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Form

Photo from Alpine House of RHS garden at Wisley from Chris Garnons-Williams on 18 February 2015.

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Flower

• Deutsch: Elfenkrokus (Crocus tommasinianus), Chemnitz, Deutschland

• English: Woodland crocus (Crocus tommasinianus), Chemnitz, Germany.
Date 18 February 2007
By Jörg Hempel, via Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository.

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Form

English: Crocus tommasinianus - 3 mars 2009.
Date 2 March 2009, 13:01:51 (according to Exif data)
By KoS, via Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository.

dcrocuspfor93tommasinianuswikimediacommons

Form

Deutsch: Elfenkrokus (Crocus tommasinianus) in Planten un Blomen, Hamburg. Durch Versamung ist er in der Lage, große Kolonien auszubilden.

English: Crocus tommasinianus in Planten un Blomen, Hamburg, Germany.

Français : Fleurs de Crocus tommasinianus à Planten un Blomen, Hamburg, Germany.
Date 9 February 2008
By Loz (L. B. Tettenborn), via Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository.

dcrocuspfor94tommasinianuswikimediacommons

Wild Form

English: Crocus tommasinianus wild form; cultivated/naturalised, Belgium.
Date 10 March 2010
By Meneerke bloem, via Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository.

Plant Name

Crocus tommasinianus

Named after the botanist and politican, Muzio Giuseppe Spirito de' Tommasini, (1794 – 1879), born in Trieste (northeastern Italy), this crocus naturalises easily, spreading out to create a wonderful carpet of colour. 

Crocus is a Chaldean name meaning "saffron". In the wild, the plants are found over much of Europe, especially around the Mediterranean, in North Africa, and in Western Asia.

Common Name

Early Crocus

Soil

Sand, Chalk.

Sun Aspect

Full Sun (Full Sun for 4 hours a day)and Part Shade. Full Sun will make the blooms open fully.

Soil Moisture

Moist.

Plant Type

Perennial Corm

Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms, 3 feet = 1 yard, 40 inches = 1 metre)

4 x 1 (10 x 3)

Foliage

The 8-9 inch long Grey-Green leaves are produced with the flowers.

Flower Colour in Month(s). Seed

Cobalt-Violet, outside Silvery Grey blooms in January-March with the leaves.

Comment

'If placed near the root crowns of deciduous shrubs, they'll get the sun they need in late winter & early spring when they bloom, then when they are dormant, the roots of the shrubs will soak up the water to keep the corms from steeping in too much moisture, so not at risk of rot.' from Paghat.

Good choice for deciduous woodland areas.

Crocuses provide an excellent and important source of early pollen for honeybees.

'Crocus tommasinianus reproduces rapidly by self-seeding and by corm offsets. Indeed, "tommies" naturalize with such ease that some gardeners complain of them after a few years, as the cormlets are much too tiny to ever sieve out of the soil, and wherever the tommies spread on their own, that's where they will always remain.' from Paghat.

The 2 natural divisions of Crocus are:-

  • 1. Autumn-flowering species and hybrids and
  • 2. Winter- and Spring-flowering species

and the relevant division is added to the Plant Description Page Title.

Crocus tommasinianus is native to Dalmatia; introduced before 1847. The nearly spherical corm has a finely reticulated tunic. The leaves are 8-9 inches long. The flowers reach a height of 6 inches and have a long white throat and the petals are pale lavender on the inside, with the outside more silvery grey. This is one that seeds freely.

Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep in average well-drained, moisture-retentive soil and 3 inches (8 cms) apart in September-November. If planting in clay soil, remove soil to 8 inches (20 cms) deep, work very sharp sand or gravel into the bottom of the area, and mix a little with the clay soil to bring the depth up to 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms), before placing the bulbs in position and refilling with 50% soil 50% sharp sand.
Plant at the edges of paths, drives and small beds towards the front of borders. They can also be planted 4 inches (10 cms) deep in 10 inch (25 cms) pots with 50% sharp sand and 50% Multipurpose Compost mixture.
Plant under turf on sandy or chalk soil. The grass should be mown short a month before flowers appear and all mowing stopped whilst the crocus are in flower and leaf. The winter-flowering crocuses will have made their leaf growth and the foliage will have died down by the time in the spring when the grass needs cutting.
The larger-sized corms of particular varieties can be rested in the neck of a crocus vase so that the bottom of the corm is just above the water level, then place on a window-cill in the kitchen to give you the flowers before planting out in the garden when in leaf.

Available from
R.V. Roger and
Trecanna Nursery in the UK with
Bulborum Botanicum in France,
Bernd Schober in Germany,
Lambley Nursery in Australia and
Heirloom Crocus Bulbs in USA

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Flowers. Photo from Gee Tee

Click on photos from Pacific Bulb Society

Foliage. Photo from Gee Tee

See photos and text from Paghat

Form. Photo from Gee Tee

crocuspflotommasinianusgeetee

 

 

Single Flower. Photo from Gee Tee

Single Leaf

Flowers

Crocus and Colchicum (Hardcover) by Edward A. Bowles written in 1924 is as complete about these bulbs as could be desired; and available from Amazon. This was revised in 1952 and a special edition created for the Garden Book Club in 1955 by its author, with the following excerpt:-

"The genus crocus deserves more attention than it has hitherto received in British Gardens.

Three only of its spring-flowering species have become general favourites, and there are still many good gardens in which autumnal and winter-flowering species have never been planted. Yet no other genus of hardy plants contains so many species and varieties that will flower in the open ground during the dullest months of the year.

By planting those now offered by nurserymen an unbroken succession of flowers may be obtained from mid-September until April showers bring such a wealth of other blossom that the gardener no longer needs the lowly crocus......., which the greater skill of the modern gardener, with his scree beds, properly drained rock gardens and the alpine house, should add to the number of early autumnal treasures.

The beautiful orange-yellow Crocus scharojanii and the creamy-white Crocus vallicola from the Caucasus, and some of the Eastern forms of the variable Crocus cancellatus, if successfully established in our gardens, would lengthen the Crocus season by their regular appearance early in August.

The first rains of September ought to bring up sheets of the almost blue flowers of Crocus speciosus in borders and shrubberies, as surely and as suddenly as they do the mushrooms. Any November or December morning on which the sun shines and the ground is free from snow should provide clumps of the lilac or white blossoms of Crocus laevigatus in every British garden that contains a wall, shrub or stone that can cut off the north or east wind from this fragrant species. New Year's Day will generally invite the making of a list of plants in flower if the Crocus chrysanthus, Crocus sieberi, Crocus imperati and Crocus korolkowii have been planted.

It is then a pity that in so many gardens the Crocus season only begins in the latter weeks of February with the Dutch Yellow, and ends a fortnight or so later with the garden-raised forms of Crocus vernus.

A large majority of species are hardy enough to thrive in the open, and are quite as easy to grow well as most flowers that are worth having. Any ground sufficiently well-tilled to grow a decent lettuce or onion should grow Crocuses to perfection. The best possible corner of a garden for growing a collection of Crocuses would be, to my mind, a portion of an old kitchen garden open to the south and with a wall or buildings on the north side.

Some, as for instance Crocus speciosus, Crocus pulchellus and Crocus nudiflorus in autumn, Crocus tomasinianus. Crocus aureus, Crocus vernus and others flowering in spring, can hold their own in mixed borders or shrubberies, but where choice and rare kinds are to be grown, it is safest to give up a long, narrow bed to their use. There, the leaves can mature naturally, instead of being overshadowed and choked by the growth of other plants. This too frequently happens where they are planted in rock gardens or herbaceous borders, and their owner ungratefully forgets the pleasure they gave earlier in the year when enjoying the luxurious way herbaceous plants spread over the bare spaces in late April and May. I need hardly warn the Crocus grower against plaitting the green leaves just at the time they are most active in building up the reserve of nutriment in the young corm, when the last thing one should wish is to hasten their decay and so shorten their period of usefullness.

The ideal soil would be one deeply tilled and rich in humus. It would not matter if it were somewhat heavy so long as it was well-drained, for most Crocuses like to send their roots down into rich, strong soil, if the corms are lying in a light and warm one. This means that the upper 8 or more inches should have coarse sand or sharp river grit mixed with it, and I have found it beneficial to both the plants and the grower if the corms are laid on an inch of sharp sand at planting time, and covered over with another inch-deep layer before the surface soil is replaced. It is a wonderful help at lifting time to find this well-marked stratum of sand with the corms lying in it.

Something between 4 and 6 inches seems to be the best depth for planting, but many species, especially Crocus aureus and Crocus speciosus, do not object to being much deeper.

However, as with deeply planted Tulips and Daffodils, though the plant remains vigorous very little if any increase is made. In collecting Wild Crocuses I have invariably found them unpleasantly deep, and by the number of their old tunics it was clear that they had been at that depth for some 12 or more seasons, and had never formed more than 1 corm each year. These, when grown in garden ground, multiplied rapidly by corm increase, so we may conclude that when it is desired to work up a stock of any variety it is best not to plant very deeply, and to lift the corms annually, cleaning away the old tunics and the withered portion of last year's corm from the base, if it will come away easily and without the use of force.

When a rich display of bloom is desired, the replanting can be put off till the third or even fourth year, but if it is noticed that the increase has been great enough to form congested tufts of leaves and the flowers are not as large as they should be, replanting should not be deferred beyond the following August. If planted in straight lines and liberally treated as to sand, it is an easy job to lift the dormant corms during a dry spell at the end of July or early in August, and a very pleasant one if the increase has been plentiful and the size of the new corms is satisfactory.

The autumn-flowering species should be replanted as soon as possible, as some - especially Crocus byzantinus, which prefers moist ground - begin rooting in mid-July. Spring-flowering kinds can be stored safely in a dry, cool place until October if necessary, but are safer and sounder if planted in August.

If it is necessary to plant different kinds close to one another, as in the case of new seedlings of which there are but 2 or 3 corms, it is a good plan to alternate those with well-marked differences of corm tunic, for instance, a coriaceous, or annulate form, next to one with a netted or parallel-fibred tunic. I have found this plan of great help in preventing their getting mixed at the next lifting. Slates may be buried between the plantings if it is desired to arrange the bed in square clumps instead of lines, but even with this aid to keeping clean stocks it is better that neighbouring forms should be distinct in their tunics, as then a seedling from the next division is easily detected.

 

Ancient Cultic Associations of Saffron Crocus written by Paghat

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Colchicum 'Harlekijn'

Overview of Late Winter's "Snow Crocuses" written by Paghat

A cold frame given over to Crocuses is a very desirable form of luxury, and the winter-flowering and extreme Southern species can be grown thus to greater perfection - Crocus hyemalis, Crocus tournefortii, Crocus cambessedesii and Crocus cyprius need protection, and most of those that flower in November, December and January produce more perfect blossoms under cover than in the open during spells of bad weather. An ordinary brick-sided frame, with a slight slope to the South and the surface of the soil not more than a foot above the natural level, is a delightful adjunct to the Crocus bed. The lights should be opened on all fine days, but closed at night and during very wet or cold weather from October to April. As soon as the leaves have turned yellow towards the end of May, the lights should be placed on the frame and raised slightly at the back for ventilation, until the seeds have been collected and the time has come for lifting the roots, which in a frame should be done annually.

The soil in a frame needs an occasional dressing with some fertiliser. I find bone meal is the easiest and safest, as it can be mixed with the soil when it is dug over for replanting, or sprinkled on the surface and watered in at any time, but is most effective while the roots are active. It acts quickly and will help to strengthen the leaves if applied early in autumn, and another but lighter dose in March at the close of the flowering season helps to feed the new corms.

Mr John Hoog, of Haarlem, tells me that he has found that ' the species of Crocus abhor any nitrogenous manure; basic slag and potash are what they want.'

As the former acts slowly, it should be applied to beds or frames with an eye to future benefit and before growth commences.

For herbaceous beds and shrubberies, the stronger-growing kinds can be planted in large clumps and drifts. Soil should be removed to the depth of 6 inches (15 cms) and the corms laid on the bottom of the hole at the space of an inch (2.5 cms) from each other. It is customary to plant Crocuses as edgings to borders in rather formal lines or circles, but a charming effect is produced by planting some hundreds of one kind under deciduous shrubs, or at the back of borders between clumps of strong-growing herbaceous plants that do not cover the ground with their leaves earlier than the middle of May, and thus allowing time for the Crocus leaves to mature in an open space.

The Dutch Yellow, in my opinion, never looks better than when planted in a generously planned drift, towards the back of a large border, or round the stem of a leafless Rhodendron molle, Deutzia, etc. All the florist's forms of Crocus vernus are suitable for this work, and Crocus tomasinianus once planted should be allowed to spread naturally by seed as far as it will under groups of roses or other summer-leafing shrubs. Crocus speciosus is the best of all the autumn-flowering Crocuses for wide plantings, and does not object to an occasional digging over of the bed and the consequent deep burial of the corms. Only the stronger growers should be tried in grass and none succeeds better than the forms of Crocus vernus and the Dutch Yellow. I have always advised that they should be kept separate, or at any rate the yellow planted only among white varieties; but a charming planting of irregular colonies, each of one kind, under some trees in a friend's garden taught me that if the yellow are planted in separate groups; instead of being scattered among the purples; they can be very effective.

The quality of grass differs so greatly that my rather poor success with the many species I have tried in a rough meadow need not discourage others with a finer brand of turf. I used to give bundles of rogues and mixed seedlings to Mr. Wilks to plant in his wild garden at Shirley, and in his grass they flourished and spread most delightfully. The soil there is a fine sand, and he used to say of it that it was so light that if he threw it up in the air it would never come down again, and naturally the grass on it is scanty and fine.

Where the turf is not coarse, and the ground well drained and open to sunshine, I advise planting Crocus tomasinianus, Crocus aureus, Crocus chrysanthus, Crocus sieberi, Crocus versicolor as well as Crocus vernus for spring, and Crocus kotschyanus, Crocus speciosus, Crocus nudiflorus and Crocus longiflorus for autumn."

 

 

How to tell a Colchicum from a true Crocus? 

  • Colchicum has 6 stamens, 3 styles, and a superior ovary (that is, the flower cups the seed receptacle). 
  • Crocus has 3 stamens, one style divided into 3, and an inferior ovary (that is, the seed receptacle is below the flower).

 

The following diagram shows the parts of the Crocus and Colchicum. The following year the corm uses the hole left when the Perianth Tube dies off to push up a new tube with its flowers and leaves. It is therefore better if you do not disturb the ground once you have planted these corms.

 

crocuscolchicumdiagram1

This diagram from A Handbook of Crocus and Colchicum for Gardeners by E. A. Bowles Ma.A., F.L.S., F.r.E.S., V.M.H. published by The Garden Book Club, 121 Charing Cross Road, London WC2. in 1955. It has the following excerpt on Colchicums:-

"The greater number of the handsome members of the genus Colchicum are easily grown, and the chief trouble in a garden arises from the amount of space required in spring and early summer for their coarse leaves. In autumn the rosy lilac, white or tessellated flowers can never be too numerous, come where they may; but in spring it is almost annoying to watch the unfolding of those great leaves. They expand enormously with the April showers, rise up rapidly on tall shoots and are then ready to fall outwards and sprawl over neater-growing plants; that we realise too late have been planted too near the Colchicums. They would make a good edging to beds of shrubs or tall herbaceous plants but for their aggravating habit of beginning to fade and collapse in the first warm days of June....

The dormant period of a Colchicum is short. The leaves fade after the ripening of the seed in June, and the corm matures soon after. Those that flower in autumn are ready in August to form new roots and push out flowers. Some species can flower satisfactorily at their natural season without being planted or supplied with any moisture. I have seen a gay show of flowering Colchicums in cottage windows in Cornwall provided by corms laid in a row on the ledge of the bay window.

It is very unusual that a plant brings flowers to perfection while without active roots to supply moisture to the expanding cells. Colchicum byzantinum can bear 12-20 flowers in a long succession and without active roots. Gathered flowers of many species will last fresh for several days without being placed in water.

As in the case of a Crocus the dry, resting state of a Colchicum is a corm, a solid underground stem, in which nutriment is stored.

In many species, especially in Colchicum speciosum or Colchicum cilicicum, the corm is very large, 4 inches (10 cms) or more in length and about 2 inches (5 cms) in diameter in the widest part. One of these large corms will repay examination and explain the manner of growth.

It is irregular in shape, one side being convex and the other flattened and prolonged downwards to form a curious foot-like projection, which is a characteristic feature of most species of Colchicum. If the tunic is removed, the large white corm is seen to have an upper projection, more pointed than the foot, at the top on the flattened side. A central groove runs down longitudinally on this side, widening towards the base just above the foot. The new bud for the coming season is formed in the hollow at the base of this groove. In a fully grown but unripened corm examined in mid-June this growth bud is very small and looks much like the tiny radicle seen between the two halves of a walnut or filbert kernel. It grows with astonishing rapidity as soon as the corm is ripened.

The tunic when young is a white and fleshy membrane but becomes brown and leathery when mature. It is composed of the tubular lower portion of the first and outermost leaf and completely encloses the whole corm. It is produced upward above the solid corm into a long, tough, hollow tube, called the cap, which reaches to the surface of the soil and provides an open passage, even in stiff clay soil, through which the slender flower buds can push their way without injury.

In a healthy Colchicum tunic there are only 2 orifices for the exit of its developing organs, 1 from the upper end of the cap, which is always open, the other at the base and side of the foot, closed at first, but easily pushed away by the force of the roots, all of which grow from a small definite area on the outer side of the base of the new shoot.

When examined at flowering time, the tunic could be slit vertically where it covers the new shoot lying in the groove on the flat side of the corm. When the new shoot is exposed, it will be seen that it is only connected to the corm by a remarkably small area at the base, so small that it is hard to believe that, before the roots are developed, all the moisture and nutriment required for the rapid growth of the shoot and its flowers must pass from the storage in the corm through this very small point of attachment.

Beginning from the base, it will be found that the new shoot consists of the following parts, a short sheath of about one-eighth of an inch (0.3 cms) long composed of a delicate white membrane, which soon disappears and so is called the ephemeral sheath. From within this arises a long tubular sheath often 4-5 inches (10-12.5 cms) in length, reaching to the surface of the soil through the passage provided by the previous year's cap. This sheath encloses all the blossoms and leaves which in turn emerge from its open end.

The next organ inside this long sheath is the first and outermost leaf, the blade of which, at this stage of growth, is very little developed, but its tubular base plays a very important part in the life of the plant, as it will eventually form the tunic and cap of the next season's corm.

Also in an axillary position at the base of this leaf, the minute dormant bud, which is the embryo to become the next season's shoot, is placed on the outer side of the axis away from the old corm.

The tubular base of this first leaf also encloses the axis of growth from which arise the other leaves, and within their axils or on the summit of the axis arise the pedicels (pedicel is the stalk of a single flower) and ovaries (ovary is the immature seed vessel) of the flowers arranged spirally.

The base of the axis is already enlarged into a globular portion which with further growth will form the new corm. On its upper portion, in the axil of the second leaf, there is often a second dormant embryo, which in a vigorous individual can develop into a flowering shoot on the upper part of the side of the new corm, and later will produce an offset that finally separates from the main corm.

If the main axis bears more flowers than leaves the additional flowers are subtended by minute, colourless, triangular bracts. The axis terminates in a very small point above the insertion of the highest blossom. In a mature corm this small point has developed into a flattened prominence at the base of which is a slight pit, which was the summit of the axis and still contains the dark brown withered bases of the previous season's leaves and flowers. The prominence stands on the flat side of a corm, while on the opposite side of the pit there is a furrow a quarter of an inch wide in its upper part and narrowing until the sides meet lower down. It appears that this furrow is the result of the swelling outwards of 2 portions of the developing corm, and where they meet we may expect to find the secondary dormant bud mentioned above.

Next spring the leaves develop and emerge above the soil, generally in the form of a rosette. As they do so the old corm shrinks and a new corm begins to develop by its side from the flowering axis of autumn. The remaining nutrment stored in the old corm is used in the development of the fruits and young leaves, until the latter are able to assist in gathering the store of food required for the new corm. The lower portion of the axis develops by downward growth to form the foot or spur.

The corm is thus renewed laterally and always on the flattened side, but does not travel annually more than a fraction of an inch (2.5 cms), as the withering and disappearance of the old corm provides the needful space to be occupied by the young corm. Therefore an individual Colchicum occupies almost the same position in the soil for many seasons. An offset, on the contrary, formed on the convex surface pushes away in the opposite direction.

The leaves differ greatly in form and size among the species and also as to the time of their appearance. In most autumn-flowering species such as Colchicum autumnale, Colchicum speciosum, Colchicum byzantinum and Colchicum agrippinum they do not appear before the following spring and are large and broad; in most of the winter or early spring flowering species they are narrowly linear and accompany the flowers. Colchicum kesselringii and Colchicum szovitzii have the narrowest and Colchicum byzantinum and Colchicum macrophyllum have the longest, a foot (12 inches, 30 cms) long and 6 or more inches (15 or more cms) in width. In most species they are glabrous (glabrous is without hairs), in others pubescent (pubescent is shortly and softly hairy) or ciliated (ciliate is with regularly arranged hairs projecting from the margin) on the margins.

As the leaves mature in the end of May the large seed capsules are revealed in the cup formed by the bases of the 2 or 3 innermost leaves.

The seed vessel is formed of 3 distinct carpels, free in their upper half but generally united below. When ripe they open at the summit and the round, thick-coated seeds escape.

From the observations of Professor Rolf Nordhagen,..... it seems probable that the seeds of Colchicum are distributed by ants. He found that those of Colchicum autumnale and Colchicum speciosum are covered when ripe with a sugary layer which is attractive to ants, and he watched ants remove 23 seeds from a capsule of Colchicum speciosum in 12 minutes. Apparently ants consume the edible outer coat, but are deterred by the presence of colchicine from damaging the embryo and cotyledon.

The large-flowered species that blossom early in autumn are easily grown, and so are a few of the spring-flowering forms. Those that blossom in mid-winter, like Colchicum variegatum, are not easily kept in health, and some beautiful spring-flowering kinds are difficult to keep alive in the open.

Colchicum speciosum and its varieties are among the handsomest of bulbous plants and should be in every garden where room can be spared for the leaves in spring. A rich, deep and rather moist soil suits most of the species best, but they will thrive in well-drained slopes of the rock garden also.

Colchicum autumnale, Colchicum byzantinum, Colchicum agrippinum, Colchicum laetum and Colchicum speciosum will grow in grass, but in view of their poisonous nature it is not wise to plant them where cattle graze, and the seed-pods and leaves should be gathered out if the grass is to be used for hay. However, after making many enquiries I have been unable to learn of a definite case of cattle poisoning by Colchicum, and it seems probable that beasts avoid eating it just as they shun buttercups.

When planted in grass increase is slow, and as with Crocuses, if it is desired to obtain a stock, the roots should be planted in well-tilled ground and divided every second year. In a wild state, the corms of most of the species are found at a great depth, but in garden ground they do best with the cap of the tunic reaching the surface."

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

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Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

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Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

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Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

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Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

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Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

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Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BULB
FORM, BULB USE AND BULB IN SOIL GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs in Cultivation
including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil



Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1


Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

COLCHICUM AND CROCUS CORM GALLERY PAGES
Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Bicolour
(o)Blue
(o)Pink
(o)Purple
Red
(o)Unusual Colours
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Green
Other Colour

FORM
(o)Stemless

SEED COLOUR
Seed

BED PICTURES
(o)Garden

 

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

 


Bulb Use pages from
P Infill2 Index Gallery


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

 


The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

  • These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages
  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers - Bee-Pollinated Index is in the column on the left
  • Plants that grow in Chalk - A,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers - A,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the second row of Topic Table, usually positioned as the first table on the left.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance

 

 

The following Extra Index of Bulbs is created in the
Bulb Plant Gallery, to which the Bulb found in the above list will have that row copied to.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-

A 1, 2, 3, B, C 1, 2, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L 1, 2, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

colormonthbulb9a1a

Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-
...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals
...... 5 petals,

23 pages of Flower Shape
......... Stars and

7 pages of Natural Arrangements
...... Drumstick

...Bulb Form
-
7 pages of Bulb Form
...Clump-forming

...Bulb Use
-
33 pages of Bulb Use
...Mass Planting,
Groundcover,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions

...Bulb Preferred Soil

5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb
...Chalk

 

Colchicum and Crocus INDEX link to Corm Description Page

Flower Colour with Link to Flower Colour Com-parison Page

Flower Thumb-nail

Flowering
Months

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Comments

The first 7 photos on Crocus ligusticus Bulb Descrip-tion show the transition of the Flower Bud through to the completed flower

COLCHICUM

How to tell a Colchicum from a true Crocus? 

  • Colchicum has 6 stamens, 3 styles, and a superior ovary (that is, the flower cups the seed receptacle). 
  • Crocus has 3 stamens, one style divided into 3, and an inferior ovary (that is, the seed receptacle is below the flower).
     

 

Form Thumbnail

Autumn-flowering Colchicums

Bulb Use

acolchicumifor91autumnalewikimediacommons

Colchicum autumnale

Lavender-Pink

colchicumcfloautumnalervroger1a1

August, September

4-6 x 10 (10-15 x 25)

When planting, take care that the bulbs are set in an area where their foliage will not cover other plants; like along shrub borders to bring colour at unusual times of the year.

 


Bulb Use pages from
Bulb Shape Gallery

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BULB
FORM, BULB USE AND BULB IN SOIL GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs in Cultivation
including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

acolchicumiflo91autumnalealboplenumrvroger

Colchicum autumnale 'Alboplenum'

Double White

colchicumcfloautumnalealboplenumrvroger1a

August, September

4-6 x 10 (10-15 x 25)

Like all doubles, it is too fragile to withstand heavy rain. Flowers are produced in the autumn followed by fleshy winter foliage emerging from a rosette, that dies down in early summer before its dry dormancy.

 

acolchicumiflos91autumnalealbumrvroger

Colchicum autumnale
'Album'

Single White

colchicumcfloautumnalealbumrvroger1a

August, September

4-6 x 10 (10-15 x 25)

Blooms produced before the foliage. Leaves about 10 inches (25 cms) long and 1 inch (2.5 cms) wide are produced in the Autumn. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and August-October for the foliage and flowers.

 

acolchicumifor9autumnalemajorgeetee

Colchicum autumnale
'Major'

Rose-Lilac

colchicumcfloautumnalemajorgeetee1a

September

6-8 x 10 (15-20 x 25)

This bulb is "like the crocuses, the flowers come naked, but the leaves shoot up in the spring...and when they start to ripen and die off in late spring, they turn various nasty shades of yellow and appear to be in agony. This does not bother me, since my thyme and rue more or less ameliorate, or at least obscure, these goings on, but plant colchicums where the ripening foliage does not bother you.... Where the colchicum leaves die down, the earth retains a sort of funnel shape - a hole where the sheaf of leaves used to be. It struck me that water might collect in such a place, but no, these hollow channels are said to make it easy for the flowers to emerge in September, so perhaps we should not worry."

 

acolchicumifor9autumnalenancylindsayrvroger

Colchicum autumnale
'Nancy Lindsay'

Pink-Mauve

colchicumcfloautumnalenancylindsayrvroger1a

September, October

6-8 x 10 (15-20 x 25)

Nancy Lindsay had a small nursery near Hidcote Manor after World War II. Award of Garden Merit from RHS in 1997.

 

acolchicumifor9autumnalepleniflorumwikimediacommons
 

Colchicum autumnale 'Pleniflorum'

Lilac-Pink

colchicumcfloautumnalepleniflorumrvroger1a

November, December

4-6 x 10 (10-15 x 25)

Looks quite exotic but is actually easy to grow and very reliable.

 

acolchicumiflos9autumnheraldrvroger

Colchicum
'Autumn Herald'

Wine-Purple with
White eye

colchicumcfloautumnheraldrvroger1a1

August, September

4-6 x 10 (10-15 x 25)

5-10 Green leaves about 10 inches (25 cms) long and 1 inch (2.5 cms) wide are produced in the Autumn. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and August-October for the foliage and flowers.

 

colchicumifor91baytopiorumgarnonswilliams

Colchicum baytopiorum

Pinkish-Purple with
Yellow anthers

colchicumcflobaytopiorumrvroger1a1

October

2 x 10
(5 x 25)

It is ideal for pot culture and if unprotected, its leaves are likely to be damaged by frost. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and August-November for the foliage and flowers.

 

acolchicumiflos91boissierirvroger

Colchicum boissieri

Pinkish-Lilac with
Yellow anthers

colchicumcfloboissierirvroger1a

September, October, November, December

8 x 10
(20 x 25)

Plant 5 inches (13 cms) deep in average well-drained, moisture-retentive soil - 6 inches (15 cms) deep in sandy soil - and 4 inches (10 cms) apart in July; in areas of full sun.

 

acolchicumifor9byzantinumwikimediacommons
 

Colchicum byzantinum

Pale Lilac or Bright Mauve with White Centre

colchicumcflobyzantinumrvroger1a1

September

5 x 16
(13 x 40)

A hugely popular species. Bears up to 20 pale lilac flowers, beginning funnel shaped and becoming more open with age. The petals are up to 5cm (2”) long. A very reliable early flowering variety.

 

acolchicumifor91cilicicumwikimediacommons
 

Colchicum cilicium

Purplish-Pink

colchicumcflociliciumrvroger1a

September

4 x 16
(10 x 40)

5-6 Dark Green leaves over 12 inches (30 cms) long and up to 4 inches wide are produced after the flowers have passed. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and September-October for the flowers and foliage.

 

acolchicumifor9ciliciumpurpureumrvroger
 

Colchicum cilicium
'Purpureum'

Red-Purple

colchicumcflociliciumpurpureumrvroger1a

September

4 x 16
(10 x 40)

5-6 Dark Green leaves over 12 inches (30 cms) long and up to 4 inches wide are produced after the flowers have passed. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and September-October for the flowers and foliage.

 

acolchicumifor9cupaniigarnonswilliams
 

Colchicum cupanii

Rosy-Lilac with Purplish-Black anthers

colchicumpflocupaniigarnonswilliams1a

September, October, November, December

3 x 16
(8 x 40)

A smaller-flowered species, with unusually for a colchicum, the leaves visible at flowering time.

 


Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell from
P Garden Style Index Gallery:-

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

 

acolchicumifor9dicktrotterwikimediacommons
 

Colchicum
'Dick Trotter'

Violet-Pink with
White-star Centre

colchicumcflodicktrotterrvroger1a1a

September

6-8 x 10 (15-20 x 25)

This superb mid-season hybrid has distinctive rose-pink rounded flowers with a white eye.

 

acolchicumifor9disraeliwikimediacommons
 

Colchicum 'Disraeli'

Magenta chequered with White Centre

colchicumcflodisraelirvroger1a

September

6-8 x 10 (15-20 x 25)

Plant 5 inches (13 cms) deep in average well-drained, moisture-retentive soil - 6 inches (15 cms) deep in sandy soil - and 4 inches (10 cms) apart in July.

 

Index of Bulbs from
P Infill2 Plants Index Gallery

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

acolchicumifor9giganteumrvroger
 

Colchicum giganteum

Soft Purple

colchicumcflogiganteumrvroger1a

October, November

10-12 x 10 (25-30 x 25)

Flowers before the leaves are produced. Robust and easy to grow, this will naturalise well.

 

acolchicumifor9graciarvroger
 

Colchicum 'Gracia'

Light Violet-Purple with
White Base

colchicumcflograciarvroger1a

October, November

10-12 x 10 (25-30 x 25)

It flowers before the leaves are produced.

 

acolchicumiflos91graecumrvroger

Colchicum graecum

Rose-Pink and
darker Pink

colchicumcflograecumrvroger1a

August

10-12 x 10 (25-30 x 25)

This bulb is flowering in August. This is a wonderful species with light pink petals which are quite long and separated, giving a star-like effect. Best grown in a pot or raised alpine bed.

 

colchicumifor9harlekijnrvroger

Colchicum 'Harlekijn'

Creamy-White with
Purple Blotches

colchicumcfloharlekijnrvroger1a1a

September

10-12 x 10 (25-30 x 25)

A very distinctive hybrid, producing in September intricate twisting creamy white flowers with irregular purple blotches

 

acolchicumifor9jochemhofrvroger

Colchicum
'Jochem Hof'

Royal Purple with
White Throat

colchicumcflojochemhofrvroger1a

September, October

10-12 x 10 (25-30 x 25)

It flowers before the leaves are produced. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and September-November for the foliage and flowers.

 

acolchicumifor9laetumwikimediacommons

Colchicum
laetum

Rose-Lilac

colchicumcflolaetumrvroger1a

September

2-3 x 10 (5-8 x 25)

Its flowers are produced before the leaves. Free-flowering and easy to grow in sun or partial shade.

 

acolchicumpfor91lilacbedderrvroger

Colchicum
'Lilac Bedder'

Light Violet-Purple with
White Throat

colchicumcflolilacbedderrvroger1a

September

8 x 10
(20 x 25)

Its flowers are produced efore the eaves. Very reliable and will mulitply.

 

acolchicumiflo91lilacwonderrvroger

Colchicum
'Lilac Wonder'

Deep Lilac-Pink

colchicumcflolilacwonderrvroger1a

September

6 x 10
(15 x 25)

A prolific flowering variety with very pretty deep lilac-pink flowers. Easy to grow and makes a superb show.

 

acolchicumifor91luteumwikimediacommons

Colchicum
luteum

Yellow

colchicumcfloluteumrvroger1a

September

3-4 x 10 (8-10 x 25)

This bulb is an extremely scarce species - this is the only known colchicum with yellow flowers. Blooms are small, but of a rich golden yellow.

 

acolchicumiflos91parlatorisrvroger

Colchicum parlatoris

Pink-Lilac

colchicumcfloparlatorisrvroger1a

September

2 x 7
(5 x 18)

11 slim Green leaves are produced in September when the flowers are at their zenith. They continue to grow through the winter to reach 6 inches long by late spring. Some bulbs have the trick of forming their new bulbs deeper and deeper year after year. This article (it is a fair way down the blog) on 'Droppers' explains this with photos.

 

acolchicumifor91poseidonrvroger

Colchicum 'Poseidon'

Violet-Mauve

colchicumcfloposeidonrvroger1a

September

8-10 x 10 (20-25 x 25)

Poseidon is the Greek God of the sea. A reliable choice for the border. Flowers are then produced in the autumn and winter from naked ground followed by fleshy winter foliage emerging from a rosette, that dies down in early summer before its dry dormancy.

 

acolchicumifor91rosydawnrvroger

Colchicum
'Rosy Dawn'

Pinkish-Violet with
White Centre

colchicumcflorosydawnrvroger1a

September

6 x 10
(15 x 25)

The flowers are fragrant and produced before the leaves. A lovely variety that is well worth growing if you are looking for something that bit special.

 

Index of Bulbs from
Plants Extra Gallery

Bulb
Photos - Bulb

acolchicumifor92speciosumwikimediacommons

Colchicum speciosum

 

Pale to Deep Pink with White Throat

colchicumcflospeciosumrvroger1a

September, October

7 x 10
(18 x 25)

A lovely species with up to 3 pale to deep pink flowers, often with white throats. They have distinct yellow anthers. This is not as bold as some varieties but more subtle and as such just as worthwhile.

 


BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries.
The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width,
foliage thumbnail,
form thumbnail
use and
comments are in the relevant index page below:-

(o): A 1, 2, 3
(o): B
(o): C 1, 2
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G, Gladiolus
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L 1, 2
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ
Type of Form (Mat, Cushion, Spreading, Clump, Stemless, Upright),
Soil Type,
Sun Aspect,
Soil Moisture,
Foliage Colour,
Uses
added, starting in March 2020 with Bulb Allium Anemone Gallery

acolchicumiflos91speciosumalbumkevock

Colchicum speciosum
'Album'

White

colchicumcflospeciosumalbumrvroger1a

October

4 x 10
(10 x 25)

Pure white flowers, and these are quite thick in texture, making them particularly weather resistant. They take some time to establish but are well worth the wait as they produce a superb display.

 

acolchicumiflo91speciosumbornmeullerirvroger

Colchicum speciosum bornmeulleri

Pale to Dark Pink with White throat

colchicumcflospeciosumbornmeullerirvroger1a1

October

4 x 10
(10 x 25)

Green quite narrow leaves are produced in the Spring. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and foliage, and October for the flowers.

 

acolchicumifor91speciosumordurvroger

Colchicum speciosum
'Ordu'

Amethyst-Violet with
White Centre

colchicumcflospeciosumordurvroger1a

September

8 x 10
(20 x 25)

This bulb is the hardiest Colchicum speciosum cultivar, named after the Turkish district whence it came. Bright flowers appear in early September, followed by shiny foliage in spring. Recommended.

 

acolchicumifor91tenoreikevock

Colchicum tenorei

Light to Dark Purple

colchicumcflotenoreirvroger1a

September

8 x 10
(20 x 25)

Blooms which vary in colour from light to dark purple. Requires a moist soil in spring but a dry dormancy in the summer. Plant 5 inches (13 cms) deep in average well-drained, moisture-retentive soil - 6 inches (15 cms) deep in sandy soil - and 4 inches (10 cms) apart in July. When planting, take care that the bulbs are set in an area where their foliage will not cover other plants; like along shrub borders to bring colour at unusual times of the year.

 

acolchicumiflos91thegiantrvroger

Colchicum
'The Giant'

Purplish-Violet with
White Base

colchicumcflothegiantrvroger1a

September

8 x 10
(20 x 25)

A robust, large flowered variety with up to 5 unusual flowers. Each flower has a white base to it. It is quite tall growing, getting to 20cm (8”) in height.

 

 

acolchicumiflo91violetqueenrvroger

Colchicum
'Violet Queen'

Bluish-Lilac with
White Throat

colchicumcflovioletqueenrvroger1a1

September

3.5 x 2
(9 x 5)

Plant at the edges of paths, drives and small beds towards the front of borders. Plant under turf on sandy or chalk soil.

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

acolchicumiflo91waterlilyrvroger

Colchicum
'Water Lily'

Pinkish-Lilac

colchicumcforwaterlilyrvroger

September, October

5 x 10
(13 x 25)

Bears up to 5 double, pinkish-lilac flowers. The name really does this plant justice as that is exactly what the flowers look like. Due to the size and weight of the flowers they are best grown among other plants where they will get some support. Definitely one to try.

 

 

Colchicum
'William
Dykes'

Soft Lilac with
Greenish-White Centre

colchicumcflowilliamdykesrvroger1a

September

5 x 10
(13 x 25)

Soft Lilac with star-shaped Greenish-White Centre in September before the leaves are produced in the spring

 

 

Tessellated-flowering Colchicums:-
Tessellated species, those marked with a crisscross pattern on the petals in colors of dark and light rosy mauve

 

Colchicum agrippinum

Pale Lilac with Lilac-Purple tessell-ation

colchicumcfloagrippinumrvroger1a

September, October

5-8 x 6 (13-20 x 15)

Narrow Green foliage is produced in the Spring. Continue watering as long as foliage remains green, withold water when foliage starts to die back, usually in July. Sometimes the foliage will be produced following the flowers and will remain growing until July.

 

Colchicum
'Autumn
Queen'

Pink with White Throat and Purple tessell-ation

colchicumcfloautumnqueenrvroger1a

August, September

6 x 10
(15 x 25)

Colchicum - photos taken by Arnold Trachtenberg - are grown in his New Jersey garden, planted in garden soil augmented with 50% grit.

 

Colchicum bivonae
'Apollo'

Lilac with White Centre
and Purplish-Violet
tessell-ation

colchicumcflobivonaeapollorvroger1a1

October, November

8 x 15
(20 x 38)

Colchicum bivonae is a parent of many of the large-flowered Colchicum hybrids, often in crosses with Colchicum speciosum. It contributes the tessellation (check-ering) to these hybrids.

 

Colchicum bivonae
'Glory of Heemstede'

Purplish-Violet
tessell-ation

colchicumcflobivonaegloryofheemstedervroger1a

October, November

7 x 15
(18 x 38)

Heemstede is a town around which, for a long time, many of the best growers in the Netherlands congregated. The flowers are fragrant, quite strongly tessellated and are produced before the leaves. It is a strong growing variety.

 

Colchicum bivonae
'Vesta'

Light Violet with
Purplish-Violet
tessell-ation

colchicumcflobivonaevestarvroger1a1

October, November

8 x 15
(20 x 38)

Light Violet and tessellated with Purplish-Violet in October-November before the leaves are produced.
Highly scented.

 

Colchicum
macro-phyllum

Pale Lilac with White
tessell-ation

colchicumcflomacrophyllumrvroger1a1a

September, October,
November

2-3 x 15 (5-8 x 38)

A very early-flowering species, with large pale lilac flowers heavily tessellated with white. Native to Crete and parts of Greece, so needs a very warm and well-drained position, or else grow in pots.

 

Colchicum sfikasianum

Purple-Pink with
White tessell-ation

colchicumcflosfikasianumrvroger1a

September

5 x 15
(13 x 38)

Deep Purple-Pink and tessellated with White blooms are produced in September before the leaves.

 

Colchicum sibthorpii

Rosy-Lilac with
Purplish-Violet
tessell-ation

colchicumcflosibthorpiirvroger1a

September, October,
November

10 x 15
(20 x 38)

Wonderful chequered lilac blooms are produced before the leaves.

 

 

Winter-flowering Colchicums

 

Colchicum crocifolium

White

colchicumcflocrocifoliumrvroger1a

January, February

3-4 x 8 (8-10 x 20)

Plant 5 inches (13 cms) deep in average well-drained, moisture-retentive soil - 6 inches (15 cms) deep in sandy soil - and 8 inches (20 cms) apart in July. When planting, take care that the bulbs are set in an area where their foliage will not cover other plants; like along shrub borders to bring colour at unusual times of the year.

 

Colchicum kesselringii

White with Purple/Brown Striping

colchicumcflokesselringiirvroger1a1a

January, February

3-4 x 8 (8-10 x 20)

Plant 5 inches (13 cms) deep in average well-drained, moisture-retentive soil - 6 inches (15 cms) deep in sandy soil - and 8 inches (20 cms) apart in July. When planting, take care that the bulbs are set in an area where their foliage will not cover other plants; like along shrub borders to bring colour at unusual times of the year.

 

Colchicum hungaricum albiflorum

White with Dark
Purple Anthers

colchicumcflohungaricumalbiflorumrvroger1a

January, February

8 x 8
(20 x 20)

2 Dark Green leaves become 6 inches long and up to 0.5 inches wide at maturity and they are produced at the same time as the flowers. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and January-March for the flowers and foliage.

 

Colchicum szovitisii
'Tivi'

White with
Orange Pollen

colchicumcfloszovitisitivirvroger1a

January, February

2-3 x 8
(5-8 x 20)

This bulb requires a moist soil in spring but a dry dormancy in the summer. Dark Green leaves are produced after the flowers have reached their zenith. Moisture required in the Spring for the roots and January-March for the flowers and foliage.

 

Colchicum szovitisii
'White Forms

White

colchicumcfloszovitisiiwhiteformsrvroger1a

January, February

2-3 x 8
(5-8 x 20)

Dark Green leaves are produced after the flowers have started blooming. This bulb requires a moist soil in spring but a dry dormancy in the summer.

 

 

Winter- and Spring-Flowering Colchicums

 

Colchicum hungaricum

White with Pale Lilac central Stripes

colchicumcflohungaricumrvroger1a1a

December, January,
February, March, April

3-4 x 8 (8-10 x 20)

2 Dark Green leaves become 6 inches long and up to 0.5 inches wide at maturity and they are produced at the same time as the flowers. Moisture required December-April for the flowers and foliage.

 

 

CROCUS

 

 

Autumn-flowering Crocus

 

Crocus
banaticus

Lilac to Purple

crocuscflobanaticusrvroger1a1a

September, October

3-4 x 15 (8-10 x 38)

One of the most unusual flowered of all Crocus. It is slow to increase but is definitely worth any effort it takes to grow this one.

 

Crocus
asturicus var. atripurpureus

Light and Dark Violet

crocuspforasturicusgarnonswilliams1a1

September, October, November, December

3-4 x 10 (8-10 x 25)

Plant at the edges of paths, drives and small beds towards the front of borders. 7 Green leaves, 3-4 inches long, are produced at flowering time; elongating afterward and then can be cut off in April.

 

Crocus asumaniae

White to Pale Lilac

crocuscfloasumaniaervroger1a

October, November

3-4 x 10 (8-10 x 25)

Green leaves are produced at flowering time; and then can be cut off in April. A very rare species from Turkey, with goblet shaped white to pale lilac flowers with eye-catching large red stigma.

 

Crocus boryi

Creamy-White

crocuscfloboryirvroger1a

September, October, November, December

3-4 x 15 (8-10 x 38)

The thin u-shaped 4 inch Dark Green leaves are produced with the flowers. This bulb is from Greece, so this species needs the shelter of a greenhouse, but produces exquisite white flowers flushed with a pale sulphur tint. The stigmata are an eye-catching bright scarlet.

 

Crocus cambesse-desii

White to Deep Lilac,
striped Purple

crocuspflo1cambessedanusgarnonswilliams1a1a

September, October, November, December

3 x 15
(8 x 38)

Plant at the edges of paths, drives and small beds towards the front of borders. They can also be planted 4 inches (10 cms) deep in 10 inch (25 cms) pots with 50% sharp sand and 50% Multipurpose Compost mixture.
Plant under turf on sandy or chalk soil.

 

Crocus cancellatus
cancellatus

Pale to Mid Lilac-Blue

crocuscflocancellatuscancellatusrvroger1a1

September, October, November, December

2 x 15
(5 x 38)

Flowering time varies from the end of September to early December without the leaves. The flowering time will vary by as much as 2 or 3 months. Needs to be grown in a cool greenhouse rather than in the garden.

 

Crocus cancellatus
lycius

Creamy-White

crocuscflocancellatuslyciusrvroger1a

September, October, November, December

2 x 15
(5 x 38)

This bulb produces wonderful creamy white flowers with bright orange stigmata. Again, one for the cool greenhouse as it needs a warm dry period of dormancy in the summer.

 

Crocus cancellatus
pamphylicus

White

crocuscflocancellatuspamphylicusrvroger1a

September, October, November, December

2 x 15
(5 x 38)

Flowering time varies from the end of September to early December without the leaves. The flowering time will vary by as much as 2 or 3 months. This bulb needs to be grown in a cool greenhouse rather than in the garden. Does need to be allowed to dry out over the summer.

 

Crocus
cartwrigh-tianus

Pale to deep Lilac-Purple or White, darker veins

crocuscflocartwrightianusrvroger1a1a

October, November,
December

2 x 15
(5 x 38)

The main attraction of this species is the long, bright red styles and shorter bright yellow stamens. Quite an eye catching flower!! It will grow outdoors in a sunny spot in very well drained soil but is best grown in a pot in a cool greenhouse.

 

Crocus
cartwrighti-anus 'Albus'

Pure White

crocuscflocartwrightianusalbusrvroger1a

October, November,
December

2 x 15
(5 x 38)

This bulb is a stunning species with pure white flowers. The main attraction of this species is the long, bright red styles and shorter bright yellow stamens. It will grow outdoors in a sunny spot in very well drained soil but is best grown in a pot in a cool greenhouse.

 

Crocus goulimyi

Soft Lilac

crocuscflogoulimyirvroger1a

October, November

4 x 15
(10 x 38)

Scented blooms with the leaves. Requires well drained soil but otherwise will grow outdoors.

 

Crocus
goulimyi 'Albus'

White

crocuscflogoulimyialbusrvroger1a

October, November

4 x 15
(10 x 38)

This bulb is very pretty with white flowers, opening quite wide. They are scented and have contrasting yellow stamens. The foliage appears at the same time as the flowers. Requires well drained soil but otherwise will grow outdoors.

 

Crocus hadriaticus

White with
Purple markings

crocuscflohadriaticusrvroger1a

October

4 x 15
(10 x 38)

Plant under turf on sandy or chalk soil. The grass should be mown short a month before flowers appear and all mowing stopped whilst the crocus are in flower and leaf. The foliage will have died down by the time in the spring when the grass needs cutting.

 

Crocus hadriaticus
'Indian
Summer'

Fragrant, White

crocuscflohadriaticusindiansummerrvroger1a

October, November

3-4 x 15
(10 x 38)

Native to Western and Southern Greece. This is a heritage Crocus, collected by E.A. Bowles in the central Peloponnesus and cherished in gardens for much of a century. In a sunny, well-drained spot this crocus can take considerable frost.

 

Crocus kotschyanus kotschyanus

Pale Lilac with Orange band inside

crocuscflokotschyanuskotschyanusgeetee1a1

August, September

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Useful information from this Rock Garden enthusiast with flower photos. Native to Lebanon and introduced prior to 1854, this is one of the finest autumn-flowering species. It is one of the most prolific offset producers in the genus, the many small cormlets spreading rapidly. It is an excellent species for naturalizing in open, woodland areas.

 

Crocus kotschyanus kotschyanus 'Albus'

Bone-White

crocuscflokotschyanuskotschyanusalbusrvroger1a

August, September

2.5-3 x 15 (7-8 x 38)

Flower buds are very pale lilac but open to bone-White in August-September before the leaves.

 

Crocus kotschyanus
'Reliance'

Light Violet-Blue

crocuscflokotschyanusreliancervroger1a1

September

3-4 x 15 (8-10 x 38)

The Dark Green - with a White band in the centre - leaves appear after the flowers; becoming 12 inches (30 cms) long; and persisting throughout the winter. It is an excellent species for naturalizing in open, woodland areas.

 

Crocus
laevigatus
'Fontenayi'

Ageratum-Violet

crocuscflolaevigatusfontenayirvroger1a1

December

3-4 x 15 (8-10 x 38)

Blooms in December after the leaves have started growing. These Autumn-flowering crocus do require the well drained spot and should be planted approx. 7.5cm (3”) deep.

 

Crocus
ligusticus

Light Lilac, darker veins

crocuscfloligusticusrvroger1a1

October, November

2 x 15
(5 x 38)

Blooms in October-November before the leaves have started growing.

 

Crocus niveus

White

crocuscfloniveusrvroger1a

November

4-6 x 15 (10-15 x 38)

This bulb is a variable species with white or lilac flowers with yellow throats and very distinct orange styles. Is best grown in a pot in a greenhouse but will also grow outside if it can be guaranteed a dry summer period.

 

Crocus
nudiflorus

Bright Purple

crocuscflonudiflorusrvroger1a

September, October

6-10 x 15 (15-25 x 38)

Blooms in September-October before the leaves.Spreads easily so is ideal for naturalising.

 

Crocus ochroleucus

Creamy-White

crocuspfloochroleucusgarnonswilliams1a

October, November, December

2 x 15
(5 x 38)

This bulb is a delightful species with creamy white flowers, all with bright yellow throats. Another one that increases well and so is ideal for naturalising through grass or under trees.

 

Crocus oreocreticus

Mid-Lilac to Purple,
darker veins

crocuscflooreocreticusrvroger1a

October, November,
December

3 x 15
(8 x 38)

This will tolerate slightly cooler and damper conditions than most other crocus. The Dark Green grasslike leaves appear before the flowers.

 

Crocus pallasii
ssp. pallasii

Pale Pinkish-Lilac to deep Lilac-Blue

crocuscflopallasiirvroger1a1

October, November

5 x 15
(13 x 38)

An easy to grow species that will do well in the garden, this has pure lilac flowers without the yellow throat seen in most other species in October-November with the leaves.

 

Crocus
pulchellus

Pale Lilac

crocuscflopulchelluskevock1a

September, October

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Crocus pulchellus is a vigorous autumn crocus which naturalizes easily, producing numerous bulblets all around the parent corm to increase its numbers with surprising speed year by year.

 

Crocus
pulchellus
'Albus'

White

crocuscflopulchellusalbusrvroger1a1

September, October

4-5 x 3-6 (10-13 x 8-15)

The Dark Green thin grass-like leaves appear with the flowers and reach 10 inches in length. Very good for naturalising.

 

Crocus
pulchellus
'Inspiration'

Sky-Blue

crocuscflopulchellusinspirationrvroger1a

October

4 x 3-6
(10 x 8-15)

Plant at the edges of paths, drives and small beds towards the front of borders. They can also be planted 4 inches (10 cms) deep in 10 inch (25 cms) pots with 50% sharp sand and 50% Multipurpose Compost mixture.

 

Crocus
pulchellus 'Michael Hoog
'

White

crocuscflopulchellusmichaelhoogrvroger1a1

October,
November

4 x 3-6
(10 x 8-15)

The Dark Green leaves appear after the flowers. Good Companions for the autumn-flowering crocus from The Telegraph.

 

Crocus
pulchellus
'Zephyr'

White shaded Grey

crocuscflopulchelluszephyrrvroger1a1

September, October,
November

4 x 2
(10 x 5)

Native to Greece. Ideal for naturalising. Where bulbs are planted in grass do not cut the lawn until after the leaves have died back. Loved by bees. The narrow Mid-Green leaves appear after the flowers.

 

Crocus sativus

Lilac with Purple veins

crocuscflosativusrvroger1a1

October, November

8-12 x 2 (20-30 x 5)

The Saffron Crocus is Native to Italy and east to Turkey. Rabbits, rats, mice and birds cause damage by digging up the corms, so cover them with a very fine-mesh wire under the soil to deter the predators.

 

Crocus
serotinus
clusii

Lilac with White throat

crocuscfloserotinusclusiirvroger1a1a

October, November

4-5 x 2 (10-13 x 5)

Rabbits, rats, mice and birds cause damage by digging up the corms, so cover them with a very fine-mesh wire under the soil to deter the predators.

 

Crocus
serotinus
salzmanii

Lilac with White throat

crocuscfloserotinussalzmaniirvroger1a1a1

September, October, November, December

6 x 4
(15 x 10)

Plant under turf on sandy or chalk soil. The grass should be mown short a month before flowers appear and all mowing stopped whilst the crocus are in flower and leaf.

 

Crocus
serotinus salzmanii
'Erecto-
phyllus'

Lilac

crocuspflosalzmaniierectophyllusrvroger1a1

October, November,
December

6 x 4
(15 x 10)

Moist soil. It prefers a warm dry rest in the summer. Up to 7 narrow dark Green 3-4 inch long leaves appear as the flowers wither and then later they elongate. Grow in pots since it is frost-tender.

 

Crocus
speciosus
'Aino'

Lilac-Blue with
darker veining

crocuscflospeciosusainorvroger1a

September, October

4-6 x 6-9 (10-15 x 15-23)

It stands up well to weather. The speciosus species and its cultivars are regarded as one of the easiest to grow. The species will sow itself and create large plantings

 

Crocus
speciosus
'Aitchisonii'

Inside pale Lavender, Outside almost White

crocuscflospeciosusaitchisoniirvroger1a

September, October

5 x 2
(13 x 5)

Up to 7 narrow dark Green 3-4 inch long leaves appear after the flowers and then later they elongate to 12-18 inches. Grow in pots since it is frost-tender.

 

Crocus speciosus

Purple-Violet

crocuscflospeciosusgeetee1a

September, October,
November

4 x 1.3
(10 x 3)

Plant with suitable groundcover which supports the stem and stops the flowers from flopping over from Paghat. Rabbits, rats, mice and birds cause damage by digging up the corms, so cover them with a very fine-mesh wire under the soil to deter the predators.

 

Crocus speciosus
'Albus'

White

crocuscflospeciosusalbusrvroger1a1

September, October,
November

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Fully hardy, so insert them into a sunny shrub border among deciduous shrubs. Plant with suitable groundcover which supports the stem and stops the flowers from flopping over from Paghat.

 

Crocus speciosus
'Artabir'

Violet-Blue veined
with Purple

crocuscflospeciosusartabirrvroger1a1a

September, October

5-6 x 2 (13-15 x 5)

Narrow Dark Green 3-4 inch long leaves appear after the flowers and then later they elongate to 12-18 inches. Fully hardy, so insert them into a sunny shrub border among deciduous shrubs.

 

Crocus speciosus
'Cassiope'

Violet-Blue with
Yellow centre

crocuscflospeciosuscassiopervroger1a1a

October, November

6 x 2
(15 x 5)

Good Companions for the autumn-flowering crocus from The Telegraph.

 

Crocus speciosus
'Conqueror'

Blue

crocuscflospeciosusconquerorrvroger1a1a1

October, November

4-6 x 2 (10-15 x 5)

The larger-sized corms can be rested in the neck of a crocus vase so that the bottom of the corm is just above the water level, then place on a window-cill in the kitchen to give you the flowers before planting out in the garden when in leaf.

 

Crocus speciosus
'Oxonian'

Violet-Mauve with
Blue stem

crocuscflospeciosusoxonianrvroger1a1a

September, October

4 x 2-4
(10 x 5-10)

Fully hardy, so insert them into a sunny shrub border among deciduous shrubs. Plant with suitable groundcover which supports the stem and stops the flowers from flopping over from Paghat.

 

Crocus veneris

White flushed Bronze

crocuscflovenerisrvroger1a1

November, December,
January

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Sand, Chalk soil. In Cyprus grows on stony and grassy places in maquis or open conifer woods. Not hardy in the UK, so needs to be grown in a greenhouse.

 

 

Winter-flowering Crocus

 

Crocus ancyrensis
'Golden Bunch'

Tangerine-Yellow

crocuscfloancyrensisgoldenbunchfoord1a1

December, January

3 x 15
(8 x 38)

Because 'Golden Bunch' is so extremely early it is more than commonly apt to be ruined by our winter rainstorms. Some years it is truly fine-looking crocus for only about two days before the rain beats it down.

 

Crocus biflorus
'Miss Vain
'

White with pale
Blue base

crocuscflobiflorusmissvaingeetee1a1a

February, March

4 x 2
(10 x 5)

Plant from September to December 5-8cm deep and 5cm apart. Can be planted under trees, under shrubs, in borders and containers. Plant in groups for the best effect.

 

Crocus chrysanthus 'Ard Schenk'

White

crocuscflochrysanthusardschenkkevock1a

January, February,
March

4 x 3
(10 x 8)

The 4 inch long Dark Green leaves are produced with the flowers.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Blue Pearl
'

Light Lobelia-Blue with White margin

crocuscflochrysanthusbluepearlgeetee1a

January, February,
March

4 x 3
(10 x 8)

If placed near the root crowns of deciduous shrubs, they'll get the sun they need in late winter & early spring when they bloom, then when they are dormant, the roots of the shrubs will soak up the water to keep the corms from steeping in too much moisture, so not at risk of rot.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Cream Beauty
'

Creamy-Yellow

crocuscflochrysanthuscreambeautygeetee1a1

January, February,
March

3 x 2
(8 x 5)

Naturalized they can be used in bold sweeping drifts, especially when mixed with Snowdrops and Winter Aconites.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Dorothy'

Bright
Buttercup-Yellow

crocuscflochrysanthusdorothykevock1a1a

February, March

2-4 x 2-4 (5-10 x 5-10)

The 4 inch long Dark Green leaves are produced with the flowers.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'E.A. Bowles'

Deep Butter-Yellow with Bronze feathering

crocuscflochrysanthuseabowlesfoord1a1

February, March

3-4 x 15 (8-10 x 38)

Deep Butter-Yellow with Bronze feathering, blooms in February-March with the leaves.

 

Crocus chrysanthus 'Fuscotinctus'

Plum-Purple on
Yellow ground

crocuscflochrysanthusfuscotinctusgeetee1a1a

January, February,
March

4 x 3
(10 x 8)

If placed near the root crowns of deciduous shrubs, they'll get the sun they need in late winter & early spring when they bloom, then when they are dormant, the roots of the shrubs will soak up the water to keep the corms from steeping in too much moisture, so not at risk of rot.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Goldilocks'

Deep Yellow, shaded Purple-Brown

crocuscflochrysanthusgoldilocksgeetee1a1

January, February,
March

3 x 2
(8 x 5)

Deer resistant.
'Just a little crocus
Growing in the grass
Can announce the springtime
To the folks that pass.' from Paghat.

 

Crocus chrysanthus 'Prince Claus'

White with
Blue blotch

crocuscflochrysanthusprinsclaausgeetee1a1a

January, February,
March

3 x 2
(8 x 5)

Deer resistant. It's a Bunch-Flowering Crocus, so-named because individual bulbs are frequently multiflowering, hence a drift started with 25 bulbs can look very densely planted even for its first year. As it naturalizes & produces offsets, it will be still flowerier in years to come.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Princess
Beatrix'

Light Blue with
darker feathers

crocuscflochrysanthusprincessbeatrixfoord1a

February, March

2.5 x 15
(6 x 38)

Many species of crocuses like to remain dry in summer, but this is not the case with varieties of C. sieberi or C. chrysanthus, which even during summer dormancy multiply best in well-watered locations.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Romance'

Lemon-Yellow

crocuscflochrysanthusromancegeetee1a1

January, February,
March

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

'Deer resistant and excellent when planted with early blooming Crocus chrysanthus 'Advance'.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Saturnus'

Dark Yellow, with Purple Stripes externally

crocuscfloschrysanthussaturnusfoord1a1a

January, February

3 x 15
(8 x 38)

Many species of crocuses like to be permitted to remain dry in summer, but this is not the case with varieties of C. sieberi or C. chrysanthus, which even during summer dormancy multiply best in well-watered locations. The 10 inch long Dark Green leaves are produced with the flowers.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Snow Bunting'

White with Lilac feathers externally

crocuscflochrysanthussnowbuntinggeetee1a1a

February, March

3 x 15
(8 x 38)

Plant under turf on sandy or chalk soil. The winter-flowering crocuses will have made their leaf growth and the foliage will have died down by the time in the spring when the grass needs cutting.

 

Crocus chrysanthus
'Warley'

Cream and Blue
outside, White and
Yellow inside

crocuscflochrysanthuswarleyfoord1a

February, March

3 x 15
(8 x 38)

The 10 inch long Dark Green leaves are produced with the flowers. This crocus even during summer dormancy multiplies best in well-watered locations.

 

Crocus chrysanthus 'Zwanenburg Bronze'

Garnet-Brown inside
Yellow

crocuscflochrysanthuszwanenburgbronzegeetee1a1a

January, February,
March

4 x 2
(10 x 5)

Fragrant Garnet-Brown with narrow Yellow margin inside Saffron Yellow blooms in January-March with the 3 inch long Mid-Green leaves.

 

Crocus sieberi
atticus 'Firefly'

Amethyst-Violet

crocuscflosieberiatticusfireflygeetee1a

January, February,
March

4 x 2
(10 x 5)

Others prefer to remain dry in summer, but this is not the case with varieties of C. sieberi or C. chrysanthus, which even during summer dormancy multiply best in well-watered locations.

 

Crocus sieberi atticus
'Violet Queen
'

Amethyst-Violet

crocuscflosieberiatticusvioletqueenkevock1a1a1

January, February,
March

3.5 x 2
(9 x 5)

The 3 inch long Mid-Green leaves are produced with the flowers. Crocus sieberi atticus is native to Greece.

 

Crocus sieberi 'subsp.
sublimis
Tricolor
'

Lilac-Blue, White margin, Yellow centre

crocuscflosieberiatticustricolourgeetee1a

January, February,
March

3 x 3
(8 x 8)

Blooms in January-March with the leaves. Worth growing in a pot. Companions of Camellia sasanqua 'Plantation Pink', Cyclamen hederifolium, Hamamelis x intermedia 'Arnold Promise' or Lonicera x purpusii 'Winter Beauty'.

 

Crocus
tommasin-ianus

Cobalt-Violet

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1a

January, February,
March

4 x 1
(10 x 3)

Crocus tommasinianus reproduces rapidly by self-seeding and by corm offsets. The cormlets are much too tiny to ever sieve out of the soil, and wherever the tommies spread on their own, that's where they will always remain.

 

Crocus tommasin-ianus 'Barrs Purple'

Amethyst-Violet

crocuscflotommasinianusbarrspurplegeetee1a1

January, February,
March

3 x 2
(8 x 5)

Good choice for deciduous woodland areas. Plant these in clusters at the front of a border, cram them into pots for the patio, or use them to line the edges of a path.

 

Crocus tommasin-ianus 'Ruby Giant'

Spectrum Violet

crocuscflotommasinianusrubygiantgeetee1a

January, February,
March

3 x 2
(8 x 5)

Many crocuses have a tendency to flop over due to weak stems, or to at least flop over on overcast days when the blooms remain closed awaiting for a sunnier day. Tommies are a major exception. They're upright & sturdy, even on overcast days with flowers tightly shut, looking like blue candles amidst tea-whisks of their own grass.

 

Crocus tommasin-ianus 'Whitewell
Purple

Reddish-Mauve

crocuscflotommasinianuswhitewellpurplegeetee1a

January, February,
March

4 x 1
(10 x 3)

It will grow in almost all soil types. Good choice for deciduous woodland areas. Plant these in clusters at the front of a border, cram them into pots for the patio, or use them to line the edges of a path. One of the best for naturalising in grass.

 

 

Winter and Spring-Flowering Crocus

 

Crocus etruscus

Lilac

crocuscfloetruscuskevock1a

March, April

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Wild habitat in Deciduous Woodland and Fields. Blooms before the leaves. Seed capsules emerge towards the end of the growing season as the leaves die away.

 

Crocus flavus ssp. flavus
'Golden Yellow
'

Orange-Yellow

crocuscfloflavusgoldenyellowkevock1a1

February, March,
April

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Crocus flavus ssp. flavus is native to much of Europe and it has been in cultivation for at least 400 years. The foliage is about the same length as the height of the flowers at flowering time, 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms), but extend greatly later, often being as much as 12 inches in length.

 

Crocus vernus 'Flower Record'

Purple

crocuscflovernusflowerrecordgeetee1a1

February,
April

5 x 2
(13 x 5)

Blooms with the leaves. It is also good for the bees. Can be planted under trees, under shrubs, in borders and containers. Plant in groups for the best effect.

 

Crocus vernus 'Grand Maitre'

Lavender-Violet

crocuscflovernusgrandmaitregeetee1a

March,
April

6 x 4
(15 x 10)

Flowers with the leaves. It is also good for the bees. Plant at the edges of paths, drives and small beds towards the front of borders.

 

Crocus vernus 'Joan of Arc'

White

crocuscflovernusjoanofarcgeetee1a

March,
April

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Plant in waves in the garden or lawn. If planting in the lawn wait at least 6 weeks after the crocus have flowered to mow the lawn. Crocus will multiply and come back year after year if left undisturbed.

 

Crocus vernus 'Pickwick'

Striped White and Lilac

crocuscflovernuspickwickgeetee1a1a

March, April

5 x 2
(13 x 5)

Flowers in March-April with the leaves. It is also good for the bees. Plant in waves in the garden or lawn. If planting in the lawn wait at least 6 weeks after the crocus have flowered to mow the lawn. Crocus will multiply and come back year after year if left undisturbed.

 

Crocus vernus 'Yellow Mammoth'

Yellow

crocuscflovernusyellowmammothgeetee1a1

March, April

6 x 2
(15 x 5)

Flowers in March-April with the leaves. It is also good for the bees. Crocus corms have star-like flowers when open; they close at night and remain closed on dark, cloudy days.

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©June 2009.
Page structure amended November 2012.
Added my photos to existing plant description pages and more plants into the index, which are described in the Colour Wheel Rock Garden and Colour Rock Photos galleries in February 2015.
Thumbnail, Height x Width and Comments added to above Index October 2015.
Bulb description Pages updated May 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

 

Note - the Bulb Gallery names of Autumn Bulb, Late Summer Bulb and Spring Bulb refer to when the bulbs are delivered to you, not when they flower.

See Crocus Spring Flowering Final Trials Report 2006-2009 of the Royal Horticultural Society for further crocus details.

Wild Flowers of Greece by Vangelis Papiomytoglou has 1200 photos to make their recognition easier.

 

These references stand out as specified by Pacific Rim Native Plant Nursery:- "

• Crocuses: A Complete Guide to the Genus, by Jánis Rukšáns. Timber Press, 2010; ISBN 978-1-60469-106-1. Descriptions and propagation advice for gardeners from the Latvian nurseryman who knows Crocus more intimately, and grows more species, than most people.  

The Crocus: A Revision of the Genus Crocus, by Brian Mathew.  B.T. Batsford, 1982; ISBN 0 7134 3390 6. Out of print, expensive second-hand, fortunately still available in some libraries. Mathew published an update in The Plantsman, vol. 1, parts 1 and 2 (March and June 2002); important articles have also been published by Helmut Kerndorff and Erich Pasche, the  German Crocus specialists." 

The RHS has a National Collection of Crocus at Wisley - This collection now exceeds 800 accessions, representing more than 100 species and subspecific taxa, and 96 cultivars, the latter including plantings in other parts of the garden.

 

Potting mixture created by Mark Smyth of Alpine Garden Society for Autumn Crocuses for you to use in pots

or

use the potting mixtures used by the Royal Horticultural Society in its Crocus Spring Flowering 2006-2009 Trials

 

 

The 3 natural divisions of Colchicum are:-

  • 1. Autumn-flowering species and hybrids
  • 2. Winter- and Spring-flowering species and
  • 3. Tessellated species, those marked with a crisscross pattern on the petals in colors of dark and light rosy mauve

The 2 natural divisions of Crocus are:-

  • 1. Autumn-flowering species and hybrids and
  • 2. Winter- and Spring-flowering species

and the relevant division is added to the Plant Description Page Title.

You can obtain larger photos and more text explaination of a Colchicum or Crocus by clicking on the name of that Corm in the Link List in the next column

 

 

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

 

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.
• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.
• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.
• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.
• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.
Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.
Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

 

Theme

Plants

Comments

 

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

 

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

 

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

 

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

 

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

 

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

 

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

 

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

 

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

 

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

 

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

 

Butterfly Garden

 

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 


 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

 

"On average, 2 gardeners a year die in the UK as a result of poisonous plants. Those discussed in this blog illustrate a range of concerns that should be foremost in the designer’s mind." from
A garden Designer's Guide to Poisonous Plants by
Oxford College of Garden Design.

Pages on poisonous plants in this website:-
...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts.
...Poisonous Plants.
is Poisonous.
...Poisonous

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens
With around 23 million gardens in the UK,
covering 435,000 hectares (An acre is about 0.405 hectares, 1 hectare is 10000.0 square metres);
gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats.
Pre-planting you may require pre-building work on polluted soil. Then,
if you soil is clay,
consider these 8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay,
before actioning -

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden:-

  1. Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract -
    and this shows how roots of plants are in control in the soil.
  2. Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
    See above for the full list by Botanical name and another by Common Name of all the native plants in the UK in 1965 with their habitats.
  3. Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
  4. Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures and for the soil.
    Re-use your garden prunings, mowings, and dug up non-weed plants as recommended in the
    Planting a Native Hedge cell above in "Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations" table as a mulch.
    Soil Structure - The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram shows how these particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’ to start the formation of soil.
    Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt.
    Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
    why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
    To prevent this destruction of the soil, there is this Action Plan for YOU to DO with your soil.
  5. Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
  6. Feed the Birds and other creatures too.
  7. Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
  8. Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden:-

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden.
Bees under Bombardment from Bee Happy Plants Ltd.
There are certain times when pollen or nectar are needed:
Early spring is a time of great need for pollen (which triggers egg-laying by the queen);
All season from early spring to late Autumn nectar is needed, though there is a 'crisis period' from the end of June until September (in the South of the UK) when adult bees' numbers are at a peak and their need for nectar is vital. This summer period is one we should concentrate on providing copious amounts of nectar in our gardens.
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden
 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956

They are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.
These families within that book will have their details described in alphabetical order for both the family name and its plants.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford. Printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

 

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, the wildlife in public parks is destroyed as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

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