narcissusfflojetfiredeeproot

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Flower. Photo from Deeproot Plant Base

See photo from Royal Horticultural Society

Foliage

See photos from Rainy Side Gardeners

Form

Rollover image from Van Meuwen

Plant Name

Narcissus 'Jetfire' 6Y-O

See Narcissus Introduction for details about Division Number followed by Flower Colour Code for the Narcissus Classification above. Miniature is added to any of the Divisions 1 to 13.

The name of the genus is derived from Narcissus, son of the Boeotian river god Cephisus and the nymph Liriope. Narcissus is also said to come from the Greek 'narke' meaning 'numbness' and refers to its narcotic properties.

Common Name

Daffodil

Soil

Well-drained Acidic Sand or Chalk (Ideally the pH should be around 7 to 6.5)

Sun Aspect

Full Sun (require at least half a days sun) and Part Shade

Soil Moisture

Moist. (Daffodils need lots of water while they are growing. Water immediately after planting and keep them moist until the rains come. Continue watering for three weeks or so after blooming time; then stop watering. The bulbs make their next year's bloom after flowering.)

Plant Type

Herbaceous Bulb

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

8 x 4 (20 x 10)

Foliage

Dark Green

Flower Colour in Month(s). Seed

Golden-Yellow perianth with Orange corona in March-April

Comment

"Early flowering spring bulb with reflexed golden yellow perianth segments and long orange trumpets. Slightly scented." from Deeproot Plant Base

"As with most daffodils, Narcissus "Jetfire' is first-rate for forcing and wonderful as a cut flower. In the vase daffodils last four to six days. Preservatives do not prolong the flowers; this step is not necessary. The blossoms secrete a mucous from their stems that is unfavorable to other cut flowers. Daffodils can be used alone in the vase or hardened for 12-24 hours in fresh water by themselves, with at least one water change. Rinse stems before placing with other cut flowers." from Rainy Side Gardeners.

If you intend to plant your Daffodils in pots, then read Pot Culture of Exhibition Daffodils in The Complete Guide for Growing and Exhibiting Daffodils irrespective of whether you are likely to exhibit your daffodils or not.

"For an attractive indoor display, plant Daffodils in containers in bulb fibre and position them cool garage or other well ventilated, dark position at a maximum temperature of 10°C. Water when necessary to keep the compost moist. When the growing shoots reach a height of 10 cm (4") move the containers to a cool bright position indoors (approximately 16°C)." from Van Meuwen.

Wherever possible, choose ground that has not previously been used for growing daffodils in the last 5 years.

Either

Ideally the pH should be around 7 to 6.5 and should be cultivated to a depth of 2 spits with well-rotted animal manure or compost incorporated into the lower spit. Before planting the following fertiliser can be incorporated at the rate of four ounces (110 grammes) per square yard ( 1 square yard = 0.81 square metres) - 5 parts by weight of superphosphate, 5 parts of bone meal, 5 parts of suphate of potash and 1 part of hoof and horn.

or

If you have heavy clay, you can amend it with river sand to improve porosity; if you have sand, chopped leaves are the recommended amendment. DO NOT USE MANURE OR MUSHROOM COMPOST. Heavy, rich compost leads to a quick case of summer bulb rot! Also, when you amend clay, ensure you dig much deeper than the bulbs' root systems will travel - do not create a bowl that holds water and thus promotes rot. Chopped leaves are the recommended mulch - the weight is light enough not to smother emerging foliage, and the nutrients released by their slow decay function as slow-release fertilizer in good proportions for what daffodils desire.

Available from Simply Seeds & Plants , RHS Online Plant Shop ,Kevock Garden , Van Meuwen and Shoot with Brent and Becky's Bulbs in America and J.N. Hancock in Australia

narcissusfflojetfirekevock

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Flowers. Photo from Kevock Garden

Seed

Using Smaller Daffodils in the Garden was written by the person running Broadleigh Gardens in England for 26 years; with lists of recommended varieties.

Daffodils for the Deep South provides lists and details for Zones 6 to 8a in America.

Daffodils for the Lower and Coastal South of USA states daffodils from all 12 divisions.

Make Flower Bulbs Bloom in Winter from Colorado State University in the USA provides details on "forcing" tulips, daffodils and amaryllis to bloom in the winter

This list is of pre-1940 daffodils that have been grown by members of the America Daffodil Society Historic Daffodil Committee since 1989.
Fans of historic daffodils will be happy to hear that four rare volumes of The American Daffodil Year Book from 1935-1938 are now available on CD. The 300-plus pages of text include a wide variety of articles such as “In Praise of Old Daffodils,” “Daffodils in Texas,” “Naturalizing Narcissi,” and – our personal favorite – “A Daffodil Parade in Michigan.” Even better, the full 325 pages are completely searchable. That means if you want to find references to, say, ‘Argent’; or fragrance or daffodils for the South, just type those words into the search box and voila!

"Narcissus is a genus of around 150 species of bulbous perennials from Europe and North Africa and is one of the most popular flowers in the world. Its name derives from the Greek Mythological character, Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection and died. Legend has it that in the place of his death, yellow daffodils sprung forth and were hence named after him.

Narcissus grows in meadows, woodland, river silts and rock crevasses from sea-level to sub-alpine altitudes. Thousands of cultivars have been developed providing a huge range of size, colour, shape and form. This genus is grown for its striking often scented flowers which are borne in spring. Some cultivars flower in autumn and winter.

Narcissus is an excellent cut flower and mostly cultivated in the Channel Islands, the Isles of Scilly, Great Britain and Holland.

Leafless stems bear between one and 20 inflorescence each with six spreading petals which surround the central corona. Colour varies greatly, but most Narcissus flowers are yellow or white and have red, orange or pink trumpets.

The leaves grow from the base of the plant, are strap like or cylindrical and 6-30 inches (15-75cm) in length depending on the species.

Narcissus is very versatile in its planting position. It can be grown amongst shrubs in a border, in meadows, woodland, lawns and containers. Some of the smaller species are suitable for the rock garden, although some, like Narcissus cantabricus, Narcissus romieuxii and Narcissus rupicola will need extra protection in an alpine house."from The Royal Horticultural Society.

 

"All Narcissus species have a central bell-, bowl-, or disc-shaped corona surrounded by a ring of six floral leaves called the perianth which is united into a tube at the forward edge of the 3-locular ovary. The seeds are black, round and swollen with a hard coat. The three outer segments are sepals, and the three inner segments are petals. " from Wikipedia.

Dr Tom Throckmorton of Iowa computerized much data in the early 1970's regarding the flower colour of daffodils. With the support of the American Daffodil Society, the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) was approached and asked to consider certain modifications to its admittedly good classification. The RHS, after due consideration, approved the Revised Classification and published this in the International Register of Daffodil names in 1975 as follows:-

  • The classification of a daffodil cultivar shall be based on the description and measurements submitted by the person registering the variety, or shall be the classification submitted by such person.
  • Colours applicable to the description of daffodil cultivars are abbreviated as follows:
    • W white or whitish
    • G green
    • Y yellow
    • P pink
    • O orange
    • R red
  • For purposes of description, the daffodil flower shall be divided into perianth and corona (a crownlike appendage on a plant, esp. on the inner side of a corolla, as in the narcissus.).
  • The perianth shall be described by the letter or letters of the colour code most appropriate.
  • The corona shall be divided into 3 zones:an eye-zone, a mid-zone, and the edge or rim. Suitable coded colour descriptions shall describe these 3 zones, beginning with the eye-zone and extending to the rim - as for the Narcissus 'Goose Green' below.
  • The letter or letters of the colour code most accurately describing the perianth shall follow the division designation. Narcissus Altun Ha is given the classification code 2YYW-W as the Champion Bloom at the 2011 Tulip and Daffodil Festival for the New Zealand's Daffodil Society. This code indicates a Yellow rim and edge, Yellow mid-zone and White inside part next to the corona of the perianth with White corona.
  • The letters of the colour code most accurately describing the zones of the corona shall then follow, from the eye-zone to the rim separated from the perianth letters by a hyphen. In Division 4, the letters of the colour code most accurately describing the admixture of petals and petaloids replacing the corona shall follow in proper order, using 3, 2, or 1 colour codes as appropriate - as for the Narcissus 'Tahiti' below.
  • If the corona is substantially of a single colour, a single letter of the colour code shall describe it - as for the Narcissus 'Geranium' below.

 

Narcissus 'Geranium' with Classification 8W-O

narcissusfflodgeraniumrvroger

Photo from R.V. Roger.

Thus Narcissus 'Geranium' is in Division 8 (Tazetta Daffodils of Garden Origin) with White perianth (3 outer segments of sepals with only 2 inner sements of petals in the above photo) and Orange corona.

 

Narcissus 'Tahiti' with Classification 4Y-YR

narcissusfflodtahitirvroger

Photo from R.V. Roger.

Thus Narcissus 'Tahiti' is in Division 4 (Double Daffodils of Garden Origin) with Yellow perianth and Yellow and Red petals/petaloids replacing the corona as used in the other classifications.

 

Narcissus 'Goose Green' with Classification 3W-GYR

narcissusfflodagoosegreenyourch

Photo from Jay Yourch.

Thus Narcissus 'Goose Green' is in Division 3 (Short-Cupped Daffodils of Garden Origin) with White perianth and Green Eye-zone, Yellow Mid-zone and Red Rim for its corona.

Further examples to show examples of divisions and colour coding for 11 of the Classifications of Daffodils in one sheet.

Using these basic requirements, the Horticultural Classification of Daffodils as adopted by the Royal Horticultural Society and The Daffodil Society is (See illustrations from The Daffodil Society and flower photos of examples of each of the following divisions from The American Daffodil Society):-

  • Division 1: Trumpet Daffodil Cultivars
    1 flower to a stem; corona (trumpet) as long as, or longer than, the perianth segments (petals).
  • Division 2: Large-Cupped Daffodil Cultivars
    1 flower to a stem; corona (cup) more than a one-third but less than equal to the length of the perianth segments (petals).
  • Division 3: Small-Cupped Daffodil Cultivars
    1 flower to a stem; corona (cup) not more than one-third the length of the perianth sgments (petals).
  • Division 4: Double Daffodil Cultivars
    1 or more flowers to a stem, with doubling of the perianth segments or the corona or both.
  • Division 5: Triandrus Daffodil Cultivars
    Characteristics of Narcissus triandrus predominant: usually 2 or more pendent flowers to a stem; perianth segments reflexed.
  • Division 6: Cyclamineus Daffodil Cultivars
    Characteristics of Narcissus cyclamineus clearly evident: 1 flower to a stem; perianth segments significantly reflexed; flower at an acute angle to the stem, with very short pedicel ("neck").
  • Division 7: Jonquilla and Apodanthus Daffodil Cultivars
    Characteristics of Sections Jonquilla or Apodanthi clearly evident: 1 to 5 flowers to a stem; perianth segments spreading or reflexed, flowers usually fragrant.
  • Division 8: Tazetta Daffodil Cultivars
    Characteristics of Narcissus tazetta group predominant: usually 3 to 20 flowers to a stout stem; leaves broad, perianth segments spreading, not reflexed; flowers fragrant.
  • Division 9: Poeticus Daffodil Cultivars
    Characteristics of the Narcissus poeticus group predominant: usually disc-shaped, with a green or yellow center and 1 flower to a stem; perianth segments pure white, corona usually a red rim; flower fragrant.
  • Division 10: Bulbocodium Daffodil Cultivars
    Characteristics of Section Bulbocodium clearly evident: usually 1 flower to a stem; perianth segments insignificant compared with corona, filament and style are usually curved.
  • Division 11: Split-Corona Daffodil Cultivars
    Corona split - usually for more than half of its length. Division split into a and b types, Collar and Papillon.
  • a) Collar Daffodils
    Daffodils with the corona segments opposite the perianth segments; corona segments usually in 2 whorls of 3.
  • b) Papillon Daffodils
    Split-corona daffodils with the corona segments alternate to the perianth segments; the corona segments usually in a single whorl of 6.
  • Division 12: Other Daffodil Cultivars
    Daffodil cultivars which do not fit the definition of any other division.
  • Division 13: Daffodils distinguished solely by Botanical Name
    All species and wild or reputedly wild variants and hybrids.

 

The Royal Horticultural Society of Great Britain states the following about flowering time for Daffodils from its Daffodil Register:-
"About flowering season: these are

  • autumn,
  • very early,
  • early,
  • mid-season,
  • late,
  • very late.  

Early to mid-season means early season to midseason."
Starting on Page 106 of AGM Plants 2010, there is the list of the Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit for Daffodils.

 

The American Daffodil Society has sponsored Daffseek:-
"This unique daffodil photo database is a query system sponsored by the American Daffodil Society for the purpose of providing useful information and photos to our Internet visitors.  DaffSeek currently has about 22,400 data records for daffodil varieties.There are about 23,400 photographs in the database, so the system provides a means to identify many daffodils visually.  Photos were contributed by 276 photographers throughout the world representing 22 countries.  Therefore, the photo you see may have been taken of a flower growing in Australia, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United States, or many other countries.  In some cases, there are multiple photos for each daffodil."
Daffseek's query system has the following choices under season:-

  • 1. Very Early
  • 2. Early to Midseason
  • 3. Midseason
  • 4. Midseason to Late
  • 5. Late
  • 6. Very Late
  • 7. Fall or Autumn Blooming

Daffodil Bloom times in Britain are?
I have asked Ringhaddy Daffodils of Northern Ireland in February 2012 and they have given some details, but like me if the Bloom Seasons could be made uniform throughout the world, it would make it easier for the public to have a succession of daffodils in bloom rather than all at once. Therefore, I have emailed Daffseek - sponsored by The American Daffodil Society - and Nancy Tackett Co-Administrator DaffSeek made the following extremely useful reply in March 2012:-
"The flower season is normally provided by the hybridizer and is based on a growing season, not a calendar.  There are many daffodils exchanged between the Northern and Southern hemispheres.  The season remains the same in all locations.  However, growing seasons are different.  For example, here in Northern California, we can bloom daffodils beginning in November until the end of March.  However, back in the Eastern part of the U.S., the entire daffodil season spans a three to four week period....not five months like it can for us.

Your best solution is to identify the growing season of the region you plan to support, and apply the RHS seasons to it.  The only difference between the RHS and DaffSeek's season is that the American Daffodil Society applied a range period."

I have looked at the flowering months stated by nurseries in the UK to give the months of flowering in this website, but if I find that a nursery has stated a flowering season, then I shall append it to the name in its Bulb Description Page followed by the Country it comes from and Daffseek or RHS to identify the flowering season system used.

 

Daffodil flowering times in Australia

  • Very Early - June and July
  • Early - First half August
  • Early-Mid - Last Half-August
  • Mid - First Half-September
  • Late - Last Half-September
  • Very Late - October

You are invited to visit our farm while the daffodils are in bloom from Friday 26th August until Friday 30th September 2011.

12 points for Success with daffodils from The Daffodil Society provides excellent growing details for Northern Europe and the following general growing tips from The American Daffodil Society provides them for the USA:-

"Choose a well-drained, sunny place. Hillsides and raised beds are best. DRAINAGE is the key. Spade at least twelve inches deep. Improve your clay with well-rotted compost, soil amendment, or planting mix and raise the bed. Slightly acidic soil is best, so you might add soil sulfur if you have alkaline soil.

Plant your daffodils so that their top (pointed end) is at least two times as deep as the bulb is high (top of a 2" bulb is 4" deep). Exactness isn't crucial; they'll adjust. Plant bulbs deeper in sandy soil than in clay.

Top-dress again with 5-10-10 when the leaf-tips emerge. As they flower, top-dress with 0-10-10 or 0-0-50. High-nitrogen fertilizer should be avoided.

Daffodils need lots of water while they are growing. Water immediately after planting and keep them moist until the rains come. Continue watering for three weeks or so after blooming time; then stop watering. The bulbs make their next year's bloom after flowering. (Your first-year bloom is largely due to the previous grower of the bulb.)

You may leave daffodils down in the ground for between 3 to 5 years.  If blooming does not happen one season, it would be best to move them to a new location. 

After blooming, never cut the foliage until it begins to yellow (usually late May or June). Then is the time to dig them. Wash the bulbs thoroughly and let them dry completely (at least a week). Put them in onion sacks (or panty hose) and hang them in the coolest place you can find until ready to plant. Good air circulation will keep storage rot at a minimum. "

 

If you have clay soil, then either improve its structure as shown in Soil Formation - What is Soil Texture and leave it a month before planting the bulbs or mulch with 3 inch depth of sharp washed sand and leave that for 2 months before planting the bulbs. Either way the worms etc in the soil will have started the process of changing the structure of the soil by ingesting and then excreting the mulch in the clay underneath; or the mulch would have gone down the holes created by the worms by gravity; or washed down by the rain. Then, when you plant the bulbs, the mulch will get further mixed into the clay and continue to form a soil with air in it, which aims to provide some drainage - instead of the clay soil drowning the bulbs when it rains.

 

The Complete Guide for Growing and Exhibiting Daffodils - Fifth Edition 2010 from The Daffodil Society provides excellent growing details for growers.

Potted Daffodil Bulbs

According to the American Daffodil Society, there are over 25,000 different named cultivars of daffodils (Narcissus) in existence that can be grown in the ground or in containers. Not all cultivars are well-suited to the confined space in pots, or tolerate the fluctuating temperatures and need for supplemental watering. When buying bulbs to grow in pots, seek out label information that specifically states "good for forcing" or "good for containers." Steps to forcing daffodil bulbs for growing daffodils indoors.

University of Missouri Recommendations

Daffodil bulbs must be exposed to cool soil temperatures in winter. David Trinklein of the University of Missouri Extension Service notes that some daffodils are particularly good for forcing -- the process of planting the bulbs in pots, chilling them and then growing them to bloom indoors. They also grow well in containers left outdoors over the winter.

  • Selections with stems that produce multiple flowers include Avalanche, Bridal Crown and Geranium.
  • Pure yellow flowers are produced on Saint Keverne, Carlton, February Gold and King Alfred.
  • Others that Trinklein recommends for potted culture include Abba, Beryl, Cantitrice, Carbineer, Cragford, Fortune, Peeping Tom, Printal and Silver Chimes.

 

Brent and Becky's Bulbs Recommendations

Bring containers with bulbs indoors to get them to bloom early. A grower and supplier of daffodil bulbs since the 1970s, Brent and Becky Heath also note several cultivars good for forcing in pots or growing in containers.

  • Yellow flowering selections include Dutch Master, Lemon Glow, Rijnveld's Early Sensation, Blushing Lady, Baby Boomer, Hawera, Little Gem, Tete-a-Tete, and species Narcissus bulbocodium var. conspicuuous (known as the hoop petticoat daffodil).
  • White and yellow flowers occur on Topolino, Ice Follies, Toby the First and Claire.
  • Other cultivars the Heaths recommend for pots are York Minster, Bridal Crown, Carlton, My Story, Flower Parade and Martinette.

 

McClure & Zimmerman Recommendations

Strong- or short-stemmed daffodils are better in pots -- they don't flop. The flower bulb brokerage company McClure & Zimmerman, located in Wisconsin, also shares the names of daffodil cultivars recommended for forcing and container culture.

  • Dutch Master, Marieke, Rinjveld's Early Sensation, Flower Record, Barrett Browning, Bridal Crown, Erlicheer, Ice Wings, February Gold, Jack Snipe, Jetfire, Sweetness and Cragford.
  • This company also mentions any cultivar of paperwhites are easy to grow in containers, including cultivars Ariel, Grand Soleil d'Or and Ziva.

 

 

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

 

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with tulips:

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with specialty bulbs:

 

The Daffodil Society provides details about the genus Narcissus for the UK and the American Daffodil Society for USA.

 

"In the vase daffodils last four to six days. Preservatives do not prolong the flowers; this step is not necessary. The blossoms secrete a mucous from their stems that is unfavorable to other cut flowers. Daffodils can be used alone in the vase or hardened for 12-24 hours in fresh water by themselves, with at least one water change. Rinse stems before placing with other cut flowers." from Rainy Side Gardeners.

 

Part of Article on Naturalising bulbs with suggested varieties list from Broadleigh Gardens:-

"One of the most powerful images of spring is the sight of thousands of daffodils gently billowing under cherry trees. This concept  is immediately appealing, and as there are many bulbs that are suitable for naturalising it is, with a little planning,  one of the  easiest to achieve, albeit on a limited scale. 

Two distinct approaches can be pursued. To most gardeners naturalising means growing bulbs in grass instead of borders. However in the strictest sense it means bulbs growing and seeding as they would in the wild; i.e. "in nature". The gardener therefore has the choice between the Formal or the Informal method.
Whichever method is adopted you must remember that the quality of the next year's display depends upon the current years growth. Leaves must be allowed to die back naturally, or for at least 6 weeks after flowering, no matter how untidy they become. Careful choice of varieties can reduce this problem but not eliminate it."

 

Companion plants for daffodils to create beautiful combinations and a great many more from Gardens by the Bay

 

"As much as we all love wildlife, deer can be quite annoying when hungry and grazing in our gardens. We are sad to confirm that tulips and lilies are favorite deer bon-bons. Depending on how hungry and what other food sources are easily available, the following flower bulbs are not usually eaten by deer." from Horticultural Tips of Van Engelen Inc.

Best UK Gardens to visit for Daffodils by Debbie Templeton of GardenVisiting.com:-

"Scotland

Brodie Castle, Nairn, Morayshire – During the 20th century over 400 varieties were developed at Brodie Castle, by Major Ian Brodie. The grounds of this castle are famous for their acres of daffodils which are at their best from early April. The garden holds the National Collection of Narcissus. Open year-round, daily. Brodie Castle: Brodie, Forres, Morayshire, IV36 2TE – 0844 493 2156.

Greenback Garden, Glasgow – magnificent displays of 350 different varieties of daffodils. Greenbank Garden: Flenders Road, Clarkston, Glasgow, G76 8RB – 0844 493 2201

Threave Garden, Castle Douglas – where the variety ‘Southern Gem’ appears in a massed planting. Threave Garden: Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, DG7 1RX – 0844 493 2244

Castle Fraser, Aberdeenshire – here the 18th century avenue is under-planted with impressive displays of daffodils. Sauchen, Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, AB51 7LD – 0844 493 2164

Galloway House Gardens, Dumfries & Galloway – a 65 acre garden which is being restored. The garden is said to benefit from the mild Gulf Stream climate and early to late Spring masses of snowdrops, daffodils, bluebells, rhododendrons, azaleas and camellias can be seen all in bloom. Open Mar-Oct, daily. (01988 600680)  www.gallowayhousegardens.co.uk.

 

England

Antony Woodland Garden, Cornwall – this is a 100-acre plantsman’s garden of two distinct wooded areas: the Wilderness and Westdown, linked by the Garden Field, which abounds with daffodils. Open Mar 1-Oct 31. (01752 812364) www.plants.info/gardens/antony-woodland.htm.

Bradenham Hall, Thetford, Norfolk – go in spring, when the daffodils are out, and you are in for a stunning surprise. There is a rose-filled walled garden for the summer visitor and a collection of unusual trees, 800 varieties. (01362 687243)  www.bradenhamhall.co.uk; Opens in April.

Coughton Court, Warwickshire – home to the Throckmorton daffodils and the only collection of it’s kind in Europe. The flowers look different to other daffodils and are late-flowering, making them a unique addition to the gardens here. The National Daffodil Society awarded a Gilt Medal for the outstanding display of daffodils (of which there are now over 400,000). Open March to Dec (01789 762435) http://www.coughtoncourt.co.uk

Docton Mill, Devon – a delightful garden created around a picturesque working water mill with sensational naturalised daffodils and a bluebell woodland. Open Mar-Oct, daily, 10am-6pm. (01237 441369) www.doctonmill.co.uk

Easton Walled Gardens, Lincolnshire - as this garden has been in the throes of restoration since 2002, there is always something new to see. Be sure to take in the fabulous displays of 15,000 daffodils followed by 5,000 tulips. (01476 530063) www.eastonwalledgardens.co.uk.

Exbury Gardens, Hampshire – early spring in this garden brings flowering cherries and carpets of daffodils. Open Mar-Nov 9, daily. (02380 891203) .

Felley Priory, Nottinghamshire – thousands of daffodils are among the seasonal attractions in this wonderful plantsman’s garden of herbaceous borders, unusual shrubs and trees. Open year-round, Tue, Wed, Fri, 9am-12.30pm; Mar-Oct every 2nd & 4th Wed 9am-4pm, every 3rd Sun 11am-4pm. (01773 810230)

Hever Castle, Kent – the gardens of this 14th-century moated castle burst into spring colour with crocuses, daffodils, tulips and bluebells. Open Easter-Oct 31, daily, 10.45am-5pm. (01732 865224)  www.hevercastle.co.uk

Howick Hall, Northumberland - among 11,000 trees and shrubs the woodland garden is admired for its bulbs, including old varieties of daffodils, which flower until May in the woodland garden. Open Easter Sunday-Oct 31, daily, 12 noon-6pm (01665 577285) 

Marwood Hill, Devon - 80 magnolia hybrids are under planted with narcissi in early spring. Open Mar-Oct, daily, 9.30am-5.30pm. (01271 342528)  www.marwoodhillgarden.co.uk.

Rydal Mount, Cumbria – a visit to William Wordsworth’s home is a must for any daffodil lovers. The gardens have been preserved to be almost as they were when the poet was in residence and must be seen for the rhododendrons, bluebells and, of course, the daffodils. Open Mar-Oct, daily (01539 433002) www.rydalmount.co.uk.

Nymans, West Sussex - this 20th-century garden is famed for its extraordinary collection of rare and important plants. In spring camellias and magnolias are under planted with drifts of daffodils and grape hyacinths. Open Feb-Nov 2, Wed-Sun, 10am-5pm (01444 400321)  www.nationaltrust.org.uk/nymans

RHS Garden Wisley, Surrey – a wonderful garden all year round but be sure not to miss the alpine meadow in Spring where a dazzling display of hoop-petticoat narcissus will be in full bloom. Open year-round, daily. (01483 224234)  www.rhs.org.uk.

Savill Garden, Berkshire - these Royal gardens consist of a series of woodland gardens which are all under planted with carpets of bulbs. Don’t miss the swathes of Narcissus bulbocodium. Open year-round, daily (01753 860222) www.theroyallandscape.co.uk.

Sheffield Park Garden, East Sussex - woodland and water make for an alluring combination in this fine landscape. A springtime visit is compulsory when the daffodils and bluebells are in bloom beneath a canopy of rhododendrons and azaleas. Call or see website for opening times. (01825 790231) 

Sherwood, Devon – this 15-acre garden of two steep wooded valleys is not to be missed in springtime. There are swathes of wild daffodils and the garden holds the National Collections of magnolia, Knap Hill azaleas and berberis. Open year-round, Sun, 2-5pm. (01392 851216).

Sir Harold Hillier Gardens, Hampshire – one of our favourite gardens, our first daffodils were seen here on 31st January 2011. In 180 acres there are some 42,000 plants, and the National Collection of Hamamelis (Witch Hazel). Spring-flowering camellias, magnolias, rhododendrons and azaleas with early-flowering and Japanese cherries are all to be found in full bloom during Spring. Open year-round, daily (01794 368787) www.hilliergardens.org.uk.

Valley Gardens, Berkshire -Set in Windsor Great Park, the Valley Gardens should be seen in spring not only for the naturalised dwarf daffodils but also for the glorious rhododendrons, azaleas and magnolias. Open year-round, daily, sunrise to sunset. Entry: free (020 7851 5000) www.thecrownestate.co.uk

 

Northern Ireland

Guy Wilson Daffodil Garden, Co Derry – Guy Wilson was a daffodil breeder and this garden in the grounds of the University of Ulster is a celebration of his work. There are more than 1,500 cultivars that should not be missed; they are at their peak between mid March and mid April. Open year-round, daily, dawn to dusk. Entry: free (028 7034 4141).

Barnett Demesne, Belfast – includes an arboretum, daffodil garden, eco trail, orienteering routes, children’s playground (near Shaw’s Bridge), walking paths, refreshments (in Malone House) and scenic views http://www.discovernorthernireland.com/Barnett-Demesne-Belfast-P3033

 

Wales

Erddig, Wrexham, Clwyd – is principally an early 18th-century garden which has survived alongside the later addition of a landscape park. Wonderful spectacle of daffodils reflected in the canal. (01938 355314)

Colby Woodland Garden Nr Stepaside, Pembrokeshire – this garden is a riot of colour in the Spring with daffodils and bluebells. It also has one of the finest Rhododendron and Azalea collections in Wales. (01834 811885) "

Would you like to give plants which have symbolic meanings? from Gold Mountain Herb Farm, which no longer runs a nursery.

 

Daffodils "can live for up to seven years and the bulbs keep reproducing, especially if you refresh clumps of daffodils with new bulbs, ideally of the same variety.
And it is probably best to plant them from September to November. They like most soils and are happiest half in the shade, half in the sun.
They don’t mind baking but they don’t like being waterlogged." from Joseph Atkin - head gardener of Aberglasney, in Carmarthenshire, Wales.

The mail order nursery link to obtain the bulb is in the Comments Row of its Bulb Description Page.

This gallery also contains bulbs, rhizomes or tubers not sold by R.V. Roger Ltd.


7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

colormonthbulb9a1a1a1

 

Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-

...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals ......
5 petals,
23 pages of Flower Shape .........
Stars and
7 pages of Natural Arrangements
Drumstick

...Bulb Form
-
7 pages of Bulb Form ...
Clump-forming
 

...Bulb Use -
33 pages of Bulb Use ...
Mass Planting,
Groundcover,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions
 

...Bulb Preferred Soil
5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb ...
Chalk

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width,
foliage thumbnail,
form thumbnail
use and
comments are in the relevant index page below:-
(o): A
(o): B
(o): C
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ

Daffodil Bulb INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour
with Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Height x Width in inches (cms) -

1 inch = 2.5 cms,

12 inches = 1 foot,

36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,

40 inches = 100 cms

Comments

Narcissus is very versatile in its planting position. It can be grown amongst shrubs in a border, in meadows, woodland, lawns and containers. Some of the smaller species are suitable for the rock garden, although some, like Narcissus cantabricus, Narcissus romieuxii and Narcissus rupicola will need extra protection in an alpine house.

Narcissus - Division 1: Trumpet Daffodil Cultivars

'Brabazon' 1Y-Y
 

Golden-Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflobrabazondeeproot1a

February, March
 

16 x 6
(40 x 15)

Large, deep golden yellow flowers with bold trumpets. Free flowering, sturdy and strong growing.
Plant with Rosa banksiae 'Lutea' (Yellow banksia rose)

'Bravoure' 1W-Y
 

Creamy-White/Yellow

narcissuscflobravouredeeproot1

March, April
 

18-24 x 4 (44-60 x 10)

Very large flowers with broad creamy white petals and large lemon yellow trumpets with slightly frilled edges. Strong growing with strappy blue-green foliage. Mid-spring flowering.

'Dutch Master'
1Y-Y
 

Golden Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflodutchmasterdeeproot1a

April
 

18 x 4
(45 x 10)

Strong growing and reliable. Large golden yellow flowers in mid-spring.
Dutch Master or King Alfred Improved has been America's favorite daffodil for decades. It's great for naturalizing and creates the perfect early burst of classic yellow color.

'Golden Harvest' 1Y-Y
 

Golden Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflogoldenharvestdeeproot1a

February, March,
April, May

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Large golden yellow flowers. Often one of the earliest flowering daffodils, from February. Narrow, linear to strap-shaped leaves. Strong growing habit.

This cultivar is suitable for Winter forcing.

'Little Beauty'
1W-Y
 

Creamy-White/Yellow

narcissuscflolittlebeautydeeproot1a

March
 

6 x 4
(15 x 10)

This little daffodil may be naturalised in short fine grass, but its ideal situation is at the front of a border or rock garden, in sun or dappled shade. Plant it at one and a half times its own depth, or slightly deeper if the soil is light, or if it is being naturalised in grass. Good in pots.

'Rijnveld's Early
Sensation
'
1Y-Y

Yellow, Yellow

narcissuscfloearlysensationdeeproot1a

December, January, February, March
 

14 x 6
(35 x 15)

It can tolerate cold, snowy weather and it has a long blooming period. 'Rijnveld's Early Sensation' combines nicely with early crocuses and dwarf irises.

'Small Talk'
1Y-Y
 

Golden Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflosmalltalkdeeproot1

March, April
 

5 x 3
(12.5 x 7.5 )

Dwarf and very short growing, but will eventually form good neat clumps. Well formed miniature golden yellow flowers, from very early in the season.

'Spellbinder'
1Y-Y
 

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflospellbinderdeeproot1a

March, April
 

20 x 4
(50 x 10)

Vigorous daffodil with large sulphur-lemon yellow trumpeted flowers, fading as they age almost to white.
The flowers face a southerly direction towards the sun, so you want to plant them where they will be seen with their flower faces towards the viewer.

'Unsurpassable'
1Y-Y

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflounsurpassabledeeproot1a

March, April, May

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Very large, rich yellow flowers, the trumpet being slightly deeper. Mid-season flowering, vigorous grower.

Narcissus - Division 2: Large-Cupped Daffodil Cultivars

'Altun Ha'
2YYW-W
 

Lemon Yellow/Cream

narcissuscfloaltunhadeeproot1

April, May
 

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Shapely reversed bi-colour flowers with broad lemon-yellow perianth petals and large pale cream trumpets. Mid to late season flowering. A frequent show-winner

'Armada' 2Y-O
 

Yellow/Orange

narcissuscfloarmadadeeproot1

April, May
 

24 x 6
(60 x 15)

Spring flowering bulb with bright yellow perianth segments and orange cups with frilled edges. Sturdy habit and vigorous growing.

'Border Beauty'
2Y-O
 

Yellow/Orange

narcissusffloborderbeautydeeproot1a

April
 

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Large shapely flowers with rounded clear yellow perianth segments and bowl-shaped deep reddish orange cups. Strong growing habit

'Carlton' 2Y-Y
 

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflocarltonrvroger1a

April
 

18 x 12-18 (45 x 30-45)

One of the few all yellow flowers in this group. The cup is extra large and broad and it makes a good, strong cut flower. Flowers early.
The perfect ‘Golden Daffodil' and one of the best for naturalizing. Widely cultivated for commercial cut flower production, because it is so very vigorous and long lasting it is also one of the best for the home gardener looking for a classic border display.

'Ceylon' 2Y-O
 

Yellow/Red-Orange

narcissuscfloceylondeeproot1

March, April
 

16 x 6
(40 x 15)

Flowers have golden yellow petals and an orange-red cup, produced one per stem in early to mid spring. Narrow, linear to strap-shaped leaves.

'Glen Clova'
2Y-ORR
 

Golden Yellow/Orange
eye-zone, Red mid-zone and rim

narcissuscfloglencovadeeproot1a1

March, April
 

16 x 4
(45 x 10)

Broad golden yellow perianth segments, slightly reflexing, and long trumpet shaped cups shading from orange to reddish at the mouths.
Flowered for 55 days in 2008 and 21 days in 2009 at the Daffodil Trial 2008-2009 at Royal Horticultural Society in Wisley with these other Daffodils.

'Home Fires'
2Y-O
 

Yellow/Orange

narcissuscflohomefiresdeeproot1a

April
 

20 x 6
(50 x 15)

Mid-spring flowering daffodil with pointed, bright yellow perianth segments and short brilliant orange cups.

The only other well known event in Saint Narcissus' life took place when, on an unknown date, he was accused by three men of an unnamed, yet horrible, sin. The way these men sought to bring down the holy bishop leads one to wonder if demonic possession was at work. Each man asked that he might, respectively, be killed by fire, devoured by leprosy, and struck blind if what he said was proved false.

Narcissus kept his composure throughout this ordeal and simply looked at it as an opportunity to live the life of a hermit. After forgiving his accusers, he disappeared into the desert. Later on, one of the men, along with his entire family, died during a house fire. The second contracted leprosy and the third cried from fear and contrition to the extent that he lost his sight

'Ice Follies'
2W-Y
 

Creamy-White/Yellow

narcissuscfloicefolliesdeeproot1a

March, April
 

18 x 4
(45 x 10)

Large creamy-white flowers with wide, frilly-edged cups opening lemon-yellow but soon fading to white. Very prolific.
"Although sometimes forced in January for early cutting, and also grown as pot plant for display, it is a fine variety for massing in borders, parts of the lawn or under trees.
Grow them outdoors, or in containers on a bright windowsill indoors. Also excellent as cut flowers to make a really pretty posy!

'Redhill' 2W-OR
 

White/Orange-Red

narcissuscfloredhilldeeproot1a1

April, May
 

16 x
(40 x )

Good red and white daffodil. Broad white petals around a bowl shaped vivid orange-red cup

'Romance'
2W-PPO
 

White/Rose-Pink eye-zone and mid-zone with Orange rim

narcissuscfloromancedeeproot1a

March
 

14 x 6
(35 x 15)

Attractive fragrant flowers with overlapping rounded white perianth petals and shapely cups, opening apricot then aging to rose-pink. Vigorous and increases quickly.

'Rustom Pasha'
2Y-O
 

Lemon Yellow/Orange

narcissuscflorustompashadeeproot1

March
 

16 x 6
(40 x 15)

Large-cupped daffodil with broad rounded, yellow petals and a neat orange cup. Narrow, linear to strap-shaped leaves. Strong growing.
RUSTOM PASHA, 1930 Named for a prize-winning “red” stallion raced back then by the Aga Khan, this bright, cheerful flower was one of the first with a truly orange, sun-proof cup.
Hortus’ home town of Presteigne is the cradle of no fewer than 470 varieties of daffodil, bred by four significant breeders. Gwendolen Evelyn in collaboration with Alec Wilson created this Narcissus.

'St. Keverne'
2Y-Y

Yellow /Yellow

narcissuscflostkevernedeeproot1a

March, April

18 x 4
(45 x 10)

Large, well formed, clear yellow flowers with flat, broad pointed perianth segments and bold trumpet-shaped cup. Sturdy growing, resistant to heavy rain and wind.

Narcissus - Division 3: Small-Cupped Daffodil Cultivars

'Badbury Rings'
3Y-YYO
 

Lemon-Yellow/ Yellow eye-zone, Yellow mid-zone and Orange rim

narcissuscflobadburyringsdeeproot1a

March, April
 

26 x 4
(65 x 10)

Tall stems carry attractive, well formed flowers with rounded, bright lemon yellow perianth segments and a small, fluted and flared, darker cups with a red-orange-red rim.
A leader on the show bench as well as a good garden plant.
Plant with: Cotinus coggygria 'Royal Purple' (Smoke bush 'Royal Purple'), Cotinus coggygria Rubrifolius Group (Smoke bush Rubrifolius Group )

'Merlin' 3W-YYR
 

White/ Yellow with
Red rim

narcissuscflomerlindeeproot1a

March
 

14-16 x 4 (35 x 10)

Beautiful medium sized daffodil. Pure white perianth segments and a pale yellow flattened cup edged by a narrow intense red rim.

'Triple Crown'
3Y-GYR

Golden-Yellow perianth with corona of Green eye-zone, Yellow mid-zone and Orange-Red

narcissuscflotriplecrowndeeproot1a

April

26 x 4
(65 x 10)

Well formed flowers with golden yellow perianth segments and a small flared cups rimmed with deep orange-red. Free flowering in mid season and increases well.

Narcissus - Division 4: Double Daffodil Cultivars

'Abba' 4W-O
 

White/Orange

narcissuscfloabbadeeproot1a

February, March, April

24 x 6
(60 x 15)

Fairly upright habit, with some leaves arching over. Flowers facing outward with an average of 5 flowers per stem. Stem reaching 61cm in height, glaucous grey green foliage to 51cm. Flowers 5cm in diameter. Flowered for 60 days in 2007 (from 19 February), with 45 flowering stems per 10 bulbs. _A good double; stands up well to the weather; lots of secondary flowering stems providing an extremely long flowering display.

'Replete' 4W-P

White/Salmon-Pink

narcissuscflorepletedeeproot1a

March, April

20 x 6
(50 x 15)

Large double flowers with ivory white outer petals and salmon pink inner ones. The colouring is rather varible, often opening peachy yellow-orange then turning to coral-orange, salmon or rose-pink as they age. Scented.

'Sir Winston
Churchill
' 4W-O

Creamy-White/
Yellow-Orange

narcissuscflosirwinstonchurchilldeeproot1

March, April
 

16 x 4
(35 x 10)

Each stem carries 4 or more double flowers of creamy white with yellow-orange centres, on strong stems in late spring. Sweetly scented.

obvallaris 'Thomas' Virescent Daffodil' 4Y-Y

Yellow/Yellow

narcissusfflothomasdeeproot1a

March

8 x 6
(20 x 15)

It has been described as the ugliest daffodil in the world, but the Derwydd Daffodil (Narcissus obvallaris ‘Thomas’ Virescent Daffodil’) is special to South Wales after being rediscovered here only twenty years ago or so. This flore pleno variety is characterised by its green-tinged, double flowers, which often appear twisted and messy

'Unique'
4W-YWW

White perianth and corona with Chrome Yellow eye-zone, Mid-zone and Rim or Chrome Eye-zone, White mid-zone and White Rim

narcissuscflouniquedeeproot1a

April

26 x 6
(65 x 15)

Fully double flowers with petals of pure white interspersed with bright chrome yellow.

'White Lion'
4W-Y

White/Yellow

narcissuscflowhiteliondeeproot1a

April, May

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Double flowers, white with soft yellow petals in centre, in April and May.
Looks good with Doronicum orientale 'Magnificum' and Danae racemosa.
Fantastic for cut flowers.

Narcissus - Division 5: Triandrus Daffodil Cultivars

'Hawera' 5Y-Y

Creamy-Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflohaweradeeproot1a

April, May

8 x 4
(20 x 10)

Narcissus ‘Hawera’ (pre-1950, Zones 3–8) is a miniature triandrus-type daffodil with many elfin, pale-yellow nodding bells per stem, each with a demitasse-shaped cup surrounded by swept-back petals. This adaptable daffodil can grow in dry areas, in pots, in full sun, and in partial shade. It contrasts nicely with Muscari armeniacum and is exquisite with hellebores.

'Thalia' 5W-W

White/White

March, April

narcissuscflothaliadeeproot1a

14 x 6
(35 x 15)

A multi-headed trumpet daffodil that emerges from its bud a greeny-white and opens to reveal a delightful, pure white flower that looks really good planted in big swathes. This is quite an old variety that was a firm favourite of the Victorians. Excellent cut flowers. Goes well with Buxus sempervirens and Exochorda x macrantha 'The Bride'.

Narcissus - Division 6: Cyclamineus Daffodil Cultivars

'Beryl' 6Y-YYO
 

Yellow/Yellow
eye-zone and mid-zone, Orange rim

narcissuscfloberyldeeproot1a

March, April
 

8 x 3-6
(20 x 7.5-15)

Vigorous spring flowering bulb. Reflexed yellow perianth segments which quickly fade to creamy white small yellow-orange cups.

'February Gold'
6Y-Y
 

Yellow/Golden-Yellow

narcissuscflofebruarygolddeeproot1a

February, March
 

12 x 4
(30 x 10)

They also do really well in pots and windowboxes.

'Garden Princess' 6Y-Y
 

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflogardenprincessdeeproot1a

March, April
 

18 x 4
(45 x 10)

Sturdy growing with clear soft yellow flowers, reflexing perianth segments and tapering trumpets with frilled mouths.

'Jack Snipe'
6W-Y
 

White/Lemon-Yellow

narcissuscflo1jacksnipedeeproot1

March, April
 

10 x 4
(25 x 10)

Unlike other narcissi, this prefers slightly acid, moist soil, with plenty of compost or leaf-mould. It seeds very freely and, if the bulbs are to be encouraged to spread rapidly, the faded blooms should not be deadheaded.

Jetfire' 6Y-O
 

Yellow/Orange

narcissuscflojetfiredeeproot1a

March, April
 

8 x 4
(20 x 10)

As with most daffodils, Narcissus "Jetfire' is first-rate for forcing and wonderful as a cut flower. In the vase daffodils last four to six days. Preservatives do not prolong the flowers; this step is not necessary. The blossoms secrete a mucous from their stems that is unfavorable to other cut flowers. Daffodils can be used alone in the vase or hardened for 12-24 hours in fresh water by themselves, with at least one water change. Rinse stems before placing with other cut flowers.

'Peeping Tom'
6Y-Y
 

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflopeepingtomdeeproot1

February, March
 

15 x 4 (37.5 x 10)

Usually the earliest Daffodil to flower and also in bloom for a long period, up to 8 weeks. Strong golden yellow with narrow trumpets. Will naturalise easily.

'Spring Dawn'
6Y-Y
 

Pale Yellow/
Bright Yellow

narcissuscflospringdawndeeproot1a

January, February,
March

8 x 5
(20 x 12.5)

Spring flowering bulb, pale creamy yellow perianth segments and bright yellow trumpets. Early flowering, usually in February and March.

'Surfside'
6W-Y

White/Yellow

narcissuscflosurfsidedeeproot1a

March, April

10 x
(25 x )

A good, strong variety suitable for the garden or pots. It has reflexed, milk-white perianth and a pale yellow cup with a wide, flared mouth. With time the cup fades to almost white. The flowers are quite large and solid for such a dwarf variety.

Narcissus - Division 7: Jonquilla and Apodanthus Daffodil Cultivars

'Baby Moon'
7Y-Y Min
 

Citron-Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflosbabymoonkevock1a

April, May
 

8 x 6
(20 x 15)

It bears petite, scented, bright yellow flowers with Narrow, Dark Green, often reed-like leaves.

'Bell Song' 7W-P
 

Creamy-White/Pink

narcissuscflobellsongdeeproot1a

April, May, June
 

12-15 x 8 (30-37.5 x 20)

Jonquil bulbs are planted 4 inches (10 cms) deep in autumn. Most jonquils like a very sunny location, but also do well in partial shade. However, salmon to pink-trumpet varieties like 'Bell Song' require a bit of protection and would in the main prefer dappled sunlight, or their rare color rapidly fades.
When ours first start blooming in April (2003), the surrounding deciduous shrubbery permitted them sufficient light as they were not yet completely re-leafed. But since small jonquils bloom until June, they were quite deeply shaded by the end of their cycle, so our choice of location was not the best planned

'Golden Dawn'
7Y-O
 

Rich Yellow/Orange

narcissuscflogoldendawndeeproot1a

February, March, April
 

20 x 4
(50 x 10)

Spring bulb, clusters of several sweetly scented flowers per stem, rich yellow with light orange cups. Vigorous grower with sturdy stems and good erect foliage, naturalises well.
'Golden Dawn' is a Tazetta daffodil with spreading foliage and up to 5 fragrant flowers per stem, each 4.5 cm in width with light yellow perianth segments and orange corona

'Kokopelli' 7Y-Y
 

Yellow/Golden Yellow

narcissuscfloskokopellideeproot1a

April
 

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Kokopelli is a jonquilla seedling that is very fragrant and very floriferous. Each bulb produces a bouquet of 3 or more stems, each bearing 3-5, button-eyed, bright yellow flowers. Kokopelli has won many prizes on the daffodil show bench but is even more striking when massed in the garden.

'Pipit' 7Y-Y
 

Lemon Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflo1pipitdeeproot1a

April, May
 

12 x 4
(30 x 10)

Small spring bulb, 2 or 3 sweetly scented, lemon yellow flowers with cups which quickly fade to cream or nearly white. Mid to late spring.
During the fading & changing process they often have a yellow & white streaked stage, while the trumpet, likewise starting out a soft yellow, fades to ivory white on the outside & along the ruffles first, still having a yellow interior for a while.

'Quail' 7Y-Y

Golden Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscfloquaildeeproot1a

April, May

16 x 4
(35 x 10)

Narcissus ‘Quail’ is a delicate daffodil in appearance but actually is robust in nature and looks most effective planted in a large drift where its stems, which hold two or three small yellow flowers, can be fully admired. At RHS Garden Hyde Hall we use it in large drifts around the Lower Pond where it looks fantastic against winter stem shrubs such as dogwoods and willows. We also use it in smaller groups through the Eastern Courtyard to add a splash of spring colour as visitors arrive.

'Suzy' 7Y-O

Yellow/Red-Orange

narcissuscflosuzydeeproot1a

April, May

16 x 6
(40 x 15)

Bulbs produce 2 or 3 stems, each bearing 1 or 2 flowers with broad bright yellow perianth segments and flattish red-orange cups. Mid to late spring. Scented

'Sweet Love'
7W-YYW

White perianth with corona of soft Yellow eye-zone, Yellow mid-zone - which fades to White - and White rim

narcissuscflosweetlovedeeproot1a

April

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Inhale the sweet perfume from this pretty white Jonquilla hybrid! Its bowl-shaped, yellow-orange cup is broadly ribbed and finished with a white ruffled edge, a bicolor effect that is both subtle and beguiling. Vigorous and sun-proof, 'Sweet Love' produces several flowers per stem and multiple stems.

'Trevithian'
7Y-Y

Lemon Yellow/ Lemon-Yellow

narcissuscflotrevithiandeeproot1

March

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Vigorous Jonquilla daffodil producing up to 4 sweetly scented, lemon-yellow flowers about 7cm across, with rounded perianth segments and short flared cups. Very narrow leaves.
Upright habit and excellent cut flowers
A long-lived plant for bedding or naturalizing.

Narcissus - Division 8: Tazetta Daffodil Cultivars

'Falconet' 8Y-O
 

Golden-Yellow/Orange

narcissuscflofalconetdeeproot1a

March, April
 

14 x 6
(35 x 15)

Early to mid spring flowing bulb. 3 to 5 small flowers per stem, bright golden yellow perianth petals and small orange cups. Fragrant, reliable and spreads easily.
Habit of being an overly rapid multiplier, necessitating frequent digging and 
dividing.

'Geranium' 8W-O
 

White/Red-Orange

narcissuscflogeraniumdeeproot1a

March, April
 

16 x 6
(40 x 15)

Richly scented flowers appear in clusters of up to six on top of sturdy stems in March and April. The pure white petals contrast brilliantly with the bright orange cup. Plant in groups where they can be left undisturbed and the clumps will get bigger each year. This is also a good variety for pots.

'Minnow' 8Y-Y
 

Creamy-Yellow/
Lemon-Yellow

narcissuscflominnowdeeproot1a

March, April, May
 

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Dwarf, robust early to mid spring flowing bulb. 4 or more small flowers per stem. Creamy yellow petals and a lemon cup. Fragrant. Reliable and spreads easily.

It prefers a great deal of sun but will tolerate a bit of shade, & is hardy for zones 5 through 9. On Puget Sound the turf emerges in December. It begins flowering lightly by about mid-March but really picks up steam in April. The blooms sometime linger into May. When it dies back in summer, the bulb needs to remain relatively dry.

In a warmer climate it can bloom as early as November. It rather likes Puget Sound weather patterns of wet winter & dry summers, so that it can go in a low-maintence roadside garden. Ours wasn't originally on the roadside, but near the house, growing at the foot of a Lady Bank's Rose that requires no watering to speak of. The location was chosen because this daffodil, like the Bank's Rose, mainly needs no more than ordinary rainfall.

This spot underneath the enormous climbing rose turned out to be too shady, so that the blooms were only moderately good in 2002 & 2003. So as autumn 2004 arrived, I lifted the bulbs, adding five more newly obtained 'Minnow' bulbs, & planted them along a ledge in the roadside's xeriscape rugosa rose garden. They flowered much better the following March than ever they had in the previous location

papyraceus
8W-W
 

White/White
 

January, February,
March

narcissuscflopapyraceusdeeproot1a

14 x
(35 x )

The white flowers are borne in bunches and are strongly fragrant. It is frequently grown as a house plant, often forced to flower at Christmas. Paperwhites do not require chilling to promote bloom. The bulbs begin to grow as soon as they are planted, with flowers appearing in 3–4 weeks.
Narcissus papyraceus thrives in moist, peat moss based potting mix. Plants can also be grown in containers of water. Cool temperatures between 50–65 °F (10–18 °C) and indirect light will help to prolong the bloom time.

Narcissus - Division 9: Poeticus Daffodil Cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

Narcissus - Division 10: Bulbocodium Daffodil Cultivars

'Golden Bells'
10Y-Y
 

Golden-Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflogoldenbellsbulbocodiumkevock1a

April, May
 

3 x 6 (7.5cm x 15cm)

Particularly vigorous and reliable selection of this species, with golden yellow flared trumpet flowers.

There is one important difference in the two strains, however. Golden Bells blooms later than our patch of regular Narcissus bulbocodium. Our wild patch is veritably a winter bloomer at their height of blossom throughout March, whereas "Golden Bells" is in at its height of flower in April. If this were the one & only distinguishing feature, that would be enough to justify having two otherwise identical strains, for between the two, this means hoopskirts are flowering a long while, eight to nine weeks combined.

bulbocodium subsp. obesus
10Y-Y
 

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscfloobesusbulbocodiumkevock1a

March, April
 

6 x 4
(15 x 10)

Rarely offered this tetraploid form from southern Portugal has narrow, prostrate leaves and short stems with large flowers of bright golden yellow. Reputed to do well in limey soils, however all of our Narcissus grow in slightly limey soils here.

pseudonarcissus 10W-Y
 

Creamy-White/Yellow

narcissuscflopseudonarcissusdeeproot1a

February, March, April
 

12 x 8
(30 x 20)

Very variable bulbous wildflower, erect, strap-shaped, usually glaucous, mid-green leaves and flowers with yellow trumpets surrounded by narrow, twisted, creamy perianth segments, but can vary from white to deep yellow. Early spring flowering and leaves usually die back by mid-summer. Good for naturalising in grass or woodland.

pseudonarcissus
'Praecox'

10W-Y
 

Cream/Yellow

narcissuscflopraecoxpseudonarcissusdeeproot1a

March

12 x 8
(30 x 20)

Early spring bulb with erect, strap-shaped leaves and nodding flowers with yellow trumpets surrounded by twisted, cream perianth segments. Good for naturalising

Narcissus - Division 11: Split-Corona Daffodil Cultivars a) Collar Daffodils

'Cassata'
11aW-Y

White/Lemon-Yellow

narcissusfflocassatadeeproot1a

March, April

16 x 6
(40 x 15)

 

Narcissus - Division 11: Split-Corona Daffodil Cultivars b) Papillon Daffodils

'Broadway Star'
11bW-O

White/Orange stripe

narcissuscflobroadwaystarrvroger1a

April

16 x 8
(40 x 20)

White flowers with an bold orange stripe on the segments of the split corona, which lie flat against the perianth, making a an irregular star shape. Mid spring flowering.

'Sunny Side Up'
11bY-Y

Lemon Yellow/ Lemon-Yellow

narcissuscflosunnysideupdeeproot1a

April

18 x 6 (45 x 15)

Very large, split corona type flowers with frilly lemon yellow petals.

Narcissus - Division 12 Other Daffodil Cultivars

'Tete-a-Tete'
12Y-Y

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscfloteteatetedeeproot1a

February, March, April

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Standing at only 15cm (6in) high, its small size makes it ideal for planting in patio containers or at the front of the border. The deep golden yellow flowers appear in early spring, with each stem bearing up to 3 blooms. Plant the bulbs in early autumn, at one and half times their own depth.

'Toto' 12W-Y

White/Yellow

narcissuscflototodeeproot1a

March, April

12 x 6
(30 x15)

Dwarf spring flowering bulb. Several flowers per stem with white perianth petals and straight pale yellow cups, ageing to creamy white.

Narcissus - Division 13: Daffodils distinguished solely by Botanical Name

asturiensis
13Y-Y
 

Fading Yellow/
Darker Yellow

narcissuscfloasturiensisdeeproot1a

January, February,
March
 

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Narcissus asturiensis is an almost perfect miniature form of the ever popular King Alfred daffodil and is one of the smallest daffodils. At a height of 2 ½ - 5 inches (10-12 cm) it needs careful placement in a regular garden to show to best effect. Wonderful in miniature bulb gardens and small containers. This tiny daffodil can easily be forced and is a good candidate for unusual small containers such as tea cups and miniature strawberry pots. It grows best in sandy, peaty soil which is not allowed to completely dry out in summer. Prefers full sun. Protect from slugs.

bulbocodium
13Y-Y
 

Yellow/Golden-Yellow

narcissuscflobulbocodiumdeeproot1a

March, April, May
 

8 x 4 (20 x 10) (takes from 2-5 years to reach ultimate height)

Narcissus bulbocodium is a delicate low-growing daffodil. In mid-spring, it produces funnel-shaped, pale to deep yellow flowers 3.5cm across with wide inflated trumpets and insignificant, pointed petals. The flower is reminiscent of a hoop petticoat caught in the wind, hence its common name.

The leaves of Narcissus bulbocodium are slender, semi-cylindrical and dark green 10-40cm long.
It makes a striking specimen plant for an alpine display house or cool glasshouse. Blooms can last up to two to three weeks, adding cheerfulness to overcast winter days. It is suitable for naturalising in damp, rough grass that dries out in summer.

cyclamineus
13Y-Y
 

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscflocyclamineusdeeproot1a

March
 

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

It would be a duller place if these brightly coloured, miniature daffodils, with their distinctive and characteristic swept-back petals, were not present to liven up an alpine bed or warm the cold spaces under deciduous shrubs.

obvallaris
13Y-Y
 

Yellow/Yellow

narcissuscfloobvallarisdeeproot1a

March, April
 

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

This is the variety that grows wild in South Wales, and is described as having perfect proportions. It has an all yellow flower and is extremely hardy. It is ideal for planting into rough grass or meadows where it will spread when left undisturbed. The tidy appearance makes it equally good for beds and borders throughout the garden and could even be used in pots and windowboxes. Goes well with Athyrium filix-femina, Viola odorata and Helleborus argutfolius.

poeticus var
physaloides

13W-GYO
 

White/Green eye-zone, Yellow mid-zone, Red-Orange rim

narcissuscflopoeticusvarphysaloidesdeeproot1a

May
 

8-12 x 6 (20-30 x 15)

Narrow, erect, strap-shaped, channelled leaves. Solitary, scented flowers in late spring, with flat, pure white perianth segments and very small yellow cups edged with red-orange. Good for naturalising.

 

 

The American Daffodil Society prides itself with the ever growing Display Garden program and its popular Youth Program. This section is dedicated to information about the American Daffodil Society organization, programs and awards. You will also find detailed information about local daffodil societies throughout the United States.

 

Dr Tom Throckmorton of Iowa computerized much data in the early 1970's regarding the flower colour of daffodils. With the support of the American Daffodil Society, the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) was approached and asked to consider certain modifications to its admittedly good classification. The RHS, after due consideration, approved the Revised Classification and published this in the International Register of Daffodil names in 1975 as follows:-

1. The classification of a daffodil cultivar shall be based on the description and measurements submitted by the person registering the variety, or shall be the classification submitted by such person.

2. Colours applicable to the description of daffodil cultivars are abbreviated as follows:

  • W white or whitish
  • G green
  • Y yellow
  • P pink
  • O orange
  • R red

3. For purposes of description, the daffodil flower shall be divided into perianth and corona (a crownlike appendage on a plant, esp. on the inner side of a corolla, as in the narcissus.).

4. The perianth shall be described by the letter or letters of the colour code most appropriate.

5. The corona shall be divided into 3 zones:an eye-zone, a mid-zone, and the edge or rim. Suitable coded colour descriptions shall describe these 3 zones, beginning with the eye-zone and extending to the rim - see Introduction Page

6. The letter or letters of the colour code most accurately describing the perianth shall follow the division designation. Narcissus Altun Ha is given the classification code 2YYW-W as the Champion Bloom at the 2011 Tulip and Daffodil Festival for the New Zealand's Daffodil Society. This code indicates a Yellow rim and edge, Yellow mid-zone and White inside part next to the corona of the perianth with White corona.

7. The letters of the colour code most accurately describing the zones of the corona shall then follow, from the eye-zone to the rim separated from the perianth letters by a hyphen. In Division 4, the letters of the colour code most accurately describing the admixture of petals and petaloids replacing the corona shall follow in proper order, using 3, 2, or 1 colour codes as appropriate - see Introduction Page.

8. If the corona is substantially of a single colour, a single letter of the colour code shall describe it.

 

 

 

 

 

Carpet a Woodland in Bulbs from December 2000, Issue number 76, of "Fine Gardening Magazine" by Judy Glattstein:-

Plant bulbs that flower in sequence to extend the season

Bloom times are approximate in my USDA Hardiness Zone 6 garden. Though the sequence will generally be the same from year to year, exact bloom times will vary depending upon your location and weather conditions.

February
Snowdrops - Galanthus spp.
Spring snowflake - Leucojum vernum
Winter aconite - Eranthis hyemalis

March
Crocus tommasinianus
Snowdrops - Galanthus spp.
Spring snowflake - Leucojum vernum
Winter aconite - Eranthis hyemalis
Narcissus 'Rijnveld's Early Sensation'

April
Corydalis solida
Fritillaria thunbergii (See photos of fritillaria)
Glory of the snow- Chionodoxa spp.
Grape hyacinth - Muscari armeniacum
Siberian squill - Scilla sibirica
Narcissus 'Beersheba' with their companions
Narcissus 'Dove Wings'
Narcissus 'Rip Van Winkle'
Narcissus 'Trevithian'

May
Narcissus 'Actaea'
Narcissus 'Thalia'
Guinea hen flower - Fritillaria meleagris
Spanish bluebell - Hyacinthoides hispanicus

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

The Spruce is a new kind of home website offering practical, real-life tips and inspiration to help you create your best home. Whether you’re looking to retile your bathroom, upgrade your baking skills, conquer a craft or simply tackle your to-do list, The Spruce can show you how to make a Leprachaun Trap.

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Page structure amended November 2012.
Mapping and Index completed March 2018.
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DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

If you know the name of the plant you wish to see, you can ask Google and get information; otherwise for the public this website may help you choose your plants using foliage, shape and seed/fruit as well as flower photos before you buy them mailorder directly from the nursery / seed company that has donated the use of their photos!

With free advertising of their plants, I am asking for photos from the public / nurseries / seed companies / suppliers in the UK, or any other country in the European Union, who would supply plants / seeds mailorder direct to the public in the UK and/or the rest of the world. This also applies to American nurseries for America, Chinese Nurseries for China, etc since the plants from most other countries in the world can also be grown in the UK as well as their own country; providing the appropriate growing conditions are stated. See Page for Contact details and the Copyright Permissions Page.

 

Well-drained Acidic Sand or Chalk (Ideally the pH should be around 7 to 6.5).

Moist Soil. (Daffodils need lots of water while they are growing. Water immediately after planting and keep them moist until the rains come. Continue watering for three weeks or so after blooming time; then stop watering. The bulbs make their next year's bloom after flowering.)

If you intend to plant your Daffodils in pots, then read Pot Culture of Exhibition Daffodils in The Complete Guide for Growing and Exhibiting Daffodils irrespective of whether you are likely to exhibit your daffodils or not.

Wherever possible, choose ground that has not previously been used for growing daffodils in the last 5 years.

Either

Ideally the pH should be around 7 to 6.5 and should be cultivated to a depth of 2 spits with well-rotted animal manure or compost incorporated into the lower spit. Before planting the following fertiliser can be incorporated at the rate of four ounces (110 grammes) per square yard ( 1 square yard = 0.81 square metres) - 5 parts by weight of superphosphate, 5 parts of bone meal, 5 parts of suphate of potash and 1 part of hoof and horn.

or

If you have heavy clay, you can amend it with river sand to improve porosity; if you have sand, chopped leaves are the recommended amendment. DO NOT USE MANURE OR MUSHROOM COMPOST. Heavy, rich compost leads to a quick case of summer bulb rot! Also, when you amend clay, ensure you dig much deeper than the bulbs' root systems will travel - do not create a bowl that holds water and thus promotes rot. Chopped leaves are the recommended mulch - the weight is light enough not to smother emerging foliage, and the nutrients released by their slow decay function as slow-release fertilizer in good proportions for what daffodils desire.
You can collect and chop your own leaves by using a rotary mower set to its highest setting and mowing the lawn during the autumn when the deciduous tree leaves are falling in your own garden. Then, since you may already have planted your bulbs, lay a 2 inch (5 cm) depth mulch of these chopped leaves/grass over the newly planted bulb area and the worms will pull the mulch into the soil.

NARCISSUS BULB GALLERY PAGES

2 Explanatory Pages:-
Site Map of pages with content (o)
Introduction



PERIANTH COLOUR
Green
Orange
Pink
Red
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FLOWERING MONTHS
(o)January
(o)February
(o)March
(o)April
(o)May
(o)June
.July
.August
.September
.October
.November
(o)December

FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Green
Other Colour

DAFFODIL CLASSIFICATION DIVISION OF UK
(o)1 Trumpet
(o)2 Large-Cupped
(o)3 Small-Cupped
(o)4 Double
(o)5 Triandrus
(o)6 Cyclamineus
(o)7 Jonquilla / Apodanthus
(o)8 Tazetta
9 Poeticus
(o)10 Bulbocodium
11 Split-Corona
(o)11a Collar
(o)11b Papillon
(o)12 Other Cultivars
(o)13 Species and Wild Variants and hybrids

SEED COLOUR
Seed Colour
 

BED PICTURES
Garden

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


BULB INDEX
link to Bulb Description Page or
link to Page in 4000 x 3000 pixel Raw Camera Photo Gallery or
link to Page in 1000 Ground-cover Plants or
link to Page in Infill Galleries
:-

 

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

 


The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages

 

 

The following Extra Index of Bulbs is created in the
Bulb Plant Gallery, to which the Bulb found in the above list will have that row copied to.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-

A 1, 2, 3, B,
C 1, 2, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L 1, 2, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

 

 

Index of Bulbs from
P Infill2 Plants Index Gallery

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

 

 

---------

 

 


Bulb Use pages from
P Infill2 Index Gallery


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell from
P Garden Style Index Gallery :-

Bulbs and Corms with
Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

 

 

Index of Bulbs from
Plants Extra Gallery

Bulb
Photos - Bulb

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and
User Guidelines

 

 

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website :-

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©June 2007. Page structure amended November 2012.
Index changed February 2016.
Mapping and Index completed March 2018.
Menus changed May 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956

They are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.
These families within that book will have their details described in alphabetical order for both the family name and its plants.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford. Printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

 

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, the wildlife in public parks is destroyed as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

 

 

Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

 

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.
• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.
• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.
• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.
• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.
Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.
Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

 

Theme

Plants

Comments

 

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

 

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

 

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

 

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

 

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

 

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

 

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

 

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

 

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

 

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

 

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

 

Butterfly Garden

 

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

 

"On average, 2 gardeners a year die in the UK as a result of poisonous plants. Those discussed in this blog illustrate a range of concerns that should be foremost in the designer’s mind." from
A garden Designer's Guide to Poisonous Plants by
Oxford College of Garden Design.

Pages on poisonous plants in this website:-
...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts.
...Poisonous Plants.
is Poisonous.
...Poisonous

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens
With around 23 million gardens in the UK,
covering 435,000 hectares (An acre is about 0.405 hectares, 1 hectare is 10000.0 square metres);
gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats.
Pre-planting you may require pre-building work on polluted soil. Then,
if you soil is clay,
consider these 8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay,
before actioning -

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden:-

  1. Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract -
    and this shows how roots of plants are in control in the soil.
  2. Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
    See above for the full list by Botanical name and another by Common Name of all the native plants in the UK in 1965 with their habitats.
  3. Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
  4. Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures and for the soil.
    Re-use your garden prunings, mowings, and dug up non-weed plants as recommended in the
    Planting a Native Hedge cell above in "Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations" table as a mulch.
    Soil Structure - The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram shows how these particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’ to start the formation of soil.
    Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt.
    Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
    why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
    To prevent this destruction of the soil, there is this Action Plan for YOU to DO with your soil.
  5. Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
  6. Feed the Birds and other creatures too.
  7. Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
  8. Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden:-

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden.
Bees under Bombardment from Bee Happy Plants Ltd.
There are certain times when pollen or nectar are needed:
Early spring is a time of great need for pollen (which triggers egg-laying by the queen);
All season from early spring to late Autumn nectar is needed, though there is a 'crisis period' from the end of June until September (in the South of the UK) when adult bees' numbers are at a peak and their need for nectar is vital. This summer period is one we should concentrate on providing copious amounts of nectar in our gardens.
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden
 

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

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