Ivydene Gardens: WELCOME
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Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.
It also compares Cultivated and UK Wildflower plants either grown and/or sold in the UK.

Part of the design process for choosing plants to use in your garden, involves comparing:-

Compare different flower colours per month for each plant type within its Plant Photo Gallery with :-

Gallery Name

Click on centre of Thumbnail to see its Plant Description Page which also has the Index of all the other same type of plants (e.g Bulb is a plant type) within that Gallery in the table on the right

722 Bulb
flower colours

in each month

with their








100 Allium and

50 Colchicum,
72 Crocus,
46 Dahlia,








209 Gladiolus,
65 Lily,
67 Narcissus,
6 Tulip Plant Description Pages









129 Climber
flower colours

in each month

with their








71 Clematis and
58 Other Climber
Plant Description Pages









43 Deciduous Shrub
flower colours

in each month
with their








45 Deciduous Shrub Plant Description Pages









104 Evergreen Perennial / Alpine flower colours

in each month
with their








68 Evergreen Perennial A-L and 36 Evergreen M-Z Plant Description Pages and also








94 Evergreen Perennials in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement

5 Petals

Star Shape

Spurs Shape

Discs Shape

Sprays Arrang-ement

Dome Arrang-ement

Dome Arrang-ement


46 Evergreen Shrub
flower colours

in each month
with their








46 Evergreen Shrub Plant Description Pages,








126 Heather Shrub,
flower colours

in each month
with its

Heather Index (current progress - 52 of 700 detailed by 12 May 2015),
and their








Erica: Carnea,
Erica: Cinerea and
Erica: Others
Description Pages (74)

Erica carnea

Erica carnea







91 Herbaceous Perennial / Alpine
flower colours

in each month
with their








91 Herbaceous Perennial Plant
Description Pages,








176 Permanent Herbaceous Perennials Plant
Description Pages
in the
Mixed Borders in
RHS garden in Wisley









175 Herbaceous Perennial in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement

4 Petals

Cup Shape

Goblet Shape

Funnel Shape

Lipped Shape

Tier Arrang-ement

Plumes Arrang-ement


343 Rose Plant
Description Pages of roses grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2007 (Group 1) with its Rose Index
flower colours
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website
with their

Other Colours






2 or More Colours

82 Rose Plant
Description Pages
RHS garden in Wisley A-F (Group 2), with its Rose RHS Wisley Index
in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleries

A Whiter Shade of Pale



D'Arcey Bussell

Easy Going


Flower Carpet White

37 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley G-R
(Group 2),
with its Rose RHS Wisley Index in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleries

Gold Spice

Harlow Carr


Jack's Wish

Keep Smiling


Mac-millan Nurse

12 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
with its Rose RHS Wisley Index in the righthand table of every page in all the Rose RHS Wisley galleriesRHS garden in Wisley S-Z (Group 2)

with another
85 Roses in Group 2 Rose Index Menu and

Silver Anniv-ersary

Simply The Best


Straw-berry Hill

The Charl-atan

Wild Edric

York Minster

Rose Use Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website and see the 4000 x 3000 pixel camera raw photos of roses from Peter Beales Roses and RV Rogers




Gro-und Cover

Grow in Pot


Not Fra-grant

Rose Bloom Shape and Rose Petal Count Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website.

See Rose Care at bottom of middle table for detailed instructions.

Click on
Other Roses to see the further
161 roses
grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2015 (Group 3)
with its Other Roses Index in the righthand table of
Rosa 'Sally Thomas'

Hybrid Tea Shape

Quart-ered Bloom Shape



Single with 1-7 Petals

Double with 16-25 Petals

Very Full with over 40 Petals


99 Bedding
flower colours
with their






White / Colour


99 Bedding
Plant Description Pages,








Flower Shape and
Petal Count
followed by

Stars Shape

Saucer Shape

Trum-pet Shape

Lobes Shape

Floret Shape

6 or More Petals

6 or More Petals

Bedding Use Pages

Bed-ding out

Filling In

Scree-ning Use

In Pots

In Window Boxes

In Hang-ing Bas-kets

Sum-mer Bed-ding



1115 Wildflowers have flower colour pages to compare the plants with the same flower colours:-

from all the Native-to-the-UK-plants-in-1950 in their following 180 families. Each plant in each Family Page is aimed to have the following photos with it:-

  • a Flower
  • Flowers
  • Foliage
  • Shape

as well as the text giving its

If its Plant Description Page has been created
(297 created by May 2015 - see number created from each family on far right),
then its Common Name in the Page will be linked to it.
All the Wildflower Plants in these Family Pages also have External Website Links to



  • and the other Photo Galleries in the Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics on the left at the top of each page.

The first 2 Colour Wheels detailed below add many of these plants together for comparison purposes.

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Colour from the initial 1381 Cultivated Plants and 628 Wildflower Plants detailed in this Website:-

Takes 15 Seconds to load

Click on number between 1-7 from 12 Colour or 1-6 from Black Sections or Wild White to see all the plant flowers (1381 cultivated - with another 115 roses in the Rose Plants Gallery, another 270 bulbs in the Bulb Gallery, and 628 native to the UK wildflower) in this website with their:-

  • Common Name,
  • Botanical Name and
  • Months of Flowering

in one of the above 53 Flower Colour Wheel pages to create your colour coordinated flower schemes.

Each Plant Description can then be selected by clicking on the:-

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Bloom Colour in that Month from the initial 1381 Cultivated Plants and 628 Wildflower Plants detailed in this Website:-


Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Click the number 1 to see all the plant flowers (1446 cultivated, 235 wildflower) in this website with their:-

  • Botanical Name (Common Name for Wildflowers)
  • Soil Preference
  • Sun Aspect
  • Soil Moisture
  • Height and
  • in each Month of Flowering

in one of the above 144 Flower Colour Wheel pages to create Blue, Brown, Cream, Green, Mauve, Orange, Purple, Red, Pink, White, Yellow or Multicoloured (Grey circle in the middle) colour coordinated flower schemes in each month.

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with the same Colour from Bee-Pollinated Flowers:-

For Hay Fever sufferers, it is better to have bee-pollinated plants than wind-pollinated plants, since the pollen spread by that wind is what causes their suffering. The plants in Bee Bloom Gallery are bee-pollinated and they should be used in preference to grasses.

Click on the OOO in the Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index below to link to those bee-pollinated plants of that flower colour in that month or any of

ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in April-June
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-June
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-September
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in April-June
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in May-June
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant - for those plants.

Enumber indicates Empty Index Page.
Bottom row of Grey is Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

























OOO E13.




































































































































There are topics on how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting in this website, with the following further detail:-

Garden Maintenance
When you get a private garden, you need to know about your soil so that possible remedial action can be taken. When you know whether it is acidic or alkaline then it's maintenance is easier for you.
This can be followed by organic garden maintenance to understand what are the problems and joys of your garden. The relevant sections of the glossary, tool shed and library should aid you.

Hard Landscaping Garden Design
If you decide to change a portion of your garden, then design the whole of your private garden; rather than doing bits which become unrelated to each other or to the house. If your soil is clay, then this has major design ramifications. The library with case studies will aid the hard landscaping design, especially on drives.

Soft Landscaping Garden Design
The offbeat glossary, the plants,
the plant photographic galleries - Aquatic , Bamboo , Bedding , Bulb , Climber , Conifer , Deciduous Shrub , Deciduous Tree , Evergreen Perennial , Evergreen Shrub , Evergreen Tree , Fern , Grass , Hedging , Herbaceous Perennial , Herb , Odds and Sods , Rhododendron , Rose , Soft Fruit , Top Fruit , Vegetable , Wild Flower -
and companion planting aid the soft landscaping design. To aid your flower colour selection:-

  • for complementary or contrasting colour schemes; the Colour Wheel - Flower Petal has been created as shown in the first colour wheel above.
  • The 12 colours per month in the Colour Wheel - Bloom in Month provide a crossection of bulb, climber, shrub etc plants with the same flower colour in the same month as shown in the second colour wheel above.
  • The third Colour Wheel above can be used by HayFever sufferers to use plants that are Bee-Pollinated instead of being wind pollinated.
  • The fourth Colour wheel below aids your selection of Rock Plants for your rock garden.

The Wild Flower Gallery and the Wildlife on Plant Butterfly Gallery show the relationship between the Butterfly and its plant to aid the creation of a wildlife friendly section to your garden.

You can select plants for your garden using the following hierarchy as further detailed in Plants:-

Garden Construction
Having done the structural and detailed design process, garden construction can then take place in stages with the aid of getting materials using useful data, before returning once more to organic garden maintenance.

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Colour of Rock Garden Plants:-

The Rock Garden Plant Index pages provide all the required information in a condensed form to aid your selection of (82) small rock garden plants for small areas - with the flower colour linking to the Rock Garden Plant Colour Wheel Page (click on number in colour of Rock Garden Colour Wheel Map below to transfer) to see which other rock garden plants are in that same colour.



This is a sad story about our native Monkey Orchid....

It is so sad, that she has to lie down, and...


Irrelevant material like this row, with

  • Ivydene Gardens Logo
  • Ivydene Horticultural Services Email Link and
  • copyright is added at bottom of each page.

...to prevent cows from eating our native orchid plants, we must put the orchids in chicken-wire cages:-monkeyorchid3a

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Amended May 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

"The Green Tree of Love's Mystery" by
Madeleine F. Williamson Pires

"As well as producing oxygen for us to breathe, trees are for humans a place of refuge, source of building material and for me, a living testament to the bounteous beauties inherent in nature. In our fast-moving contemporary city life, I believe it is important to at least have pictures of trees around us to enrich our lives, since they are designed to make our environment healthier." from Madeleine F. Williamson Pires.

Drinking Water deprivation in Medway, England

"Terror - Extreme fear; person or thing causing this;
Reign of terror - time in which community lives in dread of death or outrage" from Volume 2 M-Z of The Reader's Digest Great Encylopaedic Dictionary.

Southern Water Authority is responsible for water undertakings in Medway from 1973.

"Twenty-five years from now we will have lost a third of our water sources through climate change, seen a reduction in the amount of water we are allowed to take from rivers and underground sources, and our population will have grown by 15%. Without action, we predict a supply and demand deficit by 2030 equivalent to around 50% of our current supply. Our Plan proposes 43 performance commitments for the five-year period from 2020 to 2025, directly aligned to 10 key outcomes to create a resilient water future." from Southern Water.

Medway has a population of 274,015 in 2014.

More than 10,200 homes will be built within the next 20 years. Assuming 2 adults and 2.2 chidren per home, then there will be an increase of 42840 people which is an extra 15.63%. This assumes that the remaining 274,015 people do not have more children or get married/partnered and bring further people into Medway.

Southern Water are allowing for 15% population growth and therefore any extra growth in Medway area over that will not have water. Southern water did overabstract water from aquifers for Medway towns in a few months during 2017. Medway gets all its water from aquifers. If you continue to overabstract then you run out of water. There is less water going into the chalk from the rain since more and more households in Medway pave over their front gardens and use them as car parks, so there is going to be less rain in the chalk aquifers as more of the open land is built on to hold these houses. The rain from the house drives gets into the storm drain. Most storm drains have a single large exit at their point of discharge (often covered by a grating) into a canal, river, lake, reservoir, sea or ocean.

Souther Water is building a Havant Reservoir in Hampshire which is many miles from Medway, so will they then pipe that water at least 100 miles to Medway?

Medway is not the only area in Kent, Surrey, Sussex or Hampshire where the UK goverment is requesting that many more houses be built.

"Peak Water": how to invest in a world that's drying up by MoneyWeek, shows that the world is running out of water. A solution to this is required by 2019 before more than another billon people lack access to water, with residents of Medway joining them.

According to information concerning water in a local paper given out in buses running in Medway on 22 March 2019, there will be an increase of 100,000 in the population per year within the area of Southern England serviced by Southern Water. Since Southern Water are only building 1 reservoir in Havant, some people within Southern England are not going to have water within only a very few years - this will affect students since thay inflate the population during term and disappear in the holidays. In Medway we are now short of doctors, dentists, schools, surgeries and infrastucture like roads to service these new estates.

Medway regeneration includes the following objective:

"The development of around 30,000 new homes at major new developments such as Rochester Riverside and Chatham Waterfront by 2035" - this includes the 10,200 detailed above. So if we subtract that 10,200, we are left with 19,800 homes plus the students who move into the area each term time for the 3 universities resident within Medway, who will have no water to drink or wash in, cook with, etc.
No need to worry that those new homes will also prevent rainwater from entering the ground within most of their ground area, thus reducing the volume of rainwater that reach the aquifers even further.


The Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs produced the following Water Conservation Report. Action taken and planned by government to encourage the conservation of water. December 2018:-

"We know that by the 2050s summer temperatures are likely to increase while summer rainfall decreases, leading to increased risks of short-duration droughts. The population in England is forecast to grow by over 10 million people over the same period, with a large part of this growth occurring in areas where water is already scarce."
"To maintain the current level of resilience, at least 3,300 million litre per day of additional capacity in the water supply system is required by 2050. The report suggested that this should come from one third supply-side measures and two thirds demand management measures. On demand management measures, the report recommends halving leakage by 2050, and enabling companies to implement metering beyond water stressed areas by the 2030s. In some parts of the country the volume of water taken from the environment is damaging our ecosystems. The Water Industry National Environment Programme estimates that water company abstraction volumes need to be cut by over 700 million litres per day (Ml/d) to address environmental problems. Reducing the amount of water customers use helps to reduce the amount of water that water companies need to abstract from rivers, lakes and groundwater, thereby helping to mitigate damage to ecosystems."
Southern Water did overabstract water from aquifers for Medway towns in a few months during 2017. Medway gets all its water from aquifers (as detailed above).
"Reducing the amount of water we consume and waste could make a significant difference to water availability for people and the environment. For example if we were to reduce leakage by 50% and reduce per capita consumption to 100 litres per person per day we could provide enough water for more than an additional 20 million people by 2050, without taking more from the environment. In many cases efficiency can be achieved at little cost to developers. Requiring all developers to build to the lower standard of 110 litres per person per day would only cost a maximum of £9 additional per dwelling.
Southern Water water leakage in average litres per property per day was 75, 77, 80 and 80 between 2014 and 2018.
Around 22% of water currently put into supply is lost through leakage; this equates to approximately 3 billion litres of water per day. While leakage had fallen by a third since privatisation, since 2014 water companies have made little progrees in reducing leakage.
Southern Water per capita consumption in average litres per person per day in recent years is 141, 135, 130, 131, 129. Per capita consumption is a key measure for how efficiently we are using water. In 2017/18 England each person used 141 litres of water per day on average.
Although per capita consumption has fallen since 1999, however in recent years progress has flatlined. On average metered customers use around 33 litres less water than unmetered customers. Currently just over half of households in England pay for the water they use by metered charging.

On leakage, the government has fully supported Ofwat's challenge to water companies to reduce leakage by at least 15% by 2025. Water cmpanies are proposing an average leakage reduction of 16% by 2025. The water industry has also committed to reducing leakage by 50% by 2050 at the latest. This would reduce overall leakage to 10% of supply. Southern Water leaked 88 Million Litres per day in 2017-18 and aims to reduce leakage by 15% by 2025. Southern Water has committed to a target of 100 litres per person per day by 2040. Companies in an area designated as an area of serious water stress must consider universal metering, whereby they are able to charge all customers by metered volume, as part of their planning process" (so presumably if a property uses more 100 litres per person per day by 2040, then the extra water will cost more; to persuade them to use less).
"2015 - Update to the building standards: The goverment set an additional higher standard for domestic water usage in building regulations, in addition to the existing minimum standard of 125 litres per person per day. The higher standard set at 110 litres per person per day. Where there is a clear local need, local planning authorities can set out local plan policies requiring new dwellings to meet the tighter building regulations optional requirement of 110 litres per person per day. In 2017 the Environment Agency estimated that about 80/324 (25%) of local authorities have adopted the tighter standard for water use. The majority of these are in the south east. This means that people that live in newly built homes should typically use about 30 litres less water per day than those in existing housing stock" (
Southern Water did overabstract water from aquifers for Medway towns in a few months during 2017. Medway gets all its water from aquifers (as detailed above). That being the case, where is the water for the people in the new houses that are being built in the Medway area? perhaps charges to the existing customers will reduce their usage so that what they no longer use can be used by the new people?).

"The building regulations for water efficiency are instrinsically linked to reducing per capita consumption." This means that you allow less water per person, you can then supply more people with water, so you can build more houses and keep up the cycle by further reducing the amount of water each person in the drought ridden area can use per day.
"Currently around 25% of all leakage is from customers' supply pipes. Supply pipes are the pipes that carry water from company pipework into a property. Supply pipes run from the boundary of the property (where there may be a company stop-tap) up until the first water fitting or stop-tap inside the property. The maintenance and upkeep of these pipes, including leak detection, is currently the responsibility of homeowners. Customer supply pipe leakage is included in the overall leakage calculation." How do customers find out if there is a leak in their supply pipe?

"2018- National policy statement for water resources infrastructure. The national policy statement presents the evidence base and identifies how new strategic infrastructure contributes towards meeting government objectives. New water resources will also be needed meaning that new large infrastructure such as reservoirs or water transfers will be part of the solution. Southern Water are building a new reservoir in Havant - will that supply the extra water required for all the new houses being built in the South East?

If the idea of saving trees does not appeal, perhaps you could aid damsels in distress:-

  • A friend of mine recently had a problem with the hanging loop on the side of the backless dress having the zip, that the zip got caught in the hanging loop while she was pulling it up. This caused some lengthy period of time before - being by herself - she was able to free herself.
  • If the hanging loop attached to the dress either side of the zip at its top was instead a tube of material which went into an open-ended pocket on each side of the zip. Then, these 2 open-ended pockets on each side of the zip inside the dress would extend beyond the zip at the bottom of the zip. The loop of material could be threaded through on each side, before its ends were sewn together perhaps with a tassel end. The bottom of the loop would be on the outside of the dress, whereas the top of each pocket would be on the inside of the dress.
  • This same idea could be used on the other side with each open-sided pocket being the same length as the zip-side and it would be attached to the inside of the dress at the same distance away from the dress seam as for the zipped side.
  • When the dress is removed from its hanger, and the dress has been put on, then the woman can pull the bottom of each hanging loop or tassel before she does up the zip. This should stop the hanging loop from being caught up in the zip. The flat tassel would make it look as part of the fashion of the garment.
  • Another friend has a problem with large handbags. She buys second-hand ones from charity shops and besides the normal items, she prefers to top up coffee with brandy and so has a brandy flask while having meals in restaurants. She has shopping bags in the handbag, but if there is too much then the remaining shopping goes in the handbag as well. This causes damage in normal handbags to the lining and seams.
  • Leather Design and Craft at www.leatherdesignandcraft.co.uk attend craft fairs and make tough items for longevity. So my friend designed the handbag and here is the result where the leather used is the same strength as in the bags carried by bus conductors some years ago:-
  • handbag1a
    My friend is fond of cats, so the cat was added at my request.

  • handbag2a

  • handbag4a

  • My friend designed it so there would still be enough room for purse, keys, glasses and further shopping, without damage to the handbag!!!

My email to Leigh Academy who are going to build a school in the field opposite my house was sent on 28 July 2019 - no reply within 10 days. A 200 house development was to be built, but its proposal was defeated; and now Medway Council chose Leigh Academy to build it in 2018 (without telling the residents) and the rubber-stamping exercise with the local residents is occuring in September by them attending a meeting with Leigh Academy, before the school will be built and operate in September 2020:-
Dear Sir/Madam,

From where you intend to build a school for over 1100 girls/boys between 11-18, you will need to pump the main waste and the storm waste up to the drains in Otterham Quay Lane. This is what would have had to happen to the 200 house scheme for this field. I would suggest that you have a secondary pump system with its own generator for the event where the primary pump fails. The effluent overflowing into the railway cutting alongside for the main rail line from London to Dover would not be popular.
Southern operates in the south-east of England, serving customers in Kent, Sussex, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. It has over 300 wastewater treatment sites and Ofwat said a "significant number" of these had had been affected by problems." from Southern Water punished over 'shocking' wastewater spills article by the BBC. It has polluted rivers in southern England over seven years from The Times. "An investigation by The Times this month revealed that pollutants in England's rivers are at their highest levels since modern testing began 20 years ago, with no river certified as safe for swimmers." from The Times newspaper published on 23 August 2019.

From the photo on your website leighacademyrainhamplans.co.uk indicating the land for the school, it would appear that you will have the school building near Otterham Quay Lane with its car park whose access would be close to the railway bridge of Otterham Quay Lane. I am almost 71. During the rush hour when children are being taken to school, I can walk from my house, (see map on table alongside) into Rainham and beat the traffic to Mierscourt Road between 7:45 and 9:00. The road outside is getting more gridlocked. If you add 500 cars delivering 2 kids to school and trying to get out twice a day, then it will increase
air pollution to harm these growing children (the school would be built below the ground level of Otterham Quay Lane). Sunburst Magazine of August 2019 for St Margaret's Church in Rainham stated - "The current World Health Organisation guideline value for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is 40 (annual mean) and was set to protect the public from the health effects of gaseous NO2. In 2018 in Rainham it peaked at 47.8 and had an annual average of 41.8, which is likely to be a cause of asthma in children. Medway Council state that" There is a potential public health risk to residents who live close to, and travel regularly through, these areas.... there is a risk that, with the expected growth in population of 28,300 over the next 10 years and subsequent ongoing housing developments, an increased number of cars could contribute to the rise in air pollution across other areas in Medway." "In order to sort that out you need to switch the school car park, school building and playing grounds at 180 degrees and have the road access from Seymour Road to be alongside the railway cutting. That cannot now be done, since a new dwelling has now been built during January 2020 on that land by the Seymour Road. Seymour Road needs to be widened to become 2 lane with pavement instead of a traffic lane. Where it joins Canterbury Lane, then that Canterbury Lane needs to be widened to become a complete 2 lane road with pavement to Otterham Quay Lane. That would stop further congestion on Otterham Quay Lane and split the traffic into 2 extra roads joining the A2 - Seymour Road and Oak Lane.

There are 3 roads going East-West in the Medway Area. The M2, the A2 and Lower Rainham Road. If there is a problem on the M2 then Medway becomes gridlocked because the A2 is a series of traffic lights and if you wish to get to Rochester from Moor Street it is faster to go up to the M2 along it and down the other side of Rochester airport than to use the 4th side of the A2. If you want to use the Lower Rainham Road, then there is a long section of 20 mph, chicanes and speed ramps to destroy your suspension, so that also becomes a series of queues. Build a new dual carriageway north of the Lower Rainham Road between the 7 Sisters Roundabout and a new roundabout past Pump Lane. A new dual carriageway would provide better traffic flow and reduce the production of gaseous NO2 from stationary cars in traffic queues, since there are all those new houses built which currently use Otterham Quay Lane, 1250 new homes are to be built on the orchard off Pump Lane and building this new school.

If the school is to be community based, will there be a new Health Centre built on the grounds next to the school plot of land, together with a small shop/supermarket and cafe for kids lunches/parents waiting to pick up kids. The Health Centre opposite St Margarets Church in the middle of Rainham had 4 surgeries. One closed in January and it was difficult for the others to absorb their patients. My next door neighbours when they moved in 2 years ago tried to join one of those surgeries from another one where they lived before in Medway, they were unable to and are now selling their house. My wife and I are with one of those surgeries, but a) we are outside their area for accepting patients, b) they have no vacancies and c) some of their doctors retired in March this year, and they have not yet been able to replace all of them. So if you build the facility, will you able to staff it or will the children have no doctor?

There is a section on my Welcome page of
www.ivydenegardens.co.uk which does explain why we in the South East are not just running out of water
1) because of climate change dropping less rain in the South East as the years roll on, and
2) not just because during 2 months of 2017 Southern Water over abstracted water from the aquifers under the town of Medway lowering the water table yet again,
3) and not just because the 129 litres of water normally used by each resident within the Southern Water area is now being reduced to 110 litres of water engineered into new built house/school by building regulations approved by local councils without people realising it,
4) But Southern Water is only building one new reservoir in Havant and being told by the government to regulate the supply using management techniques - increase price of water to persuade people to use less. If we dropped average consumption to 100 litres a day, then 20 million extra people could get water and the water companies would get more money for the same amount of product, since their record of reducing loss of water in their pipe system is not working very well.

I could suggest a) a 10 feet wide minarette with espalier (stepover fruit trees for the wildlife) fruit-tree and wildflower meadow buffer which includes a path within it round the site, that could be used to give the students, staff and community their '20-minutes-a-day" minimum 'dose' of time to spend in nature to help improve their mental wellbeing, the outside boundary would be acoustic barriers to reduce train and traffic noise. b) replacing car park surface with a reinforced grass system etc, and c) use the new playing fields for sports use by the community outside school hours and by a bootfair once a month for the community, with the school providing its staffing.

What is the other half of the field going to be used for? Why not annex it to the school and use it:
a) to grow the fruit and vegetables for the school to keep
Moor Street Conservation Area a Rural Area
b) use part for allotments for community access with 1 being used by the school for educating the pupils
c) use part for a school community centre to discover the community's own social needs and then to meet them.
Yours sincerely,
Chris Garnons-Williams
1 Eastmoor Farm Cottages, Moor Street, Rainham, Kent


P.S. Further comments in Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019, including email to Medway Hospital who are holding an Asthma Workshop on 26 September 2019 between 10:00 - 12:00.
The consultation with the population has taken place and the website https://leighacademyrainhamplans.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Rainham-Roller-Banners-850x2000mm@50-x8.pdf now contains more information. "The closing date to share your views ahead of submission of the plans is Monday 16th September 2019". Today is the 19 September 2019.
Besides my earlier views detailed above, here are a few more:-


1. The site layout is an updated version of the one shown before the 9th September 2019 with the school etc in the same position as before. It now has a proposed roundabout with drive linking it to the school car park. It is a shame that Medway Council totally ignored its own road research where cables are laid across the road and the type of vehicle with its speed is recorded over several days. This would have shown that during the morning when schools are having their pupils delivered between 08:00 and 09:00 that Otterham Quay Lane is gridlocked as is the A2 that it leads onto. Assuming that the proposed 4 school buses could actually get round it, one would have to assume that 40 ton lorries could as well. This will cause traffic hold-ups at the roundabout with their running and polluting engines to enhance asthma in the children. Also there is little distance between this roundabout and the traffic lights at the end of Otterham Quay Lane - 100 yards, so this roundabout is also going to get gridlocked especially when you consider the extra traffic that is going to be getting on these roads from the proposed extra houses in a later point.
2. This school is still going to be lower than the public sewer drain in Otterham Quay Lane; so where is the pump to pump the sewage to a public main drain and another to pump the rainwater to a public storm drain?
3. The CGI of proposed sports hall and car parking shows tarmaced drive and concrete slabbed car parking. Why not replace car park surface with a reinforced grass system?
4. "The school catchment area is expected to be small, with the majority of students (84%) traveling less than 4km to the school". All the pupils will have to travel up or down Otterham Quay Lane to get to and from school. Many will also travel along the Lower Rainham Road, which has no pavement from Station Road to Otterham Quay Lane - that section is also narrow and so cyclists may well be knocked off their bicycles.
The legend below the diagram showing school catchment area states committed developments of 300, 90 and 121 within the school catchment area and planning application submitted for 202 and 90 residential units.
5. On the Transport plan of Proposed buses, there will be 4 new buses going along the A2 via Mierscourt Road junction with the A2 to Otterham Quay Lane and turning round the roundabout to get back onto their return routes. These will also further clog the 2 roads of the A2 and Otterham Quay Lane to the extent that during rush hour, it will be quicker to walk than take the bus and the extra pollution is going to be horrific. Combine these buses with the parent's cars and even if there was no other traffic at all, getting to and from school where it is currently proposed would be an absolute nightmare.
6. Looking at the Internal Layout Level 00 I could not see a lift, that could be used to lift disabled children to each floor or to take heavy equipment up or down floors.
7. In the Internal Layout, the number of WCs for female students is the same as for male. Female students need to sit for both functions, whereas the male does not for 1 of them, so if there is the same number of female to male students, then female students need twice the number of WCs that males require. This is especially true if only 3 male and 3 female WC's are available from the Sports Hall if that is where community socialising is to take place, while locking off the rest of the school for security reasons.
8. From the Transport maps, it does not appear as if any change will be made to the road infrastructure besides the roundabout outside the school. This is going to be an environmental disaster with so many extra houses and this school. Is Medway concerned that currently being over the safety limit for Air Pollution, that this entire design of new residential units and this school is only going to make it worse?

Welcome *
About Chris Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my
Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,
Contact Chris Garnons-Williams - Contact Information,
Website Design History - Website Design History and
Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.
Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map - usually each of the educational not commercial 220 topics (none of these 220 linked websites sell or buy anything, nor do they take or give commission, and the only adverts are of products/services that I believe would benefit my visitors and are inserted by me) has its own Site Map, which is normally the first page of that Topic linked to from other topics.
Every page should have 3 separate tables - the Topics Table, the Data Table and the Pages/Index Table.
Each page has its own resources and is not data-base driven, so can be downloaded.
Usually 3 or 4 clicks gets you to any page in these 17,000 pages in these sites from any other page.
Usually the top gallery of a plant type has all the flower images of that and the subsidiary galleries in 1 of 6 colours per month pages, with that flower thumbnail being in each month page that it flowers.
Clicking on the middle of that thumbnail will transfer you to that flower's page or row in data table within that page description; and
its link to a mail-order nursery selling you that plant directly should be in the Comments row of that Plant Description Page.
The majority of the original images in this website are inserted, published in Freeway which produces a 72 pixel per inch Freeway image. This is exported to a File, and the image published by Freeway replaced by the re-imported Freeway image file as a pass-through image; before that is published again and the resulting folder website uploaded for visitors. The lower resolution speeds up the display of the 28,398 JPEG images - some of these images are re-used in different comparison pages of different galleries and therefore added to the resources of each of those galleries (6,508 images have garnons williams or garnons-williams as the ending of the filename and those can go in the public domain as of 5 June 2019, but all the remainder are
copyrighted by others and may not be re-used elsewhere without the permission of the copyright holder).
Camera photos of Coleus RHS Bedding Trial starts the process of displaying the complete 4000 x 3000 pixel original photos from Chris Garnons-Williams. Since each photo can be 3.5-6.0 Mb and there may be 11 of these on a page; each page may take a long time to download .

Sub Menu to each Page of this Topic of the HOME PAGES, with normally a * after Page you are viewing.
Page Menu may also have an Index (Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.

Besides informing you how to

Other items in the page below might be of interest:-

  • Over 1100 school children will be poisoned by nitrous dioxide from their parent's cars, 4 new school buses and 4 new bus routes ending at the proposed new school; which will transport them in Medway. Running vehicle engines whilst stuck in a 300 yard radius queue from that traffic lights still produces air pollution. See Medway Proposed New School Page for how government is going to kill its population, together with Medway and its adjacent councils are going to build an extra 5000 houses requiring another 2,773,500 litres PER DAY, which we do not have (27 March 2021).
  • Trees falling down from within pavements in Funchal, Madeira.
  • Tree roots being denied rainwater, nutrients, air exchange and death of the soil surrounding their roots within tarmaced pavements in Guernsey. Nor do they provide an organic mulch or green manure to feed their trees or redcurrant bushes.
  • Difficulties for van drivers in locating your property, or
    prospective property developer to buy my neighbour's 2-section property. The intention to create a facility to contain the sewage water from the proposed conversion of the parking section main building to a habitable dwelling will fail the regulations and so cannot be legally carried out. Medway Council is unhappy about executing its enforcement orders or condtions prior to building work, or following it's own rules for number of properties on a private drive onto a main road.
  • Drinking water deprivation in Medway, England. No tap water for 30,000 out of 45,000 newly built houses by 2035. In compensation for the additional water requirement; too much water will be taken from the chalk aquifers and this will lead to no water left in the aquifer for any Medway resident. Too much water has also been abstracted from underground in India.
  • Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden.
  • Aiding Damsel in distress with her backless dress to stop the hanging loop getting stuck in zip.
  • Long-lasting Heavy-Duty Leather Handbag required for overloading, with shopping as well (including 1 ltr brandy bottles).
  • Gas boilers are being replaced in Kent, England with the return pipe being connected to the flow of the boiler instead of the return connection. This means that a single electrical circuit is checking for overheating of the boiler and switching it off until it cools down and then restarting it. Because of the incorrect flow the other sensors in the boiler cannot operate due to receiving the cooling return water than the just heated water from the boiler. My Gas Service Engineer informed me in June 2020 that he has found this in other client's homes and that they had refused to redress the situation. See All Flowers per Month Site Map Page for details of it being done to my house and my Gas Servicing Engineers not finding it until 5 years after its replacement. Interesting that some British Gas Engineers cannot replace Gas Boilers correctly and are not concerned that it then explode. When I enquired before to the manufacturers, I was told that a switch had been installed that if the boiler was incorrectly piped, then it would not work - this does not seem to be the case.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.
See Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4. galleries to see 4000 x 3000 pixel photos of this damage.
The following 12 sections provide more detail; with section 12 providing a cheap start to improving the life for the roots:-

  • 1. This tree trunk in Madeira will fall because of the heartwood being rotted away.
  • 2. Electrical cabling tied to trees in Madeira is killing the tree.
  • 3. Constriction of trees by metal, tarmac, stone, concrete etc will cause the tree to grow over the constriction. At some point that tree will break at this fulcrum and fall over; due to the weight above that fulcrum being in excess of what the heartwood at that fulcrum can support.
  • 4. Growing trees within 2 metres of a vertical drop in the soil and thus automatically restricting it's circle of roots means that the tree will have complete lack of support from a large section of root and is vulnerable to falling down from wind. Also the Eucalyptus roots extract a lot of water from the soil causing that soil to lose its cohesion and fall away.
  • 5. The weight of a growing unbraced shrub/tree in a small volume of soil, surrounded by impervious material, is going to exceed the weight of that soil. That means that that plant will fall down at the fulcrum of that trunk with the ground.
  • 6. Constriction of trees by plastic twine, baling twine, metal wire will cause the same problem as in Sections 2 and 3.
  • 7. Photograhic evidence of damage to 166 trees in Funchal, Madeira with explanations and possible solutions.
  • 8. In Medway, England the council has sprayed herbicide round the base of trees in public spaces to kill off the grass. The grass dehydrates the roots of the tree below.
  • 9. This explains why grass is detrimental to other plants growing in it.
  • 10. The cultural needs of plants for water, gas exchange and nutrients is explained. If these are not met then that plant will die.
  • 11. Earthworms provide the transport system in the soil for the rainwater, gas exchange and nutrients dissolved in that water to reach the tree roots via tunnels. No access for earthworms, no earthworms, cultural needs of plants not met.
  • 12. Although some solutions have been given in the previous sections, this provides a start for improving the cultivation conditions for the roots of those plants in Madeira and in other countries.


1. Could Madeira use this tree in its current state as Cheap Staff Accomodation for

  • staff at the Forum Shopping Centre
  • or
  • for me as accomodation, while I sort out their tree problems
    (at least when I would fall asleep, it would be sitting up as required below? Madeirans care for their staff in knowing that I would not have far to travel to go to work)?

Photo 10 - tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk IMG_6063.JPG in
Damage to Tree Roots in Madeira caused by People Page in Section 7.
The hole in the trunk could be sold by the Tourist Office or rented out, who would install a thin front door (you would need to go inside your
bijou residence sideways) with a toilet behind it ( you could also sleep on this toilet saving hotel bed costs), a small sink to the side and hanging space for one's clothes for a very reasonable selling or renting price. A camping stove could be set up outside to cook your meals - or you could eat in the establishments within a 150 metres in the Forum Shopping Centre; and then you could use a small fold-up stool for seating outside. Rubbish could be installed in a bag behind you, which could be lent against as a cushion/pillow at nightime.
Household insurance to cover the flat from being blown down could be expensive. You would need to scrub off the charcoal from the burnt inside of the trunk, before you could paint it magnolia. You might not be able to extend the living space within the trunk without structural collapse.

Try not to be on the zebra crossing when it does fall if there is no repair.


2. The following 2 photos illustrate how easy it is for an electrician to kill a tree by tying a metal/plastic tie so tight that it cuts through the Outer Bark, the Inner Bark or Phloem and the Cambium layers depriving the trunk above and kills it, without him/her knowing that is what will happen. Combine that with no maintenance of these trees in pavements and so the population and the paying visitors prepare to endure the failure of branches/trunks of these trees and hope that they are not underneath or that those trees will not interfere with gas tanks which are below them:




note the splits in the exposed heartwood, where the heartwood is starting to fail.

Below is a diagram showing how thin are the 3 top layers of a tree/shrub which provide protection and power to live for that tree and how easy it is to be damaged without the tree being able to repair that damage:-




3. The following photo comes from Madeira Island News.com with the accompanying text dated 30 July 2018:-


"A set of iron foundations placed around some trees of regional road 104, in the stretch between the PSP and the Ponte Vermelha, in Ribeira Brava, are conditioning the growth of the trees and generating controversy.
According to one reader to JM, the fact is that the same bases, which are completely rusty as the image demonstrates, are clearly affecting the growth of the species in question, which in their opinion may lead to the destruction of the species.
In addition, it indicates that many of these bases are even reaching the interior of the trees and there are cases of some species that are already higher in relation to the pavement.
Several popular have already expressed concern about what happened. They understand that the solution is to remove the iron bases."
If these iron bases are reaching the interior of the trees, that means that as that tree grows it will at some point be too heavy to be supported by the trunk at the base level and it will fall down - WHY DOES NOBOBDY IN MADEIRA GET EDUCATED ABOUT HOW TREES GROW AND SHOULD BE MAINTAINED, OR DO THEY PREFER TO HAVE ANOTHER 13 PEOPLE KILLED BY FALLING TREES AS HAPPENED IN 2017? AND WILL THEY MAKE THE SAME MISTAKE WHEN PLANTING 288,000 TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE ECOLOGICAL PARK? Since nobody in Portugal or Madeira is reading this during April 2019, perhaps somebody might tell them or will you also be wasting your time?


4. Another report from Madeira about trees:-
The PPM Madeira was today on the road connecting the parish of the Canhas to Paul da Serra, according to the request of the people who contacted the party, to see the danger of some large trees that are in danger of falling.

“What we saw there is very worrying,” says Paulo Brito, who photographed some of the trees with their roots in sight without the necessary support to stand. In his opinion, “a stronger wind is enough that they come down”, others that have been severely burned by the last fires and are dead, “just waiting to fall”.

We saw large branches and trees already with a level of inclination for the road, almost at a stage of a possible tragedy.

The road also needs a lot of attention as it is in a very bad state  and is a road used by locals and many tourists, as one of the main routes to Paul da Serra.


Taken from Funchal News.
This tree does not have any root support for over 50% of its circular root area. There are at least 3 trees in this photo that are within 1 metre of the cliff face to the road. I wonder if these trees are Eucalyptus (one of the reasons for the introduction of Eucalytus to the Island was for the production of paper) which has one of the highest demands for water and therefore if grown on a slope with many others, the ground underneath this tree may have reached the Permanent Wilting Point. Then, the soil between the tree roots falls off the side of a cliff as shown here; and the ground becomes too dry to support the other trees in this wood. In this photo there are at least 2 trees which are no longer vertical and if the ground moisture below them has reached beyond the Permanent Wilting Point for those trees, then they likely to continue the descent to ground.
Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent Wilting Point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point



5. If you put a shrub/tree in a very small volume of ground and allow it to grow, there will come a point where the weight of the tree/shrub above ground exceeds the weight of the earth/roots below the ground and so it becomes unstable and falls over as you can see in an evening for falling trees in October 2017 article. The earth in the hole where the shrub is surrounded by impervious material is not enough area or depth for its roots to continue to provide itself with a stable platform as it matures.



6. "This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.
Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.


Please also do not use tarred cord as it will last too long and cause the same problem as above, use garden twine which will rot within a few years and then allows the plant' stem to expand. For trees or shrubs remember that the stake is only a support for the first 3 years at most, in order to stop the plant from being uprooted and to allow the stem above the 18 inches (45 cms) where it is tied to being able to sway in the breeze and strengthen rather than being tied at 60 inches (150 cms) and then when the support is removed the tree trunk is not strong enough and breaks in a strong wind. If you going to support climbers then also use garden twine, since when you cut it to move or remove that branch every 2 or 3 years, it can then lie on the ground and be recycled by your friendly earth organisms!" from Growing Edibles in Containers in Plants Extra.
If the tree is constricted by a metal ring as shown above; then it will grow over that ring and when the weight of growth above is too much for the area of heartwood within that metal ring, it will also snap off at that point.



7. 166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages (and further detailed in the following Camera Photo Galleries Pavements of Funchal, Madeira Damage to Trees 1, 2, 3, 4):-


they could continue to kill these trees and others in the same situation elsewhere on the island
and then continue to be killed by those trees falling on them or on a 1000 gallon cooking gas tank for each of 2 hotels, causing leaks, followed by explosions

invite me to do the work unpaid, with Madeira providing food/drink, work clothes, materials and equipment for these tree problems (Madeira would donate the use of the following sleeping facility with my ankles and head above my stomach to drain my ankles and prevent drowning from phlegm created in my throat during my sleep together with 11 medications for heart failure, head tumour, diuretics, blood thinners, reduction of heart rate by 60 beats a minute, glaucoma, and 3 of those medications for diabetes, etc).
It might take me a little time

  • to gather over 50 tons of seaweed/ cow manure and mix it before delivering it 3 times a year to each tree and pavement flower bed in this section within Funchal; more would be needed to cover the others in the island,
  • removal of pavers and white/black marble pavements and replace with reduced size pavers with 2 inch depth of sharp sand under them,
  • deal with unsealed tree branch cuts and rotting holes,
  • deal with rotting tree roots,
  • deal with root/lorry problems,
  • retighten tree braces,
  • erect steel structures over gas tanks to prevent damage by falling trees,
  • provide irrigation to the trees in those pavements on a weekly basis
  • create database of all trees/flower beds in pavements in Madeira, with repair schedule and paver replacement/ irrigation/ fertiliser creation; and irrigation and fertilising time schedules.
  • following my use of 6 FAIL (Fortran Assisted Instruction Lecture) written notes, so that the students from Years 1 and 2 of the Architecture Dept of Portsmouth Polytechnic would receive the next 1 hour lecture notes at the end of the previous, I taught the Fortran language, hardware, software, flowcharting and documentation to them within 6 hours followed by 2 afternoons of practical in creating stats from an experiment in the laboratory. Those students passed with 75% following my exam of a waffle, flowchart and program questions supervised by the Computer Science Dept. I graduated with a 2.2 in Psychology from Brunel University the previous year to this teaching, having spent 18 months under Section 22 from falling on my head at 60mph in Wales from a motorbike and then recovering the use of the spoken and written English language by myself. I was passed mentally fit in the January of the year that I took my finals. Due to 1/3 of my brain being detached from my skull, I am discouraged from engaging in contact sports. Following close contact between a female dentist and my teeth, which resulted in a 2 month hiatus in my blood-thining medication, I am also allergic to close contact with the female species, unless my eyes are closed until they move 2 feet (60 cms) away. I have a temperature range between 18-20 degrees Celcius, so it can be a problem where air-conditioning only brings the temperature down to 24 degrees Celcius as in cinemas, theatres and banqueting halls.
    Then perhaps I could teach the following students:-
    • Tree-surgeons to get trees thinned, crowned, etc to aid the purpose for which those trees were planted, not pollard the whole tree and produce a very dangerous result when used for trees in pavements, or for hanging electricity lighting schemes on them - the ties slowly cutting through the bark and the cambium killing the trunk/branch above.
    • Bed maintenance staff in how to prune, which does not mean chopping a rose to ground level each year and nor does it mean using a flail to chop shrubs into rectangles or turn shrub borders into oblong hedges.
    • Bed and tree maintenance staff with use of green manures, seaweed/cow-, pig-, sheep-, chicken-manure, recycled food waste from restaurants and food markets mixed with shredded shrub/tree prunings and used as a mulch to feed the plants under their care.
    • hotel and restaurant staff in checking the state of their toilets to stop the leakage of thousands of gallons of water from the overflow in the cistern or the washer seals into the latrine bowl.
      Having had to reveal 2 leaks in the 2 toilets in the Pestana Promenade Hotel suite in 2018 followed by a leak in 1 of the toilets in the Pestana Mirimar Hotel Suite in 2018 followed a year later in the Pestana Promenade Hotel Suite with one of the same toilets still leaking and it taking an hour for the Maintenance Manager to cure it this time, I am hopefull that next year there will not be a repeat performance.
      Your toilet cisterns remind me of the self-cleaning tumble dryer that used the water removed from the drying clothes to wash the condenser into the same match-box tank with foam pressure valve which activated a pump to transfer that water into a large tank at the top. Unfortunately when the system washed the fine dust into that matchbox, it clogged the foam and activated the pump. When no more water could be pumped, it refused to allow the machine to start drying. That tank was inaccessable to the machine owner and so cost £180 a time to get emptied. Brilliant - a machine designed to fail if it carried out its function, rather like the toilets in Madeira in wasting water.
    • educate the public about their relationship with plants that come into their environment to realise that without them they would be dead from lack of oxygen. In public spaces, it is advisable to be careful since many people suffer from hay-fever, so plants from All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month could be used, which would not affect them and those planted areas could be identified for them.

I could use Companion Planting, but I am sure that the above is enough for me to start with in taking 400 hours per day leaving my time schedule for sleep and nourishment not executed,
the people of Madeira do not wish to sort out these tree/shrub plant problems themselves as can be seen from the lack of response to what I wrote last year in the Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page.

Although the above is about the trees in the pavements in Madeira, other towns in other countries may find the information within it useful. There are also Problems with Trees in Pavements in Guernsey, in September 2019 Page.



8. I have noticed in my home town that herbicide has been spread

  • round the trees on lawn-grass between the kerb and the tarmac pavement and
  • under the hoop barriers
    (hoop-barriers would probably be easier than the more effective Brett Trief Vehicle Containment Kerb system) stopping cars from parking on that verge in March 2019.
  • Also, where trees are in lawn-grass on steep slopes so that their roots are exposed up the bank, that that lawn-grass has been removed - instead of herbicide being used - between those visible roots.

Perhaps Green Manure seeds will be sown in these areas.
If the Green Manure (Mustard is bee-pollinated) is bee-pollinated rather wind-pollinated, then hay-fever sufferers would not be affected when it flowers and sets seed.

  • if the contractors using their ride-on mowers or rotary mowers cut into the green manure as well, it will not matter as the seed generated from that green manure will grow and replace the damaged legumes.
  • These legumes under the hoop barriers and besides the trees will then feed nitrogen to the roots of those trees and
  • what rain water that these legumes do not use will be available for those same tree-roots. This will help the trees
  • as well as reduce the possible damage to the bark of those trees by strimmers from those same contractors and
  • reduce the amount of grass mowings being put into the storm drains, when it rains after those mowings have strayed onto the tarmac road. Green manure instead of grass in and around hoop barriers within a very thin strip of grass between the road and the tarmac pavement will not require strimming as the grass it replaces does.
  • if the grass next to private household fences/walls/ telegraph poles/ other items within public grassed areas or next to public buildings is also killed off with herbicides and replaced with green manure like mustard, then the strimming of that public grassed area next to those boundaries could be stopped.

The legumes like mustard between spring to autumn will replace the bare earth, which would otherwise grow weeds and look unsightly - it does not matter if some mustard grows into the grassed areas, since it would be cut down.
Use Lawn Aerating Shoes to spike the bare earth, spread the green manure seed thinly and spread using a soft brush into the holes created by the spikes. Spray the seeded ground with water to dampen the ground, before spreading a thin layer of sharp sand over the seeded area and leave the seeds to grow.
Repeat this next spring, since the first frost during the previous autumn will have killed the top growth of the mustard and the worms will then clear the ground. It becomes too cold for the weeds and just replanting in the spring with mustard will superseed any new growth of weeds.

Overall maintenance cost would thus be greatly reduced and the trees would benefit.



9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-


This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.

"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."

"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."



Photo 5 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG_6222.JPG

The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants. Replace the grass with GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.

The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,

  • since it is witin an enclosed public space.
  • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
  • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
  • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
  • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
  • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?



10. Since I am currently adding to the 97 out 706 ferns to the Fern Gallery, I thought you might be interested in the following to explain why the current treatment of growing plants in pavements in Madeira is lacking in care:-


This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
Nitrogen Cycle -
Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
Oxygen Cycle -
No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
Carbon Dioxide -
Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."



11. Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from tree roots

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of
Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting the requirements then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree.
The roots of each tree covered by tarmac, concrete or stone (in any country in the world) will create a Russian Roulette situation, where the asphixiated, dehydrated and starved tree may fall down. In this situation, there is only one place where the tree may get the water and nutrients requiired and that is by taking them from a branch, normally the ones nearest the ground to be able to compete for new branches and leaves at the top in competition with either other trees or buildings shading their tops. This can be seen in dense forests.
Human beings must be the only animal that is determined to kill itself by denying itself oxygen to breath.

Nitrogenous fertilizers tend to create acidic conditions, which are fatal to the worms, and dead specimens are often found on the surface following the application of substances such as DDT, lime sulphur, and lead arsenate. In Australia, changes in farming practices such as the application of superphosphates on pastures and a switch from pastoral farming to arable farming had a devastating effect on populations of the giant Gippsland earthworm, leading to their classification as a protected species. Globally, certain earthworms populations have been devastated by deviation from organic production and the spraying of synthetic fertilizers and biocides with at least three species now listed as extinct but many more endangered.
Vermicomposting of all organic "wastes" and addition of this organic matter, preferably as a surface mulch , on a regular basis will provide earthworms with their food and nutrient requirements, and will create the optimum conditions of temperature and moisture that will naturally stimulate their activity.

This earthworm activity aerates and mixes the soil, and is conducive to mineralization of nutrients and their uptake by vegetation. Certain species of earthworm come to the surface and graze on the higher concentrations of organic matter present there, mixing it with the mineral soil. Because a high level of organic matter mixing is associated with soil fertility, an abundance of earthworms is generally considered beneficial by farmers and gardeners.



12. The easiest and quickest solution for existing pavement areas using pavers or paving slabs is the SuDSFLOW System using paving spacers for permeable paving. Simply take up the paver/paving slab and re-install with the spacer and laying coarse if you cannot afford to also install the correct subgrade. You would then end up with redundant pavers/paving slabs and the same system could be used elsewhere.
The same SuDSFLOW System could be used on Domestic Driveways, Patios and Terraces, Car Parks and Footpaths including the laying coarse and subgrade to absorb the rainfall even if the soil is clay underneath. This would prevent the rainwater falling on your land from leaving it - which is illegal in the UK.
Instead of wasting your time using the existing compost bins in private gardens; use the
vermicomposting system to create a better product for your home garden.
Use the same
vermicomposting system on organic waste from restaurants, hotels and supermarkets, before mashing it into small compost particles and put into a water solution to give a monthly supply to the trees in your pavements in your village/ town/ council area.

It can be very difficult for van drivers to find a required address for delivery.
The following is my plan of Moor Street Conservation Area in Rainham, Kent, England, produced in May 2011, which I then gave a copy to each of the houses with a request that they had a house sign erected close to the pavement of the A2 to indicate to van drivers where they were. Number 8 is not visible from the A2, so how does someone find it?




When Number 22 decided to build Numbers 18, 20 and 21 with planning notification perhaps affixed to a telegraph pole in South Bush Lane at what would be where the drive to numbers 20 and 21 would be built, Medway Council Planning Authority stated that only 3 houses could have drive access to the main road A2 to Newington. Therefore, Number 22 had to build a new drive to South Bush Lane instead of their old drive to the A2.


Number 14 decided to change a wooden shed into a habitable dwelling by installing a kitchen and bathroom as well as a bedroom etc. Thus Number 16 came into use by his daughter. Number 14 put Number 14 and Number 16 up for sale. The Land Register sent information about this to Medway Council to the Rates Department and the Planning Department. Having had no planning permission, the planning department put an enforcement notice on Number 16 in May. It was sold as an independent property in December of the same year. Before the new owners moved in the previous owner trashed it. The new owners who also bought Number 14 were upset and applied for planning permission and got it despite the rule that a drive to the A2 could not have more than 3 properties using it as now it was 4, despite my protest about Numbers 15, 17 and 18 having 1 rule and 12, 13, 14 and 16 having another.

Number 12 has had a new owner during the last 2 years and is being sold, with the following in its Estate Agent Description - "Another big benefit to this property is a separate parking area which houses a garage and a barn, which to the right person and necessary consents could easily become a useful outbuilding of some sorts."

Number 12 is split between 1 side of Number 13 (my property) and the other side where they own a garage and a building with a corrugated asbestos roof and what was a pigsty building alongside the Drive of Number 14 and property of Number 16 respectively, together with some land between them.

Some prospective buyers have thought that the building with its asbestos roof could easily be converted into another habitable dwelling.

If Medway Council then ignored it's own ruling of only 3 properties having access from 1 drive onto the main road because this would make it 5, then they could also ignore the facts that they allowed


  • an unplanned building to be built, enforced against, sold and approved as Number 16 - Property 4 with permission to use my drive without my authority.
  • as well as the condition put on Number 22 that before they built a riding area, that the baum of earth removed from a large area by their U-shaped stables in preparation to be used as a car park for new houses as a repeat of the same idea carried out by the previous owner of Number 22; be replaced from the edge of 1 of their fields, was ignored, even when I informed the planning authority.


The existing water supply and electricity supply is insufficient for a household, so where is the access? Under the drive? In which case, the water pipe and electricity cable would need to be in accordance with the Pipe Bedding and Trench Backfill Details in Standard Drawing No. HE/12 under the 450mm (18 inch) road construction for this 192 inch (480 cms) wide drive, which is in excess of 1200 inches (3000 cms) of length. The existing water supply to Number 12 would need to be relocated into the same pipe bedding. I would have thought they they would also require my permission to do that on my land.

It would need a cesspit - A cesspit is a sealed underground tank that simply collects wastewater and sewage. There is no processing or treatment involved. A septic tank could not be used because "installing a soakaway can be a challenge due to regulations on where they can be placed. They must not be too close to buildings, boundaries or watercourses, be away from electrical cables or pipework and not be part of a road, driveway or other area where vehicles could pass over it and cause damage." The same reasons would stop them either using my septic tank or the one at Number 15. The main public sewage drain for Rainham ends at Number 10. From that top of hill towards the Newington direction, all the remaining properties of Moor Street Conservation Area have to have a cesspit. Numbers 28 to 37 have sealed tanks above ground with a drive strong enough to take 2000 gallon wastewater tankers on a regular basis.
My existing drive would need to be replaced by the proposed owners of new Number 38 by a
minor access road in order to take the extra weight on a regular basis including the depth of winter, before any building work was carried out. This would require excavating for the new wearing course - 80mm, base course - 30mm, roadbase - 50mm, sub-base - 290mm and capping layer for this minor access road in Standard Drawing No. HE/03 of about 270-320 cubic yards. My drive includes greater dimensions than required to provide car turning within site curtilage with my garage being the same top position as in the right hand diagram of Standard Drawing No. HED/03. The other users of my drive can only use the drive for access and not for parking or leaving any item on it for any time and this would include any pipe from a Waste-tanker. That would mean that that waste-tanker would have to drive over the drive and park on their land before extracting the waste from their cesspit.

The following comes from an article "Septic tank regulations - the whats, whys and wherefores " by UKDP - The UK Drainage Professionals:-

  • Building Regulations 2010 – Drainage and waste disposal.
    This Building regulations document, produced by the Government, outlines the requirements for septic tanks, drainage fields, cesspits (or cesspools – it’s the same thing) and sewage treatment plants. The main aim is to make sure that they are:
    • Located in the right place
    • Sufficient in size for the property (or properties) connected to them
    • Not going to pollute local water courses
    • Appropriate for the local ground conditions – this is particularly important for drainage fields (or soakaway systems)
    • Emptied and maintained regularly to ensure that they can function properly
  • If you are installing a new septic tank, sewage treatment plant or cesspool, you will need to contact your local Council to apply for Building Control approval. Similarly, undertaking works to your existing drainage system, particularly if you are looking to change the system somehow, also needs approval. This is because drainage is classed as a 'controlled service or function' which is why Building Control need to be involved.
  • Cesspools (or cesspits)
    Generally speaking, a cesspool (which is just a holding tank for the waste from your property, providing no treatment) is seen as a last resort as far as a drainage system for your property goes.
    The basics from this document relating to cesspools are:
    • They should be located at least 7 metres from any habitable parts of buildings
    • They should be sited within 30 metres of a vehicle access point
    • The capacity below the level of the inlet should be at least 18,000 litres for 2 users. This should be increased by 6,800 litres for each additional user.
    • They should have no openings apart from the pipe coming in, access for emptying and ventilation
  • Environment Agency PPG4 (Pollution Prevention Guidelines)
    In short, the PPG4 helps you to work out which type of drainage system is suitable for your property. There are lots of considerations as to what would work – and also what the Environment Agency (EA) will or will not allow. It also lets you know when you need to gain consent from the EA, as you often need to get permission before installing or changing an off mains drainage system.
    • The document goes into some detail about percolation tests and drainage field size. Percolation tests assess the porosity of the soil at your property, and it is this that tells you if a drainage field or soakaway is suitable, and if it is suitable it tells you what size it needs to be.
    • There is a very detailed and excruciatingly long British Standard document relating to exactly how percolation tests should be undertaken. Even the name of the document will put you off reading it – BS6297:2007+A1:2008.
      This document outlines the size that any septic tank, sewage treatment plant or cesspit needs to be in order to adequately serve the property (or properties) that will connect to it.
    • Each type of tank comes in various different sizes, and the correct tank size is determined by the number of bedrooms the property has.

The opening between my boundary hedge and their garage is about 6 metres. My turn round area extends past their garage. The distance from their barn to my boundary hedge opposite is about 14 metres. Currently their car is parked parallel to the barn beyond 7 metres from it. The remaining distance to my boundary hedges is used to turn their car round to drive out, since they do not have a right of access to the remainder of my drive and so have to use their own land to turn round in. The cesspit needs to be at least 7 metres away from the habitable dwellings at property numbers 13, 15 and 16, while still allowing for a waste-tanker to park within their land whilst emptying it or for other 2 x 4 metre vehicles (cars) to park and turn round. This could be very difficult to achieve within their land area.

A soakaway has to be created on their land to take up to a 2 inch (5 cm) downpour falling on the roofs (Building Regulations) of their buildings, since it unwise to direct that same rainwater into their cesspit.

When the new owner of Number 22 put forward plans to start the same process of moving stables, creating new buildings and following this by changing them to houses; he included a new external building for his children to play in with a toilet. Due to this extra toilet for his 3 children, his proposed planning application included a replacement cesspit, which according to the dimensions on the plan would take 90,000 gallons assuming it was only 2 metres deep - enough for 90 houses (Only 2 households use my septic tank, which is emptied once a year). I pointed out to Medway Council that this would require 45 tankers to empty and therefore those tankers would require a minor access road in the middle of their field to empty it. I also pointed out that since the cesspit was close to South Bush Lane and that the field sloped down to it, that car drivers might object to driving through the liquid sewage if the cesspit overflowed. The surrounding fields owned by Number 22 would be sufficient land for an extra 90 houses, if they kept on repeating the planning trick of building buildings and then changing them and the old stables to houses and new stables on a regular basis. I objected to the plan and provided a copy of my objections to all the other houses in the Conservation Area. This created enough other objectors for the approval of the proposed plan to be moved from the proposed plan's Planning Officer to the full Council Planning Committe. The proposed cesspit had by then disappeared and the revised plan was rejected by the Council.
New owners have continued to build more wooden buildings and extensions.

The corrugated asbestos roof would need to be carefully removed by experts.
It is in the existing
curtilage of a Listed Building in a Conservation Area. This would mean Listed Building approval without any changes; to the external appearance of the building to the date when it was listed, not when it was built.
It is possible that this time, Number 13 would be informed about the planning application, instead of them being placed on a lampost or telegraph pole away from Number 13, and the first one knows about the approved plans of first changing 2 barns to holiday flats, then those and the stables to houses, then to larger houses and new stables was the builders moving in and building 18, 20 and 21, despite being next door. For some years I then paid to have a listing of every planning application made to Medway Council each week - I believe that is now online and further payments are not required to protect one's own property.

Although, when the Land Register digitised my paper-based Land Register, it donated one of my bedrooms to 2 Eastmoor Farm Cottages and it took £100 cost to my lawyer to get it back again, despite the fact that it was the Land Register who could not do their job.
The current position is that the independant Local Authority Medway can accept a shed converted into a habitable dwelling without planning permission, with illegal sewage drainage linkage to an existing cesspit tank and sold as a separate property, despite their enforcement orders. Then, they approved a planning aplication by the new owners to have the trashed kitchen and bathroom re-installed and so restored to being a separate habitable dwelling. Did they check that the cesspit next door was of a sufficient size to take the waste from the inhabitants in the 3 properties instead of the original 2?
This would mean that anybody could repeat that same trick in any property within Medway despite the following consequences:-


  • A minor detail is shown by the article Drinking Water deprivation in Medway, England in the table to the extreme left. This indicates that with all the proposed new buildings in Medway between now and 2035, that about 30,000 people in them would have no access to water by 2035 according to the plans set out by Southern Water. Adding illegal ones to that would reduce the time period before Medway runs out of water for its new inhabitants. Replacing land with buildings and roads reduces the volume of rainwater that can be collected for use by humans as the rainwater falling on them goes into storm drains leading to rivers and thence the sea.
    This program of new buildings in excess of the infrastructure required to service them is continuing throughout the remainder of the area serviced by Southern Water.
    Each new building/road also reduces the area for plants to give us oxygen to keep us alive.
  • My next door neighbours may not have been able to transfer from their original doctor at the other end of Medway to a local one. At the Health Centre that I frequent, it had 4 surgeries, yellow, blue, red and green. The green one closed in January and the other surgeries could not accept all those patients and my neighbours had to then go on a waiting list. Those surgeries are technically out of our Conservation Area locality and so do not have to accept us. There are no other surgeries which are suitably located to service Moor Street Conservation Area. My red surgery had some doctors retire in March 2019, they have not been able to replace all of them yet.
  • There was a proposal to build 200 houses in the field opposite our house. We did point out at the time that there was only 1 primary school place left in the area. I have not seen any plans for new schools to service this increase in population.
    We also pointed out that since all waste sewage would have to be pumped up to the main sewage drain in the adjoining road, that it would be sensible to install a second pump with its own generator, so that this would prevent the sewage from overflowing into the railway cutting for trains from London to Canterbury and Dover; if the only 1 pump failed due to mechanical fault or loss of electric supply. The 200 house proposal was rejected. A revised one for 300 instead of 200 houses has now appeared.
  • Being old and decrepid, I am no longer able to walk all that fast and so would shuffle along the A2 into Rainham. During rush-hours, I can beat the traffic to the second set of traffic lights - 500 yards from my house?
    Despite all the new building works, there does not seem to be a plan to convert the Lower Rainham Road into a dual carriageway, since the A2 and the M2 are the only other routes that take traffic East-West in Medway. When I worked in City Way in Rochester, it was quicker for me to drive up to the M2, along to Chatham junction and back down to City Way, 10 years ago, than it was to drive the direct route along the A2. Lower Rainham Road currently has both a speed limit of 20 mph, chicanes and traffic lights in order to slow the traffic down with the resulting tailbacks at rush-hours. Fairly soon with the breeding of traffic lights on the A2 running through Medway, Medway will be gridlocked for much of the day, as it is when there are problems on the M2 running alongside.


I have now worked out why Medway Council requires more houses to be built - maybe because some of the concrete used in the Medway Tunnel was the incorrect temperature, when it was laid. Within a few weeks after it had been laid, it formed hairline cracks and now massive pumps pump the fresh water in the ground coming through that damaged concrete; out into the river. If the pumps stop, then the tunnel would be flooded within a few minutes. I wonder if enough emergency manuals have been distributed to the various departments who would deal with this problem for the commuters within the tunnel. I wonder whether this fresh water might become available for Southern Water to use for the local population.

Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics.
The changed Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS for every one of the remaining 1,000's of pages in the other 100's of Topics.


Case Studies

Companion Planting
, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
Flower Shape
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
.........Flower Shape
Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...Poisonous Plants

...Soil Nutrients

Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year.
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages

1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2

with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1167

A 1
, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, Photos - 411
Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are in the D pages

E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 72
Photos of Label Problems are also in the L pages

M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris Garnons-Willams are also in the W pages
X 1, Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1, Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gard
ens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of

Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree

1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn Bulb
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer Bulb
...Spring Bulb
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape

Colour Wheels with number of Colours
Colour Wheel
...All Flowers 53
...All Flowers per Month 53
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...All Foliage 212
...Rock Plant Flowers 53

Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Deciduous
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Deciduous
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z

...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple Gallery Intro
...Cherry Gallery Intro
...Pear Gallery Intro
Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour

NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

All Foliage 53 instead of redundant
...All Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage

of Plants.

Plant Usage
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-


There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.



Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.




This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5.


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