure to appear and continue for two or more years [66]. Glyphosate can also predispose plants to diseases indirectly by reducing the overall growth and vigor of the plants, modifying soil microflora that affects the availability of nutrients required for disease resistance, and altering the physiological efficiency of plants.
  • The root uptake and translocation of glyphosate in nontarget plants have been studied. In one such experiment to understand the consequences of glyphosate residues on plant species used in ecological restoration, test plants were grown in nonadsorbing media continuously treated with glyphosate. Observations suggested that nonadsorbed glyphosate residues can cause potential phytotoxicity to sensitive plants through root uptake and subsequent translocation to other parts of the plant [67]. However, the study system utilized in this work is comparable to a spray application situation that has a risk of high herbicide delivery rate, regardless of the label recommendation. The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of glyphosate in nontarget tea plants were examined in a hydroponic system by Tong et al. [68]. The highest content of glyphosate was observed in the plant roots, where it was also metabolized to AMPA. The glyphosate and its metabolite were transported from the roots through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The results from this study indicated that plant-available glyphosate could be continuously absorbed by roots, metabolized, and transported into edible tea leaves [68]. Glyphosate uptake into nontarget plants is suggested when the herbicide and its degradation products (e.g., AMPA) are found in plant tissues and seeds of crops like soybean and corn [69] and tree foliage [20] following application of glyphosate to manage weeds in farms and adjacent areas.
  • Another potential side effect of glyphosate that needs to be discussed is its effect on root formation. Bott and coworkers [70] demonstrated glyphosate’s ability to inhibit root elongation, lateral root formation, and root biomass production in soybeans. It was even demonstrated that glyphosate released from dead weeds could be absorbed through the roots of growing citrus plants [17]. After entering the plant system, glyphosate is rapidly translocated to young growing tissues of roots, where it can accumulate and inhibit growth [71]. By blocking the production of tryptophan, glyphosate prevents the synthesis of a major growth promoter called indole acetic acid (IAA), which can explain the reduction in root growth of plants [15].
  • There are also some concerns about the deleterious effects of glyphosate on fruit retention in tree crops, such as citrus. Fruit drop in citrus is a natural phenomenon, but an increase in fruit drop has been reported after glyphosate application, especially in late summer and fall for early-season oranges and grapefruits [72,73] with an impact on fruit yield. The reason for this glyphosate-linked drop is far from understood as it is not even consistent across different seasons. However, it is known that glyphosate enhances ethylene production in plant tissues, and ethylene exposure of mature citrus fruit may result in early abscission and fruit drop. More research is needed to understand the causes of this fruit drop and the exact role of glyphosate in this process.

 

4. Glyphosate’s Interaction with Crop Nutrition

Glyphosate’s interaction with soil occurs when a foliar spray hits the soil surface or when glyphosate is released from decomposing weed tissue [17]. Glyphosate in the soil will be immobilized by adsorption or binding to the soil colloids and hence persists in the soil. The adsorption characteristics of glyphosate are different from most other herbicides. Adsorption of glyphosate on the soil is influenced more by soil minerals rather than organic matter [74]. Glyphosate is a divalent metal cation chelator and has been purported to reduce the uptake and translocation of nutrients in crops. Recent evaluations on the chelating ability of glyphosate highlighted it as a key factor in nutrient deficiencies in crops. These reduced availabilities of nutrients as a result of external (in the soil) or internal (in the plants) interaction of glyphosate with cationic nutrients are observed in production systems that heavily rely on glyphosate for weed management. For instance, Eker et al. [75] found that glyphosate residues or drift may reduce the uptake and translocation of micronutrients, such as Mn and Fe, in nontarget plants and suggested glyphosate−metal complex formation in plant tissues and/or plant rhizospheres. These poorly soluble chelated complexes of glyphosate with micronutrients hinder their root uptake and translocation by the crops. There are many similar studies that link the ability of glyphosate to inhibit the acquisition of micronutrients, such as Mn, Fe, Zn and B, in plants exposed to glyphosate, either through spray drift [76,77] or root uptake [78]. Such interactions of glyphosate with plant nutrition may potentially pose consequences on crop health. For instance, in tree crops like citrus, it is well known that these micronutrients are involved in disease, particularly Huanglongbing (HLB), resistance mechanisms [79,80]."

 

Gylphosate usage in the UK farmland could be the reason for the following reduction in micronutrients in our UK produced fruit and vegetables since 1940:-

"Historical changes in the mineral content of fruit and vegetables in the UK from 1940 to 2019: a concern for human nutrition and agriculture.
Abstract
Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and is linked with diets low in fruit and vegetables. However, during the twentieth century, declines in essential minerals in fruits and vegetables were reported in the UK and elsewhere. A new analysis of long-term trends of the mineral content of fruits and vegetables from three editions of the UK's Composition of Foods Tables (1940, 1991 and 2019) was undertaken. All elements except P declined in concentrations between 1940 and 2019 - the greatest overall reductions during this 80-year period were Na (52%), Fe (50%), Cu (49%) and Mg (10%); water content increased (1%). There could be many reasons for these reductions, including changes in crop varieties and agronomic factors associated with the industrialisation of agriculture. Increases in carbon dioxide could also play a role. We call for a thorough investigation of these reductions and steps to be taken to address the causes that could contribute to global malnutrition."

The glyphosate in the UK produced fruit and vegatables is also eaten by the UK public with what consequences?

 

 

Toxic Effects of Glyphosate on the Nervous System: A systematic Review:-

  1. "Abstract
    Glyphosate, a non-selective systemic biocide with broad-spectrum activity, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It can persist in the environment for days or months, and its intensive and large-scale use can constitute a major environmental and health problem. In this systematic review, we investigate the current state of our knowledge related to the effects of this pesticide on the nervous system of various animal species and humans. The information provided indicates that exposure to glyphosate or its commercial formulations induces several neurotoxic effects. It has been shown that exposure to this pesticide during the early stages of life can seriously affect normal cell development by deregulating some of the signaling pathways involved in this process, leading to alterations in differentiation, neuronal growth, and myelination. Glyphosate also seems to exert a significant toxic effect on neurotransmission and to induce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, processes that lead to neuronal death due to autophagy, necrosis, or apoptosis, as well as the appearance of behavioral and motor disorders. The doses of glyphosate that produce these neurotoxic effects vary widely but are lower than the limits set by regulatory agencies. Although there are important discrepancies between the analyzed findings, it is unequivocal that exposure to glyphosate produces important alterations in the structure and function of the nervous system of humans, rodents, fish, and invertebrates.
  2. 1. Introduction
    Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine is the most widely used herbicide in the world [1]. It is a non-selective systemic biocide with broad-spectrum activity and was introduced in 1974 for the control of weeds in agricultural production fields [2]. The widespread use of glyphosate in agriculture and forestry has contributed to the development of numerous commercial formulations containing this compound. Herbicide formulations containing this active ingredient represent approximately 60% of the global market for non-selective herbicides [3].
    In recent years, the use of glyphosate has spread worldwide due to the development of glyphosate-resistant crops. The main driver of the enormous success of this technology has been the economic benefits obtained in the agricultural sector after the introduction of genetically modified crops [4]. This has contributed to the positioning of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) as leaders in the global pesticide market. Thus, around 600.000 to 750.000 tons of glyphosate are used each year, and it is estimated that its use will increase reaching between 740.000 and 920.000 tons by 2025 [5].
    The mechanism of action of glyphosate is associated with its ability to block the shikimic acid pathway, which is involved in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and some microorganisms [6]. Glyphosate inhibits the enzyme 5-enolpyruvilshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which is the penultimate step in the shikimate pathway [7]. This inhibition leads to a reduction in the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, as well as a decrease in protein synthesis [8] (Figure 1). Therefore, blocking this metabolic pathway eventually causes the death of the target organism within a few days [9].
  3. In general, in the different environmental compartments, glyphosate is mainly degraded by microorganisms, so that its persistence is considered to be low to moderate, although it is considerably variable. On the one hand, although glyphosate is assumed to be readily degraded in soil, its biodegradation is influenced by numerous factors, including physico-chemical, biological properties and soil composition [15]. Thus, the half-life of glyphosate in soil can range from 1 to 280 days, while that of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), its main metabolite, ranges from 23 to 958 days [16,17,18]. In soil, glyphosate can bind strongly to its constituent particles and remain biologically inactive, or it can reach groundwater, due to its high water solubility [19]. However, repeated applications of glyphosate have been shown to result in a gradual difficulty for its biodegradation in the soil, which could increase the risk of groundwater contamination [20,21]. In water, the permanence of glyphosate is also widely variable and depends on factors such as light and temperature, being more persistent and toxic under conditions of darkness and higher water temperatures [22]. In general, the half-life of glyphosate in water varies from a few days to 91 days [23,24], although it has been found to remain for up to 315 days in marine waters [25]. On the other hand, while the persistence of glyphosate in vegetation may be only days, several studies have detected its presence in many foods and crops even a year after application [26,27].
  4. Therefore, although the concentrations of glyphosate residues that persist over time are relatively low, it is possible that due to extensive use on a large scale they may accumulate and become a risk to animal and human health, as they are chronically exposed to residues in the water and food they consume [23,28,29]. This has been confirmed by the detection of glyphosate in the organs and urine of a high proportion of farm animals and farmers [30,31,32,33]. In addition, residues were also found in the urine of 60–80% of the general population in the United States at medium and maximum concentrations of 2–3 and 233 μg/L, respectively. In Europe, residues were also detected in the urine of 44% of the population, although their average and maximum concentrations were lower: <1 and 5 μg/L, respectively [9,28].
  5. 3. Results
    3.1. Effects of Glyphosate in Humans
    A series of studies show that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can produce detrimental effects on the human nervous system. These investigations have shown that glyphosate can cross and affect the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and cause various types of short-term or long-term disturbances in the human nervous system (Table 1).
    From that table 1 the following:-
    • Occupational Exposure leads to visual memory impairement.
    • Prenatal and infant exposure increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder
    • Exposure during childhood appears to increase the risk of developing more severely impaired phenotypes with comorbid intellectual disability
  6. Another consideration about the effects of glyphosate is the fact that its effects do not appear immediately after exposure but one or two days later. In this sense, Lee et al. [46] found that S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) could be an important predictor of neurological complications in patients poisoned with glyphosate because its levels were increased in the group that was exposed to this substance and that presented neurological alterations. S100B levels peaked on the second day after exposure, indicating that glyphosate can reach the brain parenchyma and cause maximum brain damage after some time [46].
  7. 3.1.2. In Vitro Studies with Human Line Cells
    The ability of glyphosate to cross the BBB was also reported in an in vitro study by Martínez and Al-Ahmad [51]. In this study, the authors observed that both glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA can increase BBB permeability, possibly by interfering with the proteins that mediate the hermetic junctions between the endothelial cells that comprise the BBB. This study also showed that glucose uptake by brain endothelial cells increased after exposure to high doses of glyphosate [51]. Glucose is the main source of energy for the brain, and its entry into the central nervous system (CNS) is mediated by microvascular endothelial cells. Therefore, increased availability of glucose after exposure to glyphosate could alter the metabolic activity of neurons, as seen in a study by Martínez and Al-Ahmad [51]. This investigation also documented a decrease in cellular metabolism that did not appear to be related to neurotoxicity, as neurite density and formation were not affected by treatment with glyphosate.
  8. Exposure to glyphosate appears to affect neuronal development in the human CNS, altering the expression of molecules involved in the growth and maturation of neurons. GBH administration has been shown to alter the proliferation of cells in culture, although this effect did not occur when glyphosate was administered alone [50]. In addition, exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite induced a negative regulation in the expression of the TUBB3 and GAP43 genes, which are responsible for the synthesis of neuronal cytoskeleton proteins and axonal growth cones, respectively [52].
  9. Likewise, exposure to glyphosate induced an increase in the levels of mRNA-Wnt3a, -Wnt5a, and -Wnt7a, which are also related to the regulation of neuronal development [52]. Given that the components of the Wnt signaling pathways are expressed in a strictly controlled manner during development, their deregulation by glyphosate could promote neuronal morphological defects and cause changes in the correct neuronal development [53,54].
  10. In line with this, there is evidence of the participation of Wnt signaling in various neurocognitive developmental disorders, such as autism [55,56]. Thus, the deregulation of this pathway by glyphosate in human cells in vitro could be related to a higher incidence of developmental and autism spectrum disorders in children whose mothers were exposed to pesticides [57,58,59], including glyphosate, during pregnancy [47].
  11. Martínez and colleagues [52] also showed that glyphosate increased the mRNA expression of the two isoforms of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CAMK2A and CAMK2B). The product of these genes appears to have a dual role, as, although they are related to neuronal development and survival, they also contribute to regulation of neuronal death in response to a variety of insults [60,61]. Thus, the increased expression of this glyphosate-induced mRNA could be related to neuronal apoptosis triggered in response to oxidative stress. However, according to a study by Martínez et al. [52], AMPA decreased the expression levels of this mRNA, which led the authors to suggest that glyphosate metabolism could partially prevent neuronal death.
  12. Another effect observed in a study by Martínez et al. [52] is an increase in oxidative stress, evidenced as an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO). In addition, glyphosate and its metabolite also potentiated an inflammatory response by upregulating the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) genes and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α).
  13. As mentioned previously, injuries caused by glyphosate, such as neuroinflammation or oxidative stress, can cause neuronal death. It was shown that both glyphosate and AMPA reduced the viability of human cells and increased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [52]. LDH is involved in energy production, is found in almost every organ in the body (including the brain), and, when an organ or tissue is damaged, is released into the blood. Thus, glyphosate-induced LDH increases could be indicative of damage caused by the herbicide in the CNS. Likewise, there was also an upregulation in the gene expression of the different pathways of cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis), including caspases 3 and 7, involved in the execution of apoptosis [52]. These results corroborate the possible involvement of mechanisms of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis in glyphosate-induced cell death in humans.
  14. Another neurotransmitter system affected by glyphosate exposure is the dopaminergic system. Dopamine is a biogenic amine involved in the modulation of locomotor activity, affectivity, and neuroendocrine communication in the CNS, and its alteration can lead to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease [106]. Studies by Ait-Bali et al. [62,64], Hernández-Plata et al. [70], and Martínez et al. [13] show the effects of glyphosate on mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Ait-Bali et al. [62,64] have shown that early or adult exposure to GBH caused a decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons, observed as a decrease in immunoreactivity for the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area.
  15. These findings also suggest that when exposure occurs early in life, the pesticide can induce serious disturbances in the development of the nervous system, possibly by deregulating some of the signaling pathways involved in this process. On the other hand, a common aspect that can be drawn from in vivo and in vitro studies with rodents and humans is that both in early age and in adulthood, the hippocampus is especially vulnerable to the action of glyphosate. As a result of this damage, exposure to different concentrations of glyphosate has usually been associated with severe memory impairment that is sometimes irreversible.
  16. Studies on occupational toxicity in rural populations are of particular relevance. In such studies, glyphosate concentrations commonly used in agricultural practice or those found in residential environments close to growing areas were considered. These studies reveal a possible relationship between exposure to glyphosate during prenatal and childhood and an increased risk of developing diseases such as autism spectrum disorder [47]. Likewise, peripheral neuropathy and memory impairment have also been reported in farmers occupationally exposed to the pesticide [45,196]. These data suggest that pesticide concentrations found in agricultural settings could represent a health risk to children and adults.
  17. 4.3. Exposure Levels and Neurotoxic Effects in Fish
    When GBH is applied to crops, it can remain in the soil until it is degraded by microorganisms or mobilized by wind, rain, or irrigation. These factors increase infiltration and surface runoff, favoring the arrival of glyphosate in aquatic environments [146]. Varied concentrations of glyphosate have been reported in aquatic environments, such as concentrations of 0.1–1.48 mg/L detected in waters of Argentina and Brazil, or the maximum concentration of 0.65 mg/L detected in waters in Europe [149,197]. During the glyphosate use season, its concentration reaches 10 mg/L in Taihu Lake (China) [48].
    Therefore, Roundup® concentrations below 10 mg/L can be considered environmentally realistic considering that with current application rates, a bare water body can have a maximum glyphosate concentration of 3.7 mg/L, which corresponds to 9 mg/L of Roundup® [198]. Almost all the fish studies analyzed in this review used doses that ranged from 0.064 to 10 mg/L of GBH or glyphosate. Exposure to these environmentally relevant doses of glyphosate was associated with a wide range of neurotoxic effects, including alterations in the development of the nervous system and the appearance of alterations in behavior. In addition, although, given the physicochemical characteristics of glyphosate, it is not expected that it can bioaccumulate in the tissues of animals, the available evidence supports that this compound can accumulate in the tissues of some aquatic species, which could result in an increase in its neurotoxicity [199,200,201,202].
    Although elevated concentrations of glyphosate have been detected in some aquatic environments, some countries have adopted more restrictive limits. Thus, the maximum level of glyphosate accepted in the United States is 0.7 mg/L, whereas in Europe, the maximum accepted for a standard environmental quality is 0.028 mg/L [43,203]. In line with this, Bridi et al. [134] showed that exposure of zebrafish to glyphosate or GBH (0.01–0.5 mg/L) caused alterations in locomotion, aversive and aggressive behavior, as well as memory impairment. In a study by Khan et al. [139], treatment with 0.02–0.1 mg/L of glyphosate also altered the behavior in European carp (Cyprinus carpio). Similarly, Faria et al. [130] found that the exposure of zebrafish to concentrations of 0.3 or 3 μg/L of glyphosate for two weeks caused a deterioration in exploratory and social behavior, as well as an increase in anxiety. Likewise, the team of Sánchez et al. [149] observed that treatment of one-sided livebearer (Jenynsia multidentate) with 0.5 mg/L GBH reduced social interaction, spatial exploration, swimming performance, and long-term memory consolidation and even caused severe alterations in sexual behavior.
    These results suggest that exposure to glyphosate or GBH, although in doses that are within legally accepted limits, can result in neurotoxicity in fish and alter behaviors essential for the survival of these species. Ultimately, this could have important ecological consequences, especially in agricultural areas where agrochemicals are applied regularly. Therefore, these results suggest the need to adopt more conservative contamination limits that consider the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate.
  18. 6. Conclusions
    The information summarized in the present review indicates that exposure to glyphosate, AMPA, or GBH could induce several toxic effects on the nervous system of all species studied. Exposure to glyphosate during the early stages of life can severely affect normal cell development by deregulating some of the signaling pathways involved in this process, leading to alterations in differentiation, neuronal growth, migration, and myelination. Glyphosate also seems to exert a significant toxic effect on neurotransmission, with the glutamatergic system being one of the most affected systems. Glyphosate was found to increase glutamate release and decreased its reuptake, in addition to activating NMDAR and L-VDCC, thus increasing the influx of Ca2+ into neurons. Likewise, the results analyzed herein reflect the capacity of glyphosate to induce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction, processes that lead to neuronal death by autophagia, necrosis, or apoptosis, as well as the appearance of behavioral and motor disorders. Although there are important discrepancies between the findings analyzed in this review, it is unequivocal that exposure to glyphosate, alone or in commercial formulations, can produce important alterations in the structure and function of the nervous system of humans, rodents, fish, and invertebrate animals."

 

Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations

'Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) almost ceased three weeks after herbicide application, while the activity of soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was not affected. Reproduction of the soil dwellers was reduced by 56% within three months after herbicide application. Herbicide application led to increased soil concentrations of nitrate by 1592% and phosphate by 127%, pointing to potential risks for nutrient leaching into streams, lakes, or groundwater aquifers. These sizeable herbicide-induced impacts on agroecosystems are particularly worrisome because these herbicides have been globally used for decades."

 

The thick of it: Delving into the neglected global impacts of human waste
by Sean Mowbray on 11 January 2022

According to Tuholske’s study, 63% of the world’s nitrogen pollution generated by wastewater comes from sewage systems, 32% from direct output, and 5% from septic systems. The problem, he adds, is caused by a lack of access to adequate sanitation, as well as treatment systems that are either aging or not designed to strip nutrients and other pollutants from waste.

In fact, a massive waste disposal flaw was built into many municipal sewage systems designed in the late 1800s and 1900s. In the United Kingdom, U.S. and elsewhere, many cities still use combined sewer overflows (CSOs), with the same pipes carrying both human waste and stormwater. As a result, heavy rainfall events can overwhelm sewage treatment plants, with those facilities then forced to shunt the rush of stormwater, raw sewage, or partially treated wastewater directly into rivers and estuaries.

A report by the Rivers Trust, using data from the U.K. Environment Agency, noted more than 400,000 sewage discharge notifications in England in 2020. Scotland faces a similar situation, with thousands of liters of sewage discharged since 2016. About 60% of New York City is still served by CSOs, with swimming beaches intermittently shut down after major rain events due to the public health hazard posed. Fixing the problem isn’t cheap: According to a 2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate, “CSO corrections would cost New Yorkers $5.1 billion over 20 years. These corrections are in addition to the $26.3 billion needed for other wastewater infrastructure improvements.”

Municipalities around the globe, saddled with aging CSOs, are likewise finding system upgrades prohibitively expensive. But doing so is more urgent than ever: Climate change is increasing storm severity, straining these systems even further. A report by USA Today found that 97% of cites with combined sewers in the U.S. have experienced “an uptick in both annual precipitation and extreme rainfall over the past 30 years,” likely triggering more frequent sewage releases.

Wastewater pollution not only puts public health at risk, but is also damaging our food systems. One study, looking into the role of urbanization in the spread of pathogens and contaminants in Myanmar’s coastal waters, found more than 87 potential human bacterial pathogens and 78 different contaminants in oyster tissue in the Mergui Archipelago.

This isn’t an isolated case of ecosystem degradation. Joleah Lamb, assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of California, Irvine, who led the Myanmar research, is carrying out a similar study in the Seattle area in collaboration with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Cornell University, and the Washington Department of Natural Resources. Previously, she says, anti-depressants, chemotherapy drugs, heart medications and opioids have been found in Seattle area mussels, potentially linked to wastewater treatment plants and combined sewer overflows.

“We’re also finding very similar types of pathogens in these mussels that we’re finding in Myanmar. So, it’s not just a problem that we’re having in places like Asia,” Lamb noted.

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