lilliumfflonepalenservroger

ajugareptansvariegata2a3a

Flower. Photo from R. V. Roger

Foliage

See illustration from Kew's Collections

Form

Click on photos from Pacific Rim Native Plant Nursery in Canada

Plant Name

Lilium nepalense - Species

Common Name

The Lily of Nepal

Soil

Well-drained Acidic Sand

Sun Aspect

Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun or Part Shade

Soil Moisture

Moist - see Introduction for further planting and cultivation details in the ground and pots. Plant 3, 7 or 11 bulbs in clumps in the ground from December-April. Once flowering is over you will need to stop watering so that the plant can die back naturally- see below in Comments row.

Plant Type

Herbaceous Bulb

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

36 -54 x 16 (90-135 x 40)

Foliage

Green

Flower Colour in Month(s). Seed

Lime-Green recurved hood with royal Purple throats and spots in June-July

Comment

"The Wild species are natives to North America, Europe, and Asia. Wild species are the kind that still occur growing in the wild and which haven't yet been affected by hybridization. Lilium auratum (Gold-banded Lily) is one of the most beautiful of the wild species. It bears up to thirty-five, star-shaped, highly aromatic flowers per stem, usually in August and sometimes in September. The large flowers can reach a diameter of 10 to 12 inches (25-30 cms). They are white with a golden-yellow stripe down the center and numerous tiny red speckles. Lilium lancifolium (Tiger Lily) is a well-known native of Japan and China. Its flowers are borne in late summer atop 4- to 5-foot (48-60 inches = 120-150 cms) stems. They consist of reflexed, bright red or orange-red petals covered with little speckles. An interesting characteristic of this flower is that bulbils appear in the leaf axils. This Lily has a played an important part in the development of the Asiatic hybrids and other lilies." from Botany.com.

"An absolutely stunning species that bears large, drooping lime-green bells. The inside of each flower is a dark maroon or purple. Between 1 and 3 flowers are normally produced. Best grown in a cool greenhouse and give it plenty of root space as they like to travel. Height: 60-100cm." from R. V. Roger.

"Not surprisingly the rare species Nepalese lily - or Lily of Nepal as it's commonly called - is considered to be one of the most beautiful of all the lilies. Originating from the south of the Himalayas it's natural habitat spreads from Northern Indian to Nepal and Bhutan. Typically, it grows in wet forest borders, between 1200m and 3000m above sea level.

Lilium nepalense is much-prized for its large funnel-shaped flowers which can be as many as eight on each stem. They are richly coloured, open trumpet shaped blooms with a lime-green, recurved hood. With a suitable background or foil, this contrasts dramatically with their royal-purple throats and spots. Normally unscented, you will also find that these spectacular downward-facing blooms are perfect for flower arranging as they can lasts for days once cut.

Best suited to the cool greenhouse, the Nepalese Lily will also happily grow outside so long as it isn’t susceptible to extremes of temperatures and conditions. It prefers a slightly acidic, humus rich and free-draining soil, so if you are planting outside add plenty of leaf mould and horticultural grit to your soil. Like clematis, the Lily of Nepal needs to keeps its roots in the shade while its head stays in either semi-shade or full sun so make sure that it gets a good top dressing of either gravel, ornamental or composted bark to keep the heat off the soil.

Keep it moist during the spring until it comes into flower from June to July, and if you are using the Nepalese Lily as a specimen plant - rather than for ornamental height amongst the borders -then it may well need additional support. Like other lilies it will reach heights of between 3ft and 4ft.

Once flowering is over you will need to stop watering so that the plant can die back naturally. That way it can absorb valuable carbohydrates and nutrients back into the corm. However, if watering is continued then you may find that when it comes to lifting and storage, your corm may have rotted away.

If they were grown or planted in the ground while still in their pots, the pots can be lifted and turned on their side – that way they can also avoid natural watering from seasonal, heavy down-pours. Once spring returns, watering can begin again as this will replicate the melting snow normally found in its natural environment. Surprisingly, once this plant becomes established it seems to be quite tolerant of drought." from The Garden of Eaden.

"Gardeners keep losing this beauty. The secret of longer life is at the end of this description. The bulb is stoloniferous. It roves underground (a Houdini in a pot), producing many smaller bulbs on strings. Native to open scrub in the high mountains of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, India, Myanmar (Burma), Tibet (Xizang) and Yunnan province in China. Height to 120 cm (4.5'). Lilium nepalense is Zone 5, but it abhors fall and winter wet. If that's likely to be a problem where you are, grow it outdoors under an overhang or in a frame or glasshouse. Some people even overwinter these treasures bagged in peat in the refrigerator. " from Pacific Rim Native Plant Nursery.

"Set amongst the beautiful Northamptonshire countryside, this 60 acre, private woodland garden (Evenley Wood Garden) offers a huge variety of plants ranging from trees, shrubs and climbers, to a wide selection of bulbs, including a substantial collection of lilies."

Available from R. V. Roger and Rare Plants with Plant Buddy in America and Pacific Rim Native Plant Nursery in Canada

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Single Flower

Single Leaf

Fruit

 

All lilies are potentially lethal to cats. As little as one leaf can kill a cat if they eat it, and any part of the plant is dangerous, including the pollen, flowers and leaves. The first symptoms that are likely to occur after a cat ingests lilies are depression, lack of appetite and sometimes vomiting. If left untreated, the symptoms will worsen and include dehydration, diarrhoea, breathing difficulties and bad breath. It is likely that the cat will eventually suffer from acute renal failure. If medical treatment isn't sought within hours, the cat will probably die. If you think your cat has eaten any part of a lily plant you should get it to a vet as quickly as possible. The cat may have to go on dialysis to improve its kidney function. It seems that cats are the only animals to be affected by lilies in this way. Other plants to be cautious of include dieffenbachia (dumb cane or leopard lily), hemerocallis (day lily), cyclamen, poinsettia and amaryllis. Laburnum, some berries and toadstools can also cause problems occasionally. Although there are many poisonous plants, it is unusual for them to cause harm to cats. Most at risk is the bored kitten that is left alone and starts to chew houseplants or picks up plant trimmings unnoticed whilst out in the garden.

Lilies

Above all, it must be remembered that lilies do not like wet feet; they must have good drainage. The lily bulb is never completely dormant.
The most important part of any bulb is the basal plate, upon which the scales are arranged. The scales themselves are modified leaves that are used for storage. Unlike a tulip or narcissus, the lily bulbs must be handled with care. When lifting and dividing, it pays to take extra care, especially with the species that produce stoloniferous roots. These roots are able to form new bulbs along their length, often developing at some distance from the original planting location.
Lilies should be planted to a depth that corresponds to twice the height of the bulb. Thus a bulb that is 4 inches (10 cms) from top to bottom should be planted with 8 inches (20 cms) of soil over its top. The only exception to this is Lillium candidum, which should always be planted close to soil level, burying it only 0.5 or 1 inch (1.25-2.5 cms) deep. This is because this species produces a rosette or tuft of leaves at soil level which remains green. It prefers to be planted where it will enjoy some shade during the hottest part of the day.

Lilies like to have their feet in the shade and their heads in the sun. This shade can be provided by shrubs or perennials. Early autumn is the best planting time, as soon as the bulbs are available. Spring planting also is possible, but autumn planting is preferable. Spring planting can alter the flowering time.
Soil should be quite rich in humus, well-drained, and worked to a good depth, some 12-14 inches (30-35 cms) is ideal. The distance the bulbs should be set apart varies with the type being grown. Some such as the tall-growing Trumpet lilies, will reach well over 6 feet (72 inches = 180 cms), once established. These should be set some 24 inches (60 cms) apart. The smaller-growing types, such as the Asiatic hybrids, should be planted 10-12 inches (25-30 cms) apart. You can improve - heavy clay soil by adding sand and compost, peat moss or leaf mold - or - very sandy soil by adding a little clay and compost, peat moss, or leaf mould.

Certain lilies will produce numerous stem roots, which grow between the top of the bulb and the soil surface. In some cases such roots will be produced above the soil level, so additional soil should be placed around the stems to cover these roots.
As soon as the lilies appear above-ground in the spring, a dressing of 10-10-10 fertilizer should be given. Another dressing can be given in 6-8 weeks, but such applications should stop as soon as the flower buds are seen. Liles must have moisture during their growing season. This soaking must be given in sufficient quantity to reach down to the roots once a week.
All lilies are hardy and should be left in the ground undisturbed for a number of years. When necessary - number of flowers produced not as many as in previous years - bulbs can be lifted in September for early-flowering lilies through to October for the later-flowering types - the indication being that the foliage will start to turn brown. Lift with care, separate out the bulbs, planting back those of a good size while the smaller can be planted in rows to be grown on in a nursery bed. Generally those that are 4-5 inches (10-12.5 cms) in circumference will flower. Those that are 1-2 inches (2.5-5 cms) will produce stems, but only a solitary flower; the exception being certain species that never produce larger-sized bulbs.
Planting back should be done as soon as possible. The areas where lilies had been growing should not be planted with lilies for a couple of years

 

"Lilies come mainly from the temperate woodlands of the Northern Hemisphere; therefore, they do not like dry heat. They are usually found growing near shrubs and other plants that shade their roots and keep the bulbs cool and moist. Lilies come in a huge variety of colors, shapes and sizes and can be grown both indoors and out. Some have strict soil requirements while others can be grown in ordinary garden soil. Lilies bloom from mid-spring to early autumn depending upon the variety. Most Lilies are excellent cut flowers, each blossom often living for up to 8 days. However, when cutting for indoors, make sure to leave as much of the stem and leaves on the plant as possible in order to store food for the next year's flowers.

The types of Lilies include the:-

  • Asiatic hybrids,
  • Oriental hybrids,
  • Martagon hybrids,
  • Candidum hybrids,
  • American hybrids,
  • Longiflorum hybrids,
  • Trumpet hybrids and the
  • wild species

PLANTING
Lilies are suitable for growing in beds, borders, meadows, woodlands, containers and as houseplants. They should be in a location that receives full sun or light shade. When purchasing your bulbs, look for those packed in moist peat moss in ventilated plastic bags. Plant them immediately after purchasing. Lilies can be planted in the spring or autumn, although autumn is preferred, except for Madonna Lilies, which should be planted somewhat earlier in late summer to early autumn. Plant the bulbs in well-drained, loose, friable soil that contains plenty of decayed organic matter. You can improve - heavy clay soil by adding sand and compost, peat moss or leaf mold - or - very sandy soil by adding compost, peat moss, or leaf mold. You may need to stake your plants in windy locations. To help conserve moisture, it is beneficial to mulch your plants with leaf mold, peat moss, or compost. This also helps to provide the cool soil, which Lilies prefer. It is also wise to mulch the ground heavily in the autumn (mowing the fallen autumn leaves on the lawn with the highest cut - each fortnight that the leaves fall - will provide a 3 inch = 7.5 cms depth of mulch) in order to protect the bulbs from alternate thawing and freezing spells. Lilies are especially susceptible to Lily mosaic, which is usually transmitted by aphids. Purchase healthy bulbs from reputable suppliers to help prevent this virus. Deer and rabbits are also troublesome to Lilies. When you use Lilies as cut flowers, be sure to leave as much stem and foliage on the plant to allow it to store food for next year's growth. You might want to clip the pollen off the anthers to keep it from staining clothing and tablecloths.

PROPAGATION
Seeds can be sown in late spring or early summer, but usually take four to six years to bloom. They can be sown in containers or directly in cool, moist soil outside where there is shelter from harsh midday sun. They can be grown in regular garden soil to which a little leaf mold or peat moss has been mixed in. Scatter the seeds thinly in shallow drills just over an inch (2.5 cms) deep. Cover the seeds with about an inch (2.5 cms) of fine soil. Small bulbils, which form along the stems of some Lilies, will sprout in the garden. These bulbils should be removed just after the blooms fade. Plant them an inch (2.5 cms) apart in sandy peat and leaf mold. Scales from the bulb can also be used to increase your plants. Remove a few of the loose, outer scales and bury the bases in coarse sand, which is in a shallow pan. This may be done in March, October, or November. Cover the pan with glass and place in a cool greenhouse. Eventually, bulblets will form and can be planted as described above. The groups of bulbs can also be lifted and divided in the autumn, once the stems and leaves have died. However, this shouldn't be done more than every third or fourth year.

" from Botany.com

PLANTING IN POTS
Lilies do exceptionally well in deep containers. Depth is important, especially for stem-rooted types. Good, friable, well-draining soil mix should be used like John Innes Cutting Compost. Plant to the depths previously indicated. Stand the containers in a cool location so that root production can take place. Shade is preferred as the sun can heat the soil during the day and then it will cool at night and such fluctuations in temperature are not ideal (Amberol produce double pots which get round this problem and it also provides an efficient and long lasting irrigation system).
Feeding should be given at regular intervals as soon as the shoots appear. Dilute feedings of liquid organic fertilizer are best, given weekly. Such feeding should stop as soon as the flower buds are noticed. Keep the containers moist, but never sopping wet. As soon as the shoots have reached 3-5 inches (7.5-12.5 cms), it is better to place the containers in better light and into full sun after a week or two.

FLOWERS
The flowers can be picked as soon as the first bud shows good colour and is just starting to open. The remainder of the flowers will open in due time while in water. After the bulbs have finished flowering, either in containers or in the ground, it is best to remove the flowerhead. This saves the plants from putting their strength into seed production and they will store the energy instead. Even if cut-flowers have not been in water for several days; once the flower-stems are recut and placed in water - preferably warm - the water will be absorbed and the flowers will open without any problem. As always; no lily foliage should be immersed in the water, as it will soon rot and have an evil smell

"Lily. To the ancient Egyptians, the trumpet-shaped lily was a symbol of Upper Egypt, the southern part of the country. In the ancient Near East, the lily was associated with Ishtar, also known as Astarte, who was a goddess of creation and fertility as well as a virgin. The Greeks and Romans linked the lily with the queen of the gods, called Hera by the Greeks and Juno by the Romans. The lily was also one of the symbols of the Roman goddess Venus.

In later times, Christians adopted the lily as the symbol of Mary who became the mother of Jesus while still a virgin. Painters often portrayed the angel Gabriel handing Mary a lily, which became a Christian symbol of purity. Besides being linked to Mary, the lily was also associated with virgin saints and other figures of exceptional chastity.

chastity - purity or virginity" from Myths Encyclopedia.

 

Note - the Bulb Gallery names of Spring Bulb,
Late Summer Bulb, Autumn Bulb and Winter Bulb refer to when the bulbs are delivered to you, not when they flower.

Direct access to an individual bulb description page is available:-

  • from the list of pages in the Site Map, or
  • from clicking on a thumbnail picture in the flower, foliage, form, fruit or garden pictures comparison pages, which has that bulb's name in the text box below it.

These gallery photographs were provided by R. V. Roger, Kevock Garden and Gee Tee Bulb Company.

 

HIPPEASTRUM AND LILY BULB GALLERY PAGES
Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

 

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Bicolour
Blue
(o)Green
(o)Orange
(o)Pink
(o)Purple
(o)Red
Unusual Colours
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Green
Other Colour

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

HIPPEASTRUM
Species
Cultivars

SEED/BULB COLOUR
Seed/Bulb

BED PICTURES
Garden

LILY DIVISION
(o)I Asiatic Hybrids

(o)II Martagon Hybrids
III Candidum Hybrids
IV American Hybrids
(o)V Longiflorum Hybrids
(o)VI Trumpet Hybrids
(o)VII Oriental Hybrids
(o)VIII Miscellaneous Hybrids
(o)IX Species
(o)Unspecified

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

 

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Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-
...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals ...... 5 petals,
23 pages of Flower Shape ......... Stars and
7 pages of Natural Arrangements Drumstick

...Bulb Form
-
7 pages of Bulb Form ...Clump-forming
...Bulb Use
-
33 pages of Bulb Use ...Mass Planting,
Groundcover,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions
...Bulb Preferred Soil

5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb ...Chalk

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail, form thumbnail use and comments are in the relevant index page below:-
(o): A
(o): B
(o): C
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lilium INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour with Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Form Thumbnail
and

Mat,
Cushion,
Spreading,
Clump,
Stemless,
Upright
as its form

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail

Soil

Sun Aspect

Soil Moisture

Foliage Colour
with Foliage Thumbnail

Bulb Use

Comments

Above all, it must be remembered that lilies do not like wet feet; they must have good drainage. The lily bulb is never completely dormant. Lilies like to have their feet in the shade and their heads in the sun. This shade can be provided by shrubs or perennials.

I Asiatic Hybrid Lilies
Lilies come mainly from the temperate woodlands of the Northern Hemisphere; therefore, they do not like dry heat.They are usually found growing near shrubs and other plants that shade their roots and keep the bulbs cool and moist. Lilies come in a huge variety of colors, shapes and sizes and can be grown both indoors and out. Some have strict soil requirements while others can be grown in ordinary garden soil. Lilies bloom from mid-spring to early fall depending upon the variety. Most Lilies are excellent cut flowers, each blossom often living for up to 8 days. However, when cutting for indoors, make sure to leave as much of the stem and leaves on the plant as possible in order to store food for the next year's flowers.
See Introduction for further planting and cultivation details in the ground and pots. Plant 3, 7 or 11 bulbs in clumps in the ground from December-April.

"The most important part of any bulb is the basal plate, upon which the scales are arranged.The scales themselves are modified leaves that are used for storage. Unlike a tulip or narcissus, the bulbs of Liliums must be handled with care. When lifting and dividing, for example, it pays to take extra care, especially with the species that produce stoloniferous roots. These roots are able to form new bulbs along their length, often developing at some distance from the original planting location.
Lilies should be planted to a depth that corresponds to twice the height of the bulb. Thus a bulb that is 4 inch (10cms) from top to bottom should be planted with 8 inches (20 cms) of soil on top.The only exception to this is Lilium candidum, which should always be planted close to soil level, burying it only 0.5 or 1 inch (1.25-25 cms) deep. This is because this species produces a rosette or tuft of leaves at soil level which remains green. It prefers to be planted where it will enjoy some shade during the hottest part of the day." from Bulbs Volume II, I-Z by John E. Bryan. Published by Timber Press in 1989. ISBN 0-88192-101-7.

Lilium Division I (Asiatic hybrids) - These are generally grown for their large, showy flowers. Each bulb will produce several flowers, held on one, sturdy flower stem, above the narrow leaves. There are three types of flowers in this division, upward facing, outward facing and pendant flower.

Problems
"For the average gardener, Asiatic hybrid lilies are perhaps the easiest lilies to grow. Usually pest free, but potential diseases include:

  • (1) lily mosaic virus (prompt control of aphids which vector the disease is highly recommended, since there is no cure once infection occurs);
  • (2) bulb rot (particularly in wet, poorly drained soils); and
  • (3) Botrytis. Plants may need staking if grown in too much shade (stems weaken) or in locations exposed to strong winds.

Lilium 'Apollo'
 

Yellow, red-speckled
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Upward-facing flowers

June, July
 

Clump and Erect.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a bunch

24 x 20
(60 x 50)
Space 18 inches (45 cms) apart.

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

Particularly well suited to growing in pots as this is a very sturdy variety.
Grow amongst low groundcover in the middle of the bed to allow its flowers in the sun and its roots shaded by the surrounding groundcover

Set amongst the beautiful Northampton-shire countryside, this 60 acre, private woodland garden (Evenley Wood Garden) offers a huge variety of plants ranging from trees, shrubs and climbers, to a wide selection of bulbs, including a substantial collection of lilies.

Lilium 'Cancun'

 

Golden yellow flowers edged in Orange-Red
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Upward-facing flowers

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a bunch

40 x 10 (100 x 25).
Space
18 inches (45 cms) apart.

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Narrow, lance-shaped Green

Excellent for bedding. Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants.

Lilium Division I (Asiatic hybrids) - These are generally grown for their large, showy flowers. Each bulb will produce several flowers, held on one, sturdy flower stem, above the narrow leaves. There are 3 types of flowers in this division,
upward facing, outward facing and pendant flower.

Lilium 'Citronella'
(Lily 'Citronella', Asiatic lily 'Citronella')
 

Black or Red-spotted, bright Yellow with recurved petals

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Dowward-facing flowers

June, July

Erect.
Very Fragrant,
6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a bunch

48 x 20
(120 x 50)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Linear, spirally-arranged, Green leaves

Excellent for bedding. Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants.

This is a robust erect variety and is one of the easiest varieties to grow.

Lilium 'Claire'
- Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

Red

lilliumcfloclairervroger1
 

June, July

6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a bunch

24 x 10
(60 x 25)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

Use for bedding. Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants.

What is Garden Flowers for Everyone?

Lilium Cote 'd'Azur'
(Asiatic Lily 'Cote d'Azur')

Fuchsia-Pink

lilliumcflocotedazurrvroger

June, July

6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a bunch

40 x 20
(100 x 50) (Space 9-12 inches (22.5-30 cms) apart)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Linear, spirally-arranged, glossy, dark Green with erect stems

Another superb variety for planting in pots as it only gets 45-60cm (18-24”) high and has many flowers per stem.
Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants.

Upward facing variety with deep rosy-pink flowers, lightly spotted towards the centre.

Lilium
'Fata Morgana
'
(Lily)

Yellow, Maroon spots

lilliumcflofatamorganarvroger

June

6 petal, star-shaped, Upward-facing, double flowers in a bunch

24-36 x 12-18 (60-90 x 30-45)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants.

Plant next to Phygelius x rectus 'Moonraker' to provide a stunning combination of Yellows.

An unusual semi-double variety, with many attributes - the flowers are a lovely golden-yellow, very long lasting and the plants are vigorous and sturdy. Highly recommended.

Lilium 'Gironde'
(Gironde Lily)

Golden-Yellow

lilliumcflo9girondegeetee

June, July, August

6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a spike

24-60 x 12 (60-150 x 30)

Well-drained Acidic Sand.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Green

It is great for growing in containers and for cutting.

Use for bedding.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants.

It is quite disease resistant

Lilium
'Gran Paradiso
'
(Lily 'Gran Paradiso')
- Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

Deep Red upward-facing

lilliumcflogranparadisorvroger1a

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

40-44 x 20 (100-110 x 50)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Clump-forming Green leaves

Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants.

Rich vermillion red flowers which really stand out - the petals are slightly pointed and there is some spotting. Blooms in 90 days from planting

Lilium 'Kingdom'
(Lily)

White upward facing

lilliumcflokingdomgeetee1a

June, July

6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

38 x 18
(95 x 45)

Well-drained Acidic Sand.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

It is great for growing in containers and for cutting.

Use for bedding.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
It can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

It is quite disease resistant with compact growth.

Lilium
'King Pete
'
(Lily) - Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

Lemon-Yellow with Brown freckles, outward-facing

lilliumcflokingpetervroger1a

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

32 x 12
(80 x 30)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Erect Green leaves

Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

Bred in 1977, this is one of the few outward-facing varieties in this group. Strong stems and rich golden yellow flowers, slightly darker in the centre and lightly covered with small chocolate brown spots.
Plant 3, 7 or 11 bulbs in clumps in the ground from December-April.

Lilium 'Lennox'
(Lily) - Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

White

lilliumcflolennoxrvroger1a

June, July

6 petal, trumpet-shaped flowers in a spike

30 x 12
(75 x 30)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.
It tends to be leggy, with a typical clearance of 12 inches (30 cms) from the ground, and should be underplanted with lower-growing perennials.

It grows at a fast rate, and under ideal conditions can be expected to live for approximately 10 years.

This perennial does best in full sun to partial shade. It does best in average to evenly moist conditions, but will not tolerate standing water. It is not particular as to soil type or pH. It is somewhat tolerant of urban pollution. This plant can be propagated by multiplication of the underground bulbs.

Lilium 'Lollypop'
(Lily) - Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

Outward-facing, bright Pink flowers with creamy-white speckled throats

lilliumcflolollypoprvroger1

June, July

6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a spike

32 x 12
(80 x 30)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Linear, Dark Green leaves

Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

A fun, upward facing variety with creamy white flowers, with the appearance that each petal has been dipped in pink paint. Most suited to pots where the wonderful flowers can be really seen.

Lilium 'Montreux'
(Lily) - Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

Upward-facing Dusky Pink , which does not fade or attract birds!

lilliumcflomontreuxrvroger

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a spike

36 x 20
(90 x 50)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Erect and Green leaves

Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

Sow seed as soon as ripe in containers in cold frame, or germinate indoors under lights at 65-70ºF/18-21ºC in spring. Remove scales, offsets, or bulbets from dormant bulbs as soon as the foliage dies down, or detach stem bulbils (where these are produced) in late summer.

They'll gradually spread once established, forming bigger and better clumps with each succeeding season.

Lilium
'Orange County
'
(Lily)

Orange

lilliumcfloorangecountygeetee1a
Great for growing in containers and for cutting and is quite disease resistant.

June, July

6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

38 x 18
(95 x 45)

Well-drained Acidic Sand.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Green

Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.
Asiatic lilies bloom in early summer, about 1 month before Oriental hybrids, with a different bloom style and color.

Asiatic hybrids were derived from a species that originated in Asia. They bloom in early summer, usually flowering for over a month. Their 4- to 6-inch (10-15 cms) blossoms, which may face up, out, or down, come in shades of red, orange, yellow, pink, lavender, and white. The plants produce compact growth and range from 24 to 60 inches (60-150 cms) high. They are great for growing in containers and for cutting and are quite disease resistant.

Lilium 'Prunotto'
(Lily)

Bright Red

lilliumcfloprunottogeetee1a

June, July, August

6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Well-drained Acidic Sand.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Dark Green

Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

Asiatic lilies bloom in early summer, about 1 month before Oriental hybrids, with a different bloom style and color.

Lilium 'Rosella's Dream'
(Lily)

Cream with Pink tips

lilliumcflorosellasdreamgeetee1

June, July, August

6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a spike

24-48 x 18 (60-120 x 45)

Well-drained Acidic Sand.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Green

Use for bedding.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

A cream with pink tips lily which is great for growing in containers and for cutting; and is quite disease resistant.

I Dwarf Asiatic Hybrid Lilies
Asiatic hybrids were derived from a species that originated in Asia. They bloom in early summer, usually flowering for over a month. Their 4- to 6-inch (10-15 cms) blossoms, which may face up, out, or down, come in shades of red, orange, yellow, pink, lavender, and white. The plants produce compact growth and range from 2 to 5 feet (60-150 cms) high. They are great for growing in containers and for cutting and are quite disease resistant.
Short ones are easy in pots.
Asiatic lilies bloom in early summer, about 1 month before Oriental hybrids, with a different bloom style and color.
Asiatic Lilies are easy, dependable perennials that put on a great show in the early summer border. This is one of the dwarf Pixie series, bred originally for their compact habit in containers, but equally as unique and useful in the garden. Plants look their best when massed together in groups towards the front of the border, but are equally at home in the rock garden. Flowers are large, upfacing soft sorbet-orange trumpets, colourful but lacking in fragrance. Excellent for cutting.

Lilium
'Buff Pixie
'
(Lily) - Dwarf Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

Soft Buff Orange

lilliumcflobuffpixiegeetee1a1

June, July

6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a dome

16-20 x 10-12 (40-50 x 25-30)

Well-drained Acidic Sand.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Mid-Green

These vibrant lilies are short and sturdy, perfect for pots and flower beds.
Use for bedding or massed together towards the front of the bed or in
the Rock Garden.
Excellent Cut flower.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

"On the landscaped six acre plot, over 2000 named varieties are grown spanning all nine divisions of the genus lilium, with up to 30,000 seedlings in various stages of growth." from The Lily Nook.

Lilium
'Butter Pixie
'
Lily) - Dwarf Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

Large upturned
Golden Yellow

lilliumcflobutterpixiegeetee1a1

June, July

6 petal, trumpet or star shaped flowers in a dome with no fragrance

12-18 x 10-12 (30-45 x 25-30)

Well-drained Acidic Sand , or "they can be planted in deep containers, using loam-based compost, such as John Innes Number 2.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Leaves alternate and Mid-Green

Butter Pixie lily, along with other dwarf Asiatic lilies, were bred for their compact growth habit in containers and offer no fragrance. The Butter Pixie is perfect for accents,
bedding in beds and
rock gardens. Plant in multiples or
mass plantings for a greater effect.
The Pixie series is the perfect size for small gardens or narrow borders.
Cut flower.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

Growing the Butter Pixie and other dwarf Asiatic lilies is quite easy. Plant the bulbs in fall or spring approximately 6 inches deep in organic rich soil. Best if planted in the ground or in containers with well draining soil in groupings of 3 or more bulbs. If planting in clay soil that will stay damp during winter, it would be best to plant the bulbs slightly higher as they do not tolerate wet or soggy soil (with a handful of sand under each bulb). After blooming, cut the stems down to no less than half for the fall and winter duration. This will allow the bulbs to absorb necessary nutrients back in for hibernation. The pixie lilies are fast multipliers and will need to be dug and divided every 3 or so years.

Lilium
'Ceb Crimson
'
(Lily) - Dwarf Asiatic Hybrid

Upturned, Deep Crimson

lilliumcflocebcrimsongeetee1a

June, July

6 petal,
star shaped flowers in a dome with no fragrance

14 x 8
(35 x 20)
Well-drained Acidic Sand , or "plant in deep containers, using John Innes Number 2.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Mid-Green

Use for bedding, speciman and
in Rock Gardens.
Cut flower with no fragrance.
Plant in multiples or
mass plantings for a greater effect.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

Asiatic Lilies are easy, dependable perennials that put on a great show in the early summer border. This is one of the dwarf Pixie series, bred originally for their compact habit in containers, but equally as unique and useful in the garden. Plants look their best when massed together in groups towards the front of the border, but are equally at home in the rock garden. Flowers are large, upfacing trumpets, colourful but lacking in fragrance. Excellent for cutting.

The Pixie series is the perfect size for small gardens or narrow borders.

Lilium 'Inuvik'
(Lily)

Upturned, Pure White

lilliumcfloinuvikgeetee1a

June, July

6 petal,
star shaped flowers in a spike with no fragrance

16-20 x 10-12 (40-50 x 25-30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand , or "plant in containers, using John Innes No 2. Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Mid-Green

Use for bedding, speciman and
in Rock Gardens.
Cut flower with no fragrance.
Plant in multiples or
mass plantings for a greater effect.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

Lilium
'Pink Pixie
'
(Lily) - Dwarf Asiatic Hybrid in the Lily Register

Upturned, Tips clear Pink, Cream to Buff

lilliumcflospinkpixiegeetee1a1

June, July

6 petal,
star shaped flowers in a spike with no fragrance

16-20 x 10-12 (40-50 x 25-30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand , or "plant in containers, using John Innes No 2. Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Mid-Green

Use for bedding, speciman and
in Rock Gardens.
Cut flower with no fragrance.
Plant in multiples or
mass plantings for a greater effect.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

Lilium
'Tailor Made
'

Upturned, Bright Orange

lilliumcflostailormadegeetee1a

June, July

6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a dome

16-20 x 10-12 (40-50 x 25-30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand , or "plant in containers, using John Innes No 2. Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun and Part Shade.
Moist

Mid-Green

Use for bedding, speciman and
in Rock Gardens.
Cut flower with no fragrance.
Plant in multiples or
mass plantings for a greater effect.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

II Martagon Hybrid Lilies
Martagon lilies are classic choices for old style gardens. Perfect for the edge of treed woodlots, but as with all bulbs in such areas, protect from tunneling moles, gophers, etc., using wire cages or raised planters with hardware cloth stapled to the bottom as a barrier.
Martagon hybrids are derived from L. Martagon (Martagon Lily; Turk's-Cap Lily). They produce their 2- to 4-inch (5-10 cms), nodding flowers in early summer. The flowers come in white, yellow, orange, tangerine, mahogany, brown, lavender, or lilac. Martagon hybrids can reach heights ranging from 3 to 6 feet (36-72 inches = 90-180 cms).

Lilium x marhan 'Mrs R.O. Backhouse'
(Lily) - Martagon Hybrid (Lilium martagon x Lilium hansonii) in the Lily Register

Down-facing, Golden-Orange flowers speckled with purple dots

lilliumcflomrsrobackhouservroger1a

May, June

6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a dome

53 x 8
(132.5 x 20)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

Frequently used in cottage gardens along with Lilium regale, and in
Woodland edge.
Requires staking.
Speciman plant.
They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse or on the patio.

The 53 inch tall stalk is topped in June (NC) with lovely pendent, golden-orange flowers that are heavily speckled with purple dots. The buds emerge pink, and the pink color remains on the outside of the petals after opening. Moist soils and cool sites are best.

V Longiflorum Hybrid Lilies
Just like the Asiatic varieties we featured recently, the secret to cultivating lilies successfully is cool soil with good drainage. Choose a spot where the soil will remain cool, for example near shrubs, and ensure the flowerbed is thoroughly dug up. Lilies will struggle to grow if their soil is poor and compacted, as it will stop water from soaking down to the bulb’s deepset roots. A layer of mulch will also aid growth and assist in keeping the soil cool and moist. As long as the soil is cool, Lilium will thrive in a spot that receives light shade to full sun. The sunshine will help the foliage and flowers flourish. Be careful of exposing your potted lilies to full sun though as they prefer to be protected from direct sun and heat.
Longiflorum hybrids, derived from the popular L. longiflorum (Easter Lily), can be grown from zones 6 to 11 and with protection, zone 5. These hybrids produce aromatic, white, trumpet-shaped flowers. They grow to about 3 feet (36 inches = 90 cms) high and bloom in mid-summer, although they can be forced to bloom indoors for Easter.

Lilium formo-sanum var. pricei
'Snow Queen
'
(Easter lily, November Lily, St Joseph Lily)' - Longiflorum Hybrid

Fragrant Creamy-White

lilliumcflosnowqueenrvroger1a

July, August

Clump.
6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a dome

40 x 12
(100 x 30)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Leafy Green upright stems

They can be forced into flower to provide good pot plants in a cool greenhouse to flower at Easter or on the patio to flower in July or August.
Grow with lower growing perennials to cool their roots and leave the flowers in dappled shade.

A glorious lily which makes the most impressive cut flower - huge long trumpets of the cleanest white and with a wonderful scent to match.

VI Trumpet Hybrid Lilies
Trumpet hybrids were derived from Asiatic species. These Lilies grow from 4 to 6 feet (48-72 inches = 120-180 cms) high and produce large, 6- to 10-inch (15-25 cms) flowers in the summer.
Lilies can be planted at any time from early autumn, to mid-spring. Planting in autumn often helps them settle in and become better established before they start to put on their new spring growth, but spring planting is a better option if your soil is heavy and wet during winter. Choose a sunny spot, preferably where the plant receives a little light shade at its base, and plant each bulb 15-20cm (6-8in) deep in a well-drained soil, enriched with well-rotted organic matter or leaf mould. Space them at approximately 30cm (12") intervals and provide support before the flowers appear. Deadhead the faded blooms promptly and cut the dead stems back to ground level at the end of autumn.

Lilium
'African Queen
'
(Lily) - Trumpet Hybrid in the Lily Register

Fragrant, Burnt-Orange

lilliumcfloafricanqueenrvroger1a

July, August

6 petal, trumpet-shaped flowers in a dome

60 x 12
(150 x 30)
Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers, using loam-based compost, such as John Innes No 2 for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use at edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

An old favourite (1958) with large, peachy apricot trumpets with a rich scent. It is reliable and looks stunning in the flower border. The buds are often very dark in colour, almost purple.

Lilium
'Golden
Splendour
'
(Trumpet Lily, Trumpet Golden Splendor) - Trumpet Hybrid in the Lily Register

Downward-facing Deepest Gold with a Maroon stripe on the reverse of the petal flowers 6-8 inches long

lilliumcflogoldensplendourrvroger1a

July, August

6 petal, trumpet-shaped flowers in a dome

48-72 x 12 (120-180 x 30) (Space 18 inches - 45 cms). Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers, using loam-based compost, such as John Innes No 2 for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in middle of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

Very reliable and tough.

Plant 3, 7 or 11 bulbs in clumps in the ground from December-April.

Lilium 'Pink Perfection'
(Lily)' - Trumpet Hybrid in the Lily Register

Purple-Pink trumpet-shaped flowers with bright Orange anthers

lilliumcflopinkperfectionrvroger1a

June, July

6 petal, trumpet-shaped flowers in a spike
 

80 x 12
(200 x 30)

Well-drained Sand, Chalk.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Narrow, Dark green leaves

Choose a sunny site where the plant can catch a little afternoon shade, this will preserve the colour of the petals and the flowers will last longer.

It can be planted in deep containers, using loam-based compost, such as John Innes No 2 for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in middle and edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

An excellent, showy flower that provides color, contrast and good architectural height in summer to the perennial border. Plant in groups near the patio and enjoy the fragrance when sitting outside on summer evenings.

It has deep pink, heavily scented flowers. The flowers can reach up to 15cm (6”) across and there can be up to 3 dozen per stem.

Goes well with Geranium himalayense 'Gravetye', Iris 'Dusky Challenger', Verbascum phoenicum 'Violetta' and Antirrhinum majus 'Black Prince'.

Lilium 'Regale'
(Regal lily) - Trumpet Hybrid

Extrem-ely scented - especially at night -
White
with a Yellow throat, flushed Purple outside

lilliumcfloregaleplantworld

July

6 petal, trumpet-shaped flowers in a dome

48-60 x 12 (120-150 x 30)
Well-drained Sand, Chalk enriched with leaf mould, or a loam-based potting compost such as John Innes no. 2 for pots.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers, using loam-based compost, such as John Innes No 2 for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in middle and edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

Easy to grow in the flower border, preferring a sunny spot. Mulch in march to protect juvenile growth from frost.

Lilies are best planted in autumn when the bulbs are still plump, but they can still be planted in spring. Between August and March, choose a sunny spot where the plant can keep its feet in the shade. Plant 15-20cm (6-8in) deep in a well-drained soil, enriched with well-rotted organic matter or leaf mould, using a marker to minimise any unnecessary disturbance. Stake with ring stakes or bamboo canes in spring before the flowers appear. Deadhead the faded blooms and cut the stems back to ground level at the end of autumn.

VII Oriental Hybrid Lilies
Oriental hybrids were mostly derived from Lillium auratum and Lillium speciosum. These beautiful plants range in height from 2 to 8 feet. They produce huge flowers up to a foot across. The pleasantly scented blossoms are borne in late summer. They are bowl-shaped with recurving petals. They come in white, pinks, deep reds, and bicolors. These are great for growing in containers, but may need staking because of their size.
Oriental lilies have very large outward facing flowers and are very scented. They need an acid soil.
The bulbs are best planted in autumn while they are still plump. They should go in 2-3 times their own depth and at the equivalent spacing between bulbs. In the border, they enjoy well-drained soil in full sun, with shade at the base. Alternatively they can be planted in deep containers, using loam-based compost, such as John Innes No2.

Lilium 'Acapulco'
(Lily)' - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Heavily-scented Paspberry-Pink with darker freckles, upward-facing and

lilliumcfloacapulcorvroger1a

July

6 petal, funnel-shaped with recurved petals in a dome

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Well-drained Acidic Sand, or a loam-based potting compost such as John Innes no. 2 for pots.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Lance-shaped , clump-forming, erect Green foliage

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

It grows at a fast rate, and under ideal conditions can be expected to live for approximately 10 years.

It tends to be leggy, with a typical clearance of 12 inches (30 cms) from the ground, and should be underplanted with lower-growing perennials. The flower stalks may require staking in exposed sites or excessively rich soils.

Lilium 'Arena'
(Gold Band Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Very fragrant White petals with a Yellow central band that turns into Raspberry-Red at the outer points of the petal

lilliumcfloarenarvroger

July, August

6 petal, helmet-shaped flowers in a dome

44 x 8
(110 x 20)

Well-drained Acidic Sand, or a loam-based potting compost such as John Innes no. 2 for pots.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

(24 inches - 60 cms - high in years 1 and 2,
36 inches high - 90 cms - in year 3)

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

Lily bulbs & bulbils are never really dormant, not even in winter, & they do not store well, so should be planted right away, usually around mid to late October.

Cut flowers when the first flower is first opening. The flower lasts from 5-9 days in the vase. Pull the pollen sacks off when the flower opens to keep pollen from staining linens beneath the vase. If pollen should get on clothes or linens, let it dry before wiping it off. If wiped when wet, the pollen will stain.
To grow lilies well, mulch with composted manures or compost and shredded bark to keep the roots cool while adding humus to the soil.

Lilium 'Barbaresco'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Fragrant, upward-facing, deep reddish pink flowers with light spotting

lilliumcflot9barbaresco1a

June

6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a dome

36-48 x 7-12 (90-120 x 17.5-30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or a loam-based potting compost such as John Innes no. 2 for pots.
Roots in the shade from other plants, the flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

May need staking.

Lilium 'Bergamo'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Sweetly fragrant Pink with Yellow markings

lilliumcflobergamotrvroger1a

July, August

6 petal,
bowl-shaped flowers in a spike

48-52 x 9-12 (120-130 x 22.5-30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots.
Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

Forcing time is 105 days from planting to flowering.

May need staking.

Lilium
'Black Beauty
'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Very dark Red, centre Green

lilliumcflobergamotrvroger1a1

July, August

6 tepal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

48-72 x 12 (120-180 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

Fragrant, flowers (to 3 inches = 7.5 cms) have distinctively reflexed tepals with thin white edges, protruding anthers and small green centers.
This is a floriferous mid-summer bloomer (20-50 blooms per mature plant). Good fresh cut flower.

Lilium
'Casa Blanca
'
(Lily)' - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

White, pollen orange-brown

lilliumcflocasablancarvroger1a

July, August

6 tepal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

36-48 x 6 (90-120 x 15)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Leaves alternate, dark Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

Space them at approximately 30cm (12") intervals and provide support before the flowers appear.
The flowers are very strongly scented and are produced in abundant numbers.

Lilium 'Cobra'
(Lily)' - Oriental Hybrid

Magenta, White
margins

lilliumcflocobrageetee1a

July, August

6 tepal,
bowl-shaped flowers in a spike

48 x 12
(120 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Linear, spirally-arranged, dark Green leaves.
Bulbils appear in the leaf axils

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
 

A symbol of purity, refined beauty & nurturing. Official flower for 30th Wedding Anniversary & May Birthdays! 
Perennial in Zones 3 - 9. These bold blooms are not only gorgeous, but also fragrant and make EXCELLENT cut flowers. It survives heavy frost winters!

Lilium
'Con Amore
'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Inside light to pale purplish pink

lilliumcfloconamorervroger1a

July, August

6 tepal,
bowl-shaped flowers in a spike

42 x 6
(105 x 15)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Mid-Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

Forcing time from planting to flowers is 85 days. In spring, when lilies are at the spear stage of growth (like aspar-agus), fertilize with a complete organic fertilizer. Do not feed again for the rest of the year; excessive fertilizing can prom-ote disease and soft growth.

Lilium
'Garden Party
'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Yellowish-White with red or pink stripes

lilliumcflogardenpartyrvroger1a1

July, August

6 tepal,
bowl-shaped flowers in a spike

14 -18 x 8 (35-45 x 20)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
 

Plant 6 inches deep with sharp sand both under and above the bulb to keep slugs away. A dwarf variety, standing only 60cm tall (24"), this is a great choice for growing in pots or at the front of the border. Lovely perfume.

Lilium
'La Reve
'
(Lily)' - Oriental Hybrid

Pale Pink with Yellow hearts and Pink speckles

lilliumcflolarevervroger1a

June, July

6 tepal,
trumpet-shaped flowers in a spike with little fragrance

48 x 24
(120 x 60)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Linear, spirally-arranged, dark Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
 

Lilium 'La Reve' was the Fresh Cut Flower of the Month in May 2007 for The Fresh Cut Flower of The Month Club.

This is a great variety to grow where space may be limited and where the taller varieties may dominate too much.

Lilium
'Lovely Girl'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Yellowish-White with light Yellow midveins and Red-brown speckles

lilliumcflolovelygirlrvroger1a1

Jul

6 tepal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

30 x 12
(75 x 30)

Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Mid-Green, alternate leaves

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

Lilies like their roots kept cool so a good mulch or ground covers to shade the soil is a good idea. One way I have planted them was at the base of a Weigelia shrub. When the shrub flowered in May the branches would weep from the flower's weight. Later; as the lilies came up through the branches, the branches supported the taller lilies while shading their bases.

Lilium
'Mona Lisa
'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Reddish-Purple with White edge

lilliumfflomonalisakevock1

July, August

4 tepal,
star-shaped flowers in a dome

24 x 12
(60 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Part Shade. Moist

Mid-Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

It is great for growing in containers, but may need staking because of their size.

Lilium
'Robert Swanson
'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid

Deep Red, edged Yellow

lilliumcflorobertswansongeetee1a1

July, August, September

6 tepal,
trumpet-shaped flowers in a spike and extremely fragrant

48 x 20
(120 x 50)

Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots.
Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun or afternoon shade. Moist

Green
 

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

They will attain their full height of 10 feet (300 cms) by the end of the third year. Because they can grow to heights of over 6 feet (180 cms) from their third year on, staking is recommended so they will not fall or blow over.

Orienpet lilies are cross bred between Oriental and Trumpet lilies making them extremely fragrant and much taller than any other lilies.

Lilium 'Siberia'
(Lily)' - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Yellowish-White

lilliumcflosiberiarvroger1a

July, August

6 tepal, bowl-shaped flowers in a dome and very scented

48 x 16
(120 x 40)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Lance-shaped Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

Probably the best white Oriental Lily available.
As soon as the foliage dies back, dig bulbs and remove scales, bulbils and offsets from bulb; immediately replant.

Lilium 'Starfighter'
Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Purplish-Red, White tips and edges

lilliumcflostarfighterrvroger1a

June, July

6 tepal, bowl-shaped flowers in a dome and scented

36 -41 x 24 (90-102.5 x 60)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Mid-Green, leaves alternate

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

A fantastic new introduction, beautifully scented carmine-pink flowers edged with pure white. The outward-facing flowers have deeper red spots towards the centre.

Lilium
'Star Gazer
'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid in the Lily Register

Red with dark spots

lilliumcflostargazerrvroger1a

July, August

6 tepal, star-shaped flowers in a dome and superbly scented

60 x 12-16
(150 x 30-40)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Dark Green

Stargazer lilies work well with other summer flowering bulbs such as dahlias, gladiolus and peonies.

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

For patio or container gardens, add 3 Stargazer lilies to a container in the early spring, placing them 5" inches (12.5 cms) below the surface. In May add a layer of Proven Winners annuals, mulch, fertilize with an organic liquid kelp fertilizer and enjoy. Mid summer the oriental lilies will push through the annuals and put on a spectacular show.

Lilium
'Visa Versa
'
(Lily) - Oriental Hybrid

Deep Pink

lilliumcflovisaversageetee1a

July, August

6 tepal, trumpet-shaped flowers in a spike with a light scent to tickle the nose.

48 x 18
(120 x 45)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
 

This Oriental-Trumpet mixes beautifully with yellow, soft pink and medium rose tones for elegance in the garden.

VIII Miscellaneous Lilies
Miscellaneous hybrids are any hybrids that do not fall into any other division.

Orienpet lilies tend to have large, broad, trumpet-shaped flowers with a strong sweet fragrance. Once they have flowered they will not bloom again until the following year, so be sure to plant them with ornamentals that look great later in the season. This lily prefers full to partial sun and neutral, well-drained, humus-rich soil. They grow from scaled bulbs that are easily planted. The typical depth is 8 inches (20 cms) for orienpets.

Lilium
'Conca d'Or
'
(Lily) - Miscellaneous Hybrid in the Lily Register

Yellow, pale Yellow
edges

lilliumcfloconcadorrvroger

July, August

6 tepal,
star-shaped flowers in a dome with a heady, spicy lily scent

44 x 18
(110 x 45)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Spirally-arrangedGreen alternate leaves

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

I know a lot of gardeners shy away from using yellow, but these pale tones make wonderful companions for blue and purple flowers. It makes a great cut flower because of its long, straight stems and numerous buds. Probably best suited to pot culture.

Lilium
'Red Dutch
'
(Red Dutch Lily) - Miscellaneous Hybrid

Red -Orange with Lemon-Yellow edges

lilliumcfloreddutchrvroger

July, August

6 tepal,
chalice-shaped flowers in a spike with a strong, sweet, fragrance

36-48 x 12-24 (90-120 x 30-60)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

The colorful ‘Red Dutch’ bears huge, fragrant, outward facing, red-orange blooms with lemon yellow edges. It is ideal for perennial borders, large containers and cutting gardens.

Lilium 'Triumphator'
Lily) - Miscellaneous Hybrid in the Lily Register

Purplish-Red, White tips
and edges

lilliumcflotriumphatorrvroger1a1

July, August

6 tepal,
trumpet-shaped flowers in a dome

40 x 16
(100 x 40)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Spirally-arranged Green alternate leaves

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
 

Quite unusual, long creamy white trumpets, with deep pink flush in the throat.

A common mistake is not planting lilies deep enough. Put 6 inches (15 cms) of soil over the top of them to keep them from flopping over. They appreciate a regular feeding when grown in containers; in borders, they will be fine with little feeding.

IX Species Lilies
The Wild species are natives to North America, Europe, and Asia. Wild species are the kind that still occur growing in the wild and which haven't yet been affected by hybridization. Lilium auratum (Gold-banded Lily) is one of the most beautiful of the wild species. It bears up to thirty-five, star-shaped, highly aromatic flowers per stem, usually in August and sometimes in September. The large flowers can reach a diameter of 10 to 12 inches (25-30 cms). They are white with a golden-yellow stripe down the center and numerous tiny red speckles. Lilium lancifolium (Tiger Lily) is a well-known native of Japan and China. Its flowers are borne in late summer atop 4- to 5-foot (48-60 inches = 120-150 cms) stems. They consist of reflexed, bright red or orange-red petals covered with little speckles. An interesting characteristic of this flower is that bulbils appear in the leaf axils. This Lily has a played an important part in the development of the Asiatic hybrids and other lilies.

Lilium auratum
(Gold-banded Lily, Golden-rayed lily of Japan) - Species in the Lily Register

White, Gold bands

lilliumcfloauratumrvroger1a1

August, September
6 petal,
star-shaped flowers in a spike and highly aromatic

60 x 12
(150 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flow-ers in the Full Sun. Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

The bulbs should be topped by 10cm of gritty soil. Don’t be tempted to overfeed this species as it particularly resents it, although in winter it will appreciate a good topping of leaf mould.
This lily does well in plain or acidic soil; rich or fertilised soil will kill the plant. Bulbs should be planted in a hole three times their size in both depth and width in a well drained area. The best position for this plant is one where its top will receive sunlight while its base remains shaded.

Lilium cernuum
(Lily)

A smaller turks-cap species,

Named cernuum for its nodding flowers.

Pale Pink, Carmine
markings

lilliumcflocernuumrvroger1a

June, July

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike with a sweet scent

16-24 x 12 (40-60 x 30)

Well-drained Acidic Sand (Lime-tolerant), or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun. Moist

Narrow Green leaves

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers.
Rock Garden.
Very dainty and tolerant of lime.

Stem rooting, the bulbs should be planted 10 - 12cm deep.

Early to mid autumn is the best time to plant out the bulbs in cool temperate areas, in warmer areas they can be planted out as late as late autumn. The plants are short lived in cultivation. The plant is well suited to growing at the foot of a rock garden. The flowers are sweetly scented. The plant should be protected against rabbits and slugs in early spring. If the shoot tip is eaten out the bulb will not grow in that year and will lose vigour.

Lilium duchartrei
Lily) - Species

White, Purple veins

lilliumcfloduchartreirvroger1a1

June, July

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike with scent

20-60 x 16 (50-150 x 40)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Part Shade. Moist.
Leafy or peaty soil, in shade, with plenty of space to allow the stolons to creep.

Narrow Green leaves

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

An elegant and easily cultivated species, found at medium to high altitudes in south-western China, growing in forest margins and moist hillsides, even marshy ground. Emerging from small scaly bulbs which produce plentiful offsets when happy, with stems 50-150cm tall carrying narrow grassy leaves crowned by an inflorescence of 1-12 scented turk's-cap flowers, white with speckling of wine-red. For a moist humus rich soil in shade, where it can form a colony.

Lilium formosanum
(Formosan Lily, Taiwanese Mountain Lily, St Joseph's Lily) The species name, formosanum, comes from the name Formosa –an earlier name for Taiwan.

White

liliumcflo9formosanumrvroger

August, September,
October

6 petal,
trumpet-shaped flowers in a spike with scent

24-60 x 24-36 (50-150 x 60-90)
Well-drained Acidic Sand (Lime-tolerant), or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun. Moist

Narrow, lance-shaped Green.

Mulch well with composted manures or compost and shredded bark to keep the roots cool and add humus to the soil.

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

Native habitat is "Grassy slopes, seashores; near sea level to 3500 m. Taiwan.
The plants can get up to ten feet (330 cms) tall, but average height is four to five feet (120-150 cms). They can bear one or two flowers per stem with some selections bearing up to 40 flowers per stem.
After the flowers fade, the stalks turn upward, opening elegantly as the seeds ripen and the pods dry to form a weather-resistant candelabra to adorn the winter garden or to use in dried arrangements

Lilium formosanum
pricei

(Lily) - Species

Long-tubed, White

lilliumcflopriceiformosanumrvroger1a

August, September,
October
6 petal,
trumpet-shaped flowers in a spike with fragrance

12-18 x 8 (30-45 x 20)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun. Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers
Best grown on the rockery or scree.

This short variety is reliably hardy even in northern New England, but seems to be short-lived, lasting 2-3 years then dying out, but not to worry, typically a few seedlings show up.
Native habitat is open grassland in sandy or volcanic soils in the alpine zone.

Lilium hansonii
(Hanson's Lily, Yellow martagon lily. Gakeshima-Yuri) - Species

Native to Korea

Yellow-Orange with Chestnut spotting

lilliumcflohansoniirvroger1a

June

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a dome with sweet scent

12-48 x 20 (30-120 x 50)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, Chalk or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun. Moist

Dense whorls of lance-shaped, mid-to-dark Green leaves

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

It does not suffer late spring frosts well and when hit by a late frost, it will take a couple years to recover. It grows fairly easily in most well drained soils, including those with lime. It does like to be planted deep in partial shade. Plant 3, 7 or 11 bulbs in clumps in the ground from December-April.

Lilium henryi
(Henry's Lily, Tiger Lily) - Species

Deep Orange spotted black

lilliumcflohenryirvroger1a

August

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a dome with a light scent

120 x 12
(300 x 30)
Well-drained alkaline Sand, Chalk or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in part shade. Moist

Green.
This is good species to start with (it has the RHS Award of Garden Merit) and will grow where many other lilies struggle.

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

As a stem rooting type of lily, the bulbs need to be planted at a depth of at least 3 times the bulb height.The flowers are tough, which will grow just about anywhere except the most acid of gardens. Grow in neutral to alkaline soil in a partially shaded spot, such as under trees.

Lilium leichtilinii
(Lily) - Species

Yellow, Purple spots

lilliumcfloleichtliniirvroger1a

July, August

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a dome

20-80 x 12 (50-200 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun. Moist

Narrowly lanceolate, up to 6 inches long, Green

Use at back of border.
It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
 

Requires sufficient drainage.
Native habitat is "Humus-rich soils in river valleys and amongst grass on hills. Sandy places along valleys, mountain grasslands, limestone or serpentine areas, from near sea level to 1300 metres."

Lilium martagon
(Turk's cap Lily) - Species

Pink-Purple,
dark spots

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1a

June, July

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a dome with scent

40-80 x 20 (100-200 x 50)
Well-drained Sand, Chalk or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun or Part Shade. Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

Grows in any fertile, well drained soil in sun or partial shade. It thrives in sub-alpine meadows, woods or scrubs up to 7,000feet (210,000 cms) above sea level and tolerates all soils, though it prefers neutral to alkaline conditions.

Lilium nepalense
(The Lily of Nepal) - Species

Lime-Green,
Purple throat

lilliumcflonepalenservroger1a

June, July

6 petal,
funnel-shaped flowers in a spike with scent

36 -54 x 16 (90-135 x 40)
Well-drained Acidic Sand or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun or Part Shade. Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use in a cool greenhouse.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

Between 1 and 3 flowers are normally produced. Best grown in a cool greenhouse and give it plenty of root space as they like to travel. Normally unscented, you will also find that these spectacular downward-facing blooms are perfect for flower arranging as they can last for days once cut.

Lilium pardalinum
(Leopard Lily or Panther Lily) - Species

Red-Orange,
Brown spots

lilliumcflopardalinumrvroger2

July

Clump.
6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike with scent

80-98 x 24 (200-295 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, Clay or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun or Part Shade. Moist

Apple-Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use in a cool greenhouse.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

This species likes a moist soil in sun or partial shade; it will tolerate some lime in the soil. An American native - within woodlands - that bears up to 10 orange-red turk’s caps, the petals are covered in large, maroon spots.

Lilium pumilum
(Lily) - Species

Named pumilum for its small size, compared to other lilies.

Red with Black spots

lilliumcflo9pumilumrvroger1a

June, July

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike with scent

8-28 x 12 (20-70 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun or Part Shade. Moist

Thin and narrow, 4 inch long, Green leaves

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed and rock garden.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
Fragrant flowers

TIt lasts long as a cut flower. The bulbs thrive in any well-drained soil and are equally at home in the rock garden. This species is an exciting edition to summer containers. Does not like lime but otherwise will grow quite happily outdoors. It may be short lived in cultivation, but tends to last longest in well-drained soils.

Lilium superbum
(Turk's cap lily, Turban lily, Swamp lily or American tiger lily) - Species

Yellow to Orange with brownish purple dots

lilliumcflosuperbumrvroger1a1

July, August

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

36-84 x 5-9 (90-210 x 12.5-22.5)
Well-drained Acidic Sand or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist to Wet

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Use in edge of bed and alongside lakes.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.
 

Does best in a rich, damp soil with plenty of humus. If possible, plant in an area with morning sun and afternoon shade, such as the east side of a house. Habitats include moist meadows in woodland areas, open woodlands and young flatwoods, thickets, and areas along lakes.

Lilium wallichianum
(Lily) - Species
Named wallichianum for Dr. Nathaniel Wallich, early 19th century Danish plant hunter, botanist and physician.

White to Creamy-Yellow

lilliumcflowallichianumrvroger

October, November

6 petal,
chalice-shaped flowers in a spike and fragrant

48 x 12
(120 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, Chalk or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Part Shade.
Moist

Narrow, green leaves

It can be planted in deep containers for use on the patio or cool greenhouse.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of Rhododendrons, small shrubs or conifers.
Fragrant.
 

It is one of the last lilies to flower and therefore should be grown in a large pot or in cool greenhouse where it can be protected from frosts.
A nice humus-rich soil in light shade with the shelter of something like a rhododendron or small shrub, is ideal.
From India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim where it is found on limestone slopes in open coniferous forests.

Unspecified Lilies
Lilies like their roots kept cool so a good mulch or ground covers to shade the soil is a good idea. One way I have planted them was at the base of a Weigelia shrub. When the shrub flowered in May the branches would weep from the flower's weight. Later; as the lilies came up through the branches, the branches supported the taller lilies while shading their bases.
Improper drainage is usually the reason lilies fail in the garden. My lilies are normally planted in raised beds to accomplish good drainage. If the bulbs are spring planted they won't flower as well the first year, but the following year should give maximum bloom. I prefer planting mine in the fall, but sometimes I will plant in spring when a beautiful lily catches my eye.
Lilies rarely go dormant; therefore, they generally require regular water year round. Water when the top 2 inches (5 cms) of soil has dried out. Since many lilies have tall floral stems, it may be best to flood the soil versus using overhead irrigation. Overhead watering can topple tall stems.

Lilium lancifolium
'Splendens'

(Lance-leaved Lily) - Unspecified

Deep Orange-Red with
Black spots

lilliumcflolancifoliumsplendensrvroger1a

June, July,
August, September

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

80 x 12
(200 x 30)
Well-drained Acidic Sand, humus-rich or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun.
Moist

Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use in a cool greenhouse.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

The number of flowers borne does vary but it is reliable and remarkably tough. It thrives in a moist acid soil but will grow in alkaline soils as well.

An easy to grow species from Asia.

Lilium speciosum
'Rubrum'

(Lily) - Unspecified

Dark Crimson-Red with White edge and spotted

lilliumcflospeciosumrubrumrvroger1a

August, September,
October

6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike and moderately scented

42 x 12
(105 x 30)

Well-drained Acidic Sand, or John Innes no. 2 for pots. Roots in the shade, flowers in the Full Sun or Part Shade from trees or shrubs.
Moist

Dark Green

It can be planted in deep containers for use in a cool greenhouse.
Cut flower.
Can be used at edges of woodland.

These lilies can't cope with lime or chalky soil, so it is essential to grow them either in acid soil or in pots filled with ericaceous compost. The lily is attractive to wildlife, although gardeners should be aware that these lilies are also highly poisonous to domestic cats.

When planting, each bulb should be surrounded with a little sharp sand both under and above the bulb to keep slugs away and to ward off excessive wetness. As most liliums are stem rooting we strongly recommend you plant at 15cm deep. They give a much better display when planted in clumps of 3, 6 or 12 bulbs (45cm apart).
Lilium bulbs will greatly appreciate the shelter of low growing shrubs or other plants near their roots. In active growth, apply water freely and it is advised that every two weeks you apply a high potash liquid fertilizer. Deadhead after flowering and let the stems die back before cutting them back to the ground. Prompt deadheading ensures a vigorous growth the following year

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2012.
Page structure amended November 2012.
Mapped Thumbnails with Height/ Width added and Feet changed to inches (cms), Foliage colour, Bulb Use and Comments, Colour Wheel per Month and Index to other Bulbs in other Bulb Galleries added June 2017.
Index and Mapping completed March 2018.
Menus updated May 2018.

Chris Garnons-Williams.

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How to Force Lilies to Bloom
While there are numerous flowers that share their wonderful aroma with the world, lilies (Lilium spp.) have a distinctive perfume that wafts through your garden or home. When summer comes and goes and you yearn for the smell and vibrancy of a container full of lilies, consider forcing the bulbs to bloom. Forcing is a gardener’s way of encouraging a bulb to bloom a time of year not typically known for bloom production.

1. Remove any fruit or vegetables from one of your refrigerator’s crisper drawers so you can use it for cold storage of the bulbs. Place the lily bulbs in a brown paper bag, or several bags, and fold over the top to close. Store the bulbs in the refrigerator for about 12 weeks. Do not put vegetables or fruit in the same drawer with the bulbs.

2. Line a shallow gardening pot with landscape fabric or newspaper.

3. Fill a bucket with a mixture of 3 parts garden soil, 2 parts peat moss and 1 part sand.

4. Add about 2 inches (5 cms) of the soil mixture to the container.

5. Place the bulbs in the soil mixture, close together, so the sides almost touch. Position the bulbs so the pointed ends face upward. Bulb forcing is not the same method as planting, so you don’t need to follow the normal spacing considerations.

6. Add more soil to the container so only the top 1/2 to 1 inch (1.25-2.5 cm) of the bulb's noses peek out of the soil.

7. Place a saucer under the pot and water the bulbs and soil thoroughly. Keep the soil moist at all times, but do not allow the soil to become soggy or the bulbs will rot.

8. Place the pot in a bright location in your home or in an enclosed patio that receives a good amount of sun. The optimum temperature for forcing planted bulbs is between 65 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit (18-21 degrees Celsius).

9. Fertilize the bulbs with a water-soluble fertilizer every two to three weeks. You should see lily blooms within eight to 10 weeks.

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


BULB INDEX
link to Bulb Description Page or
link to Page in 4000 x 3000 pixel Raw Camera Photo Gallery or
link to Page in 1000 Ground-cover Plants or
link to Page in Infill Galleries
:-

 

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

 


The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages

 

 

The following Extra Index of Bulbs is created in the
Bulb Plant Gallery, to which the Bulb found in the above list will have that row copied to.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-

A 1, 2, 3, B,
C 1, 2, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L 1, 2, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

 

 

Index of Bulbs from
P Infill2 Plants Index Gallery

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

 

 

---------

 

 


Bulb Use pages from
P Infill2 Index Gallery


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell from
P Garden Style Index Gallery :-

Bulbs and Corms with
Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

 

 

Index of Bulbs from
Plants Extra Gallery

Bulb
Photos - Bulb

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and
User Guidelines

 

 

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website :-

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©June 2007. Page structure amended November 2012.
Index changed February 2016.
Mapping and Index completed March 2018.
Menus changed May 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956

They are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.
These families within that book will have their details described in alphabetical order for both the family name and its plants.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford. Printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

 

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, the wildlife in public parks is destroyed as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

 

 

Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

 

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.
• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.
• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.
• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.
• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.
Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.
Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

 

Theme

Plants

Comments

 

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

 

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

 

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

 

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

 

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

 

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

 

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

 

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

 

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

 

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

 

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

 

Butterfly Garden

 

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 


 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

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aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

 

"On average, 2 gardeners a year die in the UK as a result of poisonous plants. Those discussed in this blog illustrate a range of concerns that should be foremost in the designer’s mind." from
A garden Designer's Guide to Poisonous Plants by
Oxford College of Garden Design.

Pages on poisonous plants in this website:-
...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts.
...Poisonous Plants.
is Poisonous.
...Poisonous

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens
With around 23 million gardens in the UK,
covering 435,000 hectares (An acre is about 0.405 hectares, 1 hectare is 10000.0 square metres);
gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats.
Pre-planting you may require pre-building work on polluted soil. Then,
if you soil is clay,
consider these 8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay,
before actioning -

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden:-

  1. Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract -
    and this shows how roots of plants are in control in the soil.
  2. Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
    See above for the full list by Botanical name and another by Common Name of all the native plants in the UK in 1965 with their habitats.
  3. Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
  4. Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures and for the soil.
    Re-use your garden prunings, mowings, and dug up non-weed plants as recommended in the
    Planting a Native Hedge cell above in "Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations" table as a mulch.
    Soil Structure - The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram shows how these particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’ to start the formation of soil.
    Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt.
    Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
    why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
    To prevent this destruction of the soil, there is this Action Plan for YOU to DO with your soil.
  5. Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
  6. Feed the Birds and other creatures too.
  7. Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
  8. Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden:-

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden.
Bees under Bombardment from Bee Happy Plants Ltd.
There are certain times when pollen or nectar are needed:
Early spring is a time of great need for pollen (which triggers egg-laying by the queen);
All season from early spring to late Autumn nectar is needed, though there is a 'crisis period' from the end of June until September (in the South of the UK) when adult bees' numbers are at a peak and their need for nectar is vital. This summer period is one we should concentrate on providing copious amounts of nectar in our gardens.
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden
 

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

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