Ivydene Gardens: WELCOME
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Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.


Part of the design process for choosing plants to use in your garden, involves comparing:-

Compare different flower colours per month for each plant type within its Plant Photo Gallery with :-

Gallery Name

Click on centre of Thumbnail to see its Plant Description Page which also has the Index of all the other same type of plants (e.g Bulb is a plant type) within that Gallery in the table on the right

722 Bulb
flower colours

in each month

with their

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee
Jan

narcissuscfloearlysensationdeeproot
Feb

veltheimiacflobracteatarvroger
Mar

lachenaliacflonamakwarvroger1
Apr

anemonecflobaldensiskevock
May

dahliacfloedinburghrvroger
Jun

alliumcfloschoenoprasumforscatervroger
Jul

100 Allium and
Anemone,

50 Colchicum,
72 Crocus,
46 Dahlia,

alliumcflotriquetrumgeetee
Allium

anemonecflonemerosaalleniirvroger
Ane-mone

colchicumcflospeciosumalbumrvroger
Coch-icum

crocuscflochrysanthussaturnusfoord
Crocus

dahliacfloludwighelfertrvroger
Dahlia

dahliacflolilactimervroger
Dahlia

dahliacfloplayablancarvroger
Dahlia

209 Gladiolus,
65 Lily,
67 Narcissus,
and
6 Tulip Plant Description Pages

gladioluscfloterrynagc
Glad-iolus

lilliumcflonepalenservroger
Lily

narcissuscflopseudonarcissusdeeproot
Narc-issus

narcissuscflojetfiredeeproot
Narc-issus

narcissuscflomerlindeeproot
Narc-issus

tulipaflotbatalinii
Tulip

tulipaflotviolacea
Tulip

 

129 Climber
flower colours

in each month

with their

ercillacflovolubilisroseland
Mar

gelsemiumcflosempervirensroseland
Apr

clematisflotmrscholmondeley
May

bomareacflohirtellaroseland
Jun

clematiscomtessedebouchardcfloroseland
Jul

gloriosacflosuperbaroseland
Aug

passifloraflotcaerulea
Sep

71 Clematis and
58 Other Climber
Plant Description Pages

clematisbeesjubileecfloroseland
Cle-matis

billardieracflolongifloraroseland
Bill-ardiera

cissuscflostriataroseland
Cissus

solanumflotjasminoides
Sol-anum

fremontodendronflotcalifornianglory
Fre-mont-odend-ron

campsiscfloradicansroseland
Cam-psis

dregeacflosinensisroseland
Dre-gea

 

43 Deciduous Shrub
flower colours

in each month
with their

jasminumflotnudiflorum
Mar

kerriaflotjaponicamay68
Apr

loniceraflotcaerulea
May

paeoniadelavayiflot
Jun

abeliaschumanniiflot
Jul

hydrangeaflotmacrophylla
Aug

leycesteriaflotformosa
Sep

45 Deciduous Shrub Plant Description Pages

paeoniasouvenirdemaxinecornuflot
Pae-onia

loniceraflotxylosteum
Lon-icera

paeoniasuffruticosaredtreeflot
Pae-onia

hydrangeaflotvillosa
Hyd-rangea

berberisthunbergiiatropurpureadartsredladyfolt
Ber-beris

paeonialuteaflot
Pae-onia

paeoniasuffruticosafflot
Pae-onia

 

104 Evergreen Perennial / Alpine flower colours

in each month
with their

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord
Apr

alyssumcflosaxatilefoord
May

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord
Jun

androsacecflomucronifoliafoord
Jul

aethionemacflowarleyrosekevock
Aug

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock
Sep

anemonecflo1hybridafoord
Oct

68 Evergreen Perennial A-L and 36 Evergreen M-Z Plant Description Pages and also

bergeniacflos1autumnmagiccoblands
Ber-genia

erinuscflo1alpinus
Erinus

lavateracflomaritima
Lav-atera

prunellaflotgrandiflora
Pru-nella

raouliaflotaustralis
Rao-ulia

saxifragaflotcebennensis
Sax-ifraga

sedumflotacre
Sedum

94 Evergreen Perennials in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement
Pages

saxifragaflotsouthsideseedling
5 Petals

anthericumcfloliliagofoord
Star Shape

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord2
Spurs Shape

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1
Discs Shape

saxifragacflopaniculata
Sprays Arrang-ement

androsacecfor1albanakevock
Dome Arrang-ement

alyssumflotmontanumflowermay84
Dome Arrang-ement

 

46 Evergreen Shrub
flower colours

in each month
with their

iberisflotsaxatilis
May

kalmiaflotangustifolia
Jun

lavateraflotrosea
Jul

nandinaflotdomestica
Aug

oleariaflothaastii
Sep

hypericumflotmoserianumtricolor
Oct

mahoniaflotjaponica
Nov

46 Evergreen Shrub Plant Description Pages,

dryasflotoctopetala
Dryas

hypericumflot
Hyp-ericum

loniceraflotnitida
Lon-icera

lupinusflotarboreus
Lup-inus

oleariaflotnumulariifolia
Ole-aria

prunusflotlaurocerasus
Prunus

thymusflotcilicicus
Thy-mus

126 Heather Shrub,
flower colours

in each month
with its

Heather Index (current progress - 52 of 700 detailed by 12 May 2015),
and their
Andromeda,
Bruckenthalia,

Ericacarneamargeryfrearsoncflogarnonswilliams
Jan

Ericacarneaclarewilkinsoncflogarnonswilliams
Mar

Ericacarneadavidsseedlingcflo1garnonswilliams
May

Ericawatsoniiclaireelisecflogarnonswilliams
Jul

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u19f
Sep

Ericadarleyensisgeorgerendallcflo1garnonswilliams
Oct

Ericacarneajanuarysuncflo1garnonswilliams
Dec

Calluna,
Daboecia,
Erica: Carnea,
Erica: Cinerea and
Erica: Others
Plant
Description Pages (74)

Ericacarneagoldenstarletcflogarnonswilliams
Erica carnea

Ericacarnearubracflogarnonswilliams
Erica carnea

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u17g

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u18g

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u19g

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u20g

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u21g

 

91 Herbaceous Perennial / Alpine
flower colours

in each month
with their

agapanthusafricanuscflokevock
Feb

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands
May

achilleafilipendulagoldplatecflorvroger
Jun

agapanthusalbusccflokevock
Jul

kniphofiaflotroyalstandard
Aug

kniphofiaflottriangularis
Sep

cichoriumintybusalbumcflorvroger
Oct

91 Herbaceous Perennial Plant
Description Pages,

astilbepurplelancecflokevock
Astilbe

gunneraflot1tictoria
Gun-nera

papaverorientaleflot
Pap-aver

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger
Dig-italis

achilleaptarmicabouledeneigecflorvroger
Ach-illea

alcearoseachatersdoublerosecflorvroger
Alcea

aconitumlycoctonumvulpariacflokevock
Aco-nitum

176 Permanent Herbaceous Perennials Plant
Description Pages
in the
Mixed Borders in
RHS garden in Wisley

and

achilleacfloclothofgoldkavanagh
Ach-illea

actaeacflos2simplexpinkspikegarnonswilliams
Actaea

baptisiacflo1australisgarnonswilliams
Bap-tisia

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh
Cen-taurea

echinaceacflopurpureamagnuskavanagh
Ech-inacea

geraniumcflo2psilostemongarnonswilliams
Ger-anium

helianthuscflo1lemonqueengarnonswilliams
Hel-ianthus

175 Herbaceous Perennial in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement
Pages

crambecflomaritimagarnonswilliams
4 Petals

euphorbiacflo1wallichiigarnonswilliams
Cup Shape

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot
Goblet Shape

agapanthusbressinghambluecflocoblands
Funnel Shape

lobeliacardinalisflot
Lipped Shape

lysimachiapunctataflot
Tier Arrang-ement

astilberheinlandcflocoblands
Plumes Arrang-ement

 

343 Rose Plant
Description Pages of roses grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2007 (Group 1)
and
flower colours
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website
with their

rosatwiceinabluemooncflo1
Other Colours

rosasimplythebestflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Orange

rosathefairycflorogerltd
Pink

rosaroyalwilliamcflorogerltd
Red

rosasilveranniversaryflomidcgarnonswilliams1
White

rosagoldenweddingflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Yellow

rosabarrystephenscflorogerltd
2 or More Colours

82 Rose Plant
Description Pages
in
RHS garden in Wisley A-F (Group 2),

rosaawhitershadeofpalecflo2garnonswilliams
A Whiter Shade of Pale

rosabonicacflomidgarnonswilliams
Bonica

rosacarmenettacflomidgarnonswilliams1
Carme-netta

rosadarcybussellflomidcgarnonswilliams1
D'Arcey Bussell

rosaeasygoingflomidcgarnonswilliams
Easy Going

rosafascinationflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Fascin-ation

rosaflowercarpetwhiteflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Flower Carpet White

37 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley G-R
(Group 2),

rosagoldspiceflomidcgarnonswilliams
Gold Spice

rosaharlowcarrcflomidgarnonswilliams
Harlow Carr

rosaicebergkorbincflomidgarnonswilliams
Iceberg

rosajackswishcflomidgarnonswilliams
Jack's Wish

rosakeepsmilingcflomidgarnonswilliams
Keep Smiling

rosakentcflomidgarnonswilliams
Kent

rosamacmillannursecflomidgarnonswilliams1
Mac-millan Nurse

12 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley S-Z (Group 2)
with another
85 Roses in Group 2 Rose Index Menu and

rosasilveranniversaryflomidcgarnonswilliams1a
Silver Anniv-ersary

rosasimplythebestflomidcgarnonswilliams1a1
Simply The Best

rosaskylarkflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Skylark

rosastrawberryhillflomidcgarnonswilliams
Straw-berry Hill

rosathecharlatanflomidcgarnonswilliams1
The Charl-atan

rosawildedricflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Wild Edric

rosayorkminsterc1flomidgarnonswilliams1
York Minster

Rose Use Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website
with

rosababymasqueradecflo1
Bed-ding

rosamrssammcgredyclimbingcflorogerltd
Cli-mber

rosalinvillecflorogerltd
Cut-Flower

rosasilverghostflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Gro-und Cover

rosafryessexwildfireflomidcgarnonswilliams
Grow in Pot

rosawarmwelcomecflorogerltd
Fra-grant

rosathefairycflorogerltd1
Not Fra-grant

Rose Bloom Shape and Rose Petal Count Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website.

Click on
Other Roses to see the further
161 roses
grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2015
(Group 3)

rosabigchiefcflorogerltd
Hybrid Tea Shape

rosasarahvanfleetcflorogerltd
Quart-ered Bloom Shape

rosapimpinellifoliaflot
Flat

rosahenrimartincflorogerltd1
Glo-bular

rosafruhlingsmorgencflorogerltd
Single with 1-7 Petals

rosabeholdcflorogerltd
Double with 16-25 Petals

rosairrisistiblecflorogerltd
Very Full with over 40 Petals

 

99 Bedding
flower colours
with their

salviacfloguaranticablackandbluegarnonswilliams
Blue

dahliacflodavidhowardgarnonswilliams1b
Orange

verbenacflohomesteadpurplegarnonswilliams
Purple

pyrethrumcflo1roseumdurogarnonswilliams
Red

gypsophyllacflocoventgardengarnonswilliams
White

dianthuscflo1barbatuskaleidoscopekavanagh
White / Colour

dahliacfloabacussolgarnonswilliams
Yellow

99 Bedding
Plant Description Pages,

dahliacflojessicagarnonswilliams
Dahlia

salviacflo1patenskavanagh1
Salvia

cannacflophasiongarnonswilliams
Canna

cosmoscflosulphureusgarnonswilliams
Cosmos

salviacflosplendenssalsapurplegarnonswilliams
Salvia

penstemoncflowhitebedderkavanagh
Pen-stemon

verbenacflosxhybridasaintgeorgegarnonswilliams
Ver-bena


Flower Shape and
Petal Count
Pages
followed by

osteopspermumcflo1sunnycecilgarnonswilliams
Stars Shape

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams
Saucer Shape

penstemoncflopenningtongemgarnonswilliams
Trum-pet Shape

salviacflotrelissickgarnonswilliams
Lobes Shape

dahliacflofascinationgarnonswilliams
Floret Shape

dahliacfloteesbrookeaudreygarnonswilliams
6 or More Petals

dahliacflodavidhowardgarnonswilliams1
6 or More Petals


Bedding Use Pages

geraniumcflowlassovianumbluestargarnonswilliams
Bed-ding out

argyranthemumcflopetitepinkgirlgarnonswilliams
Filling In

salviacflophyllisfancygarnonswilliams
Scree-ning Use

verbenacflos1lafrancekavanagh
In Pots

bidenscfloferulifoliagoldeneyegarnonswilliams
In Window Boxes

cupheacflollaveakavanagh
In Hang-ing Bas-kets

dahliacflo1moonfiregarnonswilliams
Sum-mer Bed-ding

 

 

1115 Wildflowers have flower colour pages to compare the plants with the same flower colours:-

from all the Native-to-the-UK-plants-in-1950 in their following 180 families. Each plant in each Family Page is aimed to have the following photos with it:-

  • a Flower
  • Flowers
  • Foliage
  • Shape

as well as the text giving its

If its Plant Description Page has been created
(297 created by May 2015 - see number created from each family on far right),
then its Common Name in the Page will be linked to it.
All the Wildflower Plants in these Family Pages also have External Website Links to

 

 

  • and the other Photo Galleries in the Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics on the left at the top of each page.

The first 2 Colour Wheels detailed below add many of these plants together for comparison purposes.

 

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Colour from the initial 1381 Cultivated Plants and 628 Wildflower Plants detailed in this Website:-

Takes 15 Seconds to load

Click on number between 1-7 from 12 Colour or 1-6 from Black Sections or Wild White to see all the plant flowers (1381 cultivated - with another 115 roses in the Rose Plants Gallery, another 270 bulbs in the Bulb Gallery, and 628 native to the UK wildflower) in this website with their:-

  • Common Name,
  • Botanical Name and
  • Months of Flowering

in one of the above 53 Flower Colour Wheel pages to create your colour coordinated flower schemes.

Each Plant Description can then be selected by clicking on the:-

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Bloom Colour in that Month from the initial 1381 Cultivated Plants and 628 Wildflower Plants detailed in this Website:-

bloomsmonth

Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Click the number 1 to see all the plant flowers (1446 cultivated, 235 wildflower) in this website with their:-

  • Botanical Name (Common Name for Wildflowers)
  • Soil Preference
  • Sun Aspect
  • Soil Moisture
  • Height and
  • in each Month of Flowering

in one of the above 144 Flower Colour Wheel pages to create Blue, Brown, Cream, Green, Mauve, Orange, Purple, Red, Pink, White, Yellow or Multicoloured (Grey circle in the middle) colour coordinated flower schemes in each month.

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with the same Colour from Bee-Pollinated Flowers:-

For Hay Fever sufferers, it is better to have bee-pollinated plants than wind-pollinated plants, since the pollen spread by that wind is what causes their suffering. The plants in Bee Bloom Gallery are bee-pollinated and they should be used in preference to grasses.
 

Click on the OOO in the Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index below to link to those bee-pollinated plants of that flower colour in that month or any of

ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in April-June
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-June
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-September
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in April-June
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in May-June
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant - for those plants.

Enumber indicates Empty Index Page.
Bottom row of Grey is Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

OOO E1.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Blue

OOO

OOO
E11.

OOO
E12.

OOO E13.

OOO
E14.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Mauve

OOO

OOO

OOO
E24.

OOO
E25.

OOO
E26.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Purple

OOO
E34.

OOO
E35.

OOO
E36.

OOO
E37

OOO
E38

OOO

OOO
E40

OOO
E41

OOO
E42

OOO

OOO

OOO
Brown

OOO

OOO
E47

OOO
E48

OOO
E49

OOO
E50

OOO
E51

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Cream

OOO
E58

OOO
E59

OOO
E60

OOO
E61

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Green

OOO

OOO
E71

OOO
E72

OOO
E73

OOO
E74

OOO
E75

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E80

OOO
E81Orange

OOO
E82

OOO
E83

OOO
E84

OOO
E85

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Pink

OOO

OOO
E95

OOO
E96

OOO
E97

OOO
E98

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Red

OOO

OOO
E107

OOO
E108

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
White

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Yellow

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E133

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Unusual

OOO

OOO
E143

OOO
E144

There are topics on how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting in this website, with the following further detail:-

Garden Maintenance
When you get a private garden, you need to know about your soil so that possible remedial action can be taken. When you know whether it is acidic or alkaline then it's maintenance is easier for you.
This can be followed by organic garden maintenance to understand what are the problems and joys of your garden. The relevant sections of the glossary, tool shed and library should aid you.

Hard Landscaping Garden Design
If you decide to change a portion of your garden, then design the whole of your private garden; rather than doing bits which become unrelated to each other or to the house. If your soil is clay, then this has major design ramifications. The library with case studies will aid the hard landscaping design, especially on drives.

Soft Landscaping Garden Design
The offbeat glossary, the plants,
the plant photographic galleries - Aquatic , Bamboo , Bedding , Bulb , Climber , Conifer , Deciduous Shrub , Deciduous Tree , Evergreen Perennial , Evergreen Shrub , Evergreen Tree , Fern , Grass , Hedging , Herbaceous Perennial , Herb , Odds and Sods , Rhododendron , Rose , Soft Fruit , Top Fruit , Vegetable , Wild Flower -
and companion planting aid the soft landscaping design. To aid your flower colour selection:-

  • for complementary or contrasting colour schemes; the Colour Wheel - Flower Petal has been created as shown in the first colour wheel above.
  • The 12 colours per month in the Colour Wheel - Bloom in Month provide a crossection of bulb, climber, shrub etc plants with the same flower colour in the same month as shown in the second colour wheel above.
  • The third Colour Wheel above can be used by HayFever sufferers to use plants that are Bee-Pollinated instead of being wind pollinated.
  • The fourth Colour wheel below aids your selection of Rock Plants for your rock garden.

The Wild Flower Gallery and the Wildlife on Plant Butterfly Gallery show the relationship between the Butterfly and its plant to aid the creation of a wildlife friendly section to your garden.

You can select plants for your garden using the following hierarchy as further detailed in Plants:-

Garden Construction
Having done the structural and detailed design process, garden construction can then take place in stages with the aid of getting materials using useful data, before returning once more to organic garden maintenance.

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Colour of Rock Garden Plants:-

The Rock Garden Plant Index pages provide all the required information in a condensed form to aid your selection of (82) small rock garden plants for small areas - with the flower colour linking to the Rock Garden Plant Colour Wheel Page (click on number in colour of Rock Garden Colour Wheel Map below to transfer) to see which other rock garden plants are in that same colour.


colourwheelexported1a1

monkeyorchid1a1a1

This is a sad story about our native Monkey Orchid....

 

It is so sad, that she has to lie down, and...

monkeyorchid2a

Irrelevant material like this row, with

  • Ivydene Gardens Logo
  • Ivydene Horticultural Services Email Link and
  • copyright is added at bottom of each page.

...to prevent cows from eating our native orchid plants, we must put the orchids in chicken-wire cages:-monkeyorchid3a

 

"The Green Tree of Love's Mystery"
by
Madeleine F. Williamson Pires


thegreentreeoflovesmysterybymadeleinepires1a1a1a

"As well as producing oxygen for us to breathe, trees are for humans a place of refuge, source of building material and for me, a living testament to the bounteous beauties inherent in nature. In our fast-moving contemporary city life, I believe it is important to at least have pictures of trees around us to enrich our lives, since they are designed to make our environment healthier." from
Madeleine F. Williamson Pires.

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Amended May 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Continuation of Sadness about Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Maderia

 

 

Tree falls at monte funchal photo

This looks like the roots of the tree that fell at monte in 2017.

item6a

There does not seem to be much in the way of roots on this tree and the ones we can see are far too small for the height of this tree. Perhaps this tree was growing over a rock and that is why there appears to be no roots directly under a portion of the trunk. The visible radial roots are not thick enough to the right of the trunk, is that because not enough water and nutrients have been supplied to this tree every day when it is in very close competition with other very large trees very close by. The visible roots of this tree are far smaller than 1 of the major roots cut off as detailed in ROOT4 above.

 

There is no evidence of irrigation or of supplying nutrients to these trees. The root area is covered by concrete pavers. The size of the roots and the strength of them under that concrete will be negligible, when less than 1% of the root area can ever receive any rain. The roots need to breathe, receive humus on a regular basis to replace that which is lost to irrigation taking it below the roots and the soil life consuming it on a regular basis; and water to replace that lost by growth and what is transpired through the leaves. I have yet to see any mulches being used and I suspect that the only nutrients are supplied hydroponically in the irrigation system as was done at the Pestana Grand, where in the first winter they drowned their plants before I told them how to correct the situation - they followed the advice and when I saw the bed a year later, I found that they had stopped using that advice. When I see a dentist and they advise that a tooth is abstracted, most people do not ignore the advice and fail to have that tooth abstracted because they think they know better.

 

Homem vítima de agressão no Monte

treesinmaderia1

 

Soil Structure

This describes the way in which sand, silt and clay particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’.

 

The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram.

 

soil15c9a

 

Once microaggregates have formed, they can then coalesce to form macroaggregates. In soils that have low concentrations of clay, macroaggregate stability is highly dependent on organic matter. The soil underneath pavements and roads has neither clay nor organic matter in Funchal. You might add 1000 grammes of clay per cubic metre of mulch mix before replenishing the mulch which has been irrigated into the area under the pavement. This replenishment might need to be more than once a month, since its covering will no longer be visible under the irrigation/seat system before the end of that month. This clay might also stop the ground under this seating area from "Soil Crusting". If the soil is heavy clay, then add 1000 grammes of sand instead of clay per cubic metre of mulch mix. Pedestrians walking on the CedarDrive will break the cullet below it; this material can then be formed into more soil as a quartz grain equivalent.

The type of organic matter associated with macroaggregates is slightly different from the persistent organic material found in microaggregates. Type one are those stabilising agents that are referred to as ‘temporary’. These consist of microbial and plant by-products, the most important of which are the ‘polysaccharide gums’ that are simply long chains of sugar molecules. Secondly, there are ‘transient’ stabilising agents, which include the fine plant roots and fungal hyphae.

Both stabilising compounds are vulnerable to microbial attack so need to be replenished continuously through inputs of fresh soil organic matter.

If microaggregates do not have a continuing supply of organic matter, then they will break up so that soil particles simply return to being sand, silt or clay.

 

The soil under the pavement surrounding the above trees does not provide gas exchange, irrigation or nutrients to over 99% of those tree's roots. I have yet to see any mulch applied to any bed either in private gardens or public areas, so how does soil remain and not return to simply being sand or silt? Perhaps the trees are falling down due to lack of a mulch?

 

You might say that nobody irrigates or provides nutrients to the Madeira Laurel Forest: Laurissilva, so why do they not fall down?

  • Nobody crushes their roots by driving 40 ton waste lorries over the tarmac on top of them,
  • nobody restricts their access to gas exchange,
  • nobody restricts the rain irrigation or
  • nobody comes along and removes all plant waste material which would stop the replenishment of their nutrients from the leaves and branches that do fall to the ground in that forest, and get recycled by the soil life in their fast-food restaurant back to those roots.
  • The plants only grow when their share of the available recycled nutrients,
    support of the other trees round them,
    free gas exchange through the soil - being not compressed by vehicles or people even when that soil is saturated and therefore the channels created by the worms would get squashed -
    water and sunshine is in place.

    Neither is that soil rotavated each spring as happens in the vegetable garden, which totally destroys the soil structure - imagine if you lived in a skyscraper on the top floor and you only ate sunshine and your friend in the basement only ate the dark and then every spring your world was turned upside down, both of you would die. The lift (created by worms) that you used to use to see your friend when it rained and was full of water is destroyed. Then the water would have drained and air would have occupied that tube. The worms at different soil levels also died because they got cut up.
    How to use Companion Planting in your Garden with its covering of bare ground by spinach, mustard or nasturtium instead of rotovating will restore your soil to being soil instead of a Growmore chemically fed mess.

 

"Any tree planted within 3 feet (90 cms) of a wall will damage the foundations of that wall.

If the eventual height of the tree that you wish to plant will exceed the distance from a wall, then dig a hole 8 feet (240 cms) wide and 3 feet (90 cms) deep, line it with geotextile like Plantex from Travis Perkins - or overlapping concrete slabs on the sides and bottom- to prevent the roots from exceeding that space but it does allow water and air through its spaces. Then, mix

  • 3 portions of the Top Soil part of excavated soil with
  • 1 portion of Spent Mushroom Compost to provide the humus,
  • 0.5 portion of Cow Manure to provide the fertiliser and
  • 25Kg of Calcified Seaweed to provide the Trace Elements

using a cement mixer and refill that hole, firming the ground with your heels after each foot (30 cms) of height has been added." from Deciduous and Evergreen Trees Suitable for Small Gardens List Page that I originally created in December 2006.

 

 

You normally eat and drink at least 3 times every day to keep you growing, healthy and active;
plants also require to eat and drink every day.
Above 5 degrees Celcius plants tend to grow above ground and
below 5 degrees Celcius they tend to grow their roots underground.

2 minor points to remember with their result-

  • the oxygen you breathe to keep you alive has mostly been produced by plants using the Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Cycle . A 25 feet x 25 feet lawn can produce enough oxygen for you to keep breathing each year.
  • A car driven 60 miles will consume the same amount of oxygene that a mature beech tree produces in 1 year.
  • Result is that the Carbon Dioxide produced by machines and people/animals breathing is exceeding what plants can do to transform Carbon Dioxide back into air, especially since more of the ground area used for vegetation is being changed to one which is not.
    Increasing Carbon Dioxide increases the heat in the atmosphere and gives what we call Climate Change - In the early Pliocene, global temperatures were 1–2˚C warmer than the present temperature, yet sea level was 15–25 meters (50 - 75 feet) higher than today. The increase in temperature will raise sea level to drown many acres of coastal areas around the world because we as a human race are so stupid; within the next century.

 

Unfortunately Maderia is not the only country to totally ignore one of the basic requirements of humans - to breathe; it would appear that many including my own also do not bother that we are asphyxiating ourselves.

 

So lets see what would happen if we did to a growing child what we do to trees in pavements, like the Maple which is more than 24 inches (60 cms) into a main road:-

Tree

30 feet = 360 inches = 900 cms high and wide with radius of 15 feet for its roots

Adult

5.5 feet = 66 inches = 165 cms high with same width and root radius as tree. She has a 50cm radius, thick copper, band round her neck.

Roots in 63.64 square metres

May receive water on 1 square metre so only 1.57% of the roots get water

Mouth

May receive water only on 1.57% of her mouth opening and that is only when it is raining or someone provides irrigation.

 

May transfer carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen through the ground to only 1.57% of roots

Nose and Skin

Breathing through only 1.57% of her nose and 1.57% of her skin

 

May transfer nutrients to only 1.57% of roots.

Mouth

May receive on nutrients through only 1.57% of her mouth

 

98.43% of the roots will have to rely on the 1.57% of the roots to provide nourishment to keep them searching for underground water, underground other sources of nutrients and access to the atmosphere for gaseous exchange.

 

She is thirsty, starving and out of breath

 

Some exposed roots get run over by 40 ton lorries every day and others buried within 60cms also receive the same punishment.

 

I doubt her toes would last long.

 

1 or 2 of the 7 main roots are cut off. Support of tree is compromised.

 

Her big toes are cut off, which makes it difficult for her to maintain her balance in strong winds.

 

 

 

 

Junction of Roots and above ground Trunk

This Maple tree has exceeded its 100 cm diameter ground space and is now sitting on top of tarmac, concrete pavers and concrete slabs. These prevent the live trunk above from meeting the main root below. This means that amount of trunk supporting the tree above is becoming less and less able to provide the strength to support the tree. A strong wind will snap the tree at this point

Neck

The neck has exceeded 50cms radius. Her body and head have continued to grow. Because of the copper band her head may well break off in a high wind. Removing the copper band will also break her neck, since the muscles in the neck will not be able to hold the extra weight.

Trunk

Due to lack of nutrients, water and gaseous exchange in the root area, it is difficult to create new branches or leaves.

Head and hair

The skin is stretched over the face in a gaunt expression and the hair is short and thin, due to same lack as for the trees.

 

Old branches fall off in the wind creating jagged tears in the trunks. These then rot and the rot continues down the heartwood of the tree, since no-one maintains these trees. This root weakens the tree and eventually it will fall down.

 

Any damage caused by wind, rain or objects hitting the face are not repaired and can lead to unfortunate results.

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

Strange that people need plants to get the oxygen they breathe every day, but do not connect that thought that these trees provide that oxygen.
They reduce their supply of oxygen by concreting over more and more of the world!

 

Those trees will die and fall down.

 

Since your daughter would have died long ago, if she had suffered the above, why do you make the trees suffer?

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Sub Menu to each Page of this Topic of the HOME PAGES, with normally a * after Page you are viewing.
Page Menu may also have an Index (Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.

 

Sadness about Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Maderia, which will either

  • send only their branch(es) to the ground or
  • include the branches with the tree trunk and send those to the ground,
  • within the next 3 years.
  • See photos of trees in Monte and the tragedy when people were killed by 1 of them falling on top of them at the bottom of this page. Would a mulch and irrigation have stopped this occuring? If yes and nothing is done for these trees during the next year, then I extend my
    condolences to the bereaved from those tree parts falling on their relatives who might send the Tourism Minister a spray of
    Red Carnation - Alas for my poor heart,
    Christmas Rose - Relieve my anxiety and
    Hawthorne - provide Hope (ISBN 0 7181 0593 1);
    on the funeral day
    condolences to the tourists if they are cut down as a cheaper solution or
    condolences to the remaining trees who no longer have the wind reduction support of their neighbours. Roads who had trees in their pavements could well become wind tunnels.

 

I walked between the Tourism Department in Funchal to the Forum along the pavements either side of the main road used by buses 1, 2 and 4 including the 2 parallell roads above the Pestana Promenade, the one above the other (which was used as the main road) before the cul-de-sac road below with the Pestana Promenade at its end was turned into the main road instead.

The following explains some of the problems with the

  • tree roots
  • junction between tree roots and trunk
  • trunk and branches

with some suggestions for:-

  • tree roots
  • junction between tree roots and trunk
  • trunk and branches
  • where to get the water that is wasted in order to water these trees and
  • where to get the mulch material

 

The trees in the pavement between those 2 points have these problems for their roots:-

  • ROOT1 - their roots are being starved of oxygen by the tarmac of the road or pavement, or the concreted white/black marble in the pavement,
  • ROOT2 - they are being asphixiated by their own roots release of carbon dioxide and nitrogen,
  • ROOT3 - they are being denied water due to the tarmac above. The following is from drought care by The Morton Arboretum - " When watering trees, shrubs, and other landscape plants, remember that they absorb water and nutrients through their roots, most of which are in the upper 1 to 2 feet (30-60 cms) of soil. The goal is to keep plant roots moist, but not wet. Constantly saturated conditions also can damage roots. Depending on air temperatures, trees and shrubs need at least 1 inch of water applied every week to 10 days to cope with lack of rain. Larger, established trees have a wide-spreading root system and need not be watered as frequently, perhaps every 2 to 3 weeks. Let the top few inches of soil dry out between watering to avoid saturation and to allow roots and soil organisms to breathe."
    The following is from How and when to water by The Morton Arboretum - "There is no reason to water the leaves of a plant. Water the soil, where the roots are. The Arboretum recommends watering within the drip line of a tree, from the trunk out to the end of the branches, to reach the roots most effectively."
    ,
  • ROOT4 - their roots are being cut off, enclosing walls built and 18 inches (45 cms) depth of soil or the excess concrete added on top (If this added soil is in contact with the trunk instead of its roots then the tree will come under more strain than having had 1 of its main roots with 20cm diameter cut off in order to erect the wall). Moist soil piled against a trunk or on top of root flares causes decay at different rates, depending on the tree species and soil type. Constantly moist bark loses its ability to protect the tree from pathogens and insects and puts the tree in stress), and then a new pavement round the wall, so that pedestrians no longer have to step out 1.0 metre from the original pavement edge into the road to get to the next section of pavement,
  • ROOT5 - there would appear to be a 1 metre diameter of soil enclosed by a concrete wall of edging or concrete allowed for each tree for its entire life from when it is inserted into that area as a 2.5 cm diameter x 300 cm high trunk and tied with inner tube tyre to a 2.5 cm wooden pole also 300cms high (The Morton Arboretum has a different tree planting system; including the staking method). The ground level within each tree enclosure area was either bare soil, tarmac, tarmac on the road with roots exposed to passing vehicle tyres, or some other pavement material. The following is the care advice given by The Morton Arboretum - "Mulch is another important element in good plant health care maintenance. Apply a 3-to-4-inch layer of organic, composted mulch (wood chips, leaves, or pine bark) extending from the base of the plant out past the drip line (end of the branches). Do not let the mulch rest against the trunk of the plant. All plants benefit from mulch, because, as the mulch breaks down, it provides an excellent growing medium for roots, and acts as a slow release fertilizer. Mulch will also help conserve moisture, moderate soil temperatures, eliminate weeds, and protect the trunk from mechanical injury, especially weed whips and lawn mowers."
  • ROOT6 - The soil within some of the enclosures for these trees appears to have shrunk to form a pit and expose the tree roots. Is this because the tree has kept on removing the water from the soil until it becomes dust and so the ground level sinks?

 

The following is a copy of the information in The Morton Arboretum website:-

"TREE ROOT PROBLEMS

Root systems are vital to the health and longevity of trees. All plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients. These are most readily available near the soil surface where precipitation infiltrates the soil and oxygen from the atmosphere diffuses into the porous soil. Most roots, therefore, especially the important, tiny, absorbing roots, proliferate near the soil surface. The majority of a large tree’s roots are in the upper 18"-24" (45-60 cms) of soil. When space is available, roots can spread two to three times further than the branches. Tree roots are often associated with situations that cause damage to structures, pavements, and utilities. In almost every case, roots are not the cause of the problem.

 

ROOTS AND UNDERGROUND PIPES

Instances of pipes being broken by the growth of roots are rare, but blockage of damaged pipes is not uncommon. As roots enlarge, they may occasionally break the pipes and enter the cracks. More commonly, the pipes fail (especially at the joints) due to age or slight movement of the soil, allowing roots to invade. Moisture and nutrients released from ruptures can stimulate root growth toward the break in the pipe. Once a root enters a sewer pipe, the conditions of aeration, moisture, and nutrients are quite favorable for rapid growth. Species that are naturally found in wet areas such as poplars, willows, and silver maples, are commonly associated with clogged pipes. Blocked sewers usually must be cleared mechanically. Mechanical routing may be needed on an annual basis. Registered chemical treatments are available. The main advantage of these products is that they can be placed into the sewer as a foam for more effective contact with roots; however, it is essential to follow label directions. The only permanent solution to the problem, however, is to replace ruptured pipes. Modern materials and joints should prevent most problems in the future.

 

ROOTS AND PAVEMENT

If trees are too close to pavement, or if compacted soil forces large roots to grow very near the soil surface, roots can eventually lift pavement. When roots encounter a paved area, the only entry is often a gap between the soil and pavement. Future problems can be prevented at the time of planting by using smaller plants, providing a minimum distance of 4 feet between the tree and the pavement, or using mechanical barriers to prevent roots from growing under the pavement. Remedies for lifted pavements around mature trees often involve either moving the pavement away from the tree or pruning off the problem roots. Barriers are often installed after the roots are cut to prevent re-growth of the roots and recurrence of the pavement lifting. Cutting off the problem roots often causes stress and instability. Trees without sufficient root support can be blown over more easily in a storm.

 

ROOTS AND FOUNDATIONS

Roots are often blamed for damage to foundations. In reality, roots are rarely the cause of the problem. Though small roots may penetrate existing cracks in foundations, they are incapable of causing mechanical damage through their growth. Soil subsidence can result in damage to structures. Under very special circumstances roots can contribute to this problem. When soils are prone to shrinking substantially during periods of drought, and if foundations are shallow, roots can contribute to depletion of soil moisture under the foundation, causing it to subside. See further details in the following pages - Subsidence and Case Study number 1.

 

SURFACE ROOTS

Major tree roots often grow within a few inches of the soil surface. Some species, such as maples, grow roots particularly close to the surface. Alternate freezing and thawing causes frost-heaving, which can expose roots that would otherwise remain below the soil surface. On slopes, soil erosion may also expose roots. These surface roots could become a foot hazard or cause difficulty in mowing, and are easily injured. Removing these roots may disrupt the moisture supply to the tree, causing serious stress. Covering them with soil could cut off the oxygen supply to the fine roots in the soil below. Both situations could lead to decline. The best solution is usually to mulch the area under the tree with compost and/or wood chips. These materials are porous enough to allow sufficient oxygen supply to the soil and may actually encourage fine root growth. Acting as an insulator, the mulch will minimize further frost-heaving and erosion. Another benefit is the replacement of highly competitive turf grass with mulch, which supplies nutrients as it decomposes. Grass removal is not necessary before the mulch is applied. If mulch is not an option, raise the soil surface by adding no more than two inches of halfcompost/ half-topsoil mix. An additional 2 inches can be added each year as necessary to raise the soil level sufficiently to cover the roots. The lawn can then be replanted, but the tree roots may reappear on the surface within a few years.

 

GIRDLING ROOTS

Tree roots that wrap around the base of the trunk can restrict the flow of water and nutrients up and down the trunk, leading to decline and dieback of the crown. Norway maples are most susceptible to damage from girdling roots, but they can occur in most trees. When roots circling inside of a pot in the nursery cause the problem, the tree seldom survives more than a decade in the landscape. On “balled & burlapped” plants, girdling roots develop for different reasons and the decline may take 20 to 30 years to develop. To prevent girdling roots in nursery stock, make sure that all circling roots on the outside of the root ball are eliminated at time of planting. Research shows that moderate disruption of the container root system does not increase stress. For large girdling roots on established trees, correcting the problem can be difficult. Removal of the girdling roots may cause enough damage to the root system to hasten the decline. Several roots may be intertwined, making it even more difficult. It is difficult to predict if removing the roots will be more damaging than leaving them alone.

 

GRADE CHANGES

Roots grow much closer to the soil surface than is often believed. Since roots are near the surface and depend on oxygen, raising the soil level around an established tree can have serious impact. This new soil will drastically reduce the oxygen supply to roots. On the other hand, removing just a few inches of topsoil can also remove much of the tree’s root system, severely stressing the plant. When grade changes are necessary, avoid changing the grade within the dripline of the tree. The fewer roots that are impacted, the better the chances that the tree will survive. Another alternative would be to construct a retaining wall outside the dripline to accomplish the grade change. If the grade change is necessary to improve site drainage, be sure to divert the excess water away from the tree.

 

SEVERING ROOTS

Balance between the tree’s crown (top) and root system is important for maintaining healthy trees. When roots are lost for any reason, the imbalance creates stress. A tree usually has 4 to 7 major roots. Cutting just one of them within a few feet of the trunk can remove up to 25 percent of the root system. In such situations, giving the tree extra water during summer dry periods and thinning the crown may help to minimize decline. During temporary excavation, such as for utility installation or repair, significant root loss may result, but if the soil is replaced soon afterward, roots can regenerate into the replaced soil and recovery is more likely. Extra care (primarily watering) will be required for many years during the restoration of the lost roots. When underground utilities must be installed close to a tree, tunneling or augering under the root system avoids damage altogether."

 

How does water act in the soil? page shows how even on the sandy-type soil in Maderia that 'soil crusting' can occur where this crusting effectively seals the soil surface so that instead of infiltrating the soil, rain or irrigation water collects in puddles where it is then evaporated.

 

If you walk from the Lido roundabout down the main road towards the Pestana Promenade Hotel, you come to the first hotel, whose almost horizontal carpark drive runs parallel to the lido roundabout and back to what tourists call Cardiac Hill with its restaurants and supermarket. The hotel has installed a very narrow flower bed with palm trees and a rubber pipe irrigation system that has irrigated those trees since they were planted many years ago. Those trees look in the pink of health, because their roots have had the water and the oxygen and probably some fertiliser in the irrigation water with bare soil above them since they were planted.

One of the first trees on the left side of that drive had 1 or 2 young shoots growing very near the base of the trunk. There are no shoots with any leaves on them for at least 5 metres in height on the trees within the pavements from the Tourism Department to the Forum shopping centre, due to those branches and trunks being repeatedly covered with light bulbs for separate holiday functions every year with the humans who erect them clambering all over those exposed surfaces and destroying any juvenile new growth.

The only fault that is evident within the flower beds of the carpark drive of that hotel is that all waste plant growth is removed from those beds so those plants are entirely reliant on man-made nutrients in soluble form:-

As you walk down the main road to that hotel on the left and seaward side with its irrigated plants in its driveway beds, you will notice the mass of vegetation between that main road and its partner above. This vegetation covers the ground and is not managed - that means all its dead leaves etc stay with it and the geckos and other soil life organisms cycle that waste to the plant's roots as nutrients. The ground-covering vegetation reduces water loss from the sun's rays hitting the ground or the wind from drying it out. Those flowers and plants look healthy with plenty of growth.
It is quite likely that that vegetation is of native Maderian plants - there are experts in the Lido Tours on the native maderian plants, geology, bats, etc who might be able to advise. Opposite the Pestana Promenade Hotel the cliff has been excavated to allow a bed of grass and palm trees to be grown. Apparently people are afraid that the weight of the native trees in the pavement of the main road above are causing the rockfalls. It is possible that the original cliff was at about 150 degrees to the horizontal road below. It is probably now at 120 degrees, thus the weight above is no longer fully supported and the downward force is breaking the cliff. The grass (see the root amount created by a grass plant planted in Type I Roadstone to appreciate how those roots abstract any water they find from their root surroundings) and palm trees continue to rob all the water from the bed area, turning that soil into dust, which does not provide the support or cohesion that soil with sufficient water in it does. If the grass (see the fibrous roots of a Ryegrass Plant to show why all rain is absorbed by roots of the grass before the roots of that tree underneath can receive any and this is why I recommend that a radius of at least 24 inches - 60 cms - from the trunk is left free of grass or any other perennial, shrub or tree. Bulbs planted there are fine providing they not electric bulbs) and palm trees were removed from that bed and the grass growing on the cliff just below the wall alongside the pavement of the road above, that would stop the dehydration of that cliff face. If the same plants as in the cliff area closer to the Lido were planted with an irrigation system, which was used to get them established within 2-3 years and then switched off, and NO PLANT MAINTENANCE CARRIED OUT ON THAT AREA TO REMOVE DEAD PLANT MATERIAL OR PRUNE EXCEPT TO PRUNE OFF ANY MATERIAL ESCAPING THE ALLOTTED AREA, then that cliff face could be stabilised.

 

Summary of main problems with the ROOTS of the trees in the pavements and roads of Funchal.

 

Roots of trees require water, oxygen and nutrients as shown above in Tree Root Problems. Air flow through the soil for the roots to breathe in the oxygen and for the roots to breathe out carbon dioxide - The carbon content stored in soil is eventually returned to the atmosphere through the process of respiration, which is carried out by heterotrophic organisms that feed upon the carbonaceous material in the soil. Since plant roots need oxygen, ventilation is an important characteristic of soil. This ventilation can be accomplished via networks of soil pores, which also absorb and hold rainwater making it readily available for plant uptake. Since plants require a nearly continuous supply of water, but most regions receive sporadic rainfall, the water-holding capacity of soils is vital for plant survival.

ROOT3 provides the following:-

  • The Arboretum recommends watering within the drip line of a tree, from the trunk out to the end of the branches, to reach the roots most effectively.

ROOT5 provides the following:-

  • Mulch is another important element in good plant health care maintenance. Apply a 3-to-4-inch layer of organic, composted mulch (wood chips, leaves, or pine bark) extending from the base of the plant out past the drip line (end of the branches).

 

Many of these trees have their drip line extending over most of the pavement and some of the road. So how do we provide the water, oxygen and nutrients as required?

 

Where can we get the water required for these trees?

 

Besides the main telephone not working, no instructions on how to get a DVD that we had brought with us to work on the tv, the light shade knocking on my head every time I sat down at the table for 4 and had my wife's elbow sticking into my ribs, the 3 seater-sofa-bed being made up although my wife had only asked for an extra duvet so that I could sleep on top of the sofa with pillows at my head and leg end so that I could drain my ankles overnight and stop myself from drowing in my own phlegm - with no instructions on how to convert it back to a sofa in my first weeks accomodation, both toilets were leaking water from the cistern directly to the toilet bowl. Every 2 to 3 hours the liquid in my body needs a normal method of discharge. Being on potassium-sparing diuretics the resulting liquid is coloured ( when I reported this to my doctor, she specified that I needed to drink more since I was dehydrated - didn't like to point out that according to the notes issued within the packaging of my medication, that 3 of the 9 should not taken in conjunction with each other), 3 hours later I was about to release some more liquid and was interested to note that the water in the bowl was not coloured anymore. I called in the hotel staff and the maintenance man removed the stainless steel plunger from the cistern and replaced the broken non-rubber washer with a rubber one in each cistern - having stated that these washers only lasted 2 years. My toilet in the guest bathroom continued to leak; the maintenance man came back with the housekeeper. After their visit, it still leaked.
The following week in different accomodation, my guest bathroom toilet also leaked. This time the discolouration after 3 hours became clear down to just under the top of the U bend in the bowl, so this leak was less. Being your most everso humble servants, we are extremely grateful to pay a mere £50 a day maintenance charges during the fortnight's stay for plumbing that leaks, curtains that are washed without the tapes being untied so that when they are rehung they no longer cover the window area leaving light from the external hotel lights coming inside; and rust on each of the 4 electric cooking plates above the oven.

If you dump the remainder of your strongly-coloured tea from the teapot into each of your loos, you will discover - if out of the million or so toilets with the same flushing system in Funchal - that yours is also leaking.

 

Where to get the water in order to water these trees?
Instead of the cistern water leaking into the loo this water could irrigate those trees within the pavement or road.

 

Having got a supply of water, where are we going to get the nutrients required?

 

In most areas of gardens, that I have seen in Funchal; the soil between the plants is bare. This means all prunings, grass mowings, autumn leaves etc are dumped.

Instead of dumping, collect them with 2% by volume of seaweed (see the benefits of seaweed from how to grow potatoes in Seaweed) and shred them into sawdust - do not compost this mixture as that will provide food for the soil organisms who turn it into further nutrients for the trees. Collect food not eaten from restaurants and put through a BIOGAS Production System and use the Biofertilizer produced to add to the shreddings. Mix with water in a concrete mixer before delivery - after each time the mulch has been transferred under the pavement by the irrigation system above it - to each of the 4 tree's irrigation/seating systems to provide a mulch and fertiliser.

 

 

The trees in the pavement between those 2 points have these problems for the junction between tree roots and trunk:-

PAVEMENT1 - The roots do have any or much access to the air for oxygen, carbon dioxide release, water and nutrients. The 100cm wide enclosure for the tree covers less than 1 square metre width of root area. We will assume that the tree is only 4 metres (400 cms = 160 inches) tall with 4 metre radius of roots. The area of root is 50.27 square metres. That means that less than 2% of the root area can ever receive any water, nutrients etc. Unfortunately the tree grows to fill that area with trunk and then overflow onto the pavement. So all of its life the tree in the pavements of Funchal are going to receive less and less water, nutrients or gas exchange until they receive nothing at all.
I have never seen any mulch in this enclosure for a tree in the pavement. I have yet to see any mulch for trees grown in the open ground in Funchal. Plants in public or private gardens seem to have to rely on water only or water with chemical fertiliser added to it.

 

The gas produced from the BIOGAS Production System can be used as a fuel for the glass destruction machines or to generate electricity for the same purpose. The glass destruction machines can break up the waste glass bottles into cullet of different colours. This will be used for the pavements, when I give the suggestions for providing oxygen to the roots as detailed below in the 'junction between tree roots and trunk' section.

 

The trees in the pavement between those 2 points have these problems for their Trunk and branches:-

TRUNK1 - The pruning of trees shrubs and conifers by George E. Brown, NDH formerly Assistant Curator, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew was first published in 1972 by Faber and Faber Lited. Reprinted 1982 and 1988. Re-issued 1987. ISBN 0 571 11084 3 was a recommended book by Hadlow College, whilst I was a student for HNC in Horticulture in September 1990 to June 1991; after I was made redundant having coded the display for the RAF Helicopter Pilots to use instead of them using paper maps (I was 42 and personnel over 36 were first in line for redundancy). Apparently people use it in their cars and it is currently named Satnav.
Page 31 has a section on Crown Thinning. Fig. 13. on page 32 shows good and bad methods of dealing with a mature tree which is unsafe and is in need of attention. It should be borne in mind that only the main branches have been shown. The broken lines indicate branches which are to be cut out.
(1) This is correct. Those branches which are to remain have been left at full length with very little if any shortening.
(2) The branch systems which are to remain have been shortened. This may lead to cavities in the region of these cuts at a later stage and such shortening should not be carried out.
(3) This form of lopping is definitely wrong.
(4) Lopped to this extent it would make a suitable support for a climber, but the strong shoots resulting from the cuts would need to be cut out occasionally.
Page 33 has a section on Crown Reduction with Fig 14. Part of a branch system under consideration for thinning. The broken lines indicate 2 branches which would be removed under a moderate thinning, the cuts being made at (a). Whole lengths are removed, making the cut as close to the parent branch as possible. Under a severe thinning policy, 3 additional branches are suggested for removal by making indicated by (b). With crown reduction, however, the branches are shortened, the cuts being carefully positioned just above a substantial limb growing in the right direction, seee Fig. 2. on page 4.

A tree in the front garden of the Miramar Hotel within 200 cms of the roadside pavement has been very recently pruned using the same cutting procedure as indicated in (4) of Fig. 13. above with each cut end being at least 15 cms in diameter. It left a trunk and bare branch network covering at least 10 metres width. Unfortunately there was a storm and the wind reduction enjoyed by the tree next to the hotel reception swayed to within 5 cms of the concrete balustrade above that reception area, whilst I watched it from my hotel suites lounge. The trunks of the palm trees that were higher than that tree hardly moved and only their topgrowth of leaves thrashed around. There is a swimming pool above the reception and office area and I do hope that those staff are supplied with diving suits and oxygen tanks. I suspect that nobody did a risk assessment on the result of removal of all foliage and topgrowth of that pruned tree which vastly reduced the wing speed before hitting the trunk swaying tree further up the hill.

None of the cut ends of the tree in the front garden of the Miramar had any protective dressing.
Page 6 of the pruning book by Brown states the following:-
The Protective Dressing
When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case of larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedliy as possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which may alight on the cut surface at any time. All cuts over 25mm (1 inch) in diameter should be treated, although with young specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed. The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests - in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property. It is necessary to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications, although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case is advisable, and it would be natural to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the surface of a large wound as it dries out.
I have never seen any protective dressing on any of the trees in Funchal.

 

Having informed each hotel's staff, it was suggested I talk with the Tourism Minister. I spoke to the receptionist at the Tourism Department in the centre of Funchal. She stated that the Minister was not in, but got a member of staff to have some words with me. I showed her the site map of the Evergreen Trees on my website www.ivydenegardens.co.uk in her office. Standing by the window which had a view of the trees in the pavement outside her office, I started to show her some of the problems with those trees. Before I was fully into my stride, one of her colleagues appeared and she had to go to a meeting. I thanked her and departed.

 

On the Sunday, I slowly walked from the Miramar to the roundabout at the bottom of the hill from the Presidents Office and on to to the English Church. I thought I would inspect the trees on my seaside side and inspect the trees on the other side of the road from the seaward side to see how many were damaged. After inspecting the first 5 on my side and discovering that

  • where branches had been cut off that rot was occuring in each of them and creating holes,
  • 1 of them had a jagged scar about 4-5 metres from the ground where a branch had ripped from its main branch in the storm during the previous week
  • 1 had bark missing over a large portion of the branch close to where that branch met the trunk with the knowledge that rot would occur and that tree would fall into the road and onto the zebra crossing at some future date

I didn't bother to check for further numbers of damaged trees any further in the walk to that roundabout to see if the remainder were in the same condition, since they were the same age and looked as if the same amount of care had been taken with them, whether it was crossing branches, missing bark from sections of the trunk or branches, rival leaders, or water sprouts.

I did note the paucity of topgrowth in a tree in the pavement opposite the park and about a third the way down the hill in comparison to a tree in an adjacent garden of probably the same age, due to the above stated problems.

When I reached the English Church to collect my wife after the Sunday service for the 34th time, I was sad to see that a member of the congregation drove his car from the back area of the church to the front and avoided the damaged part of the pebbled drive by putting his nearside wheels onto the lawn. The small pebbles in the drive are packed together on their edge and into the soil below. If 1 or more of these pebbles is dislodged then the ones alongside follow. Unfortunately the church cannot afford to pay for the crypt water damage or for these driveway repairs and even if they did, then someone accelerating too much on this driveway would create the same problem again. If Cedardrive was used to contain the pebbles, then this problem would no longer occur. Being one of the first churches on the Island, the original road system for use by a pony and cart must still be used for this driveway with smaller pebbles than used in the public road or pavement outside the gates of that church.


Walking from the Mirimar to the Lido passing the 17 Maple-leafed trees on the seaward side of the road, I noticed that besides the damage in the other 12, the last 5 had the following:-

  • holes in the trunk leading to a weakened trunk, which were continuing to rot
  • the end tree trunk was over 24 inches (60 cms) into the road. Its original aluminium post with its sign warning of a tree had been broken and that post had been grown round by the tree. The new sign on its new post had been hit; probably by a wingmirror of a lorry or bus. The base of the tree had been crushed repeatedly and about a 5 cm width of tree trunk removed at tarmac level by wheels of vehicles. Others also had their trunk/root area in the road by less than 24 inches.
  • 1 or 2 of them had overgrown the tarmac, concrete pavers or other material at their bases of the pavement. This reduces the trunk supporting width and leaves the tree getting heavier above but without the extra width of heartwood below to support that extra weight; as shown by the following from the introduction to the Garden Maintenance page -
    This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.
  • Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.
  • gardenmaintenanceimprove1
  •  
  • gardenmaintenanceimprove2
  • The roots of one tree were exposed to the pounding of the traffic over the top of them.
  • If nothing is done, those trunks or top branches will come down.

 

Walking from the Pestana Promenade to the supermarket on the top main road, I found a tree with a hole at ground level at 12:01 (the road) and 18:00 on the pavement and another at 15:00 about 1.5 metres from the ground. The inside heartwood was rotting and that trunk will fail. There was another tree in a similar state close to the Forum.

Walking next to the swimming pool at the Pestana Promenade, I noticed some grey stone gravel under a newly-laid area of concrete pavers. Unfortunately there was no Plantex weed control fabric under the grey stone. This means that the soil will mix with that gravel and come up between the pavers and then grass will grow in between as a result. I have started to notice this occuring on some of the older pavements in Funchal.

 

 

The cheapest answer is to chop those trees down, but at a £1,000,000 worth of each tree to the tourist and the economy of Maderia, I would request that you spend money and look after them.
Since neither the hotels nor the Tourism Department appeared to be interested, all I can do is HOPE.

 

 

I suggest that the existing pavement is carefully removed down to soil level without damaging the roots underneath. Use wheelbarrows and a human workforce on the pavements and no machinery which would crush the tender tree roots until the new pavement has been completed. Exposure of the roots can be for no longer than 20 minutes unless they sprayed with a mist spray pattern to keep them from drying out - see explaination of how soil works to understand how easily the rhizosphere round the tree roots can be destroyed. Then refill back to 4 cms from the original ground level with 8 millimetre cullet obtained from the waste bottles collected from the hotels, restaurants and private homes, with the main irrigation pipe next to the building on the other side of the pavement. Then lay Cedardrive (which was known as Cedargravel) on top and get your local artists, schools, etc to fill the Cedardrive with their choice of coloured cullet to create games, pictures etc. An area of 300 cms long and 30 cms wide can be covered with Cedardrive with its geotextile sheet removed. This area has a metal framed box shape sitting on top of it, which is supported by the pavement edge and the other sides by the Cedardrive which has been filled with cullet. A few sections of that metal frame are extended into the 300 x 30 cm area to stop it sliding into the road or the rest of the pavement. The meshed top can then be used as a seat and local artists, lacemakers etc can then use it during the day to make and sell their wares, or by the public as a seating area for us old fogeys. 1 each side of the tree by the pavement edge and 2 more at other side of pavement. The mulch created from edible food waste/ plant waste/ water can then refill the Cedardrive under those metal framed boxes each month using an open end to insert the flexible output pipe into. Instead of using a spray system in the side facing the pavement to spray the pavement and the mulch in the opposing irrigation system, use the system specified in the next row. The irrigation water will aid in transferring this mulch through the cullet which is under the main pavement area to the roots together with help from the soil organisms; whilst the oxygen and carbon dioxide gases can also have access together with the extra rain when that falls; through the cullet in the Cedardrive. Before the Cedardrive is inserted, soak the ground underneath the pavement, insert the mats on top and leave for 2 hours (long lunch-break?) before commencing the insertion of the mats with the correct colour of cullet.

 

A combination of cullet and expanding foam can be used to fill the holes in the trees, with the exposed area of foam being painted twice with Protective Dressing on the following day.

 

This paving system will work on both a hill and on horizontal pavements, since the loose cullet has been stabilised in this gravel stabilisation system.

 

Perhaps this changeover could be achieved with the same enthusiasm as provided after the middle of Funchal was flooded with rainwater, where within 2 weeks all evidence had been removed.

 

The main irrigation pipe is laid on the furthest side of the pavement from the road under the 2 irrigation/seating areas on that side and connected to them. Pipework from it to each of the 2 irrigation/seating areas by the pavement/road edge is laid between Cedardrive mats, so that in the event of their failure, it only requires the edges of these mats to be pulled up, pipe replaced and mats replaced. Although it would be great to have rainwater, because of the chlorine/fluorine in the water supply, we can't. So the top tank of this seating area is filled very slowly to get the water to automatically flush very 2-4 days. The top tank has a meshed top for ventilation to allow these gases time to escape from the water during that filling time, otherwise that water will kill the organisms in the soil below. The tank below into which this water will flow every 2-4 days has a side with the length of the tank facing the pavement. 60% up this side the remainder is a hinged door. Once the tank has been positioned then a section of geotextile is laid on the open meshed bottom of this lower tank and the cullet is inserted into this up to 75cms in depth. The hinged door is then closed. The water flushing into that tank will have to find its way between the cullet, the geotextile and the meshed bottom to get to the lower section. Thus, it will not flood that lower area by creating a high pressure hose but seep like a Leaky-Pipe Irrigation system instead. If the cullet gets blocked by the impurities in the water supply, then that hinged door can be opened, the cullet replaced and the door rehinged. The irrigation water now seeps onto the mulch below and this then carries that mulch into the area under the rest of the pavement to provide nutrients for the tree and food for the organisms in the soil. The 4 irrigation/seating areas can be cycled so that each day; 1 on each side of the pavement is supplying water to the tree. If this supplies too much or too little water to the tree, then the flow of water to the top tank can changed.

If the pavement is sloped by 1 in 40 towards the middle then this is sufficient for water to flow downhill.

 

What bliss, on a hot day to find a cool seat to sit on, whilst I watch the lacemaker making lace placemats on the opposing bench!!!

 

Provide each of your workforce with 3 Three Kneeling Pads to

prevent their knees from being wet or damaged by stones when kneeling on the ground to work on the pavement, etc. Put one beneath each knee and move one knee to the third when required. Why not try the Memory Foam Support Kneeling Mats?

 

kneelstep1exportedStep One

kneelstep2exportedStep Two

kneelstep3exportedStep Three

As shown on other tools page

 

If the workforce need to step onto the excavated pavement before the replacement cullet and the Cedardrive has been laid down, then provide 1 metre square kneeling mats for them to lay down before they walk over it and even push wheelbarrows over them as well.

 

Wear Yellow Criss Cross Gripper Gloves when using any tools to provide high gripbarriercreamexported even when in water or in rain. These will prevent damage to your hands. They can be washed repeatedly and if holes appear in the palm of one then swap gloves and those holes get onto the top of the other hand.

 

I used to use protective barrier skin cream Derma Guard which is currently replaced with Derma Shield to prevent chaps on my hands (applied once in the morning and again after lunch).

 

Please wear overalls to spare my body reaction to the sight of that exposed skin. Unless I close my eyes when in the Dentist's chair my blood thinning medication goes haywire for 2 months due to long exposure to her face.

trugexported1

 

Use Rubber Garden Trugs, which are very flexible with tough handles; to put the pavement waste in whilst kneeling and excavating. Then, the waste can be loaded into the wheelbarrows behind them.

 

Use a combination of the Roughneck Utility, Wrecking and Aligning Bar Set and a Claw hammer with Shock-absorbent handle to the removal of the original pavement with its sub base down to the soil underneath. This will cause minimal damage to the roots of that tree under that original pavement.

 

A trug can also be used to contain 1 colour of cullet before that cullet is transferred into the Cedardrive using a trowel instead of your hands.

 

Use the Load Eze Skip Safety Ramp to walk the wheelbarrow up and empty into the skip, or the lorry to get your trugful of cullet (put cullet into trug, trug into wheelbarrow, and wheel it to where you need to use it).

 

The artist (from the school, the inhabitants of that road, or the grandmother's union whose only remaining task is to grow onions in shady gardens!) who is creating the coloured pattern in the pavement, should lay out the mats of Cedardrive on the pavement behind the workers removing the original pavement surface in the order that they will be laid onto the next excavated space. Dip a cullet of the required cullet in cane syrup and place in the bottom of each pocket of each mat with the colour of the cullet that will fill it, with 3 pieces of cullet in the top right corner pocket for orientation data to the cullt fillers. The correct colour of cullet can then be inserted later and at the end of that day's work fill all the newly laid mats with water to dissolve that syrup and soak the material under those mats. The pockets next to the tree should be empty of cullet and their sides cut and the geotextile removed under that pocket, so that the trunk growth can push them away. There is no reason why games cannot be inserted like hopscotch, or images with humour in them (walking through Gatwick Airport to and from the aircraft there are translations from many different languages on the walls to provide information on the English required for that service to be provided to them, which also make you smile).

 

If the tree is cut down, do stump-grind so that the risk of honey-fungus is reduced - there is at least 1 that has been recently cut to the ground and its stump left. If you replace that tree, do remember that that tree probably has a similar defense mechanism as Roses do - they release chemicals into the soil to kill any rose planted in the same area within 7 years, so replace it with a tree from a different family. Cutting the stump to provide a dipped are will cause water to collect and hasten the rotting or fungus build up in that trunk/roots. This fungus may well damage the replacement tree.

I have saved a 48 inch (120 cm) diameter of trunk of a tree, that its heartwood was so reduced that I could stand up inside it and if I leaned against it, I could have pushed it over. Using the foam etc, I saved that tree and it was stronger from its growing its outer live area within a year.

Do not give up on a tree.

 

I have not told you about succession yet - a plant has a life period. If you still want a stand of those trees, then you have to provide new trees at a rate to match the dying off of the old in succession rather that as a complete replacement of all at once.

 

Coals to Newcastle telling the people of Maderia (Origin - Portuguese, literally 'timber' (From Latin materia 'Substance'), because of the island's dense woods) how to look after trees.

 

 

 

FROM SATURDAY THE 10TH FEBRUARY 2018, I CAN BUT DREAM OF SAVING THESE EXTREMELY STRESSED TREES.
Unfortunately simply walking up Cardiac Hill leaves me breathless, so I cannot help physically to save them. If I reach 70, I might see if anything has happened next year.

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Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery

Butterfly
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followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

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and it does have links:-

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57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
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...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
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...(o)10 Bedstraw
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box crowberry gallery
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...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
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cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
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hawk dock gallery
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...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
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...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
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...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
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...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
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...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
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...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...Peony
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...Pillwort
...Pine
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...Pipewort
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Quillwort
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...Seaheath
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...Waterwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel
...Yam
...Yew

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.


 

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

 


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi
l.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

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