Ivydene Gardens: WELCOME
Ivydene Gardens informs you how to
design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.
It also compares Cultivated and UK Wildflower plants either grown and/or sold in the UK.

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It has Design, Construct and Maintain Private Garden topic summaries with Plant Selection Methods precis in
 

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1,000's of Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

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TABLE 9 AND
THREE-QUARTERS
-
Cake recipes for Church.
 

On 22 April 2024, my wife informed 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages that the septic tank was full.
Ignoring this; 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages are still using their toilet etc and the drain junction outside our kitchen is repeating to leak their sewage onto land of 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages on 23 April 2024.
It is good to know that if you have a family from the UK, that to obtain your property, they can cut the trees that drain that sewage; and then put down excess sewage to end up in your garden.
The police and Medway Local Authority say that this is a civil matter on what happens to Grade 2 Listed Property.
Scaffolding erected - on 24 April 2024 outside our kitchen of 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages - may prevent the daily 1000 litres of sewage from 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages causing these semi-detached 600 year old properties from subsiding.

Medway Conservation Officer with the Medway Tree Officer did not give 211 permission to 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages to cut off one of the 12 inches diameter (30cm) branches from one of the wild cherry trees in the hedge belonging to 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages in April 2024, without consulting the owners of it in 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, Moor Street, Rainham, Kent.

  • Perhaps Medway did not realise that that branch was supporting another 40 feet (1200cm) high tree in the vegetable garden hedge, which is now unsupported. This statement written on
    7 April 2024. I emailed the above to planning.representations@Medway.gov.uk at 04:35 on Tuesday 9 April 2024. I received an automated response the following day, and this section in an email from Daniel Foster, Open Digital Planning Support Officer, Planning Department on 18th April 2024 (full email version on About Chris Garnons-Williams page) -
    "The alleged removal of a branch without the tree owners consent is a civil matter between the two parties,
    as is any resultant impact on the structural integrity of the tree in terms of how it alters the safe use of the property at 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, and
    as is the conversion of timber to be used as firewood by someone other than the tree owner. 
    " In other words anybody can cut down your trees in a Conservation Area or anywhere else; and you the owner have to use a civil action to do something about it. So, my neighbours can cut down my trees, having cut off the overhanging branches on their side, with impunity.
  • I was under the impression that if you cut off parts of a tree that you returned the cut parts to the owner, not store it in the open garage of 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages and cut it up for firewood for 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, but according to Medway Council, the perpetrators can cut down your trees and take them away as firewood for their own use or sell it.
  • A minor point to remember is the penalties from Tree Preservation Orders: A guide to the Law and Good Practice from Medway Council, that if you the owner do not get planning permission in a conservation area to cut off a leaf, you can be fined £2,500, but your next door neighbour can cut off your branches with impunity without getting approval. The link to those penalties is no longer operative, but you can read them on the Site Map of Evergreen Trees.

On 15th April 2024; 1 of our three 40 feet high birch trees blew down.

  • The following is from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown -
    Maintaining Balance in a clump or group of trees. "A balanced and unbroken outline is desirable with a clump or group of trees as a whole. It is for this reason that there should be a reluctance to remove any one which will leave a gap in the outer 'skin' of foliage and branches. This would let the wind into specimens which as separate individuals may lack balance to such an extent that they would not be capable of standing up even in a moderate wind. A community of trees with a given area has grown up under a certain set of conditions, with the growth and shape conforming to the general pattern of the forces which normally prevail. The removal of one or more of the trees or a building, or, alternatively, the erection of any form of structure, particularly a large and solid one, may seriously alter these conditions".
  • Because our neighbours have also cut down shrubs/trees forming part of this 'skin' in their adjoining gardens (with permission from the Medway Conservation Officer and the Meday Tree Officer?), that tree fell down in the standard wind direction from those neighbouring gardens. It will probably be succeeded by our 2 other birch trees and a bay tree, which take the remainder of the sewage water overflow.
  • These trees were being used to take the overflow from our pit and when the previous owners of 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages were only 2 people between 1984 and 2020, then we only had to empty that pit once a year.
    When mother, father, 3 children with their partners (including a drain engineer and a tree surgeon) moved in to 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, that meant there are 10 people using between 122 and 144 litres of water a day. The pit contains 1500 litres. 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages recognized the problem and now pay for the majority of its being emptied.
    With this tree coming down, then less sewage water will be absorbed each day. When the sewage drainpipe gets blocked in the garden of 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, we write a letter to 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages requesting them not to use their bath, shower, toilet or kitchen sink, which because they are illiterate (I believe their daughter is an airline steward), they fail to do each time. That sewage pipe is going to get more blocked with the loss of trees absorbing the sewage water.
  • This community of trees includes our hedges in the drive and vegetable garden. Now more of them are going to be blown down from those hedges of 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages onto the vehicles which they use to create a mudbath by spinning the wheels of their commercial vehicles and cars, belonging to 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, since they moved in. Roots of trees are not very deep. The 15 feet high laurel hedge bounding next door's garden was 50% trimmed down in height on 20 April 2024. The wind flows from that cutdown laurel hedge across garden; to back garden of 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages to us and then to our bay tree.
  • The insurance companies of the buildings, commercial and private vehicles will not be amused by claims from 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, when due to tree-cutting exercises by 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages to neighbouring gardens - with the destruction of tree roots of trees owned by 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages; that those trees damage the vehicles and property of 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages. The insurers for 1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages will know who to attach the blame to and which of the insurance companies for 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages to get recompense from.
  • When we complained to the police about the residents of 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages stealing our boundary, they informed us that it was a civil not a police matter. If someone has taken metal structures from someone else's property that is theft and they are still visible on their property on 19 April 2024..

On 19th April 2024, that blown down tree was cut up by a commercial firm of tree surgeons. It was found that the centre of the trunk by the roots was rotten. That means, that the other 2 birch trees planted at the same time will need to be felled and the bay tree - also planted at the same time 36 years ago - reduced by at least 30%. This will leave insufficient foliage to take the 8 people and us 2, and mean that the pit will need to be emptied at least every 2 days and more often when next door has a party of 15 at weekends. The hefty non-rotten roots were pulled out by that commercial firm using one of their staff operating their mechanical metal winch with its breaking strain of 40 ton belt. The roots they took away were twice the volume of the cut trunk.
To empty a small septic tank in 2022 once was £175, so if they insist we pay half, then that will use my and my wife's annual state pension.

-----

Come and visit the country that banned slavery,
but the UK now exercises it on its population using the its power with its UK Government, Local Government and Commerce via the supermarkets, water, electricity, gas etc.
The following letter demonstrates that even the Prime Minister does not do what he says he will do and all the powerful institutions below that follow suit.
The Junior Doctors are on strike on 20 December 2023 for pay equal to what it would have paid for in 2010 i.e. 35% increase. They will not get it and like the 40% of newly qualified doctors who will leave this country, they will as well and the governments aim to destroy the NHS will be complete before the General Election in 2024.

I would not advise you to either trade or visit this country, because there is going to be a complete destruction of society very soon.
 

"A letter from Stephen Robinson to his local Member of Parliament Rishi Sunak -
Dear Prime Minister,
I'm one of your constituents. I wrote to you in July about how late diagnosis of osteoporosis shatterd my life - and what needs to be done to make sure no-one else has to experience the agony I've gone through.
I was shocked when you wouldn't meet me.
That's why I'm writing again. I wish I didn't have to; I would much rather have told you in person. I know you're a busy man, but I also know my story is important.
By the time I finally got my osteoporosis diagnosed, I'd suffered 10 fractures in my spine. I had to go private in the end. That was not easy since I'd lost my job as a forklift truck driver, because the pain made the work unbearable.
I remember months of living in the chair, drugged up to the eyeballs, counting the minutes until the next painkillers.
Looking back, I feel cheated of years of my life.
a Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) could have diagnosed me early. But these services are missing in half of NHS Trusts, leaving 90,000 people unprotected - including me and all the rest of your constituents.
In your letter back, you said FLS had already been "prioritised" in your Elective Care Plan and would get a share of £8,000,000,000 investment. But the truth is that they weren't mentioned once in that plan, and they didn't get a penny.
I went to Conservative Conference to tell my story. Standing for so long almost killed me, but it felt worth it when your Health Secretary said FLS are "a priority".
In September, I watched the House of Lords debate osteoporosis. Your minister, Lord Evans, promised you'd fund FLS in your Autumn Statement. I was devastated when that promise was broken too.
Lord Evans also promised an "Expert Steering Group". The truth is that doesn't exist either.
I'm not political. But I think when Ministers say they'll do things in Parliament, those promises should be kept. Otherwise why should we trust anything your Government says?

As my own MP, and as my Prime Minister, I'm asking you to intervene because you're the only person who can bang heads together and make this miniscule, cost-effective investment in our NHS actually happen, and quickly.
I can't face the new year without knowing others will be spared the agony I went through.
I hope and your family have a very happy, pain-free Christmas.
Yours sincerely
Stephen Robinson" was inserted by the Royal Osteoporosis Society as a full page in The Times of Thursday December 14 2023.
Her Majesty The Queen Consort (formerly HRH The Duchess of Cornwall) was President of the Royal Osteoporosis Society (ROS) up until the accession of His Majesty The King. The ROS, like many other charities and organisations, are awaiting further news from The Royal Household. 
1 in 2 women and 1 in 5 men over 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis.

If "The Duke of Sussex believes his children cannot “feel at home” in the UK if it is “not possible to keep them safe there, the High Court has heard" in December 2023, then can you?
A 91 year-old friend of mine was run into by a 40 year-old man on an
Electric Scooter while returning from the roadside on the verge and passing a tree to get to the pavement; having put out his rubbish. After time in hospital, he died from that injury and diseases he picked up in hospital.
I was walking in a pedestrian high street in Central Chatham with its shops each side
in early December 2023, when a person on an Electric Scooter missed me by inches having come from behind. When you get hit, the assailant might say "sorry mate" and then ride on and get a slap on the wrist from the magistrates court, instead of a prison sentence for
involuntary manslaughter.
Now I am afraid of walking on any pavement or within a shopping area. In 1972, I had a motorbike accident which dislocated a third of my brain from the skull. If I get violently pushed in any direction, then the rest of my brain could detach and I would die instantly. That is why I cannot get into a glider, do sports like football, or dance. Of course, my assailant would not know that and so would also only get a slap on the wrist.
Do you want to visit a country,
where even one of the Royal Family -
with his military career - with some protection;
does not feel that his children will be safe?

WHEN YOU FIND

  • THAT THE MINISTERS DID NOT FOLLOW THROUGH WITH THEY SAID THEY WOULD DO FOR STEPHEN ROBINSON AND THAT
  • A MEMBER OF THE ROYAL FAMILY DOES NOT FEEL THAT HIS CHILDREN WOULD BE SAFE IN THE UK,
  • YOU CAN UNDERSTAND WHY THE FOLLOWING - TEXT WITH THIS LIGHT BLUE BACKGROUND -
    IN THIS TABLE,
    THE LAST TABLE ON THE RIGHT AND
    IN THE SUPPORTING PAGES IN THIS HOME TOPIC,
  • WOULD MAKE THE PEOPLE IN KENT AND MEDWAY TERRIFIED IN APRIL OR MAY OF 2024,
    WHEN BOTH LOCAL AUTHORITIES HAVE DECLARED THEMSELVES BANKRUPT IN APRIL 2024.

    BECAUSE,
    THE GOVERNMENT WOULD TAKE OVER THE CONTROL OF THESE LOCAL AUTHORITIES
    SOON AFTERWARDS,
    BUT YOU AND I - THE PUBLIC LIVING IN THESE LOCAL AUTHORITIES -
    WILL NOT BE ABLE TO TRUST THEM IN ANY SHAPE OR FORM AND
    THEY COULD DO ANYTHING AT ALL WITH TOTAL IMPUNITY.

     

 

Because nobody

  • who can do something about what a combination of
    UK Government, Local Government and Commerce has and continue to do to the UK population (as explained in these tables with a wet - light blue - background)
    • The UK public is referred to Debt-to-GDP Ratio figures and since that is currently declining then the government tell you that that they are reducing Debt-To-GDP ratio and one makes the assumption that they are reducing the National Debt.
    • An increase of more than £760,000,000,000, or 42%. of the National Debt to the close of the second quarter in this year has been created during the time that Rishi Sunak became Chancellor of the Exchequer in February 2020 and then became the Current Prime Minister. The politicians tell you about the Debt-to-GDP Ratio figures; but do not advise you that in the last 4 years that they have overspent by the Total UK National Debt of 2009. This Conservative Party has been governing since 2010.
    • Amazing how you can con 65,000,000 UK citizens, who will vote for this con-merchant next year. -
      Con 1 - by setting up a system that tells you a ratio to lull you into thinking finances are okay, but does not tell you how much extra debt that they have created that year.
      Con 2 - Also create a series of government departments to give the impression of controlling the privatised water boards, but actually they let them dump raw sewage into rivers and the surrounding seas. Southern Water get most sewage dumps into rivers between 7am and 10am as people get up in Kent, Sussex and Hampshire. As it cannot treat its present population's human sewage waste, so any addition to the population such as students and immigrants coming into the UK in small boats across the Channel will simply add to these sewage spills.
      Con 3 - Using the Sewer Flow Diagram in the next table for Mains Water flow instead, you can see that if you increase the weirs to get water to separate new customers instead of to sewage treatment plants, then you will run out of water when there are too many for the capacity of that mains pipe laid in the 1800's.

      Con etc - Benefit slavery System, British Industry Supercharger, Genetic Technology (Precision Breeding) Bill , Public Finance Initiative, England's schools to ge given £370,000,000 less money after Department for Education admits bungling figures, etc
       
  • and the
  • UK Government, Local Government and Commerce
    ignore what we the UK population do to counter it -

    They learnt to ignore the point of Ban The Bomb demonstrations in the UK from 1958-2013 ,
    so they have also ignored the point of Surfers Against Sewage from 1990 to the current day,
    and they continue ignoring anybody else's viewpoint on any subject;
    because they know that these other people can do do absolutely nothing about that,
    because you can do what you like to slaves,
  • since
    The UK Labour or Conservative Government has been humiliating, degrading and dehumanizing its population for
    over 40 years , without its population realising:-
    • See HISTORY OF THIS in row 2 of last table in this row; followed by
    • SUMMARY OF ITS EFFECT and
    • WITH HOW THAT HAS BEEN DONE,
    • to lead to THE UK IS SUFFERING ANARCHY
    • with supporting details in these tables:-
      • OTHER TABLE 5 -
        19 warnings caused by the government in the UK to turn its population into slaves, where:-
        Warning 7 on The Energy Charter Treaty has enslaved the mice in parliament (MPs) to create
        the windfall tax on renewables (wind and solar farms), biomass and nuclear power generators to be set at 45%.

        The actual price of wholesale electricity per megawatt hour in December 2022 was
        2,960 euros in the UK and the next most expensive country was 650 euros in France. To try to help 300 companies in the UK by narrowing this gap, then the British Industry Supercharger was created and we the unknowing UK public paid for this help to 300 companies by
        a 450% increase in the domestic gas bill from January 2022 to May 2023 for our home and
        a 422% increase in electricity bill for Tremorfa Superstore in Cardiff from £900 to £4,700 a month.

        Speech in House of Lords against this slavery in top row of next table - Strikes (Minimum Service Levels) Bill flies in the face of human rights, equality & ILO conventions. Her amendment was voted against by the House of Commons, so very soon if you strike in England, then you will be sacked.
  • Therefore, there is no point in you inside or outside the UK reading about it -
    although you will suffer from its effects,
    but you cannot do anything to prevent it -
  • and
    therefore there is no further point in me writing about it from 22 October 2023.

    Just watch the
  • largest financial crisis that this world has ever known,
    when gradually UK homes have no water,
    so its slaves cannot go to work in buildings with no water,
    therefore those businesses go bust and
  • displacement of the entire slave population in England with its
  • completion of the Humiliation, Degradation, Dehumanization
    on the powerless UK population within a very short time -
    it does not matter
    whether one votes for Labour or Conservative or anybody else in the main election in the 2024 General Election
    or in Local Government elections,
    the same catastrophic result will occur,

    although the UK population do not realise:-
    • of this success by this UK government and local UK government policy creating the following
      • while house prices in November 2023 are falling by £6000 a month -
        when you move;
        you will have to use your existing doctor, since there is no room in the surgery closer to your destination.
        You may not be able to move to that new job, since taking your child to your current doctor 150 miles away may cause employment, transport and cost problems.
        • When you wish to buy British grown vegetables and fruit, you will have a problem with many farms being forced to close within 12 months from November 2023.
          The goverment is not following it's own laws or laws accepted from the European Union and put into British Law; to stop the supermarkets from closing down British Agriculture.
          The Organic Milk Suppliers Cooperative is a cooperative of 500 British farmers who supply organically produced milk and dairy products to Sainsbury's, Tesco, Waitrose, Safeway and Asda. This milk may be higher in Omega 3 and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) than non-organic milk. Omega 3 is essential for maintaining a healthy heart, supple and flexible joints, healthy growth and strong bones and teeth. CLA boosts immune function and reduces the growth of tumours. Non-organic milk may have pesticide residues which affects child health.
          The National Farmers' Union claim that supermarkets have increased their share of the retail price of milk.

          In 1995 a litre of milk cost 42.1p, of which 24.5p went to the farmer.

          In 2005 a litre cost 50.9p, of which the farmers got only 18.5p.
           
      • 25.8% of households with children
        (
        Children's Right2Food is a nationwide initiative to ensure every child in the UK can access and afford good food)
        have experienced
        food insecurity in September 2022 affecting
        4,000,000 children in the U
        K.
        13,000,000 people in the UK are struggling to get enough to eat -This represents nearly 1 in 5 of the UK’s population. Figures from The Food Foundation.
        6,200,000 tonnes of food is wasted by the food industry every year in the UK. Figures from World Wide Fund for Nature.
        Over 3,000,000 tonnes of the food that goes to waste each year is still edible.
        That’s enough for 7,000,000,000 meals. Figures from World Wide Fund for Nature and WRAP.. Surplus food in the supply chain.We call food that isn’t going to be sold, but which is still edible, surplus food. Food becomes surplus for simple reasons such as over-production, labelling errors or short shelf-life. Surplus food occurs everywhere in the supply chain from field through to fork. Here’s a breakdown of where it occurs and how much:
        • Farms: 2,900,000 tonnes
        • Manufacturing: 95,000 tonnes
        • Retail: 65,000 tonnes
        • It begs the questions of
          why the people getting unemployment benefit
          do not provide the labour to move this food to food banks
          as their payback of work done
          in order to receive that unemployment benefit?
          with the government providing the transport both ways;
          between their domicile and the workplace;
          together with the transport of the worked on product to the food banks,
          perhaps using miltary vehicles and their drivers?
           
      • Farmers fear food shortages caused by green schemes - they are warning that vegetables and grains could be next to the egg shortages as environmental schemes take large areas of land out of use for food production. Stephen Holt's main crop is winter wheat, but to ensure its success he grows a "break crop" of oil seed rape and beans between wheat harvests to break the cycle of weeds, diseases and pests and to improve soil health. He sells the break crops as a commercial product to make money on top of his wheat harvest.
        Holt has now signed up for a new government subsidy to plant a legume cover crop instead of his break crops, which will help pollinators and soil health but will not be harvested for food production. "Instead of 1,300 tonnes of product, we will produce 900 tonnes of product from our farm" Holt said. "All our input prices are approximately 50% higher than before Putin invaded Ukraine but our arable crop prices are below where they were.

        So, the government is getting the land for housebuilding by the backdoor, since the farmers will not be able to make a living.
        It does not matter who wins the next election, they will build more houses with less water for each of them and all their sewage going out to sea. The phosphorus in human excrement kills algae producing oxygen in the sea and so we are slowly but surely rducing the oxygen we need to breathe to below safe levels and Thames Water investors are witholding £500,000,000 to get the sewage problem starting to be sorted until Thames Water forces its customers to pay more for a very bad service.
  • Ocean Pollution as reported by the Marine Conservation Society
    Pollution has been reported to be one of the five main drivers of the current biodiversity crisis, threatening 37% of marine mammals with extinction.
  • Marine Conservation Society - Seagrass: The ocean superhero at risk from sewage:-Seagrass meadows are a key player in helping to combat climate change – but untreated sewage pollution in our seas is threatening their future. Seagrass meadows are the Swiss army knife of marine habitats. They create hotspots for biodiversity and provide vital nursery habitats for various fish species. Long seagrass blades buffer wave energy, protecting our shores against coastal erosion and storms. Their canopies slow the flow of water, drawing down suspended matter like pollutants and excess nutrients from the water column and burying it in the sediment below. This also makes them one of the oldest and most effective carbon storage technologies, accounting for an estimated 10-18% of ocean carbon storage while occupying only 0.1% of the seafloor. Unlike terrestrial habitats like forests, seagrass doesn't release the carbon it has captured back into the atmosphere when it decomposes. If undisturbed, seagrass can store carbon for thousands of years. Seagrasses do a lot of heavy lifting in mitigating the stress that we inflict on the ocean. As ecosystem engineers, they’re skilled at adapting their environment to suit their needs. However, the flow of untreated sewage discharges into UK seas is posing a problem for seagrass. Untreated sewage discharges contain excess nutrients and pathogens, which  encourage faster-growing macroalgae which reduce light availability and epiphytic algae which smother the seagrass leaves.

    Research by Cardiff University and Swansea University indicates that insufficient monitoring and management of sewage and wastewater treatment threatens seagrass meadows around the UK. Each of the 11 sites sampled in the study, ten of which were within marine protected areas, contained seagrass that was contaminated by nutrients “of a human and livestock waste origin”. The findings show that sewage pollution is a stressor to seagrass – one whose effects are far-reaching and continues to have an impact far from its source. The only effective way to protect seagrass and the whole marine environment from this stress is to tackle the issue at source. We have already lost 92% of seagrass meadows in the UK, and their survival and recovery is further undermined by poor water quality. However, we can reverse this trend. Removing stressors, such as untreated sewage pollution, is the most important factor in allowing seagrass to recover and we have seen seagrass successfully recolonise areas which were previously wiped out by sewage outfall. Our seagrass meadows are an essential ally against global warming, a biodiversity crisis, and pervasive pollution. These superhero habitats need our help and a first major step towards this is to stop releasing untreated sewage into our seas.

 

Sleeping rough has been a criminal offence since 1824. Under the Vagrancy Act, people sleeping rough in England and Wales could be moved on or fined up to £1,000. Following a decades-long campaign, led by Crisis and supported by politicians across the political spectrum, people with lived experience of homelessness and a wide number of charities, Parliament voted to repeal this archaic Act in February 2022.
But the repeal has not yet been ‘enacted’, meaning the Vagrancy Act is technically still in force. 
If th
e Criminal Justice Bill ( including this "
Provisions to allow for the transfer of prisoners from England and Wales to cells rented in prisons in foreign countries" because the government have not built the required jails and they are 98% full) is passed, it would make so-called ‘nuisance’ rough sleeping a criminal offence. So, you could be sent abroad to a foreign jail. The Bill says someone could be considered a ‘nuisance’ if they are sleeping in a doorway, if they have ‘excessive smell’, or even if they simply look like they are intending to sleep on the streets. This leaves the door open for anyone sleeping rough or 'appearing to'; to be criminalised based on a judgement about how they look or act. This is unacceptable. 
It also means that anyone carrying a sleeping bag , blankets or cardboard boxes could be sent to a foreign jail - so students and visitors from overseas need to beware, because it is what the police believe, not what you are doing that could get you sent to prison or
fined £2500. It is inadvisable to walk anywhere in the UK, once this bill is passed.

We must be grateful to the pensioners in America and Canada whose pension companies have shares in these bankrupt water companies for allowing those water companies to dump raw sewage into the rivers and thence the sea (Water companies in England have faced a barrage of criticism as data revealed
raw sewage was discharged for more than 3.6m hours into rivers and seas last year in a 105% increase on the previous 12 months, as well as that 38,000,000 tons of waste going annually into the River Thames from London).
The UK pollution going into the sea is killing the algae which provide 70% of oxygen for UK, France, Holland, Portugal, Norway, Sweden and Denmark.
 

"Under the 2015 Paris Agreement, the world set a goal to keep warming at or below 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) since pre-industrial times. The globe has now experienced 12 months with average monthly temperatures 1.58 degrees Celsius (2.8 degrees Fahrenheit) above the Paris threshold, according to Copernicus data.

In March, global sea surface temperature averaged 21.07 degrees Celsius (69.93 degrees Fahrenheit), the highest monthly value on record and slightly higher than what was recorded in February." Part of this increase in sea temperature is due to the floating sewage, which absorbs more heat from the sunlight than the sea.

Antarctica is losing 141,000,000,000 metric tons per year since 2002 of ice sheets and Greenland is losing about 270,000,000,000 tons per year which is adding to sea level rise.

It's important to remember that although the ocean produces at least 50% of the oxygen on Earth, roughly the same amount is consumed by marine life. Like animals on land, marine animals use oxygen to breathe, and both plants and animals use oxygen for cellular respiration.

Oxygen is produced by photosynthesizing organisms that live in the ocean, in fresh water, and on land. These organisms include bacteria, algae and plants. Photosynthesizing algae in the ocean produce around 70% of oxygen in the atmosphere.

End result is that the raw sewage and other pollutants going into the surrounding rivers is reducing the production of oxygen in the sea and those rivers.
Because Carbon Dioxide is not being changed into oxygen, then that causes global warming.
Since governments will do nothing about this then we are going to have not enough oxygen, high winds and rising sea levels

UK National Debt was roughly £1,080,000,000,000 in 2009,

then Conservatives came into government in 2010.
UK National Debt was £1,820,000,000,000 in 2019,
UK National Debt was £2,654,300,000,000 at the end of Quarter 3 (July to Sept) 2023 with
UK government deficit (or net borrowing) was £39,200,000,000 in Quarter 3 2023, equivalent to 5.8% of GDP.
Conservative Government continues to overspend each month.

£2,654,300,000,000
£1,080,000,000,000
---------------------
£1,573,700,000,000

British 30 year Gilt is 4.379% annually on 12 March 2024.
This equals £68,912,323,000 annual charge on the money borrowed by the Conservative Government since they came to power and this is how much it is if you have all the UK National Debt on the British 30 year gilt:-
£116,231,797,000.
The number of
Income Tax payers by income is an estimated 31,700,000 Income Tax payers in the UK in 2020 to 2021.
This means that
from the tax paid by these tax payers of £3666.62 annually
for their current portion of UK National Debt of £83,731.86
is used to pay for the overspending of the UK Government.
Because the UK government is still overspending
as forecast until at least
2029 in Table 1.1: Changes in borrowing since November 2023, then
that portion of their tax will increase and
their portion of the UK National Debt.

UK Goverment collected £788,600,000,000 in taxes in 2022 to 2023, an increase of 10.2% from the year before.
116,231,797,000
------------------- = 0.14739005%
788,600,000,000
0.14739005% of the tax collected in 2022-23 went on paying the
30 year gilt charge.
This % will increase each year and if the 30 year gilt charge increases, then the % will increase even faster. This means their will be less tax to pay for the public services, until all the tax collected pays for is the overspending carried out by the UK government.

"The Local Government Association recently reported that one in five councils could be in severe financial hardship within two years and a report from the Local Government Information Unit (LGIU) this week reported that more than 50 per cent of councils are saying it is likely they would issue a Section 114 notice in the next five years. Medway has seen a sharp reduction in revenue support grant from government - £85million to around £7million since 2010 – despite a continuing increase in service demand and inflationary costs.
On Thursday, 29 February, the government confirmed that Medway Council was one of 19 councils across England which had been granted permission to extend its borrowing arrangements through a capitalisation direction. This allows us to borrow up to £14.742million to spread revenue costs over more than one year, enabling it to ease mounting budget pressures, put investment in place to return to greater financial stability and avoid the need for a S114 notice." SO, NOW NOT ONLY IS THE UK GOVERNMENT OVERSPENDING AND INCREASING DEBT, BUT THEY HAVE REDUCED THEIR SUPPORT SINCE 2010 TO THE POINT OF BANKRUPTY FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT. THESE LOCAL GOVERNMENTS WILL HAVE TO BORROW RUNNING COST MONEY, LEADING TO FURTHER INCREASES TO THE RATES TO PAY FOR IT.
THAT MEANS MORE TAX AND THEN THE 280,000 RESIDENTS GET LESS FOR IT, UNTIL LOCAL GOVERNMENT GOES TOTALLY BANKRUPT AS WELL.

Do you normally give credit to bankrupt people, government or commerce?

----------

As things stand, the British army would already run out of ammunition within a few days if called upon to fight and would take up to 10 years to field a modern warfighting division of some 25,000 to 30,000 troops.

It is very kind of the UK to spend a lot of money on providing food for the 1,000,000 in Gaza, while ignoring the
13,000,000 people in the UK who are struggling to get enough to eat and the
4,000,000 children who have experienced food insecurity as shown in the next column of this table
 

---------

Further methods devised by humans to deprive themselves of oxygen:-

  • TABLE 3
    is next table on the right -
    Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them?
    Cultural needs of plants are VERY IMPORTANT, which has been ignored in Madeira for their trees in pavements.
  • OTHER TABLE 4 -
    The population of Madeira love to play Russian Roulette every time they pass a tree in a pavement.
  • TABLE 4
    is table 4 on the right -
    London and Medway plant trees, which will be dead within 3 months.
  • TABLE X
    is second table down in the next Table column -
    How to kill your daughter, when you treat your young child the same way as is done to a tree in a pavement.

Since nobody pays any attention to the above information, there is no point in you reading it.

 

I cannot believe the stupidity of the FTSE100 companies in this way of planting 350,000,000 trees in the UK:-

ttreesprofitfrombusinesses

Above article in Page 46 Business of i on Monday 11 March 2024.

The above trees have been planted in a field laid to grass to feed cows, horses or sheep. It is probably quite an aged meadow in this field.

  • The rain will all be taken by the grass leaving little or none for the tree roots as grass can absorb 2 cms of rain every 2 days.
  • The grass will take any nourishment from the rain, the dead leaves from the trees or any fertilizer applied, so once they have used up the nutrients in the soil below the roots of the grass; then the trees will die.
  • The bark on the trees has at least been protected from rabbits by this corrugated plastic guard.
  • If these trees had survived, then because they are not maidens with branches removed from 72 inches (180 cms) to the ground, then maintenance will be impossible with the interleaving of the branches almost to ground level.
  • There is no irrigation system for these trees.
  • There is no mulch of organic material to feed their roots and once they get growing no way of putting it down each year.
  • When the trees have died, the grass will continue to grow and feed herbivores.
  • What a wonderful way for British Business to totally waste money.
  • Medway Council improve on that by planting trees, then a wacker plate was used to vibrate that soil material down at 3.2 metres per second with 520 Kg per square metre pressure right up to the trunk of the new tree. This was followed by applying a tarmac layer on top and hammering that down with the same wacker to totally kill the tree. Once that has been done, then instead of a tree there is a square of tarmac.


There are topics on how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting in this website, with the following further detail:-

Garden Maintenance
When you get a private garden, you need to know about your soil so that possible remedial action can be taken. When you know whether it is acidic or alkaline then it's maintenance is easier for you.
This can be followed by organic garden maintenance to understand what are the problems and joys of your garden. The relevant sections of the glossary, tool shed and library should aid you.

Hard Landscaping Garden Design
If you decide to change a portion of your garden, then design the whole of your private garden; rather than doing bits which become unrelated to each other or to the house. If your soil is clay, then this has major design ramifications. The library with case studies will aid the hard landscaping design, especially on drives.

Soft Landscaping Garden Design
The offbeat glossary, the plants,
the plant photographic galleries - Aquatic , Bamboo , Bedding , Bulb , Climber , Conifer , Deciduous Shrub , Deciduous Tree , Evergreen Perennial , Evergreen Shrub , Evergreen Tree , Fern , Grass , Hedging , Herbaceous Perennial , Herb , Odds and Sods , Rhododendron , Rose , Soft Fruit , Top Fruit , Vegetable , Wild Flower -
and companion planting aid the soft landscaping design. To aid your flower colour selection:-

  • for complementary or contrasting colour schemes; the Colour Wheel - Flower Petal has been created as shown in the Plant Selection Method 1 below.
  • The 12 colours per month in the Colour Wheel - Bloom in Month provide a crossection of bulb, climber, shrub etc plants with the same flower colour in the same month as shown in the Plant Selection Method 2 below.
  • The Plant Selection Methods 7 - and part of 6 - below can be used by HayFever sufferers to use plants that are Bee-Pollinated instead of being wind pollinated.
  • The Rock Garden Plant Index in Plant Selection Method 3 below aids your selection of Rock Plants for your rock garden.

The Wild Flower Gallery and the Wildlife on Plant Butterfly Gallery show the relationship between the Butterfly and its plant to aid the creation of a wildlife friendly section to your garden. See plant details of all UK Wildflowers in Wild Flower Botanical Names Index or Wild Flower Common Names Index.

Garden Construction
Having done the structural and detailed design process, garden construction can then take place in stages with the aid of getting materials using useful data, before returning once more to organic garden maintenance.

On to Plant Selection by locating each of the UK Wildflower -
each wildflower has which countries within Europe/ states for USA/ provinces or territories for Canada/ or Soviet Union/ or areas in China; that it is native in
- or Cultivated Plants detailed in this website by its:-


whose 4 sets of links are in the Topic Table in the same places on every page.
So you can use the correct native plants within your country in your garden as well as the cultivated plants for that country.

Then use Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery which will contain (starting in February 2022) the wildflower/cultivated plants from the following books to provide Landscaping Lists by Flower Shape, Site, Flower Colour, Habit, Bloom by Season, Preference, Use, Planted in Soil and Plant Form:-

  • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.
  • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
  • Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.
  • Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.
  • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.
    or:-


Choose 1 of these different 11 Plant Selection Methods followed by details in the respective row below:-
1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.
2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.
3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant
:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
The Rock Garden Plant Index pages provide all the required information in a condensed form to aid your selection of (82) small rock garden plants for small areas - with the flower colour linking to the Rock Garden Plant Colour Wheel Page to see which other rock garden plants are in that same colour.
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower Families

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape or Fragrance:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.
Night-scented Flowering Plants.
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

7. Choose a Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers from its own gallery with comparisons per month of 12 flower colours. Currently in September 2022, the following galleries are being updated; starting with the Index :-
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12 ...Index

8. Choose plant by its use as part of the design process
Other Plant Uses is given in the indices
in each row of the right hand table in the relevant Photo Gallery, or
in each row of the relevant page in its Index Page per letter of the Alphabet for that Photo Gallery
and
More Plant Uses in Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery together with
bulb use,
bedding use and
rose use as linked to in the 4th row from the bottom of the topic table on the left on every single page.

9. Choose plants for butterflies to use.

10. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
    • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

or

11. Choose ground cover plants.
The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintainance.

  • Groundcover A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W,
    XYZ with 14 Special Situations of Ground cover plants for:-
    1 Dry Shade
    2 Damp Shade
    3 Full Sun
    4 Banks and Terraces
    5 Woodland
    6 Alkaline Sites
    7 Acid Sites
    8 Heavy Clay Soil
    9 Dry Sandy Soil
    10 Exposed Sites
    11 Under Hedges
    12 Patios and Paths
    13 Formal Gardens
    14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts


1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.
Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel Gallery below to Compare Flowers with that same Colour from the initial 1381 Cultivated Plants and 628 Wildflower Plants detailed in this Website:-

Takes 15 Seconds to load

Click on number between 1-7 from 12 Colour or 1-6 from Black Sections or Wild White to see all the plant flowers (1381 cultivated - with another 115 roses in the Rose Plants Gallery, another 270 bulbs in the Bulb Gallery, and 628 native to the UK wildflower) in this website with their:-

  • Common Name,
  • Botanical Name and
  • Months of Flowering

in one of the above 53 Flower Colour Wheel pages to create your colour coordinated flower schemes.

Each Plant Description can then be selected by clicking on the:-

The Colour Wheels of 1. and 2. add many of these plants from 3. together for comparison purposes.


2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery (The Colour Wheels of 1. and 2. add many of these plants from 3. together for comparison purposes.)
or from
8. Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery
 


3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
The Rock Garden Plant Index pages provide all the required information in a condensed form to aid your selection of (82) small rock garden plants for small areas - with the flower colour linking to the Rock Garden Plant Colour Wheel Page to see which other rock garden plants are in that same colour.
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

Gallery Name

Click on centre of Thumbnail to see its Plant Description Page which also has the Index of all the other same type of plants (e.g Bulb is a plant type) within that Gallery in the table on the right

722 Bulb
flower colours
in each month
with their

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee
Jan

narcissuscfloearlysensationdeeproot
Feb

veltheimiacflobracteatarvroger
Mar

lachenaliacflonamakwarvroger1
Apr

anemonecflobaldensiskevock
May

dahliacfloedinburghrvroger
Jun

alliumcfloschoenoprasumforscatervroger
Jul

100 Allium and
Anemone,

50 Colchicum,
72 Crocus,
46 Dahlia,

alliumcflotriquetrumgeetee
Allium

anemonecflonemerosaalleniirvroger
Ane-mone

colchicumcflospeciosumalbumrvroger
Coch-icum

crocuscflochrysanthussaturnusfoord
Crocus

dahliacfloludwighelfertrvroger
Dahlia

dahliacflolilactimervroger
Dahlia

dahliacfloplayablancarvroger
Dahlia

209 Gladiolus,
65 Lily,
67 Narcissus, and
6 Tulip Plant Description Pages

gladioluscfloterrynagc
Glad-iolus

lilliumcflonepalenservroger
Lily

narcissuscflopseudonarcissusdeeproot
Narc-issus

narcissuscflojetfiredeeproot
Narc-issus

narcissuscflomerlindeeproot
Narc-issus

tulipaflotbatalinii
Tulip

tulipaflotviolacea
Tulip

129 Climber
flower colours
in each month
with their

ercillacflovolubilisroseland
Mar

gelsemiumcflosempervirensroseland
Apr

clematisflotmrscholmondeley
May

bomareacflohirtellaroseland
Jun

clematiscomtessedebouchardcfloroseland
Jul

gloriosacflosuperbaroseland
Aug

passifloraflotcaerulea
Sep

71 Clematis and
58 Other Climber Plant Description Pages

clematisbeesjubileecfloroseland
Cle-matis

billardieracflolongifloraroseland
Bill-ardiera

cissuscflostriataroseland
Cissus

solanumflotjasminoides
Sol-anum

fremontodendronflotcalifornianglory
Fre-mont-odend-ron

campsiscfloradicansroseland
Cam-psis

dregeacflosinensisroseland
Dre-gea

43 Deciduous Shrub
flower colours
in each month
with their

jasminumflotnudiflorum
Mar

kerriaflotjaponicamay68
Apr

loniceraflotcaerulea
May

paeoniadelavayiflot
Jun

abeliaschumanniiflot
Jul

hydrangeaflotmacrophylla
Aug

leycesteriaflotformosa
Sep

45 Deciduous Shrub Plant Description Pages

paeoniasouvenirdemaxinecornuflot
Pae-onia

loniceraflotxylosteum
Lon-icera

paeoniasuffruticosaredtreeflot
Pae-onia

hydrangeaflotvillosa
Hyd-rangea

berberisthunbergiiatropurpureadartsredladyfolt
Ber-beris

paeonialuteaflot
Pae-onia

paeoniasuffruticosafflot
Pae-onia

104 Evergreen Perennial / Alpine flower colours
in each month
with their

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord
Apr

alyssumcflosaxatilefoord
May

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord
Jun

androsacecflomucronifoliafoord
Jul

aethionemacflowarleyrosekevock
Aug

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock
Sep

anemonecflo1hybridafoord
Oct

68 Evergreen Perennial A-L and 36 Evergreen M-Z Plant Description Pages and also

bergeniacflos1autumnmagiccoblands
Ber-genia

erinuscflo1alpinus
Erinus

lavateracflomaritima
Lav-atera

prunellaflotgrandiflora
Pru-nella

raouliaflotaustralis
Rao-ulia

saxifragaflotcebennensis
Sax-ifraga

sedumflotacre
Sedum

94 Evergreen Perennials in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement
Pages

saxifragaflotsouthsideseedling
5 Petals

anthericumcfloliliagofoord
Star Shape

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord2
Spurs Shape

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1
Discs Shape

saxifragacflopaniculata
Sprays Arrang-ement

androsacecfor1albanakevock
Dome Arrang-ement

alyssumflotmontanumflowermay84
Dome Arrang-ement

46 Evergreen Shrub
flower colours
in each month
with their

iberisflotsaxatilis
May

kalmiaflotangustifolia
Jun

lavateraflotrosea
Jul

nandinaflotdomestica
Aug

oleariaflothaastii
Sep

hypericumflotmoserianumtricolor
Oct

mahoniaflotjaponica
Nov

46 Evergreen Shrub Plant Description Pages,

dryasflotoctopetala
Dryas

hypericumflot
Hyp-ericum

loniceraflotnitida
Lon-icera

lupinusflotarboreus
Lup-inus

oleariaflotnumulariifolia
Ole-aria

prunusflotlaurocerasus
Prunus

thymusflotcilicicus
Thy-mus

126 Heather Shrub,
flower colours
in each month
with its
Heather Index (current progress - 52 of 700 detailed by 12 May 2015),
and their
Andromeda,
Bruckenthalia,

Ericacarneamargeryfrearsoncflogarnonswilliams
Jan

Ericacarneaclarewilkinsoncflogarnonswilliams
Mar

Ericacarneadavidsseedlingcflo1garnonswilliams
May

Ericawatsoniiclaireelisecflogarnonswilliams
Jul

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u19f
Sep

Ericadarleyensisgeorgerendallcflo1garnonswilliams
Oct

Ericacarneajanuarysuncflo1garnonswilliams
Dec

Calluna,
Daboecia,
Erica: Carnea,
Erica: Cinerea and
Erica: Others Plant
Description Pages (74)

Ericacarneagoldenstarletcflogarnonswilliams
Erica carnea

Ericacarnearubracflogarnonswilliams
Erica carnea






91 Herbaceous Perennial / Alpine
flower colours
in each month
with their

agapanthusafricanuscflokevock
Feb

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands
May

achilleafilipendulagoldplatecflorvroger
Jun

agapanthusalbusccflokevock
Jul

kniphofiaflotroyalstandard
Aug

kniphofiaflottriangularis
Sep

cichoriumintybusalbumcflorvroger
Oct

91 Herbaceous Perennial Plant
Description Pages,

astilbepurplelancecflokevock
Astilbe

gunneraflot1tictoria
Gun-nera

papaverorientaleflot
Pap-aver

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger
Dig-italis

achilleaptarmicabouledeneigecflorvroger
Ach-illea

alcearoseachatersdoublerosecflorvroger
Alcea

aconitumlycoctonumvulpariacflokevock
Aco-nitum

176 Permanent Herbaceous Perennials Plant
Description Pages in the
Mixed Borders in
RHS garden in Wisley
and

achilleacfloclothofgoldkavanagh
Ach-illea

actaeacflos2simplexpinkspikegarnonswilliams
Actaea

baptisiacflo1australisgarnonswilliams
Bap-tisia

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh
Cen-taurea

echinaceacflopurpureamagnuskavanagh
Ech-inacea

geraniumcflo2psilostemongarnonswilliams
Ger-anium

helianthuscflo1lemonqueengarnonswilliams
Hel-ianthus

175 Herbaceous Perennial in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement
Pages

crambecflomaritimagarnonswilliams
4 Petals

euphorbiacflo1wallichiigarnonswilliams
Cup Shape

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot
Goblet Shape

agapanthusbressinghambluecflocoblands
Funnel Shape

lobeliacardinalisflot
Lipped Shape

lysimachiapunctataflot
Tier Arrang-ement

astilberheinlandcflocoblands
Plumes Arrang-ement

343 Rose Plant
Description Pages of roses grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2007 (Group 1) with its Rose Index
and
flower colours
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website
with their

rosatwiceinabluemooncflo1
Other Colours

rosasimplythebestflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Orange

rosathefairycflorogerltd
Pink

rosaroyalwilliamcflorogerltd
Red

rosasilveranniversaryflomidcgarnonswilliams1
White

rosagoldenweddingflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Yellow

rosabarrystephenscflorogerltd
2 or More Colours

82 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley A-F (Group 2), with its Rose RHS Wisley Index in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleries

rosaawhitershadeofpalecflo2garnonswilliams
A Whiter Shade of Pale

rosabonicacflomidgarnonswilliams
Bonica

rosacarmenettacflomidgarnonswilliams1
Carme-netta

rosadarcybussellflomidcgarnonswilliams1
D'Arcey Bussell

rosaeasygoingflomidcgarnonswilliams
Easy Going

rosafascinationflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Fascin-ation

rosaflowercarpetwhiteflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Flower Carpet White

37 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley G-R (Group 2),
with its Rose RHS Wisley Index in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleries

rosagoldspiceflomidcgarnonswilliams
Gold Spice

rosaharlowcarrcflomidgarnonswilliams
Harlow Carr

rosaicebergkorbincflomidgarnonswilliams
Iceberg

rosajackswishcflomidgarnonswilliams
Jack's Wish

rosakeepsmilingcflomidgarnonswilliams
Keep Smiling

rosakentcflomidgarnonswilliams
Kent

rosamacmillannursecflomidgarnonswilliams1
Mac-millan Nurse

12 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
with its Rose RHS Wisley Index in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleriesRHS garden in Wisley S-Z (Group 2)
with another
85 Roses in Group 2 Rose Index Menu and

rosasilveranniversaryflomidcgarnonswilliams1a
Silver Anniv-ersary

rosasimplythebestflomidcgarnonswilliams1a1
Simply The Best

rosaskylarkflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Skylark

rosastrawberryhillflomidcgarnonswilliams
Straw-berry Hill

rosathecharlatanflomidcgarnonswilliams1
The Charl-atan

rosawildedricflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Wild Edric

rosayorkminsterc1flomidgarnonswilliams1
York Minster

Rose Bloom Shape and Rose Petal Count Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website.

See Rose Care at bottom of middle table for detailed instructions.

Click on
Other Roses to see the further
161 roses grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2015 (Group 3)
with its Other Roses Index in the righthand table of
Rosa 'Sally Thomas'

rosabigchiefcflorogerltd
Hybrid Tea Shape

rosasarahvanfleetcflorogerltd
Quart-ered Bloom Shape

rosapimpinellifoliaflot
Flat

rosahenrimartincflorogerltd1
Glo-bular

rosafruhlingsmorgencflorogerltd
Single with 1-7 Petals

rosabeholdcflorogerltd
Double with 16-25 Petals

rosairrisistiblecflorogerltd
Very Full with over 40 Petals

99 Bedding
flower colours
with their

salviacfloguaranticablackandbluegarnonswilliams
Blue

dahliacflodavidhowardgarnonswilliams1b
Orange

verbenacflohomesteadpurplegarnonswilliams
Purple

pyrethrumcflo1roseumdurogarnonswilliams
Red

gypsophyllacflocoventgardengarnonswilliams
White

dianthuscflo1barbatuskaleidoscopekavanagh
White / Colour

dahliacfloabacussolgarnonswilliams
Yellow

99 Bedding
Plant Description Pages,

dahliacflojessicagarnonswilliams
Dahlia

salviacflo1patenskavanagh1
Salvia

cannacflophasiongarnonswilliams
Canna

cosmoscflosulphureusgarnonswilliams
Cosmos

salviacflosplendenssalsapurplegarnonswilliams
Salvia

penstemoncflowhitebedderkavanagh
Pen-stemon

verbenacflosxhybridasaintgeorgegarnonswilliams
Ver-bena


Flower Shape and
Petal Count
Pages
followed by

osteopspermumcflo1sunnycecilgarnonswilliams
Stars Shape

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams
Saucer Shape

penstemoncflopenningtongemgarnonswilliams
Trum-pet Shape

salviacflotrelissickgarnonswilliams
Lobes Shape

dahliacflofascinationgarnonswilliams
Floret Shape

dahliacfloteesbrookeaudreygarnonswilliams
6 or More Petals

dahliacflodavidhowardgarnonswilliams1
6 or More Petals

1115 Wildflowers have flower colour pages to compare the plants with the same flower colours:-

from all the Native-to-the-UK-plants-in-1950 in their following 180 families. Each plant in each Family Page is aimed to have the following photos with it:-

  • a Flower
  • Flowers
  • Foliage
  • Shape

as well as the text giving its

If its Plant Description Page has been created
(297 created by May 2015 - see number created from each family on far right),
then its Common Name in the Page will be linked to it.
All the Wildflower Plants in these Family Pages also have External Website Links to

 

  • and the other Photo Galleries in the Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics on the left at the top of each page.

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape or Fragrance:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.
Night-scented Flowering Plants.
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.


5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable
 


6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

You can select plants for your garden using the following hierarchy as further detailed in Plants:-


7. Choose a Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers from its own gallery with comparisons per month of 12 flower colours.
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12 ...Index

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with the same Colour from Bee-Pollinated Flowers:-
Hay Fever sufferers, it is better to have bee-pollinated plants than wind-pollinated plants, since the pollen spread by that wind is what causes their suffering. The plants in Bee Bloom Gallery are bee-pollinated and they should be used in preference to grasses.

Click on the OOO in the Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index below to link to those bee-pollinated plants of that flower colour in that month or any of

ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in April-June
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-June
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-September
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in April-June
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in May-June
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant - for those plants.

Enumber indicates Empty Index Page.
Bottom row of Grey is Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

OOO E1.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Blue

OOO

OOO
E11.

OOO
E12.

OOO E13.

OOO
E14.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Mauve

OOO

OOO

OOO
E24.

OOO
E25.

OOO
E26.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Purple

OOO
E34.

OOO
E35.

OOO
E36.

OOO
E37

OOO
E38

OOO

OOO
E40

OOO
E41

OOO
E42

OOO

OOO

OOO
Brown

OOO

OOO
E47

OOO
E48

OOO
E49

OOO
E50

OOO
E51

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Cream

OOO
E58

OOO
E59

OOO
E60

OOO
E61

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Green

OOO

OOO
E71

OOO
E72

OOO
E73

OOO
E74

OOO
E75

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E80

OOO
E81Orange

OOO
E82

OOO
E83

OOO
E84

OOO
E85

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Pink

OOO

OOO
E95

OOO
E96

OOO
E97

OOO
E98

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Red

OOO

OOO
E107

OOO
E108

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
White

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Yellow

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E133

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Unusual

OOO

OOO
E143

OOO
E144


8. Choose plant by its use as part of the design process.
Part of the design process for choosing plants by their use in your garden, involves comparing:-

Other Plant Uses are given in the indices
in each row of the right hand table in the relevant Photo Gallery, or
in each row of the relevant page in its Index Page per letter of the Alphabet for that Photo Gallery
and
these Plant Uses in Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery:-
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly 1, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees 1, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover <60cmr
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bulb in Bulb Shape Gallery:-
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor House-plant
...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

with these Rose Use and Bedding Use Pages:-

PAGE/INDEX TABLE
is TABLE 3

HOME PAGES - Use this website in Landscape mode on an iPAD instead of an iPHONE, when away from home.
Welcome *
About Chris Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my
Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,
Contact Chris Garnons-Williams - Contact Information (Never Fail Cake Recipe),
Website Design History - Website Design History and
Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.
Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map - usually each of the educational not commercial 212 topics (none of these 212 linked websites sell or buy anything, nor do they take or give commission, and the only adverts are of products/services that I believe would benefit my visitors and are inserted by me) has its own Site Map, which is normally the first page of that Topic linked to from other topics.
Every page should have 3 separate tables - the Topics Table, the Data Table and the Pages/Index Table.
Each page has its own resources and is not data-base driven, so can be downloaded - downloading the whole website of 20.44 GB (3 Dec 2021) annually, with pages being between 1200 and over 6000 pixels wide and between 16k and over 33k long would provide you with an updating resource when either visiting a garden or planning your own. Usually 3 or 4 clicks gets you to any page in these 9763 pages in these folders from any other page.
Usually the top gallery of a plant type has all the flower images of that and the subsidiary galleries in 1 of 6 colours per month pages, with that flower thumbnail being in each month page that it flowers.
Clicking on the middle of that thumbnail will transfer you to that flower's page or row in data table within that page description; and
its link - the link may not work the day after it was created - to a mail-order nursery selling you that plant directly should be in the Comments row of that Plant Description Page.
The majority of the original images in this website are inserted, published in Freeway which produces a 72 pixel per inch Freeway image. This is exported to a File, and the image published by Freeway replaced by the re-imported Freeway image file as a pass-through image; before that is published again and the resulting folder website uploaded for visitors. The lower resolution speeds up the display of the 28,398 JPEG images - some of these images are re-used in different comparison pages of different galleries and therefore added to the resources of each of those galleries (6,508 images have garnons williams or garnons-williams as the ending of the filename and those can go in the public domain as of 5 June 2019, but all the remainder are
copyrighted by others and may not be re-used elsewhere without the permission of the copyright holder).
Camera photos of Coleus RHS Bedding Trial starts the process of displaying the complete 4000 x 3000 pixel original photos from Chris Garnons-Williams. Since each photo can be 3.5-6.0 Mb and there may be 11 of these on a page; each page may take a long time to download .

Page Menu may also have
an Index (
Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.

Besides informing you how to

 

Other items in this table about trees in pavements below might be of interest:-

  • Trees falling down from within pavements in Funchal, Madeira in the second row below and then in the second and third table;
    below the first on the right.
    Since it was 1 of 6 tree experts from Portugal that have monitored and advised Madeira about these trees, then I would be extremely worried about the trees under his control falling on me when I might visit either Portugal or Madeira.
    My reaction on this situation in 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2022:-
    • Reaction 1 from 2018 - 166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect during 2018).
    • Reaction 2 from 2019 - Photos 6 and 7 on Monitoring of Trees in Funchal Page 1 show a tree in a pavement with 70% of its heartwood rotted away from the earth to the base of the Forked Leader of the trunk as it splits to form another trunk going up. See Forked Leader in Photo 4 in Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page to see why this section of the trunk had been cut away before; but it never has had its wound dressed to prevent this rotting process.
      See Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4. galleries to see 4000 x 3000 pixel photos of this tree in pavement damage. This may have caused Funchal to get 1 of the 6 tree experts from Portugal to come in September 2019.
    • Reaction 3 from 2020 - Further photos were taken of the trees and added to the website after contacting a member of the staff in Funchal local government.
    • Reaction 4 from 2022 - The photos in the second table on the right show that a tree with most of its heartwood rotted away was cut down, and that at least one other tree that was cut down had more than 80% of its trunk rotted before it was cut down. Both trees were cut down in February 2022. They had both been rotting for years within 2.5cms (1 inch) of traffic on a main road. The trees or parts of them like their main branches could have fallen down at any time - even when under an expert tree man from Portugal, who has been monitoring them for the last 2.5 years; and declared them safe to the taxidrivers.
       
  • Tree roots being denied rainwater, nutrients, air exchange and death of the soil surrounding their roots within tarmaced pavements in Guernsey. Nor do they provide an organic mulch or green manure to feed their trees or redcurrant bushes.
     

 

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality -
See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2020 1, 2 pages by his department.
See Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4. galleries to see 4000 x 3000 pixel photos of this damage.
The following 12 sections provide more detail; with section 12 providing a cheap start to improving the life for the roots:-

  • 1. This tree trunk in Madeira will fall because of the heartwood being rotted away.
  • 2. Electrical cabling tied to trees in Madeira is killing the tree.
  • 3. Constriction of trees by metal, tarmac, stone, concrete etc will cause the tree to grow over the constriction. At some point that tree will break at this fulcrum and fall over; due to the weight above that fulcrum being in excess of what the heartwood at that fulcrum can support.
  • 4. Growing trees within 2 metres of a vertical drop in the soil and thus automatically restricting it's circle of roots means that the tree will have complete lack of support from a large section of root and is vulnerable to falling down from wind. Also the Eucalyptus roots extract a lot of water from the soil causing that soil to lose its cohesion and fall away.
  • 5. The weight of a growing unbraced shrub/tree in a small volume of soil, surrounded by impervious material, is going to exceed the weight of that soil. That means that that plant will fall down at the fulcrum of that trunk with the ground.
  • 6. Constriction of trees by plastic twine, baling twine, metal wire will cause the same problem as in Sections 2 and 3.
  • 7. Photograhic evidence of damage to 166 trees in Funchal, Madeira with explanations and possible solutions.
  • 8. In Medway, England the council has sprayed herbicide round the base of trees in public spaces to kill off the grass. The grass dehydrates the roots of the tree below.
  • 9. This explains why grass is detrimental to other plants growing in it.
  • 10. The cultural needs of plants for water, gas exchange and nutrients is explained. If these are not met then that plant will die.
  • 11. Earthworms provide the transport system in the soil for the rainwater, gas exchange and nutrients dissolved in that water to reach the tree roots via tunnels. No access for earthworms, no earthworms, cultural needs of plants not met.
  • 12. Although some solutions have been given in the previous sections, this provides a start for improving the cultivation conditions for the roots of those plants in Madeira and in other countries.

 

1. Could Madeira use this tree in its current state as Cheap Staff Accomodation for

  • staff at the Forum Shopping Centre
  • or
  • for me as accomodation, while I sort out their tree problems
    (at least when I would fall asleep, it would be sitting up as required below? Madeirans care for their staff in knowing that I would not have far to travel to go to work)?

Photo 10 - tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk IMG_6063.JPG in
Damage to Tree Roots in Madeira caused by People Page in Section 7.
The hole in the trunk could be sold by the Tourist Office or rented out, who would install a thin front door (you would need to go inside your bijou residence sideways) with a toilet behind it ( you could also sleep on this toilet saving hotel bed costs), a small sink to the side and hanging space for one's clothes for a very reasonable selling or renting price. A camping stove could be set up outside to cook your meals - or you could eat in the establishments within a 150 metres in the Forum Shopping Centre; and then you could use a small fold-up stool for seating outside. Rubbish could be installed in a bag behind you, which could be lent against as a cushion/pillow at nightime.
Household insurance to cover the flat from being blown down could be expensive. You would need to scrub off the charcoal from the burnt inside of the trunk, before you could paint it magnolia. You might not be able to extend the living space within the trunk without structural collapse.

Try not to be on the zebra crossing when it does fall if there is no repair. This tree probably has the same width of live trunk left
next to the ground as you can see of a cut down tree in the pavement less than 300 metres away as shown in
Work Details of my Ivydene Horticultural Services page.
 

damagetotreeroots10garnonswilliams1


2.
The following 2 photos illustrate how easy it is for an electrician to kill a tree by tying a metal/plastic tie so tight that it cuts through the Outer Bark, the Inner Bark or Phloem and the Cambium layers depriving the trunk above and kills it, without him/her knowing that is what will happen. Combine that with no maintenance of these trees in pavements and so the population and the paying visitors prepare to endure the failure of branches/trunks of these trees and hope that they are not underneath or that those trees will not interfere with gas tanks which are below them:

lightsontrees11garnonswilliams1

 

lightsontrees12garnonswilliams1

note the splits in the exposed heartwood, where the heartwood is starting to fail.

Below is a diagram showing how thin are the 3 top layers of a tree/shrub which provide protection and power to live for that tree and how easy it is to be damaged without the tree being able to repair that damage:-

 

trunkdiagram2garnonswilliams1

 

3. The following photo comes from Madeira Island News.com with the accompanying text dated 30 July 2018:-

ironfoundationringsmadeiranews1

"A set of iron foundations placed around some trees of regional road 104, in the stretch between the PSP and the Ponte Vermelha, in Ribeira Brava, are conditioning the growth of the trees and generating controversy.
According to one reader to JM, the fact is that the same bases, which are completely rusty as the image demonstrates, are clearly affecting the growth of the species in question, which in their opinion may lead to the destruction of the species.
In addition, it indicates that many of these bases are even reaching the interior of the trees and there are cases of some species that are already higher in relation to the pavement.
Several popular have already expressed concern about what happened. They understand that the solution is to remove the iron bases."
If these iron bases are reaching the interior of the trees, that means that as that tree grows it will at some point be too heavy to be supported by the trunk at the base level and it will fall down - WHY DOES NOBOBDY IN MADEIRA GET EDUCATED ABOUT HOW TREES GROW AND SHOULD BE MAINTAINED, OR DO THEY PREFER TO HAVE ANOTHER 13 PEOPLE KILLED BY FALLING TREES AS HAPPENED IN 2017? AND WILL THEY MAKE THE SAME MISTAKE WHEN PLANTING 288,000 TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE ECOLOGICAL PARK? Since nobody in Portugal or Madeira is reading this during April 2019, perhaps somebody might tell them or will you also be wasting your time?

 

4. Another report from Madeira about trees:-
PPM WARNS TREES AT RISK OF FALLING ON THE ROAD BETWEEN CANHAS AND PAUL DA SERRA
TOBI HUGHES 22ND FEBRUARY 2019
The PPM Madeira was today on the road connecting the parish of the Canhas to Paul da Serra, according to the request of the people who contacted the party, to see the danger of some large trees that are in danger of falling.

“What we saw there is very worrying,” says Paulo Brito, who photographed some of the trees with their roots in sight without the necessary support to stand. In his opinion, “a stronger wind is enough that they come down”, others that have been severely burned by the last fires and are dead, “just waiting to fall”.

We saw large branches and trees already with a level of inclination for the road, almost at a stage of a possible tragedy.

The road also needs a lot of attention as it is in a very bad state  and is a road used by locals and many tourists, as one of the main routes to Paul da Serra.

exposedtreerootsmadeiranews1

Taken from Funchal News.
This tree does not have any root support for over 50% of its circular root area. There are at least 3 trees in this photo that are within 1 metre of the cliff face to the road. I wonder if these trees are Eucalyptus (one of the reasons for the introduction of Eucalytus to the Island was for the production of paper) which has one of the highest demands for water and therefore if grown on a slope with many others, the ground underneath this tree may have reached the Permanent Wilting Point. Then, the soil between the tree roots falls off the side of a cliff as shown here; and the ground becomes too dry to support the other trees in this wood. In this photo there are at least 2 trees which are no longer vertical and if the ground moisture below them has reached beyond the Permanent Wilting Point for those trees, then they likely to continue the descent to ground.
Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent Wilting Point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

 

 

5. If you put a shrub/tree in a very small volume of ground and allow it to grow, there will come a point where the weight of the tree/shrub above ground exceeds the weight of the earth/roots below the ground and so it becomes unstable and falls over as you can see in an evening for falling trees in October 2017 article. The earth in the hole where the shrub is surrounded by impervious material is not enough area or depth for its roots to continue to provide itself with a stable platform as it matures.

Tree Root Systems - 130/95/ARB - by Martin Dobson of Arboricultural Advisory and Information Service:-
Tree root systems are wide spreading, extending radially in any direction for distance in excess of the tree's height; frequently no deeper than 200 cms (80 inches, which as noted above; soil moisture is generally considered to be in the upper 80 inches) - see What to do about subsidence caused by clay page to see the effect of the length of different tree roots. Roots grow predominantly near the soil surface (see photo below with tree roots on the soil surface) - over 90% of all roots, and virtually all the large structural supporting roots, are in the upper 60 cm (24 inches) of soil. Soil disturbance within the rooting are should be avoided, as this can significantly affect tree stability and moisture uptake. Lateral roots taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms distance they are usually only 2-5cms (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here they tend to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm.
Roots branching from the upper side of laterals grow upwards and divide profusely in the surface soil, which is usually well-aerated, to form fans or mats of thousands of fine non-woody 'absorbing' or 'feeder' roots. In woodland, they grow horizontally between the 2 to 3 year old fallen leaves to absorb moisture and nutrient uptake. In order for roots to survive, oxygen must be available in the soil immediately surrounding them. Depositing toxic or impermeable materials on the roots will damage the roots" by stopping access to oxygen and soil moisture from above. Having grass over the tree roots is also detrimental as shown in section 9 below.
Our local church has a very large yew tree, where the local authority have removed the leaves, dead church flowers, prunings from the rest of the churchyard and grass cuttings to make sure that it has no nutrients and the grave-diggers continue to dump 60cm (24 inches) depth of the subsoil from new graves onto the yew tree roots robbing them of both moisture and oxygen - noted on 6 January 2022.
Why is it that nobody in Great Britain in parks or gardens open to the public, or gardens of homeowners understand the cultural needs of plants, as shown onsection 10 of this row? and why do they want to kill these plants as shown in the sections of this row in Madeira? Every country in the world puts tarmac on top of tree roots in pavements of roads, right up to the trunk. Why not put a 300 cm (120 inch) radius from each tree trunk in the pavement of peashingle locked in a Gravel Stabilisation System, so that at least oxygen and moisture can get to the roots? Then, collect the green waste from the homeowners and dead leaves from the trees on public land, mix it with 5% seaweed for the trace elements, compost it, shred the result, create a slurry of it and feed that slurry on top of the Gravel Stabilisation System, followed by a spray of clean water to clean the top-most pea-shingle, once a month throughout the year.

 

 

6. "This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.
Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.
gardenmaintenanceimprove1a
Please also do not use tarred cord as it will last too long and cause the same problem as above, use garden twine which will rot within a few years and then allows the plant' stem to expand. For trees or shrubs remember that the stake is only a support for the first 3 years at most, in order to stop the plant from being uprooted and to allow the stem above the 18 inches (45 cms) where it is tied to being able to sway in the breeze and strengthen rather than being tied at 60 inches (150 cms) and then when the support is removed the tree trunk is not strong enough and breaks in a strong wind. If you going to support climbers then also use garden twine, since when you cut it to move or remove that branch every 2 or 3 years, it can then lie on the ground and be recycled by your friendly earth organisms!" from Growing Edibles in Containers in Plants Extra.
If the tree is constricted by a metal ring as shown above; then it will grow over that ring and when the weight of growth above is too much for the area of heartwood within that metal ring, it will also snap off at that point.

 

 

7. 166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages (and further detailed in the following Camera Photo Galleries Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4):-

The people of Madeira and/or VAN DEN BERK NURSERIES could SOLVE THESE TREE PROBLEMS
or

they could continue to kill these trees and others in the same situation elsewhere on the island
and then continue to be killed by those trees falling on them or on a 1000 gallon cooking gas tank for each of 2 hotels, causing leaks, followed by explosions

or
invite me to do the work unpaid, with Madeira providing food/drink, work clothes, materials and equipment for these tree problems (Madeira would donate the use of the following sleeping facility with my ankles and head above my stomach to drain my ankles and prevent drowning from phlegm created in my throat during my sleep together with 11 medications for heart failure, head tumour, diuretics, blood thinners, reduction of heart rate by 60 beats a minute, glaucoma, and 3 of those medications for diabetes, etc).
It might take me a little time

  • to gather over 50 tons of seaweed/ cow manure and mix it before delivering it 3 times a year to each tree and pavement flower bed in this section within Funchal; more would be needed to cover the others in the island,
  • removal of pavers and white/black marble pavements and replace with reduced size pavers with 2 inch depth of sharp sand under them,
  • deal with unsealed tree branch cuts and rotting holes,
  • deal with rotting tree roots,
  • deal with root/lorry problems,
  • retighten tree braces,
  • erect steel structures over gas tanks to prevent damage by falling trees,
  • provide irrigation to the trees in those pavements on a weekly basis
  • create database of all trees/flower beds in pavements in Madeira, with repair schedule and paver replacement/ irrigation/ fertiliser creation; and irrigation and fertilising time schedules.
  • following my use of 6 FAIL (Fortran Assisted Instruction Lecture) written notes, so that the students from Years 1 and 2 of the Architecture Dept of Portsmouth Polytechnic would receive the next 1 hour lecture notes at the end of the previous, I taught the Fortran language, hardware, software, flowcharting and documentation to them within 6 hours followed by 2 afternoons of practical in creating stats from an experiment in the laboratory. Those students passed with 75% following my exam of a waffle, flowchart and program questions supervised by the Computer Science Dept. I graduated with a 2.2 in Psychology from Brunel University the previous year to this teaching, having spent 18 months under Section 22 from falling on my head at 60mph in Wales from a motorbike and then recovering the use of the spoken and written English language by myself. I was passed mentally fit in the January of the year that I took my finals. Due to 1/3 of my brain being detached from my skull, I am discouraged from engaging in contact sports. Following close contact between a female dentist and my teeth, which resulted in a 2 month hiatus in my blood-thining medication, I am also allergic to close contact with the female species, unless my eyes are closed until they move 2 feet (60 cms) away. I have a temperature range between 18-20 degrees Celcius, so it can be a problem where air-conditioning only brings the temperature down to 24 degrees Celcius as in cinemas, theatres and banqueting halls.
    Then perhaps I could teach the following students:-
    • Tree-surgeons to get trees thinned, crowned, etc to aid the purpose for which those trees were planted, not pollard the whole tree and produce a very dangerous result when used for trees in pavements, or for hanging electricity lighting schemes on them - the ties slowly cutting through the bark and the cambium killing the trunk/branch above.
    • Bed maintenance staff in how to prune, which does not mean chopping a rose to ground level each year and nor does it mean using a flail to chop shrubs into rectangles or turn shrub borders into oblong hedges.
    • Bed and tree maintenance staff with use of green manures, seaweed/cow-, pig-, sheep-, chicken-manure, recycled food waste from restaurants and food markets mixed with shredded shrub/tree prunings and used as a mulch to feed the plants under their care.
    • hotel and restaurant staff in checking the state of their toilets to stop the leakage of thousands of gallons of water from the overflow in the cistern or the washer seals into the latrine bowl.
      Having had to reveal 2 leaks in the 2 toilets in the Pestana Promenade Hotel suite in 2018 followed by a leak in 1 of the toilets in the Pestana Mirimar Hotel Suite in 2018 followed a year later in the Pestana Promenade Hotel Suite with one of the same toilets still leaking and it taking an hour for the Maintenance Manager to cure it this time, I am hopefull that next year there will not be a repeat performance.
      Your toilet cisterns remind me of the self-cleaning tumble dryer that used the water removed from the drying clothes to wash the condenser into the same match-box tank with foam pressure valve which activated a pump to transfer that water into a large tank at the top. Unfortunately when the system washed the fine dust into that matchbox, it clogged the foam and activated the pump. When no more water could be pumped, it refused to allow the machine to start drying. That tank was inaccessable to the machine owner and so cost £180 a time to get emptied. Brilliant - a machine designed to fail if it carried out its function, rather like the toilets in Madeira in wasting water.
    • educate the public about their relationship with plants that come into their environment to realise that without them they would be dead from lack of oxygen. In public spaces, it is advisable to be careful since many people suffer from hay-fever, so plants from All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month could be used, which would not affect them and those planted areas could be identified for them.

I could use Companion Planting, but I am sure that the above is enough for me to start with in taking 400 hours per day leaving my time schedule for sleep and nourishment not executed,
if
the people of Madeira do not wish to sort out these tree/shrub plant problems themselves as can be seen from the lack of response to what I wrote last year in the Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page.
 

Although the above is about the trees in the pavements in Madeira, other towns in other countries may find the information within it useful. There are also Problems with Trees in Pavements in Guernsey, in September 2019 Page.

 

 

8. I have noticed in my home town that herbicide has been spread

  • round the trees on lawn-grass between the kerb and the tarmac pavement and
  • under the hoop barriers
    (hoop-barriers would probably be easier than the more effective Brett Trief Vehicle Containment Kerb system) stopping cars from parking on that verge in March 2019.
  • Also, where trees are in lawn-grass on steep slopes so that their roots are exposed up the bank, that that lawn-grass has been removed - instead of herbicide being used - between those visible roots.


Perhaps Green Manure seeds will be sown in these areas.
If the Green Manure (Mustard is bee-pollinated) is bee-pollinated rather wind-pollinated, then hay-fever sufferers would not be affected when it flowers and sets seed.
Then,

  • if the contractors using their ride-on mowers or rotary mowers cut into the green manure as well, it will not matter as the seed generated from that green manure will grow and replace the damaged legumes.
  • These legumes under the hoop barriers and besides the trees will then feed nitrogen to the roots of those trees and
  • what rain water that these legumes do not use will be available for those same tree-roots. This will help the trees
  • as well as reduce the possible damage to the bark of those trees by strimmers from those same contractors and
  • reduce the amount of grass mowings being put into the storm drains, when it rains after those mowings have strayed onto the tarmac road. Green manure instead of grass in and around hoop barriers within a very thin strip of grass between the road and the tarmac pavement will not require strimming as the grass it replaces does.
  • if the grass next to private household fences/walls/ telegraph poles/ other items within public grassed areas or next to public buildings is also killed off with herbicides and replaced with green manure like mustard, then the strimming of that public grassed area next to those boundaries could be stopped.

The legumes like mustard between spring to autumn will replace the bare earth, which would otherwise grow weeds and look unsightly - it does not matter if some mustard grows into the grassed areas, since it would be cut down.
Use Lawn Aerating Shoes to spike the bare earth, spread the green manure seed thinly and spread using a soft brush into the holes created by the spikes. Spray the seeded ground with water to dampen the ground, before spreading a thin layer of sharp sand over the seeded area and leave the seeds to grow.
Repeat this next spring, since the first frost during the previous autumn will have killed the top growth of the mustard and the worms will then clear the ground. It becomes too cold for the weeds and just replanting in the spring with mustard will superseed any new growth of weeds.

Overall maintenance cost would thus be greatly reduced and the trees would benefit.

 

9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-

hotelgardens4garnonswilliams1a

This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.

"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."

"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."

 

Have you ever wondered how much grass is at a Major League Baseball stadium?
We did and found the answer. The average professional baseball field in America will use around 100,000 square feet of turf (~2.25 acres), which will need approximately 62,500* gallons of water per week (under normal watering schedule of 1″/week). This is equivalent to the amount of water 89 homes will use in the same amount of time. 62,500 gallons = 284130.63 litres. This is used by 89 homes in 7 days = 456 litres per day per home. This water is being used by the grass every week and if you do not irrigate, then it gets it from the soil and when it rains. Ever wondered why the ground under turf in public areas is so dry to the detriment of trees/shrubs growing within it or in beds alongside.
In Bevan's speech, he warned that because of climate change, by 2040, more than half of UK summers were likely to exceed 2003 temperatures – meaning more water shortages. By 2050, the amount of water available could be reduced by 10%-15%, with some rivers seeing 50%-80% less water during the summer months. This would result in a higher risk of drought, caused by the hotter, drier summers and less predictable rainfall. Water shortages are not uniform across the UK, with the North-west, Wales and Scotland generally having an adequate supply and the South-east experiencing the greatest pressure. According to the Greater London Authority, London is pushing close to capacity, is likely to have water supply problems by 2025 and “serious shortages” by 2040.
Building Regulations 
There have been changes over the years to the Building Regulations in order to try to reduce water consumption. Main changes in the 2015 edition of the Building Regulations include the introduction of an optional requirement for tighter water efficiency in Regulation 36 (section G2). 
The amendments are separated into two levels:
(a) 125 litres per person per day; 
(b) or the optional requirement of 110 litres per person per day (which may be a requirement of the water companies within that region). Planning Authorities in the South-East have decided on the 110 litre per person per day; produced by the builder fitting different taps, etc that will reduce current usage of 131 litres per person per day to 110, without the buyer in the South-East of England being aware.

ALTHOUGH THE VOLUME OF DRINKING WATER IS REDUCING IN THE SOUTH-EAST, MANY NEW HOMES ARE BEING BUILT AND SO FAR DESALINATION PLANTS OR MORE RESERVOIRS HAVE NOT BEEN BUILT TO KEEP UP WITH THE EXTRA DEMAND. AS EACH HOME IS BEING BUILT IT REDUCES THE LAND AREA FOR RAIN TO SOAK INTO THE LAND TO BE COLLECTED IN CHALK AQUIFERS OR WATER RESERVOIRS - THE NUMBER OF CHAMBERS FILLED WITH BULLETS IN THE REVOLVER FOR RUSSIAN ROULETTE IS INCREASING FROM 3 TOWARDS ALL 6 AND THIS IS BEING CARRIED AS GOVERNMENT POLICY.
 

hotelgardens5garnonswilliams1

Photo 5 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG_6222.JPG

The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants. Replace the grass with GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.

The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,

  • since it is witin an enclosed public space.
  • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
  • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
  • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
  • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
  • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?

 

10. Since I was adding to the 97 out 706 ferns to the Fern Gallery, I thought you might be interested in the following to explain why the current treatment of growing plants in pavements in Madeira is lacking in care:-
This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
Nitrogen Cycle -
Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
Oxygen Cycle -
No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
Carbon Dioxide -
Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

11. Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from tree roots

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting the requirements then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree.
You can see the thinness of the tree roots in IMG 004 of Table 4 within Work Details of my Ivydene Horticultural Services page, where the roots are exposed of the tree that they cut down. Madeira had also ignored the great deal of rot that had occured in the tree trunk; and only cut the tree down because they said it was pushing the wall beside the pavement over!!! irrespective of the rot that eventually would have made that tree fall down maybe onto the traffic 6 inches (15 cms) from its trunk or onto the hotel below it on the other side of the wall. This is despite a tree expert from Portugal having been employed previously, who must have stated that this tree was safe!!!! despite it rotting for quite a few years. How many more trees in pavements of Funchal are like this one besides the one that is less than 300 metres up the road with a new bus stop near it and a zerbra crossing in front of it for it to fall on as shown above for more than 10 years.
Because a builder could not be bothered to prevent the weight of steelwork vehicles from depressing the tarmac pavement by a bus stop in 2022, the damage broke the roots of a tall mature tree, which then got honey fungus and killed that tree. 6 months later that tree in a public verge is still standing in City Way, Medway and eventually that will also fall down onto traffic or nearby houses. That honey fungus has travelled 30 metrees up the grass verge to a tree stump where a vehicle ran into that tree pushing that tree over to 45 degrees and the council then had pollarded it to about 2 metres, some months previously. So if the honey fungus has travelled there; then it can also go into the gardens in City Way, Medway and kill off their shrubs and trees.
What a waste of my time in writing the above is, when nothing will get done about it, unless someone can make some money out of it!!!
The roots of each tree covered by tarmac, concrete or stone (in any country in the world) will create a Russian Roulette situation, where the asphixiated, dehydrated and starved tree may fall down. In this situation, there is only one place where the tree may get the water and nutrients requiired and that is by taking them from a branch, normally the ones nearest the ground to be able to compete for new branches and leaves at the top in competition with either other trees or buildings shading their tops. This can be seen in dense forests.
Human beings must be the only animal that is determined to kill itself by denying itself oxygen to breath.
Nitrogenous fertilizers tend to create acidic conditions, which are fatal to the worms, and dead specimens are often found on the surface following the application of substances such as DDT, lime sulphur, and lead arsenate. In Australia, changes in farming practices such as the application of superphosphates on pastures and a switch from pastoral farming to arable farming had a devastating effect on populations of the giant Gippsland earthworm, leading to their classification as a protected species. Globally, certain earthworms populations have been devastated by deviation from organic production and the spraying of synthetic fertilizers and biocides with at least three species now listed as extinct but many more endangered.
Vermicomposting of all organic "wastes" and addition of this organic matter, preferably as a surface mulch , on a regular basis will provide earthworms with their food and nutrient requirements, and will create the optimum conditions of temperature and moisture that will naturally stimulate their activity.

This earthworm activity aerates and mixes the soil, and is conducive to mineralization of nutrients and their uptake by vegetation. Certain species of earthworm come to the surface and graze on the higher concentrations of organic matter present there, mixing it with the mineral soil. Because a high level of organic matter mixing is associated with soil fertility, an abundance of earthworms is generally considered beneficial by farmers and gardeners.

 

12. The easiest and quickest solution for existing pavement areas using pavers or paving slabs is the SuDSFLOW System using paving spacers for permeable paving. Simply take up the paver/paving slab and re-install with the spacer and laying coarse sand if you cannot afford to also install the correct subgrade. You would then end up with redundant pavers/paving slabs and the same system could be used elsewhere.
The same SuDSFLOW System could be used on Domestic Driveways, Patios and Terraces, Car Parks and Footpaths including the laying coarse sand and subgrade to absorb the rainfall even if the soil is clay underneath. This would prevent the rainwater falling on your land from leaving it - which is illegal in the UK.
Instead of wasting your time using the existing compost bins in private gardens; use the vermicomposting system to create a better product for your home garden.
Use the same vermicomposting system on organic waste from restaurants, hotels and supermarkets, before mashing it into small compost particles and put into a water solution to give a monthly supply to the trees in your pavements in your village/ town/ council area.

TABLE 4

Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira:
Photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in
Madeira
taken in February 2022.

 

Parts of Table 4 has been transferred to Work Details of my Ivydene Horticultural Services page as Other Table 4, where lack of education has led to very dangerous situations for the public and holiday visitors walking under these trees on pavements in Madeira. Unfortunately this dangerous situation is in every country in the world, since public care of trees is sublimated to greed.
After this section in the table about Damage to trees in the pavement of funchal in madeira comes
"A '£134,000 disaster of 95% of 12,800 saplings planted to help tackle the climate crisis have died because they were not watered in the summer drought' created by a Gloucester Council that did not have a clue that planting whips in grass would absolutely guarantee to kill them, even if someone sprayed a gallon of water over a square yard of that grass with the whip in its middle every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during this last summer."

 

"Any tree planted within 3 feet (90 cms) of a wall will damage the foundations of that wall.
If the eventual height of the tree that you wish to plant will exceed the distance from a wall, then dig a hole 8 feet (240 cms) wide and 3 feet (90 cms) deep, line it with geotextile like Plantex from Travis Perkins - or overlapping concrete slabs on the sides and bottom- to prevent the roots from exceeding that space but it does allow water and air through its spaces. Then, mix

  • 3 portions of the Top Soil part of excavated soil with
  • 1 portion of Spent Mushroom Compost to provide the humus,
  • 0.5 portion of Cow Manure to provide the fertiliser and
  • 25Kg of Calcified Seaweed to provide the Trace Elements

using a cement mixer and refill that hole, firming the ground with your heels after each foot (30 cms) of height has been added." from Deciduous and Evergreen Trees Suitable for Small Gardens List Page that I originally created in December 2006.
 

 

From Page 29 of Medway Matters Spring 2023 states
We'll be using the £115,000 we were awarded from the Local Authority Tree Fund last year to plant these new trees throughout Medway. We have also received £125,000 from the Forestry Commissions Urban Tree Challenge Fund, which we will match, to plant more trees in green spaces and schools.
The tree pictured, commonly known as a Rowan or Mountain Ash, was planted on Friday, 24 February along Deanwood Drive in Parkwood.

Comments:-

  • The plastic rabbit guard looks very similar to the rabbit guards, which are sold second hand having been used on Barcham's Nursery to prevent rabbits from eating the tree bark. As the tree grows then this plastic guard will prevent the trunk from expanding at that point and years later the tree will snap at that point.
  • A 5 feet high wooden stake has been inserted at least a foot into the ground about 12 inches away from opposing sides of the tree trunk. No Rainbow Buckle Tree Tie has been used to tie the tree to either stake.
  • Only 1 stake should have been used at 45 degrees and meeting the trunk at about 50 cms (20 inches) with that stake inserted intio the ground on the side where the wind usually comes from. It's purpose is to stop the tree from being blown out of the ground and for the tree finding out about the weather, so that it then decides whether to strengthen its trunk before going on to extend its trunk and its branches. When stakes support the tree at 6 feet from the ground and stop it moving, then when that support is removed after 2 or 3 years, the first gale may well snap the tree at that point.
  • The tree is surrounded by grass which will rapidly grow back next to the trunk. Grass will absorb all the rain and any nutrients supplied. Thus like the disaster at Gloucester Council, this planting would have been a total waste of time.
  • The spades in the picture are clean and there is no mud on anybodies boots or shoes. This means the ground was dry and also it does not look as if this newly planted tree has received any water. How much to water newly planted trees is answered by Barcham. If you applied the recommended 20 litres of water every other day to when the tree roots are covered in grass, then the tree roots would receive none of it - see section 9 in the table on the left as to why (A football pitch uses on average 100,000 litres of water every day). Barcham also sell Tree Hydration Bags, which I have seen round the trunk of some of the newly planted trees in Medway pavements.
  • Barcham also recommend an organic mulch should be applied over the area inside this wooden tree guarded area to help retain water and feed the tree, before I would recommend that the green manure is sown on top of it.
  • I see no evidence of a wooden tree guard, which hopefully will stop children from climbing the tree in the early years and animals from urinating near the tree. It would be advantageous to the tree for the wooden tree guard to be at least 2 metres by 2 metres by 2 metres high with the ground within it having all its grass roots removed. Then, once the tree is planted, a green manure sown. Outside the wooden tree guard a box 4 inches high (10 cms) and 1 inch (2.5cm) wide of softwood to be installed to leave 1 inch above ground to try and stop the grass from getting into the inside area and allowing the green manure to fully take over. This wooden box will rot away within 2-3 years.
     
  • If the tree is going into a pavement, then the width of the pavement and 2 metres in length of it should have its tarmac or concrete removed with the rubble underneath to a depth of 6 inches (150mm). Then, a 2 inch (5 cms) layer of SHARP SAND (shaped like pyramids it packs together) NOT BUILDERS SAND (shaped like ball bearings and rolls away), plant your tree and extend its side roots into this depth of sand, water it and attach the Barcham Tree Hydration Bag. Finally, lay 4 inch thick permeable concrete block paving - Permeable Type A Infiltration Sustainable Drainage System, which has spacing nibs to allow rainwater or irrigation water to flow down between the pavers, over the remainder of the 2 metres by pavement width area. Instead of no access, then the tree roots would have at least have 4 square metres for air exchange and water.
    If the kerbs were changed to Combined Drainage Kerbs, then this sand could also be irrigated from the rain falling on the road, instead of that rainwater adding to the flood potential.
    The Tree Hydration Bag should prevent prams and shopping bags from hitting the tree. After the bag is removed it would be useful to have a spiral rabbit guard fitted to prevent shoes, handbags and prams from damaging the trunk in the future.
     
  • LONDON'S LARGEST EVER PLANTING EVENT from Trees for Cities
    On 1st and 2nd December 2018, the Mayor of London and Trees for Cities brought hundreds of Londoners together to plant thousands of trees, making the capital greener, healthier and wilder.
    Following a number of tree planting workshops throughout National Tree Week, four mass tree planting events took place across parks and green spaces in London. A total of 878 volunteers got stuck in to plant the majority of the 25,000 trees across four sites over the weekend, with the rest planted by community groups, school children and corporate volunteers. 

    treesforcitieslondon20181

    IT IS A PITY THAT THIS WORKFORCE DOES NOT UNDERSTAND THAT NONE OF THE TREES THAT THEY HAVE JUST PLANTED WILL BE ALIVE BY THE NEXT AUGUST.
    THEY WERE PLANTING THESE IN WELL-ESTABLISHED GRASS WHICH WOULD GROW AND COVER THE AREA TO EACH TRUNK AND WOULD TAKE EVERY DROP OF RAINFALL AND NUTRIENT - see lower part of table 3.
    IF THEY HAD ROTOVATED THIS GRASS FROM SIDE TO SIDE, BACK TO FRONT, AND DIAGONALLY EACH WAY, THE GRASS WOULD STILL HAVE GROWN BACK AS I DEMONSTRATED IN A CLIENT'S GARDEN - IT WAS A FINE NEW LAWN LESS THAN 6 WEEKS LATER.
    THERE IS NO IRRIGATION SYSTEM HERE AND
    NO PROTECTION FROM RABBITS EATING THE BARK IN THE LATE WINTER AND KILLING THE TREES.
    WHY DOES NOBODY IN THIS COUNTRY GET EDUCATED? THIS WAS A TOTAL WASTE OF MONEY, TIME AND EFFORT IN 2018, WHICH EVERYBODY KEEPS ON MAKING EVEN IN 2023.

    treesforcitieslondon20182

    Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan is getting stuck in at Forest Road. Photography by Nathalie Weatherald.
    NOBODY HAS NOTICED
    • THAT THE GROUND UNDER THE TURF IS BONE DRY INTO WHICH THE MAYOR IS PLANTING A TREE,
    • EVEN ONE OF THE MEMBERS OF STAFF WORKING FOR TREES FOR CITIES HAS DRY BOOTS WITH NO MUD ON THEM,
    • THE TREES HAVE NOT BEEN WATERED IN
    • NO PLANTING COMPOST OR FERTILISER HAS BEEN ADDED TO THE RETURNING SOIL ,
    • THERE IS NO TREE WATERING IRRIGATION BAG INSTALLED,
    • NO TREE GUARDS SUPPLIED TO PREVENT CATTLE, HORSES OR DONKEYS EATING THE TREE AND
    • THEY ARE PLANTED TOO CLOSE TOGETHER, UNLESS HE WANTS AN IMPENETRABLE CONTINUOUS HEDGE
      • "How Much Room Should I Allow?
        With all these considerations, when you are looking for trees to plant, look at the final sizes listed for them and then get out into the garden with a measure, to see how much room you really have, considering all the things we have talked about here. Look at the places you were thinking of planting and consider the following distances.
        To protect foundations, sewers and drains, allow the following spacings:
        • Small trees, such as flowering dogwoods, magnolia, or smaller conifers – allow 10 feet.
          • Medium-sized trees, such as fruit trees, birch trees, or larger Japanese maple – allow 20 feet
          • Large-trees, like sugar maple, oaks, Gingko, or flowering pear – allow 30 to 50 feet
          • Large, aggressive trees like poplars, silver maple or willows – allow 100 feet
      • Distance From Buildings and Other Trees
        There are other factors worth considering when planting near your home, besides protecting foundations. First there is visual scale. A typical two-story home, with a pitched roof is 20 to 25 feet tall. Many trees, evergreen or deciduous, will grow 60 to 80 feet tall, and right alongside your home that is going to look pretty silly. Besides that, overhanging branches can break, causing roof damage, or if the whole tree comes down in a storm it will demolish most of your home. Far better to plant trees that grow no more than 40 feet tall within a 20 feet radius around your home. Keep those larger trees further away, where you can see and admire their beauty, without any risk.
        Consider too the width of the tree. As a rule of thumb, if you half the width listed for a mature tree, that should be the minimum distance away from the house – even then the branches will in time touch the windows. So a better rule would be two-thirds of the listed width. That is also a good rule for spacing trees apart, if you want them to retain their individual identity. Trees planted close together make a nice forest, but that may not be the garden style you had in mind!"

         
  • Outside the shop of Gillingham Street Angels in Chatham, Medway Council has installed a new tree in a 2 x 2 metre area with stakes. Photo taken on 30 june 2023 by C. Garnons-Williams.
    chathamtreeintarmac1garnonswilliams
    Some material was placed in that 2 x 2 metre area after the tree was planted and then a wacker plate was used to vibrate that material down at 3.2 metres per second with 520 Kg per square metre pressure right up to the trunk of the new tree. Any tree roots under that would have been crushed by that vibrating 1146 pound pressure, which is more than half a ton.


    When planting these trees in the next 2 years, try not to kill every one.
    Soil for plants must have air in it for the roots to use to go places; so do not use waker plates to kill them off. I hope that this process of hammering down the earth for each of the new tree roots in Medway will not be repeated to waste the £125,000 funded by the Forestry Commission's Urban Tree Challenge Fund with its matched funding of £125,000 from Medway Council and the £115,000 from the Local Authority Tree Fund over the next 2 years from 2 December 2022.

    WHY IS THERE NO MEMBER OF THE MEDWAY STAFF OR ITS HIRED CONTRACTORS WHO KNOWS ANYTHING ABOUT PLANTS AND WHO ALLOWS THIS, AND
    THE NEGLECT OF THE OTHER TREES IN THE CHATHAM HIGH STREET THAT ARE NOW BEING CUT DOWN DUE TO NEGLECT IN ALLOWING THE PROTECTIVE METAL STRUCTURES ROUND THEM TO BE GROWN INTO BY THOSE TREES WHICH THEN KILLS THE TREES
    ?

    Unfortunately the material that was pressured down was not soil, because on Thursday 25 May 2023, I saw that tarmac had been laid on top of that material in the 2 x 2 metre area right up to the trunk of the new tree.
    Did you know that is also what Guernsey did in September 2019?
    This stops water etc as detailed in point 10 below from interacting with the crushed roots of that tree, so that the
    • Forestry Commission,
    • Medway population who are funding this £125,000 matched funding and
    • the Local Authority Tree Fund
      will be very grateful to Medway Council in wasting their funds by planting trees and then proceeding to kill them.

      Let us repeat point 10 from the table on the left:-
      10. Since I was adding to the 97 out 706 ferns to the Fern Gallery, I thought you might be interested in the following to explain why the current treatment of growing plants in pavements in Madeira is lacking in care:-
      chathamtreeintarmac2garnonswilliams
      This row gives a very clear overall description of the
      Cultural Needs of Plants
      from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.
      "Understanding Fern Needs
      Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
      What, then, does a fern need?

      All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.

      All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.

      For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.

      Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.

      Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
      Nitrogen Cycle -
      Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
      Oxygen Cycle -
      No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
      Carbon Dioxide -
      Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.

      Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.

      Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

      The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."
  • By the bus stop for the 145 after the George Pub on City Way, Rochester, there is a mature tree killed by honey fungus. A few yards away, there is a new building being built with a great deal of heavy steelwork. The lorries bringing that steel do not put down supporting trackways and so the pavement had 2 deep indentations in it. The roots of this mature tree were in that area and would have been broken by this and that is where the honey fungus got in. Having infected that tree and killed it off, the fungus went up about 20 yards to a pollarded tree that had been knocked to a 45 degree angle by a heavy duty motor vehicle and infected that as well. When Medway Council sent repairers to relay the pavement tarmac, I informed them about the trees. The dead trees have not been removed and so that honey fungus will continue up and down City Way on the grass and tree verge between the road and the tarmac pavement, and into the gardens along that side.

    Like the new trees that had died of disease in a car park of a new Aldi store in Gillingham, nothing was done about them by Medway Council for about a year, while Aldi continued to sell garden trees from the same car park area.

    Perhaps it might make sense if all the trees under the protection of Medway Council were identified, put onto a map and their details held in a database and what happens to each in each year. Then have a department to look after them on a continuing basis. Unfortunately Medway trees are only dealt with when they have died or in the case of trees in Chatham High Street where the trunk has exceeded the space within the metal fence surrounding it and the metal has entered the trunk - once a circle of metal has gone into the trunk then the 1 cell thick cambium layer has been breached and everything above it dies. Because nobody has stopped this from happenning, good mature trees have been killed off by neglect due to no maintenance staff.
     

 

From Climate adaptation and resilence of Medway Council
(Part of) Our progress so far
"We have sustained a healthy tree stock and have planted bulbs at over 50 locations on main roads into Medway to support resilience to climate change and disease. Additionally, 450 whips were supplied and planted by a community group on council land with support from the Capstone Park Rangers and 15 whips planted by The Howard School at Riverside Country Park. 60 standards were planted on council land during 2020 to 2021."

Medway Tree Fund
Whatever you choose to donate will make a difference
Donations will contribute to:

  • a site and suitability check before we plant a tree 
  • delivery from an approved provider
  • planting a tree, which may include additional topsoil, soil conditioners, clearing concrete or paving slabs
  • securing a tree with a stake and ties, and protecting it with a wooden tree guard
  • maintaining a tree by watering it for the first 2 years, carrying out young tree maintenance and inspections.
  • We plant trees in winter, usually  from October to March  (dependent on weather conditions) to give trees the best chance of establishing. But you can donate at any time.
  • Next to this list is a picture of an old tree with its load bearing roots exposed and out of the ground. These roots should be covered in soil with green manure instead of grass on top to provide a continuing source of nitrogen to this tree

 

The following is copied from the Duchy of Cornwall Nursery website:-

Maidens, Whips and Barefoot Trees

Becky, the Nursery gardener provides informative advice on bare-rooted trees, the different types available and how to plant a tree successfully.

At the nursery we sell a good range of ornamental and fruit trees. They are sold in two basic forms. They may be in a pot (pot-grown or containerised) where they have an established rootball. Alternatively, they may be bare-rooted (sometimes called barefoot). In this case they will have been dug out of the ground and will come with roots exposed and no soil attached. There are pros and cons for both forms.

Pot-grown trees can be supplied and planted at any time of year. They are however very vulnerable to drying out if planted in late spring or summer, and will need regular generous watering. The roots may take longer to grow out into the surrounding soil and become established. They have a relatively small root system for the canopy they are required to support. Bare-rooted trees are dug out of the ground as the tree loses its leaves and becomes dormant, usually in November. They only become available in the autumn, and must be planted before spring – March at the very latest. Once they are out of the ground the naked roots must be kept damp and dark at all times until they are committed to the earth in their final planting place. Bare-rooted trees tend to come in smaller sizes because larger trees are much harder to dig up. Larger pot-grown trees are useful for making an instant impact, but a bare-rooted tree will often catch up and overtake a larger pot-grown specimen of the same variety within a few years. Bare-rooted trees are usually cheaper, and represent better value, though fewer varieties are available.

There is a third way of buying trees which is somewhere in between the other two. It is called root-balled. In this case the tree is dug out of the ground and the root ball is instantly wrapped, usually in hessian, to hold some soil around the roots. This is a temporary measure; the rootball can dry out easily and the hessian can break down so these need to be treated the same way as bare-rooted trees. They are best planted with the hessian in place. It will soon rot down and will not prevent good root growth.

Autumn is the ideal time to plant all trees because the ground is still warm enough for root growth, and there is maximum time for the roots to become established in the soil before the tree wakes up in spring and requires water. Whichever type you plant, you must make sure they never dry out in their first summer. A really good soak once a week is better than a watering can full splashed over the surface every day.

We also sell whips. This term is used to describe young (usually one or two year old) seed grown trees which have had no pruning or training. It is an economical way to plant a large number of trees, hedging plants, or a hedgerow. They are easy to transport, and quick to plant and establish.

Maiden is another term you will hear, particularly in relation to fruit trees. A maiden is a young fruit tree with a single leader and some side shoots, but importantly has had no pruning or training. Fruit trees are almost always grafted, and a maiden will have been grafted one or two years before and is usually 1-2m tall (depending on the rootstock). A maiden is the starting point for all pruning shapes. Espaliers, fans and cordons all start off as maidens.

When you come to select your tree, whatever form you are looking at, there are some simple steps to success. Firstly, make sure the label you are reading is attached to the tree you are considering, and not a branch of the adjacent tree. Secondly, look at the tree as a whole. Inspect the trunk, it should be straight and undamaged. Examine the graft (if there is one). This should be neat and have no cracks, damaged patches, or growth coming out of it. Imagine looking at the tree from above and note how the branches are spaced around the trunk. The branches should be spread evenly to give a balanced shape in maturity. If you were planning to plant your tree against a wall or hedge it would be less important if it was a bit lopsided.

To plant a tree successfully, first dig a hole one and a half times bigger and deeper than the pot or roots of the tree. A square hole is considered better than a round one as it prevents the roots from circling around the hole, and encourages them to penetrate the surrounding soil. Break up the soil in the bottom of the hole. If the soil is poor or stony some organic matter, or compost, can be mixed in. We recommend the use of Rootgrow, which introduces beneficial mycorrhizal fungi into the rooting zone. It has been shown to promote healthy root growth. It looks like grey instant coffee granules, and can be sprinkled on the roots, or rootball, just before it is placed in the hole. Potted trees should be given a good soak prior to planting. Place the tree in the hole so the point where the roots meet the trunk is level with the surrounding ground. Refill the hole with soil making sure there are no air pockets, and the tree remains upright. Firm the soil around the tree and water well. You may need to top up the soil if it settles after watering.

Staking is recommended. The purpose of a stake is to hold the roots motionless in the soil. A low stake is best as it allows the top of the trunk to flex, which in turns sends hormones to the roots to promote root growth. If the rootball is allowed to move in the hole the newly developing roots get broken and the tree will fail to anchor itself. This is known as windrock. Filling the planting hole entirely with compost is not a good idea as it can become waterlogged and sloppy. Aim to keep the area around the tree free from grass and weeds which would rob the tree of nutrients. And finally, if there is any chance of a rabbit visiting, apply a tree guard. Rabbits can reach approximately 50cm up the trunk and can nibble the bark off a tree in minutes. A very expensive snack."

 

The effect of all the new buildings being erected in the town centre of Chatham is to create wind tunnels, which will become even worse once the scaffolding has been removed. The proposed park area is to include a weekly market beside the bus station. The market holders will require restraints to stop their wares from being blown off their tables and all bus passengers must be warned to wear arctic clothing to ward off being wind chilled. So, the above reason for that method of staking is very important, otherwise when the stake support is removed, then the trunk of each new tree will snap. The more trees that are planted in that centre, the more likely it is that the wind speed will be reduced by having to go through the branches with their leaves. I did not notice any irrigation system for those trees, perhaps the local authority is relying on rain during a dry summer draining off the pavement into the soil covering their roots.

Ground-Cover Plants for Large Areas - with particular reference to factory sites, schools, hospitals and areas under municipal control - may help in that park area as detailed in Groundcover Plant Q Page. But Due to the brilliance of the following in this table in killing off trees

  • Gloucester Council wasting £134,000 on planting whips in grass,
  • Medway Council has planted trees in grass as reported on Page 29 of Medway Matters Spring 2023,
  • London has planted whips in grass and
  • Medway Council has planted a tree in a pavement and covered its roots with tarmac.
  • Guernsey has also planted trees in a pavement and covered their roots with tarmac.

 

 

I cannot see the point of providing further information about Ground-Cover for large areas for use by local authorities in the UK. Perhaps other countries can read and understand English.
When you read the following, then GOD HELP THE UK!!!

  • I googled "Is arboriculture taught in Medway?" and Tree Surgeon Training Course in Kent was the first reply.
  • Do you know that Down to Earth Trees can plant trees in an urban environment within Essex, London, Kent, Surrey and Sussex?
    I clicked view a case study and I got the following:-
    "The brief from our client was to install 4 x Cercis siliquastrum within glass reinforced concrete planters for the exquisite Economist Plaza redevelopment in St. James, London.
    Our aim was to design and build a sustainable rooting environment within the confines of a planter.
    Located within a plaza between two tall buildings, the purpose of the trees is to pacify the setting which would ordinarily be a reasonably hostile environment for trees and other vegetation.
    Working alongside GreenBlue Urban, we were able to modify their popular anchor systems to suit the application within a planter.
    Each planter was prepared with a RootRain irrigation system to ensure water penetration to the vital parts of the root balls, and 1280 Litres of well-draining non-compacting sandy loam was added as a suitable rooting medium."
    My Comments:-
    1. "GIRDLING ROOTS
    Tree roots that wrap around the base of the trunk can restrict the flow of water and nutrients up and down the trunk, leading to decline and dieback of the crown. Norway maples are most susceptible to damage from girdling roots, but they can occur in most trees. When roots circling inside of a pot in the nursery cause the problem, the tree seldom survives more than a decade in the landscape. On “balled & burlapped” plants, girdling roots develop for different reasons and the decline may take 20 to 30 years to develop. To prevent girdling roots in nursery stock, make sure that all circling roots on the outside of the root ball are eliminated at time of planting. Research shows that moderate disruption of the container root system does not increase stress. For large girdling roots on established trees, correcting the problem can be difficult. Removal of the girdling roots may cause enough damage to the root system to hasten the decline. Several roots may be intertwined, making it even more difficult. It is difficult to predict if removing the roots will be more damaging than leaving them alone." from Tree Problems in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira in February 2018.
    I planted a juniper tree in my front garden. 10 years later it died. When I took it out, I discovered that the roots in the original pot had kept on growing width ways rather than lengthening until there was no space between them and only 2 wisps of root going away which was insufficient to provide the water.
    2. The roots of each of these trees has no where else to go except in the pot and so the same problem is going to occur.
    3. If these trees grow, then the weight above the pot will overbalance the pot when there is wind between these buildings. There may be a wooden stake or more holding the pot into the ground, but that will probably rot and is not large enough to take the strain of the fulcrum effect of the heavy weight above thrashing from side to side as the years roll on.
    4. These roots are going to break the pot. See photo 1 on Monitoring of Trees in Funchal Page 1 of 2.
    5. Cercis siliquastrum "forms a small tree up to 12 m (39 ft) in height and 10 m (32 ft) in width." These trees are between 36 and 60 inches (90-150cms) apart and so the branches will both cross-over each other and in windy situations beat the living daylights out of each other.
    6. If these trees were allowed to exit the pots at the bottom and enter the ground beneath, then the building with its colonnades would likely be damaged by their roots, since it foundations are probably 0.6metres or less - please look at What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay.
    7. Perhaps trained fruit trees like espalier fruit trees instead Cercis siliquastrum would have with their dwarf rooting stock not have broken the pots. Perhaps they should have pointed out to the clients that what they wanted would provide great problems - if the ground level had been replaced with 24 inch (60cms) depth of good soil inside water storage crates with water storage crates below separated from the crates above by 2 layers of geotextile to stop the roots going into the water reservoir and the trees in these pots were planted through the pots into the ground below. Then, the top of the pots can be sealed with only the trunk in each so that the effect would be the same but the tree roots could then have the complete area of that urban environment to grow into minus 1 metre round the edge with the edge of the geotextile below the soil being brought to ground level to stop the roots from going towards the buildings. The top crates would also have 2 layers of geotextile to prevent the fine gravel above from mixing with the earth in the crates below. The rain falling on the buildings could be stored by a system and put into the water storage crates below with the excess going to the storm drain. There are professional systems for rainfall collection and to provide a pea-shingle firm surface to walk on which would provide access to the air and nutrients for the trees. Some rainfall collection crates may only take about 62 tonnes per cubic metre, so it would be requested not to park your destroyer in the courtyard.
  • Down to Earth Trees also provide Tree Planting Services:-
    "SAFETY: There are myriad safety considerations that come into play where trees are involved. First, will the roots of the tree cause structural damage to your foundation? Will a high wind event bring branches down on your house? Also, some trees attract pests such as bark beetles, wasps, caterpillars along with various types of blight. Make sure you know the risks before choosing a particular type of tree." At the bottom of that page they show a picture of a new building with a car park/drive being built and a 33 inch (90cm) deep hedge area with 120 inch (300cm) high Leylandii trees planted about 36-48 (90-120) apart within 12 (30) of a fence right up to the new building."
    My Comments:-
    1. When those Leylandii grow to their 960 inch (2400) mature height, they will have pushed that fence over.
    2. Being that close to the drive, the roots of those Leylandii will break up that drive surface.
    3. Those Leylandii are planted too close to the new building - please look at What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay.
    4. Minor detail, when Leylandii branches are cut back beyond the green leaves and stem to the brown, it does not regrow from that point. That means within a couple of years that on pruning it back from the drive, that the owner will be looking at brown branches.
    5. You could plant pleached trees, which would shade the vehicles under them, but no closer than 8 metres from the new building or any building next door, instead of Leylandii. You could plant bamboo, or espalier fruit trees instead of Leylandii.
  • Down to Earth Trees also provide Tree Surgeon Training Course in Kent.:-
    "Down To Earth Trees Ltd offers first class arboricultural and tree surgeon training in Kent through the DTE Academy. Courses are delivered by commercially experienced professionals and are available to anyone who wishes to attain new qualifications or seeks refresher courses in a highly professional and commercial setting.
    The DTE Academy was initially established to serve the internal training criteria of Down To Earth Trees Ltd, one of the first and largest multi-disciplinary arboricultural contracting firms in the UK."


The UK Labour or Conservative government has been humiliating, degrading and dehumanizing its population for over 40 years , without its population realising by using
Softly, Softly, catchee monkey (Means 1. Proceed cautiously or gently o achieve an objective and 2. Capture a target without startling it and causing it to run away):-

  • See HISTORY OF THIS in next row of this table; followed by
  • SUMMARY OF ITS EFFECT and
  • WITH HOW THAT HAS BEEN DONE,
  • to lead to THE UK IS SUFFERING ANARCHY in the next row of this table
  • with supporting details in these tables:-
    • OTHER TABLE 5 -
      19 warnings caused by the government in the UK to turn its population into slaves, where:-
      Warning 7 on The Energy Charter Treaty has enslaved the mice in parliament (MPs) to create the
      windfall tax on renewables (wind and solar farms), biomass and nuclear power generators to be set at 45%.

      The actual price of wholesale electricity per megawatt hour in December 2022 was
      2,960 euros in the UK and the next most expensive country was 650 euros in France. To try to help 300 companies in the UK by narrowing this gap, then the British Industry Supercharger was created and we the unknowing UK public paid for this help to 300 companies by
      a 450% increase in the domestic gas bill from January 2022 to May 2023 for our home and
      a 422% increase in electricity bill for
      Tremorfa Superstore in Cardiff from £900 to £4,700 a month.

      Speech in House of Lords against this slavery in top row of next table -
      Strikes (Minimum Service Levels) Bill flies in the face of human rights, equality & ILO conventions. Her amendment was voted against by the House of Commons, so very soon if you strike in England, then you will be sacked.
    • OTHER TABLE 6
      is in row 9 -
      Expands on
      warning 18 where economic slavery continues for the 14th year and
      warning 13 about pensions in row 10,
      from
      OTHER TABLE 5.
    • TABLE SOS
      The level of oxygen refers to the amount of oxygen present in the atmosphere or water.
      Oxygen is produced by photosynthesizing organisms that live in the ocean, in fresh water, and on land. These organisms include bacteria, algae and plants. Photosynthesizing algae in the ocean produce around 70% of oxygen in the atmosphere. The UK pollution going into the sea is killing the algae which provide 70% of oxygen for UK, France, Holland, Portugal, Norway, Sweden and Denmark.
    • Row 7 in Black Background -
      Welcome to the UK (Urinating Knave) with details of UK government backed pollution of millions of tons per year into its rivers; which the sea transported across the Channel to Europe killing marine life and humans.
      Pollution is biggest threat to Wildlife on our UK waterways.
    • Photo of permanent air pollution over London.
       


Row 2

HISTORY OF THIS. If the UK government want to have private health care service rather than the National Health Service, then it will continue the process of

  • " what happenned in the Miners' Strike of 1984-5 where the Thatcher Government attempted to close the collieries, break the miners' union and the labout movement in general, and open the way to a free market economy in which deregulated financial capitalism would be set free by the Big Bang of 1986. The defeat of the strike led very quickly to the closure of most coal mines, a general de-industrialisation of the economy, the rapid privatisation of nationalised industries including the water boards, the shattering of organised labour, growing unemployment, the hollowing out of mining and other working-class communities, and a steady increase in social inequality in British Society. It marked the dismantling of workers' protections and the rise of the gig economy."
  • Since 2010 the UK government has reduced the effective pay of people in the National Health Service as well as in the Education System, etc, by giving below annual inflation pay rises; to the extent that nurses and teachers cannot afford to both eat and heat their homes. 1 in 4 teachers bring food to school to support hungry children in September 2023.
  • Doctors are still trying to get a 35% pay increase but will not succeed as the government have managed to squash the nurses request for higher pay earlier in 2023. The doctors can now be sacked for not carrying out a work notice whilst on their days of strike - 4 in 10 junior doctors (40%) are actively planning to leave the NHS as soon as they can find another job, a survey from the BMA has revealed in 29 December 2022.
  • The waiting list for hospital treatment rose to a record of nearly 7.5 million in May 2023. The 18-week treatment target has not been met since 2016. Data from the latest General Medical Council workforce report published in 2022 shows that a total of 4,843 doctors left the UK to work abroad between May 2021 and May 2022.
  • Tourists will benefit by more than 12 hour wait to be seen in A&E at Hospital and more than a 18 months wait for routine treatment in Hospital, because they have swum - or eaten the fish caught by them - in the UK rivers or seas alongside the UK. Unfortunately with nurses, doctors and consultants leaving, then there is not the staff to execute these functions and since they can get more when out of England, that is where they will go, making the situation worse and worse.
  • With the doctors leaving, then there are fewer doctors in hospitals for these 7.5 million people to see and the number of doctors and nurses leaving is going to increase, so then to get treated the patient has to go to the private sector.
  • The more that go to the private sector and the more personnel who leave NHS - where its RAAC concrete has shut units and operating theatres in hospitals making a backlog of £10,200,000,000 to either rebuild or replace those defective areas - the easier it is to gradually creep all services of the NHS into the private sector.

    Before the next election in 2024, the NHS and education system will have collapsed - as intended.
    GPs receive about £15 billion or 8 per cent of the NHS budget instead of required11% - but it will be a managed decline of general practice,
    which is partly to do with my GP practice having to pay the PFI charge (Public Finance Initiative pays for new schools, hospitals, roads, housing, prisons , military equipment and accommodation) on the rooms it uses during their period of the 25-year-long contract. When the GP's are instructed to provide other services, then that GP practice has to pay for the extra staff, equipment and the PFI charge on the extra rooms it requires, from within its existing budget.
    PFI companies and their shareholders have been given a watertight guarantee that they will receive payments and a return on their investment. In short, expenditure on staff, equipment and other capital projects can be cut by a trust, but not their PFI payments.
    Two-tier system is replacing NHS care - The Care Quality Commission gave an example of a patient on benefits who pulled out a tooth because an NHS dentist could not be found. The person paid £1,200 on a credit card for private treatment, going without essential household items until the debt could be paid. During the last 3 years, I have endured my teeth continuing to fall out after their fillings fall out, or breaking, leaving me with 10 part teeth and 3 stumps, without seeing a dentist.

    In order to make it complete, then the UK government:-

 


SUMMARY OF ITS EFFECT.
TABLE SOS explains the relationship between algae in the oceans supplying 70% of the oxygen and humans using it to produce carbon dioxide. The UK pollution - for details of 6 pollutants is killing river and marine life; including that algae in the sea.
The following foreigners can continue to ignore the results from Surfers Against Sewage with
their
real-time map to track sewage discharge and pollution risks around the UK - as they have for the last 30 years:-

  • American and Canadian old-age-pensioners supporting the UK water Companies in polluting our rivers and surrounding sea,
  • owners of UK property from China, with
  • offshore firm owners of 30,000 UK properties in London, so that social housing for the UK is not built instead,
  • fruit/vegetable producers and Electricity Generating Companies based in the European Union by cheating their UK customers,
  • American government trade officials with its USA/UK Trade Agreement, who wish to provide babyfood with arsenic for UK babies,
    and chlorine-washed chicken for the UK where this practice has been banned in the European Union,

    to enjoy visiting the UK where its government has been humiliating, degrading and dehumanizing its population for many years
    and the
    asphyxiation of the UK followed by the total destruction of home ownership for 32,000,000 UK citizens in England
    between October 2023 and February 2025.
    Voters have changed their minds to
    vote Labour instead of Conservative in Mid Bedfordshire and Tamworth not realising that Labour will also destroy any impediment stopping them building 1.5 million new homes without any new water reservoirs, without new sewage treatment plants, without the new pipe infrastructures for the mains water and the main drains/storm drains; leading to no water for these new homes and millions of extra tons of sewage dumped in the rivers and exported to Europe. So it does not matter if the Conservative or the Labour Party is elected in 2024, the result will become the same :-

 

WITH HOW THAT HAS BEEN DONE.
It is a race as to whether the
6,450,000 UK workers - as from 20 July 2023 becoming economic slaves - will be
A.. sacked for striking for enough to live on - due to annual wage rises being exceeded by annual increases in local and main government taxes for last 13 years and for next 7.
B. will be able to afford to feed their family -
9.3 million have food insecurity in January 2023.
C. will be replaced by agency workers while striking,
D. will go to jail for protesting,
E. will be one of 50% of England who will get no water to drink,
F. will be sacked from GP's Surgeries due to number of GP's declining or Pharmicists catering to the NHS whose costs are exceeding revenue, leading to collapse of the National Health System,
before 2030.

  • A. If the customer strikes, then the Strikes (Minimum Service Levels) Bill (passed by House of Commons and House of Lords and given Royal assent on 20 July 2023) will kick in so you could be fired by ignoring a "work notice" ordering you to work on strike days for you in health, education, fire and rescue, transport, border security and nuclear decommissioning and radioactive waste management. So the junior doctors and consultants strikes for 35% will get them fired and put them in jail.
  • B. A nurse has suffered a 20% real terms pay cut when compared to salary levels in 2010 and thus having to work a day a week unpaid; while starving in order to feed her children as 1 of the 9.3 million in the UK suffering food insecurity. If she or any member of the NHS goes on strike, she/he will be sacked (see Baroness O'Grady failed amendment to Strikes (Minimum Service Levels) Bill in row 6 ).
    Their only recourse is to resign from their current employment and find a job outside of England.
    Average regular pay growth was
    7.6% for the private sector in February 2023, and 5.6% for the public sector.
    HMRC collected 9.9% more tax than in 2021-2022.
  • C. On 21 July 2022, new regulations came into force to repeal the prohibition on employment agencies providing staff to replace the strikers during the days when workers are striking.
  • D. The debt of the water companies is £46,231 million in Table Waste of Time in row 8. When they bleat to Ofwat, which is a non-ministerial UK government department, which has approved the creation of this debt for 30 years, that will be added to the National Debt to yield £2,025 million to be paid annually by the UK population for the next 30 years, and that still leaves that debt.
    When the water company
    do not supply water for 11 months of the year, the customer must continue to pay.
    If the customer complains then
    Government's Public Order Act 2023 will put them in jail.
  • E. 20 million homeless English before 2030 as a
    Minor inconvenience -
    West Midlands, London, Parts of the South West, East Midlands, East of England and South East regions of England are at risk of running out of water by 2030.
    Since the privatized water companies have
    not completed any new reservoirs, nor significantly reduced the water loss in their pipework or in the pipework between them and the customer's stop tap in the last 30 years, then the increase in the population comes as a surprise, so that the pressure falls below the minimum static head when more is being requested than can be supplied in that pipe. So the water companies use this escape clause without fixing the problem:-
    "Water companies should usually supply water at a minimum of seven metres static head, unless low pressure is due to drought or essential maintenance work. If the pressure falls below this for an hour or more on at least two occasions in a 28 day period, you're entitled to a payment or credit of £25. Only one payment of £25 can be made in any one financial year. " from
    Claiming Compensation from Water Companies. Schools are closed as water shortage hits South East; reported on 14 June 2023, due to their ancient pipework structure from their full reservoir not being able to transfer that extra water required.
    28 June 2023 we find that
    Thames Water who supply water and waste water services to 15 million in London and the southeast of England is in deep trouble. It will run out of water by 2030 - rainfall is exceeded by demand. Macquarie tripled Thames Water debts from £3.2 billion to £10.5 billion by 2017 to increase dividend payments to its shareholders. Ofwat approved. The utility, which counts one of Canada’s largest public pension funds among its top investors, has around £14,000,000,000 of debt on its balance sheet. The company said it had a “strong liquidity position,” including £4,400,000,000 ($5.6 billion) of cash.
    Medway in 2023 is over-abstracting water (
    as does India) from its chalk aquifers to provide water for these new houses:-
    "Medway has a population of
    274,015 in 2014. So 31092 / 274015 =0.113468 = 11.34% increase in population to drink the water. Southern Water have allowed for 15% increase in the water supply by 2035. When you add all the other houses/flats that have been built since 2014 in Medway and adjacent to it, it is more than likely than the increase in the population is over 15% already, 14 years before 2035." from Medway Proposed New School page for details on this population increase. There is nothing that the population of Medway can do about this running out of water.
    "
    Some local people have accused South East Water, which is majority owned by Australian and Canadian private equity funds, of failing to invest in infrastructure. It has paid £156m in dividends to shareholders over the past two years.
    "Yet around 20% of the average household bill of £400 goes on water company interest and dividend payments.
    In 2021, Southern Water accounts showed accumulated net debt of £5,100,000,000, and a remuneration package for the CEO worth over £1,000,000 (including a bonus of £550,900). The average annual Southern Water dividend payout over the last ten years is £57,000,000."
    "Since they were privatised 30 years ago, the UK's sewage-spilling water companies have paid out a staggering £72,000,000,000 in dividends, and not built a single reservoir. Perhaps naively, I thought dividends were paid out of profits, having made provision for necessary investments - but Pennon Group proudly boast about their policy of increasing dividends annually by 2% ahead of inflation (
    Consumer Price Inflation was 11.1% in October 2022), regardless of sewage spills, leaking pipes, and hose pipe bans. This is jaw-dropping insensitive to those of us vomiting after swimming in the River Dart." from Guy's News of Riverford Organic Farms on Monday 26th June 2023 - riverford.co.uk 01803 227227. Pennon Group own South West Water (See Table Waste of Time for its pollution in row 8), Bristol Water and Bournemouth Water. River Dart has higher than safe levels of 'forever chemicals' pollution. 4 out of the 5 chemical cocktails identified in English river sites from analysis of official Environment Agency Data contained banned - by the UK - toxic 'forever chemicals'.
    Because these bankrupt water businesses do not have the land or the money required to create the new infrastructure, then they will give up and get the UK government to take them over (if your business had debt of £5,100,000,000, then in the UK you con your customers to pay for the interest on it, not supply that paid-for product, then demand more money from your customers to fix the problem instead of using the dividend payments that you pay out to business shareholders, which is part of the reason for the debt being accrued over 30 years) as shown within pages in this Home topic.
  • F. If you exclude trainee GPs, there are 823 fewer Full-time equivalent GPs (2 GPs contracted to work half a week is only 1 Full-time Equivalent) now than there were in December 2019. The number of licensed doctors rose by 23,838 in 2022, with 11,319 leaving - a growing number of doctors plan to leave the profession due to burnout and dissatisfaction, the General Medical Council has warned in Metro of monday november 13 2023.
    160 Pharmacies have closed in last 2 years,
    Boots is closing 300 next year, putting further strain on remainder whose funding is not going up but their expenses are.
    That is why when people move house, they cannot find a GP and they may not have a pharmacist to get their medication; nor will have a reliable water supply within 7 years.

    At the end of August 2023, I will run out of an 8 week supply of medication for a pituary gland tumour, heart disease, cataracts, diabetes, water retention and respiratory problems:-
    My Patient Medication History per day
    1 of Digoxin 250microgram tablet
    1 twice a day of Ramipril 5mg capsule
    3 in morning of Spironolactone 25mg tablet
    1 on Monday only of Cabergoline 500microgram
    1 of Bisoprolol 10mg tablet
    1 of Atorvastatin 20mg tablet - increased to 2 in August 2023; not collected extra for this 8 week medication from pharmacy
    1 with breakfast and 1 with main meal; a day of Metformin 500mg tablet
    1 of Rivaroxaban 20mg tablet
    1 of Canagliflozin 100mg tablet
    1 eye drop in each eye of Travoprost 40 micrograms/ml eye drops

    Two 8 week supply prescriptions ago, the number of metformin was halved to 56 from the number of 1 in the morning and another in the evening as stated on the prescription, which I found out when I collected the medication. I got another prescription. On the last 8 week prescription request, I wrote that instead of 56 I needed 112, but the same problem was repeated. I collected the invalid prescription on 01/07/2023, so I got another prescription for the missing 56 Metformin. Some days later, I checked my prescription - see the valid prescription above - just before the appointment to oversee my diabetes with a nurse to find that it had still not been changed, so I got upset. I received a letter of no tolerance about that.

    I have no faith in what the staff will send as my prescription at the end of August 2023, so it is safer to not ask for it, and see which kills me first - a heart attack (from an increase of 30 to 60 beats/minute after Electrical Cardioversion at hospital, then that was reduced by 60 beats/minute by above medication), choke to death whilst asleep from my own phlegm, or the pituary tumour grows from its current size to interfere with my eye nerves to make me go blind and then exceed the spare space in the brain. Last time it took 8 years of Cabergolin to go from 20mm to less than 10mm and my pituary gland to get to a normal output. 6 months without that medicine by the request of the hospital consultant meant that the output had increased by over 15 times. He put me back onto the medication, which had reduced the output from over 3200 units - which is over 100 times the amount normally excreted by a man. Not many men can produce milk, so what else do you do with that instruction except produce a tumour?
    No further flying - after September 2023 - to Madeira to check on the trees in pavements to curb any further rise in the increase of 30 to 140 beats/minute heart rate by Medway Hospital, when I was calm and asleep during Cardioversion.

Row 3

Row 4


THE UK IS SUFFERING
ANARCHY -
where the government overspends by an average of £100,000,000,000 per year and increases the tax on its population during the last 13 years, while reducing the effective wage by allowing less than inflation pay rises per year.
Its slave population is now starving, malnourished and leached of its money to pay the increments on the yield from the increasing National Debt.
"By focussing on violations of human dignity, they address the question what it means for human beings all over the world to be degraded, humiliated and dehumanized. What do victims of slavery and torture, poverty and starvation, armed conflict and domestic violence, corporal and capital punishment, racism and genocide, arbitrary detention and enforced disappearance, rape and human trafficking have in common? In my opinion, it is the experience of absolute powerlessness which creates the feeling among the victims of certain gross human rights violations to have lost their dignity and humanity. As the slave holder exercises absolute power over slaves, the torturer, the rapist, the genocidaire, the trafficker exercises absolute power over their respective victims." from
Humiliation, Degradation, Dehumanization - Human Dignity Violated from Library of Ethics and Applied Philosophy 24.
The UK government has been humiliating, degrading and dehumanizing its population for many years;
so that the
Rule, Britannia!'s chorus (published in 1763 and still used by the UK Royal Navy and British Army) of
"Rule, Britannia! rule the waves: Britons never will be slaves" should be rewritten as
"Rule, Britannia! rule the waves: Britons have been enslaved by their government".

England will run

  • out of water,
  • have insufficient electricity and gas within 18 months
  • and its pollution poured into its rivers are killing marine life and humans in the UK and Europe.

This leads to loss of homes for 50% of the English population, because you cannot live without water:-

  • the use of slavery to force a senior care worker to reduce her working hours; because she needs more of her benefits from the UK government to be returned to her, so that both she and her daughter could eat, instead of only her daughter. The current Conservative Government will come to the next election with more of the population in the Benefit Slavery System, so making it easier to control the UK population.
  • Babies being given arsenic in their food without their mothers knowing in the USA. The Genetic Technology (Precision Breeding) Bill - which could be given royal assent in January 2023 (unless we change our shopping habits) states that GMO food can be be sold to you without you knowing it. Then, it is likely that the UK will sign a trade deal with the USA. The UK would be flooded by USA produced baby food from HappyBABY, Beech-Nut, Earth's Best Organic, Gerber, Plum Organics from Campbell Soup Company, Parent's Choice from Walmart and Sprout Organic Foods. "A recent test of baby foods in the USA found that 95% contained toxic metals, with 73% containing traces of arsenic" detailed in Mission Statement Page. 'Recent studies have shown that even low concentrations of arsenic impair neurological function, particularly in children. This review will focus on the current epidemiological evidence of arsenic neurotoxicity in children and adults, with emphasis on cognitive dysfunction, including learning and memory deficits and mood disorders.' from The Effects of Arsenic Exposure on Neurological and Cognitive Dysfunction in Human and Rodent Studies. 'Cognitive dysfunction refers to deficits in attention, verbal and nonverbal learning, short-term and working memory, visual and auditory processing, problem solving, processing speed, and motor functioning.'
    My Comment - Babies given arsenic would probably not pay attention in class when they were older and end up not learning much.
    If warning Number 4 in
    Other Table 5 causes the EU not to trade with us - once the UK is no longer following all 3800 REULs, then it is likely that a trade deal with the USA might be signed. If Parliament have got this far in the process of getting the Retained EU Law (Revocation and Reform) Bill through in less than 3 months, then it could be law within another 3 months. Fears over chlorine-washed chicken and other US farming practices and 5 foods a US trade deal could bring to the UK are problems concerning this bill for the UK population in row 6 of second table in Mission Statement page.
  • From The Times of Friday 3 March 2023 "Manufacturing involves the deployment of energy to turn raw materials into products, so in raising energy prices the government was making it significantly less attractive to do business here. Consider steelmakers. As of 2020/21 - before Russia invaded Ukraine - the cost per megawatt hour for steel producers was £25 in Germany and £29 in France - and £47 in the UK. Look through this prism and it is clear why so many steel producers have shut down (and continue to do so). It's not just cheap Chinese competition, the cost of energy makes it in essence impossible to make a profit. And you could the same about many industries. Why are battery makers so reluctant to build gigafactories in the UK? Well, making batteries is an energy-intensive process: far easier to locate in Sweden, where plentiful hydroelectricity makes for some of the lowest prices in the developed world.
    All of which brings us to the
    British Industry Supercharger. The policy is meant to undo some of that damage, shifting network costs and some other burdens like the emissions trading scheme away from intensive users.....For one thing, the politics of lumping extra costs on to household bills (which seems to be the plan) feels like a non-starter. For another, it's not clear how British energy costs can get much lower without much more investment in the grid.....
    But there is a bigger issue here. Most of human progress, from one industrial revolution to another, involved the deployment of ever greater quantities of energy."
    My comment - The
    windfall tax on renewables (wind and solar farms), biomass and nuclear power generators will be set at 45%, Chancellor Jeremy Hunt announced on Thursday. This will of course persuade the wind and solar farms to continue to invest and to generate electricity when 45% of the profit goes in tax in the UK, which they could have used to create more generators. This helps the UK to get to Net-Zero? But gas and coal electricity generators will be exempt.
    Problem solved by shifting the cost
    • onto the UK population: a 450% increase in the domestic gas bill from January 2022 to May 2023, for our domestic home.
    • Also onto business - a 422% increase in electricity bill for Tremorfa Superstore in Cardiff from £900 to £4,700 a month.
    • Add to this that all businesses, that use electricity will move out of the UK, including car battery chargers, or close down.
  • David Smith is Economics Editor of The Sunday Times published the following on October 4 2023:-
    "Nor was it the fact that, even on the new figures, GDP per head, a better measure of prosperity and economic progress, has not grown at all since the pre-pandemic final quarter of 2019, unless you count a 0.05 % rise over 3.5 years as growth. Real GDP per head in the latest quarter was lower than at the beginning of last year.
    On second thoughts, that is very troubling. The change in economic fortunes on this measure is extraordinary. In the past 15 years real GDP per head, that is adjusted for inflation, has risen by a mere 6%. That compares with a 42% rise over the previous 15 years. We may not have realised it at the time, but we were living in clover. The hard grind lay ahead.
    However, what was most on my mind was this: if you spend a lot on fighting the pandemic and in the process, increase government debt enormously, is 1.8% cumulative real GDP growth a good return? Again, there are some mind-blowing numbers. In cash terms, public sector net debt rose from £1,835,000,000,000 at the end of 2019 to 2,599,000,000,000 at the close of this year's second quarter - an increase of more than £760,000,000,000, or 42%.
    The accumulation of government debt since late 2019 is astonishing. More has been added than over the previous 9 years and that addition to debt since then is greater than the total of public sector debt in early 2009. Under Conservative chancellors since 2010, and there have been quite a few of them, the debt has risen by £1.500,000,000,000, or 148%.
    Diggng a little deeper into the GDP figures, government day-to-day spending as it affects those numbers (so excluding "transfer payments" such as state pensions) has risen by 8.5% since the eve of the pandemic. Capital spending by government has increased by 20.6% over the same period.
    If we then look at some of the traditional drivers of growth, such as consumer spending, it was 1% lower in the second quarter of this year than in the final 3 months of 2019. Exports have fared even worse and showed a fall of 5.4%.
    You may have already guessed what this implies, but I shall tell you anyway. If not for the expansion of government spending, GDP would still be below its level before the pandemic. Not much below, but below nonetheless. For all the celebrations of the latest figures, the private sector has yet to get back to where it was. Production industries are about 8% down on where they were.
    Perhaps we should not be too surprised by this. I mentioned the big expansion of government spending and debt. I also recently highlighted the figures for public and private sector employment. Public sector employment is up by about 400,000, or 7.5%, since late 2019. Private sector employment is down by roughly 500,000 over the same period. Some would say that the government has been doing exactly what governments should do in response to an economic crisis, by stepping into the breach. Whether it was intended or not, the government interventions of the past 3 years or so have been a classic Keynesian response. Some of it, like the 35% increase in health output in 2021, followed by 11% last year, was a response to the health crisis, driven by mass vaccination programme and test and trace. Other interventions, including the furlough scheme, took us into new territory.
    You will not have heard much reference to this Keynesian response in the speeches at the Tory conference in Manchester. You will have seen the restless longing for tax cuts and the hope for a return to the spirit of the Thatcher era. Her premiership was, of course, a game of 2 halves - higher taxes in the first, eye-catchingly lower ones in the second - and when she left office public sector net debt was 22% of GDP, not nudging 100%.
    You can't have your cake and eat it, even though this appears to have been the strategy of some recent prime ministers. You cannot have an economy that is more dependent on government spending, and a bigger state share of economic activity, and also expect a lower tax burden."
  • From April-August 2023 the UK government has overspent its tax collected by £70,000,000,000 and that is more than the National Debt of 1970. UK tax revenues will amount to around 37% of national income by the time of the next election in 2024. Conservative MP's want tax cuts (on 4 September 2023) in the Autumn 2023 Budget to win the next election, which leads to borrowing even more.
    Government Members of Parliament are financial idiots - unfortunately they cannot overcome financial self-deception; because the most costly mistakes are the ones that they cannot see. As a result, England has been truly and absolutely destroyed by their actions. If you are dwelling outside the UK and have business in the UK or anything else in the UK - God Help You.
    Goverment controlled HS2 is spending £1,000,000,000s and will never achieve the object of saving 36 minutes on a train journey from Birmingham to Euston when they are only paying to build
    (unless they are using the
    Public Finance Initiative leaving the unknowing UK public with a 25 year contract which we cannot pay as well as for everything else) for the journey to Old Oak Common station,
    and the government are not ordering trains for it as shown at the bottom of this row.
    Employ an MP to completely bankrupt you and not deliver the goods -
    Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers where they can only take short takeoff and vertical landing aircaft (STOVL aircaft) with 10 medium helicopters allowing the lift of a company of only 250 troops at one time at £1,000,000,000s of capital cost and another for aircraft and helicopters, and £100,000,000s of running costs.
    32,200,000 Income Tax payers
    in the UK in 2021 to 2022. UK general government gross debt was £2,445,200,000,000 at the end of Quarter 3 (July to September) 2022.
    At 4.38%, that is £107,099,760,000 interest per year, costing each taxpayer £3326.08 of that interest - on
    Saturday September 29 2023 the U.K. 30 Year Gilt was 4.901%, which is £119,839,252,000 interest per year, which is £12,739,492,000 more, costing each tax payer another £395.64.
    "The National Debt has tripled since 2000, is on course to triple again by the 2070s. Hughes said the cost of serving debt had more than doubled and "is now second to the NHS as a spending item"" from The Times Friday September 29 2023.
    Net Financing Requirement for the Debt Management Office was
    £124,600,000,000 in 2021-22 and £147,900,000,000 in 2022-23.
    The debt financing of 2022-2023 used 18.80% of what the HMRC collected,
    or that was added to the National Debt spiralling it out of control.
  • Local authorities are also overspending and going bankrupt.
    Central government funding to local authorities has been cut by about 60% since 2010. All in all, councils' spending power fell, on average, by about 29% in real terms over the period.
    26 local authorities could issue section 114 notice (declared backruptcy, in council speak) in the next 2 years.
    Medway Local Council - 'Medway Council ‘very likely’ to declare bankruptcy' as stated by
    Local Authority on 22 September 2023:- "An S114 is issued when a council cannot balance their budget, and is effectively a signal of bankruptcy. Councils issuing an S114 need to stop almost all non-essential spending, drop essential spending to the bare minimum, reduce capital spending, freeze recruitment, and seek new ways to maximise income. In this worst case scenario, Medway Council would need to reduce spending to only the bare minimum of statutory services: children’s and adult social care, education, housing and planning, waste collection, libraries, and road maintenance. Anything else, from leisure facilities to park maintenance to arts and culture would all be off the table. The authority faces a £17m budget deficit this year, and only £10m left available in reserves. The budget deficit is forecast at £39m deficit for next year, rising to £72m by the 2027/28 financial year. Medway Council’s Medium Term Financial Outlook 2023-2028 document now rates the risk of this happening as AII, meaning it is now ‘very likely’ and the impact of doing so would be ‘major’.
    and
    Kent County Council - are going bankrupt this financial year.
    Kent County Council’s external auditor warned last month that it faced a potential section 114 notice due to its “perilous financial position” - report dated 29 Aug, 2023.

Currently, the UK is rapidly becoming bankrupt where its tax collected will be going to pay only the interest on its National Debt, while:-

  • its RAAC concrete schools and hospitals - their backlog of £10,200,000,000 is how much would be needed to restore a hospital to a certain state based on a state of assessed risk criteria. It does not include planned maintenance work (rather, it is work that should already have taken place and hospital units had to be shut and hospital theatres closed) - collapse since their school rebuilding fund was withdrawn in 2010 and the UK education infrastructure capital budget has been halved since its peak in 2010.
  • Estonia is among countries that could house British prisoners under plans to rent spare capacity abroad to tackle chronic overcrowing in UK jails. This year the Ministry of Justice activated an emergency procedure of using 400 police cells due to the lack of space in prisons. Official projections on prison population figures predict that by December 2023 there will be 89,100 prisoners, surpassing the available capacity. The prison population is estimated to grow from its present level of 87,000 to 106,000 by 2027. The government's pledge to build 20,000 new prison places, which was a key Conservative manifest pledge at the 2019 election, has been quietly dropped. Less than half of these places will have been delivered by March 2025, according to Ministry of Justice projections. Plans for new prisons in Lancashire, Leicestershire and Buckinghamshire have all been affected by problems getting planning permission. It is quite likely that the extra prison population would not demonstrate Nutrient neutrality. This is the demonstration of zero additional nutrient contribution to rivers, estuaries and wetlands - in other words showing that a proposed development won't add to the current nutrient load, or may even reduce it (see article about it in the previous column. This UK goverment has been in power since 2010, why have new prisons not been built during that time to take the projected numbers?
  • How the motor industry and electric vehicle experts reacted to Rishi Sunak's move to delay the 2030 ban on sales of new petrol and diesel cars, when they invest in England and see their investment in motor industry disappear by 2030 like the South Sea Bubble.
  • Homeless because water in Southern Water for homes will run out before 2030, since no new reservoirs have been built during the increase in UK population of 10,000,000. With the chemical pollution in every river, is our drinking water safe?
    Net Storage level in Wimbleball Reservoir in South West Water is currently only 20% (17 October 2022) whereas a year ago it was about 68%. The total Storage of the 5 largest reservoirs in South West Water is currently 30% whereas last year that was 70%.
    Southern Water Authority is responsible for
    water undertakings in Medway from 1973. "Twenty-five years from now we will have lost
  • a third of our water sources through climate change,
  • seen a reduction in the amount of water we are allowed to take from rivers and underground sources, and 
  • our population will have grown by 15%.
    Without action, we predict a supply and demand deficit by 2030 equivalent to around 50% of our current supply. Our Plan proposes 43 performance commitments for the five-year period from 2020 to 2025, directly aligned to 10 key outcomes to create a resilient water future." from
    Southern Water.
  • Around 30% of water being lost through leaks is actually within customers’ homes or gardens.
  • In 2020-21 England and Wales water companies leaked 51 litres of water per person per day in bringing the water to the pipe junction outside your property while in Scotland and Northern Ireland this figure was above 80 litres of water.

    "
    Nutrient neutrality is the demonstration of zero additional nutrient contribution to rivers, estuaries and wetlands - in other words showing that a proposed development won't add to the current nutrient load, or may even reduce it. Excess nutrients typically come from agriculture and sewage treatment works, and while they can come from private treatment plants, a January 2022 report from the Environmental Audit Committee (EAC) did not identify homebuilding as a major contributor. If these nutrient levels are too high, then an area might be deemed by Natural England to be unsuitable for development because excess nutrients can cause seasonal algae bloom, which restricts the growth, distribution and variety of food and oxygen for the complex network of river ecology. Growing fears over river pollution in the UK led the EAC to warn in January, 2022, that a “chemical cocktail of sewage, agricultural waste and plastic” was impacting our rivers - See Table Waste of Time for pollution figures in row 8.

    Natural England first advised some councils with failing SACs in 2019 to prevent housing schemes which were not able to demonstrate nutrient neutrality. Since then housebuilding in some catchment regions has been on hold due to high nutrients in the soil and water. And in March, 2022, Natural England advised another 42 local authorities that development in some catchments cannot go ahead unless they are nutrient neutral – meaning an estimated 145,000 homes are now being delayed across 74 local authorities because of the issue, according to the Home Builders Federation (HBF)."

    The water boards are not processing all sewage, so new homes put their sewage into rivers using these storm overflows and no river in England is unpolluted so that you can swim in it or drink it or eat its eels, fish or crustaceans without getting ill and so any new building will not have nutrient neutrality.
    Still the current Conservative UK government want to allow the pollution to be increased by more millions of tons per year by continuing its aim of building 300,000 houses per year - by ignoring the pollution information of Nutrient neutrality from their own government department Natural England - so that the European Union can receive even more sewage across the English Chanell and North Sea. That will then persuade more foreign investors to buy these new sewage production units to kill marine life and humans in Europe.
    Labour must ensure that the 1,500,000 new homes it plans to build are low-carbon, and are built on brownfield land, or risk further damaging the UK’s already precarious natural environment in the 5 years after the next election in 2024 if they get into power instead of the Conservatives, experts have warned. They would then repeat what this Conservative government is currently doing by an immediate blitz of planning reform, so that Nutrient neutrality would be ignored and the houses built.
    Unfortunately for both the Conservative and the Labour Parties, there are the following problems:-
  • Due to the losses in the water companies supply pipes, the losses between those pipes and the stop tap in the property, the 33% loss of water sources through climate change and the reduction in the amount of water that the water companies are allowed to take from rivers and underground sources, the UK will not have the water for these new homes.
  • Unfortunately no new water reservoirs have been completed during the last 30 years and the pipes transporting this water cannot supply any more than they are at present. This has happened to Kent Schools this summer, when the reservoir feeding them was full and too many other pipes were taking water from that pipe that led to their respective school for that school to then receive any water. So a complete new mains water system needs to be put into place before any more building anywhere in the UK takes place and another complete set of reservoirs are required as well.
    Since the water companies are not currently processing all the sewage produced from these old and new buildings, new sewage treatment plants are required to be built to stop the current and future overflows of sewage into rivers.
    Both the new mains water system, water reservoirs and new sewage treatment plants need to be created before any new building is done,
    BUT DUE TO THE CORRUPTION DURING THE LAST 30 YEARS BETWEEN THE
  • IN THE UK, THIS WILL NOT HAPPEN AND THIS WILL LEAD TO 50% OF THE UK POPULATION LEAVING THE UK;
    • DUE TO LACK OF WATER AND
    • LACK OF ELECTRICITY - The ELECTRICITY OPERATING RESERVE due to the Energy Charter Treaty detailed in Other Table 5 Point 7 on Page About Chris Garnons-Williams, without the Coal-powered Electricity Generators will not have any reserve.
      Quarter 2 of 2023 saw the highest net imports at 7.6 TWh. This came as generation fell 18% compared to Quarter 2 of 2022 to 64.6 TWh, while demand fell by just 3.3% to 72.3 TWh in the same period. Coal powered Electricity generators are designed to be ended at the end of 2024. So the UK is going to be dependent on having a secure electricity import system from Europe to make up for its lack of supply!!!
    • LACK OF GAS when the UK exported gas to Europe to support European efforts to move away from Russian gas, and imported gas from America via Norway to use for electricity generation during 2020-2023!!! So if America stops supplying us with gas, then we have a problem with gas-fired electricity generators and have to rely on renewables instead, which currently cannot make up the difference. America's supply of gas could be dependent on us signing the trade deal with them as mentioned at the top of this table cell, so that the UK and USA could feed arsenic from Babyfood produced in America.
    • THIS HALVING THE ENGLISH POPULATION AND DESTROYING INDUSTRY WILL LEAVE THE UK GOVERNMENT WITHOUT FUNDS TO PAY THE INTEREST OR THE CAPITAL OF THE UK NATIONAL DEBT.
  • The houses being built are the expensive ones where the builders can make a profit, they do not make much on social housing so they do not build it. Last week, the Guardian revealed that housebuilders had reaped savings of at least £15,000,000,000 from the government’s scrapping of low-carbon regulations, which have meant they do not need to bear the cost of equipping new homes with solar panels, heat pumps and high-grade insulation. The cost of retrofitting those homes, thought to number close to 1,500,000, could run to as much as £45,000,000,000.

    The Guardian revealed the following on 9 October 2023 - building a new house with solar panels, heat pump and high-grade insulation adds more than £8,000 to the construction cost, paid by the developer. Retrofitting it costs about £33,000 on average, paid by the homeowner. Rules that would have required developers to meet low-carbon standards were scrapped soon after the 2015 general election, a move that has saved housebuilders about £15bn at a conservative estimate. Housebuilders are among the biggest donors to the Conservative Party with 20% of donations.

    Unfortunately, mortgage rates are too high and people cannot afford them in 2023 or 2024. House prices have dropped and so has the price which builders can get in 2023, so perhaps that is not making it worth their while for builders to do any new building in October 2023 - 2 approved new groups of houses within 200 yards of my house have not started, with one of them rented out for feeding horses with the grass in their fields in October 2023.
  • High Speed Train - HS2 HS2 will go from London Euston to Birmingham and the government will pay for the line from Old Oak Common to Birmingham Curzon Street. Between the stations of Old Oak Common and London Euston will be 4.5 miles of tunnels to be paid for by private investment only as well as that private investment paying for the upgrade of 6 platforms to be built at London Euston.
    • This means that passengers will have to take the local rail access between London Euston and Old Oak Common stations, which unfortunately will take more than the 36 minute time saving of going on the HS2 train to Birmingham. Unfortunately this Elizabeth line will be overwhelmed especially at rush hour.
    • The legs of the HS2 from Crewe to Manchester, Birmingham to East Midlands Parkway and Birmingham to Crewe have been cancelled. With the land not being used on the cancelled HS2 sections, then Labour - if it gets into power in Parliament - will tax private developers to fund more social housing and look to build new towns alongside railway lines and could use these miles of land alongside cancelled railways. Unfortunately, with HS2 land being sold off at £100,000,000 loss to taxpayers, this will remove this land for new homes beside the cancelled HS2 lines.
    • Unfortunately with higher mortgage rates, housebuilders are being forced to accept up to £75,000 below their asking price. House prices have fallen for the sixth month running with £14,000 wiped off the price of an average home in a year as stated by Halifax in October 2023.
    • Unfortunately these new houses would break Nutrient neutrality (see above)and so could not be built, unless both new mains water pipes from the reservoir to these towns were built and new sewage treatment plants to process ALL the rainwater/sewage from these towns were built BEFORE the towns.
    • The Prime Miinister promised to re-invest the £36,500,000,000 earmarked for these cancelled HS2 phases into hundreds of transport schemes under a new Network North Plan. So he intends to borrow that £36,500,000,000 on top of the £70,000,000,000 already borrowed in this financial year.
    • The current design of HS2 Phase 1 should lie between £45,000,000,000 and £54,000,000,000 for a train journey that will not save its passengers any time from Birmingham to London Euston. This is another payment that is going to be borrowed and increase the National Debt.
    • Britain's 4 rolling stock companies are set to be left with little or no work by the end of 2024 because of the government's failure to order any new trains for almost 4 years. The situation could threaten thousands of jobs, lose talent from the country's 30,000-strong manufacturing base and dislocate a supply chain that includes thousands of small businesses, according to a report by the Railway Industry Association

Wet Background.

Row 5

Row 6

If members of the UK public complain then Government's Public Order Act 2023 will put them in jail.
If workers strike, then the
Strikes (Minimum Service Levels) Bill (passed by House of Commons and House of Lords 4 July 2023) will kick in so you could be fired by ignoring a "work notice" ordering you to work on strike days for you in health, education, fire and rescue, transport, border security and nuclear decommissioning and radioactive waste management. So the junior doctors strike for 35% will get them fired and put them in jail.
Baroness Frances O’Grady: Strikes (Minimum Service Levels) Bill flies in the face of human rights, equality & ILO conventions

Speech to the House of Lords 08/06/23

Baroness O’Grady, moving amendment C1:

[At end insert “and do propose Amendment 4B in lieu—

4B: Page 4, line 40, at end insert—

“234CA Protection of employees

(1) A person is not subject to a work notice if they have not received a copy of it in accordance with the time limits specified in section 234C(3). (2) It is for the employer to prove that the work notice was received in conformity with subsection (1).(3) An employee may not be dismissed or subjected to any detriment for failing to comply with a work notice and any such dismissal shall be treated as a dismissal to which section 152 applies and any such detriment shall be treated as a detriment to which section 146 applies.(4) A work notice does not place a contractual obligation on an employee to comply with it.””]

“My Lords, this Motion seeks to uphold a principle long established in British law: that workers on strike are protected against the sack. Noble Lords will recall the concerns of the noble and learned Lord, Lord Judge, at Second Reading. He said that:
“this is a troublesome piece of legislation. It asks us all a very simple question: when does the right to withhold your labour … cease to be a right? It answers that question too … the right ceases when, following a ministerial decree, your employer can oblige you to work, and if you fail to do so you can lose your job”.—[Official Report, 21/2/23; col. 1568.]
Not since the Second World War have a UK Government taken power to facilitate the requisitioning of people to work against their will. This would make the UK an outlier in Europe and flies in the face of human rights, equality and ILO conventions as reaffirmed by the Government in the EU–UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement. The Government have succeeded in uniting employers, unions, the devolved nations and service users against them. In the interests of transparency, I repeat that Labour is 100% committed to repealing this bad Bill.
My Motion returns to the core concern: that striking workers selected by the employer they are striking against can be forced to work or face the sack. Remember, this legislation would unilaterally change the employment contracts of potentially millions of people—and all through secondary legislation with no proper parliamentary scrutiny or accountability. Minimum service levels determined by a Secretary of State could be set up to 100% and require staffing levels to match. The union may have jumped every hurdle to secure a lawful ballot and the worker may have democratically voted to strike, but protection against the sack will be whipped away by an employer simply putting their name on a piece of paper. The worker may not even have received the work notice; there is no obligation on the employer to make sure that they do. Their automatic protection against dismissal will be annulled. This is manifestly unjust.
Remember, too, that minimum service levels apply only to strike days. For the rest of the year, a Secretary of State can close fire stations, see rail services fail, see asylum seeker backlogs grow, increase class sizes and let NHS waiting lists—shamefully now at 7.3 million—soar. I have listened carefully to the debates in both Houses. Ministers are trying to sweep the issue of sackings under the carpet.

On 10 January, the then Business Secretary Grant Shapps said it was wrong to frighten people about their jobs. The Minister has said on many occasions, including on 21 February:
“This legislation is not about sacking workers”.—[Official Report, 21/2/23; col. 1563.]

On 22 May, the Under-Secretary of State told the House of Commons that
“nobody will be sacked as a result of the legislation”.—[Official Report, Commons, 22/5/23; col. 103.]

The official reason from the Commons for rejecting my original amendment is that
“for the legislation to be effective, it is necessary for there to be consequences for an employee who fails to comply with the work notice”.

So the consequence of exercising the human right to withdraw your labour is the removal of protection against unfair dismissal. In a free society, that is chilling. The very workers Ministers thanked for their heroism during the pandemic and stood on doorsteps to clap can be punished for striking with instant dismissal.
Key workers have already sacrificed so much for the rest of us. Unless the Government accept this amendment, Ministers now expect them to sacrifice their right to strike, or pay the price with their livelihoods. I sincerely hope that my amendment will be supported in this House and that it will give the opportunity for the Government to listen and think again. I beg to move.”

Her amendment was voted against by the House of Commons, so very soon if you strike in England, then you will be sacked.
 

Row 7


  • Welcome to the UK - Urinating K
    nave (a dishonest man polluting the waterways and sea), where the current Home Secretary (She was driving over the speed limit when she was Attorney General, the government's most senior law officer) Suella Braverman asked officials to help arrange special treatment over her speeding fine. She is committing political corruption - Suella Braverman will not face speeding fine probe, Rishi Sunak decides, while her colleagues practice systemic corruption via pay increases over years, which reduce their workforce's spending power currently to either pay for food (See Waste Britain: How tackling UK's shocking food waste saves country millions article in row 3 below where the UK goverment spend money on Ukraine rather on food for the starving population of the UK) or heat, but not both.

    The Conservative Government of Britain has not stopped the export through its waterways to the surrounding seas of
    "38,000,000 tons of waste a year from London is currently flowing into the Thames. Instead, this will be pumped
    away via a 2.8-mile sewer, which is opening in 2025" - reported in Metro of Monday, February 13, 2023 from
    warning 1.1 of 19 warnings in
    OTHER TABLE 5 in About Chris Garnons-Williams page, with the
    1,750,000 hours of dumping raw human sewage in England and Wales last year - see TABLE WASTE OF TIME in next row
    1,000,000's of microplastics -
    A microfibre is a tiny piece of plastic used in clothes and is thinner than a strand of hair. It passes through washing machine filters and water treatment plants, and ends up in rivers and oceans. When in water, plastic acts like a sponge and absorbs chemicals, followed by
    slurry from 1,000,000's of farmed cows/ goats/ horses/ pigs/ sheep/ chickens/ turkeys and
    runoff from agricultural fields which use the 1,000,000's of tons of sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plants as fertiliser. This sludge contains microplastics which go into the vegetables grown on those fields and is eaten by the farmed cows, goats, pigs, sheep, chickens and turkeys from the grass. The runoff going into the rivers is eaten by the fish and we eat the fish with the chemicals absorbed by those bits of plastic while they have been in the sewage pipe and the wastewater treatment plant.
    "
    The major sewage treatment in the Thame catchment is managed by Thames Water. There are 32 major works in our catchment which all discharge into our river." The Thame comprises 6.8% of the Thames catchment above Teddington and has a catchment area of 689 sq km. There are more than 470 major and minor sewage treatment works which discharge into the River Thames. That treated effluent is combined with the dumping of raw sewage, slurry, microplastics and runoff from sewage sludge fertiliser from fields into the Thames. That polluted river water is then repeatedly extracted for home and commercial consumption.

This kills the fish, as well as people/ visitors/ students from the UK and overseas/ swimmers in the waterways and from the beaches in the UK, and via the seas to surrounding European countries of 1,000,000's of tons of pollution.
 

Would you be interested in
a) economic slavery carried out by the UK Government, or
b) a 450% increase in your domestic gas bill from January 2022 to May 2023, or
c) a 422% increase in electricity bill for
Tremorfa Superstore in Cardiff from £900 to £4,700 a month or
d) UK supermarkets paid 40 pence less per 12 eggs than the £1.40 it costs the UK egg producers last year,
so that UK egg producers halted production and customers did not have eggs to buy, until
the UK supermarkets paid the Italians for the full cost of their barn egg production + profit
+ the cost of shipping from Italy to the UK supermarket depots
; instead of
paying the same to the UK for their superior free range egg production + profit
+ lower shipping costs within the UK to the same supermarket depots
as detailed in OTHER TABLE 5 in 2 row down?

 

Britain's Members of Parliament are not prepared to do anything about the dumping of pollutants into our rivers (Just one stretch of English river, the Wharfe at Ilkley, Yorkshire, has bathing water status, compared to 420 in France) by the privatised Water Companies, and then the sea.
"The Environment Agency of the British Government had abandoned targets for snap inspections and was only visiting Wastewater Treatment Works an average of once every 17 years. The Environment Agency had abandoned its targets for visiting Sewage Treatment Works at least once every 5 years. The Environment Agency will not restore the Inspection Targets as it says that inspections are risk-based, with Treatment Works targeted on their likelihood of being in breach of their permits.
The River Severn has 28 combined sewage Overflows around Quarry Park where fishing events cannot now take place because the fishermen are catching sanitary products instead of fish." from page 13 of I newspaper of Tuesday 4 April 2023.

When the tap water you drink in the cross-channel ferry or ship or plane, wash your clothes and yourself in; and cook with has been recycled many times into the Thames river, before and in London, the Wastewater Companies cannot guarantee that all pollution has been removed from it or any of the other rivers - see row 7 of the second table from the left in
Mission Statement page.
 

 

Row 8

 

TABLE WASTE OF TIME

 

Welcome to England - part of Urinating Knave (a dishonest man) - where in 2022 water companies dumped 302,000 storm overflow (rainwater combined with raw sewage) spills into rivers or the sea; as shown by this source from DEFRA - the Department for Environmental Food and Rural Affairs (newspaper article on page 8 of The Times on Saturday April 1 2023):-

Water Company

 

English Water companies have handed £2,000,000,000 a year on average to shareholders since privatisation 30 years ago.
Water Firms are currently telling customers to pick up the £10,000,000,000 bill to almost half the average 824 dumpings of raw sewage a day by 2030
(created by them and supported by the Urinating Kingdom government) - reports The Metro of 19 May 2023. The Water Companies should instead spend most of the money that they could give the shareholders each year from 2023 to 2030 to completely stop all dumpings by 2030. Thus, the customers would not have to pay to put right the corruption executed by those water companies and the government over the last 30 years.

Sewage Spills in 2021

Sewage Spills in 2022

From South East Rivers Trust report on Water, water everywhere ... or is it? - "By 2050, the South East of England will need to find at least an additional one billion litres of water per day to meet demand in the region. That is about a fifth of the water used in the region today, and equivalent to the water use of seven million people per day.  Demand for water will exceed supply by 2030."

 

UK water companies apologise for spilling sewage into rivers, pledge £10bn investment report by International Business Times on 05/18/23 -" The public criticism and outrage over sewage spills in the UK's water bodies have forced water companies to pledge £10 billion to reduce sewage spills in Britain's seas and rivers.

The detailed plan will be revealed this summer as the companies work to fix their sewer networks. It also needs to be noted that eventually, the water companies will recoup the costs from customers by increasing water bills.

The UK's privatised water and sewage companies were raking in money while putting people's health at risk. According to a report by the Financial Times, The aforementioned firms paid £1.4 billion in dividends in 2022, up from £540 million the previous year. " so the customer pays for these companies not to do their job and also to start to fix it, while the shareholder increases his dividend.


Unfortunately before 2030 the population in the South East of England will run out of water and be unable to live in the South East and therefore there will a housing market and mortgage crash within the next 6 years as its population try to move out and you lose not only your dividends but your shares become worthless due to this corruption by the water companies aided by the main and local UK government.

Add pollution from
a. washes off sewage treated sludge in agricuturable fields into rivers,
b. liquid pollution from landfill sites,
c. slurry from cows, pigs, chickens
d. nitrate chemical fertiliser from fields and
e.
phosphorus pollution - The main sources of phosphorus in rivers and lakes are sewage effluent (primarily from water industry sewage treatment works) and losses from agricultural land. Food waste, food and drink additives and Phosphorus dosing of drinking waters all contribute to sewage Phosphorus loadings.

 

Microplastics in consumer items could face total or partial ban are being considerd by the UK Government, where a total ban would mean no use or manufacture of intentional microplastic being permitted in the UK, on 23 August 2023 as reported on page 7 of the I newspaper of that date by Ben Gartside, The European Union introduced a total ban on their use earlier in 2023. Smaller than 5mm in diameter is microplastic size. 90% of the cosmetic products including lipsticks, shampoos, suncream, moisturisers and deodorants contain microplastic as well as household paint, Astroturf sports pitches and artificial lawns. Microplastics have been found in rivers and oceans as they can easily pass through water filtration systems and are ingested by fish and other marine animals. They have also been detected in the human body after being consumed via food or water or breathed in.

United Utilities has gross debt of £8,435,400,000 as at 31 March 2023.

81,588

69,245

 

No English river is free from pollution - Parliament report - 13 January 2022. "Raw sewage, microplastics and slurry are coursing through all of England's rivers, putting health and nature at risk, a parliamentary report concludes. Agriculture and water companies are the biggest contributors to this "chemical cocktail", the Environmental Audit Committee warns. People across the country using rivers for activities ranging from sports and swimming to fishing risk falling ill from bacteria in sewage and slurry. Microplastics worn away from car tyres and brakes are being washed from busy roads into rivers - the committee said National Highways and the Environment Agency are not doing enough to prevent this pollution." This report is from the Environmental Audit Committee.

 

"World triathletes struck down by E.coli after swim off British beach" report by Jordan King in Metro of 07.08.23:-
Dozens of competitors who took part in the UK leg of the World Trathlon Championship have become ill after they swam at Sutherland.
At least 57 were struck with diarrhoea and vomiting days after swimming in the sea at Roker beach during the event between July 29 and 30 2023.
Samples collected by the Environment Agency late last month detected 39 times the amount of the bacteria E.coli found in water during typical readings. British Traithlon, the sport's UK governing body, said those results were not published until after the weekend's events and were outside the body of the water where its competitions took place.
It added that results from its tests passed the required standards.
Australian triathlete Jake Birthwistle, who competed in the event, posted on Instagram: 'Have been feeling pretty rubbish since the race, but I guess that's what you get when you swim in shit. The swim should have been cancelled. At least I know now what got me and a bunch of other athletes who raced sick and ill.' Northumbrian Water insisted there had been no sewage discharges at the beach since October 2021."

Makes you wonder where the remainder of their
36,483 sewage spills in 2021, their
29,697 sewage spills in 2022, and their sewage spills occurred in 2023 ? Should be interesting to see what effect on the athlete's health there are in future Commonwealth Games or other water sports in British rivers or the sea surrounding Britain.

 

Everybody has to Die Sometime, is it not kind of the government to provide this free method? "Macrophages - the lungs' front-line defence system which kill bacteria by engulfing and digesting them - were exposed in a lab to dust taken from a brake pad testing factory. When exposed to particulates from diesel exhaust and brake dust, the researchers found the ability of the macrophages to destroy bacteria was reduced. Dr Liza Selley, who conducted the research, said: "Worryingly, this means that brake dust could be contributing to what I call 'London throat' - the constant froggy feeling and string of coughs and colds that city dwellers endure." " from 'London throat': Toxic brake dust could cause condition, scientists say article by BBC.
For several hours a day, the traffic outside my home and the new school less than 300 hundred yards away is slower than me walking a half mile into Rainham. The drivers are breathing this dust and so are the walking children - for the same distance - going to and from the new school.
Medway named south east's most polluted area by Friends of the Earth.

Yorkshire Water has £5,685,700,000 adjusted net debt in 2022

70,062

52,273

Severn Trent Water has £7,377,800,000 total borrowings from note 24 for the Company in 2022

59,684

44,765

South West Water has £2,798,700,000 borrowings and liabilities in 2022

42,484

37,649

Northumbrian Water has £3,170,000,000 total borrowings at 31 March 2022.

36,483

29,697

Wessex Water has £2,423,200,000 total borrowings on 31 March 2021

23,524.
Total Duration of Discharges - 151,258 hours with over £60,000,000 paid out as shareholder dividends

21,878

Southern Water has £5,100,000,000 of debt.

19,077

16,688.
South East Water has
£1,120,478,000 loans and borrowings at 2022

Anglian Water
Macquarie finalises £120,000,000 debt investment in Anglian Water on 21 December 2021.

21,351

16,082

Thames Water
Thames Water's real-time map confirms over 5,300 hours of raw sewage
discharges

£14,000,000,000 of debt

14,713

8,014

Welsh Water
Some £6,000,000,000 invested to improve drinking water quality, environmental protection and customer service - at no cost to the taxpayer. Its strategy is to deliver a secure, long-term credit quality to investors (such as pension funds and insurance companies) so as to raise the finance it needs at the cheapest possible cost, thereby keeping down bills to customers (around a third of which go to remunerate finance for investment).
So a third of the water bill goes to pay the dividends for the investors on over £6,000,000,000.

 

I wonder if that means that a third of the water bill that other customers pay from the other water companies also goes to pay the interest on their borrowings, the bonuses for their management and the dividend to their shareholders as well as persuading the UK government to allow the water companies to continue to POLLUTE the waterways and slowly KILL its population and those on the other side of the seas in Europe.

 

32,200,000 Income Tax payers in the UK in 2021 to 2022. UK general government gross debt was £2,445,200,000,000 at the end of Quarter 3 (July to September) 2022, equivalent to 100.2% of gross domestic product. At 4.38%, that is £107,099,760,000 interest per year. Each taxpayer then has to pay £3326.08 of that interest each year out of the tax that he pays. When the Water Companies collapse, etc, etc, etc, he will have to pay more until there is no tax remaining to run the UK.

3,567

2,800

 

The declared borrowings and debt of the above water companies is £46,231,278,000.

When they come bleating to the UK government, then that will be added to the National Debt and yield is 4.38 on a 30 year gilt, so that adds £2024.929976 million to be paid annually by the UK population for the next 30 years, and that still leaves that debt.

That figure above or higher is already being paid by water companies customers for water company existing debt. Then the customer pays for the dividend and the bonuses to the management as well as the word wth the government to let them carry on with the fraud. Finally, when the government step in, the customers have to pay off the investors, and pay to get the service that you had already paid for but not delivered, newly created. Thus an extra annual National Debt interest bill could probably exceed £6,000 million. What a brilliant way of conning the UK public.
The total UK National Debt was
£7,400,000,000 in 1919, rising to £21,000,000,000 in 1945, so the water companies only have more than twice the total UK National Debt of 1945 - while the current UK government takes less than 12 weeks to borrow that National Debt of 1945 whilst also spending their tax return for that time of £162,000,000,000!!!

 

Hugo Gye the Political Editor of I newspaper published the following on 23 August 2023

"Chancellor to reject calls for tax cuts despite £11,000,000,000 borrowing windfall.
The government is set to face down calls for tax cuts despite an £11,000,000,000 boost to the public finance from unexpectedly low borrowing. Public finances data for July proved to be better than previously expected, with the state borrowing a total of £4,300,000,000, thanks to surprisingly strong tax receipts. But July's borrowing was the fifth highest figure since records began, according to the Office for National Statistics, with the £7,700,000,000 spent on servicing the National Debt in that month, a record high. The total pile of debt outstanding is equal to 98.5% of the UK's GDP. So far this fiscal year the government has borrowed £56,600,000,000, a significant increase on last year but £11,300,000,000 less than the Office for Budget Responsibilty forecasts on which the Treasury bases its tax and spending policy. The surprise extra headroom prompted calls from senior Conservative MPs for rapid tax cuts to stimulate economic growth. But the Chancellor said " As inflation slows, it's vital that we continue to act responsibly with the public finances. Only by sticking to our plan will we halve inflation, grow the economy and reduce debt.""

The above does not make sense:-
The government collected tax and since 6 April 2023 it has overspent what it has collected by £56,600,000,000 to 23 August 2023. So how is this acting responsibly when you are meant to be reducing debt not increasing it?

 

Remember that we are paying those in the following departments to look after our and the country's health by allowing a
"DAILY AVERAGE OF MORE THAN 5,000 HOURS OF UNTREATED SEWAGE TO BE RELEASED"

  • The Environment Agency (EA),
  • Natural England,
  • Water Services Regulation Authority (Ofwat) - The Water Services Regulation Authority (Ofwat) is the economic regulator of the water and sewerage industry in England and Wales. Ofwat sets the limit on how much water companies can charge their customers -,
  • Department of Environmental Food and Rural Affairs (Defra),
  • Office for Environmental Protection (OEP) and the
  • Treasury

and they are in government control of these water companies, rivers and sea.


We as the public cannot sit by or swim in any river or the sea (avoid 83 UK beaches because of raw sewage dumped nearby) round England without coming into contact with pollution recorded and sanctioned by the government for decades.
Perhaps the government will repeat the 5 year wait for guidance to schools about teachers walking tightropes in face of no trans guidance on this sewage pollution crisis, so that the water companies can continue their fraud and the government can continue the fraud of being paid to not do a job of stopping those water companies polluting.
We were told that the pollution on
CAMBER SANDS beach was caused by a dead sheep, so that the life guards and car park could continue to make money from the families swimming and playing with the brown scum, by lying. That pollution was caused by raw sewage coming down to the sea on each of the rivers at the ends of the beach - Row 8 of second table in Mission Statement page. My brother in law (who is a nurse) with his children was upset, when I found out what was the valid reason a few days later.

 

"The Times Clean It Up campaign has called for better investment and transparency to tackle sewage spills from storm overflows, leading to all of England's wastewater companies promising a nearly real-time map of spills by the end of the year". SO WHY IS THIS NOT ALREADY AVAILABLE FROM BOTH THE WASTEWATER COMPANIES AND THE ABOVE RUBBISH GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS; AND WHY HAVE THEY DONE NOTHING ABOUT IT FOR DECADES?

 

For them to state that they will fine the water companies -
I know blue, white and red pigs fly,
but to see anything that would reduce kickbacks I would find hard to believe.

 

Remember this diagram from Mission Statement page;

combinedsewersystembaxbaum1a1a

 

These figures in the top row are only about storm overflows as the above diagram shows.

When you ignore the rain, but keep on building new homes etc for their sewage to go into the same diameter pipes to the same un-expanded treatment works, then the combination of that extra raw sewage and the extra when it rains from their roofs with their concreted front gardens to put their cars on (instead of paying a car-parking charge to park outside their own homes), will exceed the heavy rain element and there will always be an overflow. This provides more money from more customers for the water companies without them having to treat the extra effluent.

 

The reduced volume of combined sewage and rainwater goes to the Treatment Plant .

 

From Page 9 of The Times on Saturday April 1 2023
"About 170,000 truckloads of sludge, a mud-like by-product from sewage treatment works, are spread on fields every autumn as organic fertiliser. But the Environment Agency has told the water industry that the practice could be banned from 2025 in a bid to reduce the amount of nutrient pollution that washes off fields and into waterways.
As 87% of sludge is "recycled" to agricultural land each year, the step would close the main route for water firms to dispose of the material".

 

 

Since the goverment have done nothing for decades, I wonder if they would be influenced by nobody coming to visit Britain for pleasure or business due to its health risks from its water and food?

Row 9


OTHER
TABLE 6

Considering that the warnings in these 2 rows of this table will not be actioned on by the required personnel, you might as well ignore them

except for
warning 18 where economic slavery continues for the 14th year and
warning 13 about pensions.

This table has been transferred to About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my page.

This is warning 18:-

Page 9 of I newspaper of Friday 17 March 2023 reports the following:-
"Who has settled and who hasn't?
What is the deal?
Union negotiators representing nurses, ambulance workers, midwives and other NHS staff - but not junior doctors or dentists - have accepted an offer of a 5 per cent pay rise for 2023-24 and a one-off "NHS Backlog Bonus" for the current financial year, which is 2 per cent on top of the 4 per cent offer already on the table. The one-off payment is worth at least £1,250 for more than one million NHS workers in England, but could be as much as £3,800 for those on higher pay bands.
Where is the money coming from?
The overall cost of the new pay deal is believed to be £2.5bn. Visiting a London hospital to highlight the breakthrough, the Prime Minister insisted the pay deal was not inflationary. It is believed the funding will come, in part, from existing NHS and Department of Health funds, and in part new money from the Treasury".
My Comments:-

  • So, if this pay deal is not inflationary, then it means that most of it comes from the existing NHS budget, so that one part of the NHS drops its capital expenditure to pay for this increase in pay. This means that since the money coming in does not cover the money going out, then it is easier for the NHS - in the future - to not replace staff who leave; and so this puts more pressure on the remainder.
  • "From January 2022 to January 2023, domestic gas prices increased by 129% and domestic electricity prices by 67%." from House of Commons Library.
    This NHS Backlog Bonus of 2 per cent and the 4 per cent in this current year does not cover those increases in gas and electricity prices. The 5 per cent for next year does not cover the 11.1% inflation of this year, so yet again if this is accepted the purchasing power of the NHS staff is declining for the 14th year, whereas the Members of Parliament have had a 28% increase in their wages during those years.

     
  • Domestic gas prices increased by 129% from January 2022 to January 2023 according to the House of Commons Library.
    • So for every £100 paid in December 2021, that becomes £229 in January 2023.
       
    • My wife informed me on the 4 May 2023, that the domestic monthly gas price has just now almost doubled from this month, so that is almost a 100% increase.
       
    • So this £229 becomes about £450.
    •  
    • This means that the domestic consumer from now on will pay 450% more than they paid per month in December 2021.
       
    • The domestic gas price will increase again at least once within the next 12 months, because the gas companies can do what they like.
       
  • Most of the nursing unions have accepted on 4 May 2023 a 5% increase in their pay plus a one-off payment which is not to be added to their salary as a % increase. So this 5% does not pay for that increase in their gas bill nor does it cover the increases of the last year shown below.
    The Guardian published in their newspaper of the 4 May 2023 the following:-
    • "The ingredients needed for a family pot of spaghetti bolognese cost £8.64 just a year ago, but rose to £9.99 last month, a 15.6% increase.
      The cost of a single school lunch - comprising a sandwich, a banana and a small yoghurt - rose by 8p between 2018 and 2022 but has now increased a further 44p, a 20% leap in a single year.
      The cost of baby items has also spiked: powdered baby formula is now 25% more than in March 2018 and 12% more than a year ago.
      The price rises extend to animals as well as human products and services. A can of dog food which cost just 62p in 2018, rising to 78p last year, will now cost its owner more than £1.

      The UK's overall annual inflation rate stood at 10.1% in March, the last month or which data is available. this marks a fall on previous months; but inflation remains stubbornly high, driven by food and drink prices rising by 19.1%, the fastest annual rate since 1977.

      However, wage growth has not kept pace. Inflationary pressures boosted regular earnings (average weekly earnings excluding bonuses) by just 5.7% in the closest equivalent period (up to February 2023).

      These figures come from using data released on the 3 may 2023 by the Office for National Statistics (ONS).
      The Guardian has built a calculator to show how much more we all now have to pay for everyday activities compared with 2018, from making a plate of spaghetti to stocking up on toiletries or going for a night out - to try the calculator online go to: theguardian.com/p/nqcna .
      The ONS has published the real-world data for 455 individual items - allowing consumers to see changes over a 5-year period."

       
  • From "Waste Britain: How tackling UK's shocking food waste saves country millions" report by Fareshare on 16 May 2023
    "The Hertfordshire Business School at the University of Hertfordshire conducted the research in partnership with FareShare, the UK's largest food redistribution charity, which rescues 50,000 tonnes of surplus food to over a million people across the UK every year.  
    In a new survey of the 8,500 charities and community groups receiving food from FareShare:  
    • Almost 90% of charities say that demand for their services increased in the past year 
    • 71% are seeing more people accessing support for the first time 
    • Over half (57%) of those people are in employment 
    • 65% of charities seeing new people say they are seeing more families with children who need support.
     While demand for food from FareShare has skyrocketed, 3 million tonnes – the equivalent of 7 billion meals – goes to waste on UK farms every year. 
    FareShare has calculated that by committing £25 million per year, the Government could deliver 42,500 tonnes of surplus food – the equivalent of 100 million meals – to those experiencing food insecurity. This funding would make it cost-neutral for farmers and food businesses to redistribute their surplus food by paying for labour, packaging and transport." I wonder why the UK government is allowing its population to starve, whilst increasing its tax receipts from just over £400,000,000,000 in 2009-2010 to almost £700,000,000,000 in 2022-2023? The UK government prefers to starve its population and do the following for another country "The UK provided £2,300 million in military support to Ukraine in 2022 and has already committed the same level or an increased amount of military support in 2023 – up to a total £5,000 million over both years." from Channel 4 News.
    "The UK will today set out a major package of financial support for Ukraine, including $3 billion of World Bank loan guarantees to bolster Ukraine’s economic stability as it continues to push back Russian forces.
    The funding will support vital public services, including the cost of running schools and hospitals.
    It is the first bilateral package of multi-year fiscal assistance to be set out by a G7 country, underlining the UK’s unwavering commitment to the country, both now and in the future. It brings the UK’s non-military assistance to Ukraine to more than £4.7 billion, including £4.1 billion of fiscal support and £640 million of bilateral assistance." from
    Global businesses pledge to back Ukraine's recovery as PM sets out major financial package published 21 June 2023 from the Prime Minister's Office. Why is that £9,700 million not being spent on the UK population instead? even though it all has to be borrowed and this increases the amount that every person in the UK will pay for that repayment interest every year from now on. It is heartening to know that our government keeps on overspending to add to the £2,000,000 million that it has overspent in the last 13 years; with no thought to its consequences - "The public sector spent more than it received in taxes and other income, in May 2023, requiring it to borrow £20,000 million. This was more than double of the £9.4 billion borrowed in May 2022 and the second highest May borrowing since monthly records began in 1993, behind May 2020." from Office for National Statistics on 21 June 2023.
     
  • "UK egg farmers slashed production as a result of rising costs and supermarket business terms forcing them to sell at a loss. The Ukraine war tripled the price of feed to the UK and Italy, which accounts for 60-70% of the UK egg producers costs. Last year it cost us UK producers £1.40 to produce 12 eggs, but the supermarkets insisted on continuing to pay just £1, meaning many producers halted production to avoid selling at a loss. The number of free range laying hens, which account for 70% of retail egg sales in the UK, dropped from 26.5 million last May to 25.1 million in January. That's about 1.5 million fewer eggs a day. As a bout of avian flu further reduced UK production, shelves emptied, supermarkets rationed sales in November and turned to the Italians. Instead of focusing on free range production, where hens live outdoors as in the UK, 65% of Italian production is derived from lower-cost barn eggs, where hens are kept indoors. The difference in Italy is that producers complained to their government which invoked an EU rule prohibiting supermarkets from paying below cost price. That rule helped keep us in business in Italy. British legislation could have been used, but the UK government chose not to. Our government is more interested in cheap food than food security. This pushes the value of Italian egg exports to Britain to 1,000,000 euros last year, up from 23,000 euros in 2021 - I wonder who received the backhanders in the UK for this UK farming destruction by paying the Italians at least the production cost plus a profit, but not doing this for the UK egg producers?" from The Times of Monday May 8 2023. The British Government is quite happy to destroy the UK farming community producing eggs and does not follow the same EU rule that we have not yet rescinded or its own legislation.

     
  • This Conservative Government over the last 13 years is
    • determined to bankrupt the country by increasing the National Debt by more than £1,500,000,000,000 and
    • destroying the living standards of the NHS workforce and civil servants by consistently giving pay rises well below inflation,
      "The first-year doctors’ salary is £29,384 in the UK, reads the sign held at the last round of strikes across Greater Manchester. The sign then claims that, in New Zealand, that value jumps to £37,460; Canada pays £37,774; France is providing wages of £43,909, while Australia looms largest at £47,214.
      Although the poster does not take into account the cost of living in each country, even in isolation the numbers are evidently tempting to NHS staff striking in their droves for improved pay - all the while contending with the UK’s own cost of living crisis.
      Four in ten junior doctors are actively planning to leave the NHS as soon as they can find another job, a survey from the British Medical Association at the end of 2022 revealed. Many of those doctors wanting to quit the NHS plan to work as doctors abroad.
      According to the survey, a third of junior doctors are planning to work as doctors in another country in the next twelve months, with Australia being the top choice of destination, some citing pay erosion since 2008 as a leading cause. The ongoing strikes by junior doctors are trying to resolve what has been described as '15 years of wage erosion' by campaigning for a 35 per cent pay rise.
      Last year, 6,950 UK doctors applied for a certificate to work abroad, according to General Medical Council (GMC) data. This is up from 5,576 in 2021 - the data does not prove that the doctors will definitely leave, however it does imply intention, cautions the GMC." from If this carries on there'll be no NHS: The doctors so sick of it they're leaving for Australia from
      Manchester Evening News on 9 April 2023. The UK goverment is quite happy to train junior doctors and then see them leave the UK so that its population do not have enough doctors.
    • whilst increasing its tax receipts from just over £400,000,000,000 in 2009-2010 to almost £700,000,000,000 in 2022-2023. The UK Government borrowed £134,000,000,000 in 2022-2023 making Public sector net debt (PSND ex) at the end of March 2023 was £2,530,400,000,000.
      "In 2015 the UK public sector received £671 billion, spent £753 billion, borrowed £82 billion, had a current budget deficit of £46 billion and at the end of 2015 a debt of just over £1.6 trillion (or 84% of GDP)1."
      from the debt and deficit of the UK public sector explained.
       

Row 10


Warning 13 is about pensions.
From the Times on Friday 8 September 2023 - "The debate on pensions has centred on the need to increase contribution levels and on structural reform. I remain in favour of shock tactics to bring about change, so will share this, which was in an Abrdn and Citi report out earlier this week:
nearly a third of the UK workforce are not saving for a pension at all. That will leave them reliant on a state pension worth just over £200 a week. As I said, alarming." Perhaps these not saving belong to the following: A nurse has suffered a 20% real terms pay cut when compared to salary levels in 2010 and thus having to work a day a week unpaid; while starving in order to feed her children as 1 of the 9.3 million in the UK suffering food insecurity.

What the budget in March 2023 proposes is abolishing the limit on the pension pot currently (18 March 2023) £1,073,100. Fine, but is there any change to the tax on the lifetime allowance?

"Tax on your private pension contributions from UK Government (18 March 2023)

Contents
Overview
Tax relief
Annual allowance
Lifetime allowance

Lifetime allowance
You usually pay tax if your pension pots are worth more than the lifetime allowance. This is currently £1,073,100.
You might be able to protect your pension pot from reductions to the lifetime allowance.
Check how much lifetime allowance you’ve used.
Ask your pension provider how much of your lifetime allowance you’ve used.
If you’re in more than one pension scheme, you must add up what you’ve used in all pension schemes you belong to.

What counts towards your allowance depends on the type of pension pot you get.  

Type of pension pot

What counts towards your lifetime allowance

Defined contribution - personal, stakeholder and most workplace schemes

Money in pension pots that goes towards paying you, however you decide to take the money

Defined benefit - some workplace schemes

Usually 20 times the pension you get in the first year plus your lump sum - check with your pension provider

Your pension provider may ask for information about other pension schemes you’re in so they can check if you’re above your lifetime allowance when you:

  • • decide to take money from a pension pot
  • • turn 75
  • • transfer your pension overseas

Pay tax if you go above your lifetime allowance
You’ll get a statement from your pension provider telling you how much tax you owe if you go above your lifetime allowance. Your pension provider will deduct the tax before you start getting your pension.
You’ll need to report the tax deducted by filling in a Self Assessment tax return - download and fill in form SA101 if you’re using paper forms. You’ll get information from your pension provider to help you do this.
If you die before taking your pension HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) will bill the person who inherits your pension for the tax.

Rates
The rate of tax you pay on pension savings above your lifetime allowance depends on how the money is paid to you - the rate is:

  • • 55% if you get it as a lump sum
  • • 25% if you get it any other way, for example pension payments or cash withdrawals"
     

Your lifetime allowance (LTA) is the maximum amount you can draw from pensions (workplace or personal) in your lifetime without paying extra tax. This figure is currently £1,073,100, but it's being abolished from April 2024.

My Comments -
Clever con trick - this tax change does not occur for another 13 months, so will make no difference to doctors etc leaving in droves before April 2024. With that 20 times the pension you get in the first year and the pension pot (it is only the limit on this pension pot that is proposed to change not the tax currently charged on it and the 20 times the pension you get in the first year) it comes from, can mean that many more people would fall foul of this extra tax of 25% on top of the income tax you would pay on that pension income per year, besides those who have a pension pot exceeeding £1,073,100. So the same amount of tax would be collected.

Almost as good a con as the childcare provision when both parents are working 16 or more hours a week - this means that parents on benefit who are only allowed to work up to 15 hours 59 minutes will not get the benefit. This extra free childcare allowance for 38 weeks a year will not be fully rolled out until 2 years or more from now - UNTIL AFTER THE NEXT
GENERAL ELECTION. So it means that for 14 weeks a year then, the parents will have to pay childcare costs which for those on benefits they cannot. For those parents not on benefits and who do not have grandparents to childcare for free, they will suffer financially. Result the parents may well decide not to have children and the empty school space will be taken up by the thousands of children arriving in England in boats - government does not stop them:-
"How many illegal immigrants have arrived in the UK? A Greater London Authority funded study by researchers at the University of Wolverhampton's Institute for Community Research and Development updated these figures in 2020, and estimated that the figure in April 2017 was between 125,000 and 255,000 including between 191,000 and 241,000 children."

I wonder what the navy does and how these immigrants can get in past the Law Officers?
All China or Russia has to do is send immigrants in small boats across the English Channel, we the UK public then pay for them to be here while they enter local and main government before taking it over at our expense. At least we would not have to use the live round for each member of the Armed Forces before they end up without ammunition.

Table X. See what happens when a growing child is treated the same way as a tree in a pavement.

 

You normally eat and drink at least 3 times every day to keep you growing, healthy and active;
plants also require to eat and drink every day.
Above 5 degrees Celcius plants tend to grow above ground and
below 5 degrees Celcius they tend to grow their roots underground.

2 minor points to remember with their result-

  • the oxygen you breathe to keep you alive has mostly been produced by plants using the Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Cycle . A 25 feet x 25 feet lawn can produce enough oxygen for you to keep breathing each year.
  • A car driven 60 miles will consume the same amount of oxygene that a mature beech tree produces in 1 year.
  • Result is that the Carbon Dioxide produced by machines and people/animals breathing is exceeding what plants can do to transform Carbon Dioxide back into air, especially since more of the ground area used for vegetation is being changed to one which is not.
    Increasing Carbon Dioxide increases the heat in the atmosphere and gives what we call Climate Change - In the early Pliocene, global temperatures were 1–2˚C warmer than the present temperature, yet sea level was 15–25 meters (50 - 75 feet) higher than today. The increase in temperature will raise sea level to drown many acres of coastal areas around the world because we as a human race are so stupid; within the next century.

 

Unfortunately Maderia is not the only country to totally ignore one of the basic requirements of humans - to breathe; it would appear that many including my own also do not bother that we are asphyxiating ourselves.

 

So lets see what would happen if we did to a growing child what we do to trees in pavements, like the Maple which is more than 24 inches (60 cms) into a main road:-

Tree

30 feet = 360 inches = 900 cms high and wide with radius of 15 feet for its roots

Adult

5.5 feet = 66 inches = 165 cms high with same width and root radius as tree. She has a 50cm radius, thick copper, band round her neck.

Roots in 63.64 square metres

May receive water on 1 square metre so only 1.57% of the roots get water

Mouth

May receive water only on 1.57% of her mouth opening and that is only when it is raining or someone provides irrigation.

 

May transfer carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen through the ground to only 1.57% of roots

Nose and Skin

Breathing through only 1.57% of her nose and 1.57% of her skin

 

May transfer nutrients to only 1.57% of roots.

Mouth

May receive nutrients through only 1.57% of her mouth

 

98.43% of the roots will have to rely on the 1.57% of the roots to provide nourishment to keep them searching for underground water, underground other sources of nutrients and access to the atmosphere for gaseous exchange.

 

She is thirsty, starving and out of breath

 

Some exposed roots get run over by 40 ton lorries every day and others buried within 60cms also receive the same punishment.

 

I doubt her toes would last long.

 

1 or 2 of the 7 main roots are cut off. Support of tree is compromised.

 

Her big toes are cut off, which makes it difficult for her to maintain her balance in strong winds.

Junction of Roots and above ground Trunk

This Maple tree has exceeded its 100 cm diameter ground space and is now sitting on top of tarmac, concrete pavers and concrete slabs. These prevent the live trunk above from meeting the main root below. This means that amount of trunk supporting the tree above is becoming less and less able to provide the strength to support the tree. A strong wind will snap the tree at this point

Neck

The neck has exceeded 50cms radius. Her body and head have continued to grow. Because of the copper band her head may well break off in a high wind. Removing the copper band will also break her neck, since the muscles in the neck will not be able to hold the extra weight.

Trunk

Due to lack of nutrients, water and gaseous exchange in the root area, it is difficult to create new branches or leaves.

Head and hair

The skin is stretched over the face in a gaunt expression and the hair is short and thin, due to same lack as for the trees.

 

Old branches fall off in the wind creating jagged tears in the trunks. These then rot and the rot continues down the heartwood of the tree, since no-one maintains these trees. This root weakens the tree and eventually it will fall down.

 

Any damage caused by wind, rain or objects hitting the face are not repaired and can lead to unfortunate results.

Conclusion

Strange that people need plants to get the oxygen they breathe every day, but do not connect that thought that these trees provide that oxygen.
They reduce their supply of oxygen by concreting over more and more of the world!

 

Those trees will die and fall down.

 

Since your daughter would have died long ago, if she had suffered the above, why do you make the trees suffer?

monkeyorchid1a1a1a1
This is a sad story about our native Monkey Orchid....

It is so sad, that she has to lie down, and...

monkeyorchid2a1a

Irrelevant material like this row, with

  • Ivydene Gardens Logo
  • Ivydene Horticultural Services Email Link and
  • copyright is added at bottom of each page.

...to prevent cows from eating our native orchid plants, we must put the orchids in chicken-wire cages:-monkeyorchid3a1a

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007.
Amended May 2015.
Amended March 2024.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

thegreentreeoflovesmysterybymadeleinepires1a1a1a1a

"The Green Tree of Love's Mystery" by
Madeleine F. Williamson Pires

"As well as producing oxygen for us to breathe, trees are for humans a place of refuge, source of building material and for me, a living testament to the bounteous beauties inherent in nature. In our fast-moving contemporary city life, I believe it is important to at least have pictures of trees around us to enrich our lives, since they are designed to make our environment healthier." from Madeleine F. Williamson Pires.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors.
Since I have been putting links to external sites since 2005, some of them may no longer link you to the intended destination.

 


9. Choose plants for butterflies to use
.
Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.
Butterfly Species.
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for Butterfly/Moth
...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....Broad-leaved Woods
...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers --->


...Pink H-Z
Note
....Marshes, Fens, Bogs
...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....Saltmarshes
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....Other
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and other Freshwater Margins

Poisonous Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on Acid Soil,
on Calcareous (Chalk) Soil,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.


10. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-
Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery, then
Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) , then
Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2.
Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery

Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
the left topic menu table, the header of the middle data table and on the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.
 

Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
The
Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names
Common Names
will be compared in:-
Flower colour/month

Evergreen Perennial
Flower Shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant Use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G ,
H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,
O ,P ,Q ,R ,S ,T ,
U ,V ,W , X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H
, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O
, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V
, W, XYZ
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos A 1,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance,
Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building
work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
........
Flower Shape
......
Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in
Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in
Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in
Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...
Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...
for Bedding
...
in Windowboxes
...
in Border
...
naturalized in Grass
...
in Bulb Frame
...
in Woodland Garden
...
in Rock Garden
...
in Bowls
...
in Alpine House
...
Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...
Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......
Summer
...
Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......
January
......
February
......
March
......
April
......
May
......
June
......
July
......
August
......
September
......
October
......
November
......
December
...
Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......
Dec-Jan
......
Feb-Mar
......
Apr-May
......
Jun-Aug
......
Sep-Oct
......
Nov-Dec
...
Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial is to compare every plant in this website, starting from July 2022
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for
Butterfly/Moth

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....Broad-leaved
Woods

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,
Bogs

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....Saltmarshes
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....Other
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins


Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Topic -

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

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