Ivydene Gardens: WELCOME
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Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.


Part of the design process for choosing plants to use in your garden, involves comparing:-

Compare different flower colours per month for each plant type within its Plant Photo Gallery with :-

Gallery Name

Click on centre of Thumbnail to see its Plant Description Page which also has the Index of all the other same type of plants (e.g Bulb is a plant type) within that Gallery in the table on the right

722 Bulb
flower colours

in each month

with their

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee
Jan

narcissuscfloearlysensationdeeproot
Feb

veltheimiacflobracteatarvroger
Mar

lachenaliacflonamakwarvroger1
Apr

anemonecflobaldensiskevock
May

dahliacfloedinburghrvroger
Jun

alliumcfloschoenoprasumforscatervroger
Jul

100 Allium and
Anemone,

50 Colchicum,
72 Crocus,
46 Dahlia,

alliumcflotriquetrumgeetee
Allium

anemonecflonemerosaalleniirvroger
Ane-mone

colchicumcflospeciosumalbumrvroger
Coch-icum

crocuscflochrysanthussaturnusfoord
Crocus

dahliacfloludwighelfertrvroger
Dahlia

dahliacflolilactimervroger
Dahlia

dahliacfloplayablancarvroger
Dahlia

209 Gladiolus,
65 Lily,
67 Narcissus,
and
6 Tulip Plant Description Pages

gladioluscfloterrynagc
Glad-iolus

lilliumcflonepalenservroger
Lily

narcissuscflopseudonarcissusdeeproot
Narc-issus

narcissuscflojetfiredeeproot
Narc-issus

narcissuscflomerlindeeproot
Narc-issus

tulipaflotbatalinii
Tulip

tulipaflotviolacea
Tulip

 

129 Climber
flower colours

in each month

with their

ercillacflovolubilisroseland
Mar

gelsemiumcflosempervirensroseland
Apr

clematisflotmrscholmondeley
May

bomareacflohirtellaroseland
Jun

clematiscomtessedebouchardcfloroseland
Jul

gloriosacflosuperbaroseland
Aug

passifloraflotcaerulea
Sep

71 Clematis and
58 Other Climber
Plant Description Pages

clematisbeesjubileecfloroseland
Cle-matis

billardieracflolongifloraroseland
Bill-ardiera

cissuscflostriataroseland
Cissus

solanumflotjasminoides
Sol-anum

fremontodendronflotcalifornianglory
Fre-mont-odend-ron

campsiscfloradicansroseland
Cam-psis

dregeacflosinensisroseland
Dre-gea

 

43 Deciduous Shrub
flower colours

in each month
with their

jasminumflotnudiflorum
Mar

kerriaflotjaponicamay68
Apr

loniceraflotcaerulea
May

paeoniadelavayiflot
Jun

abeliaschumanniiflot
Jul

hydrangeaflotmacrophylla
Aug

leycesteriaflotformosa
Sep

45 Deciduous Shrub Plant Description Pages

paeoniasouvenirdemaxinecornuflot
Pae-onia

loniceraflotxylosteum
Lon-icera

paeoniasuffruticosaredtreeflot
Pae-onia

hydrangeaflotvillosa
Hyd-rangea

berberisthunbergiiatropurpureadartsredladyfolt
Ber-beris

paeonialuteaflot
Pae-onia

paeoniasuffruticosafflot
Pae-onia

 

104 Evergreen Perennial / Alpine flower colours

in each month
with their

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord
Apr

alyssumcflosaxatilefoord
May

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord
Jun

androsacecflomucronifoliafoord
Jul

aethionemacflowarleyrosekevock
Aug

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock
Sep

anemonecflo1hybridafoord
Oct

68 Evergreen Perennial A-L and 36 Evergreen M-Z Plant Description Pages and also

bergeniacflos1autumnmagiccoblands
Ber-genia

erinuscflo1alpinus
Erinus

lavateracflomaritima
Lav-atera

prunellaflotgrandiflora
Pru-nella

raouliaflotaustralis
Rao-ulia

saxifragaflotcebennensis
Sax-ifraga

sedumflotacre
Sedum

94 Evergreen Perennials in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement
Pages

saxifragaflotsouthsideseedling
5 Petals

anthericumcfloliliagofoord
Star Shape

aquilegiacflocanadensisfoord2
Spurs Shape

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1
Discs Shape

saxifragacflopaniculata
Sprays Arrang-ement

androsacecfor1albanakevock
Dome Arrang-ement

alyssumflotmontanumflowermay84
Dome Arrang-ement

 

46 Evergreen Shrub
flower colours

in each month
with their

iberisflotsaxatilis
May

kalmiaflotangustifolia
Jun

lavateraflotrosea
Jul

nandinaflotdomestica
Aug

oleariaflothaastii
Sep

hypericumflotmoserianumtricolor
Oct

mahoniaflotjaponica
Nov

46 Evergreen Shrub Plant Description Pages,

dryasflotoctopetala
Dryas

hypericumflot
Hyp-ericum

loniceraflotnitida
Lon-icera

lupinusflotarboreus
Lup-inus

oleariaflotnumulariifolia
Ole-aria

prunusflotlaurocerasus
Prunus

thymusflotcilicicus
Thy-mus

126 Heather Shrub,
flower colours

in each month
with its

Heather Index (current progress - 52 of 700 detailed by 12 May 2015),
and their
Andromeda,
Bruckenthalia,

Ericacarneamargeryfrearsoncflogarnonswilliams
Jan

Ericacarneaclarewilkinsoncflogarnonswilliams
Mar

Ericacarneadavidsseedlingcflo1garnonswilliams
May

Ericawatsoniiclaireelisecflogarnonswilliams
Jul

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u19f
Sep

Ericadarleyensisgeorgerendallcflo1garnonswilliams
Oct

Ericacarneajanuarysuncflo1garnonswilliams
Dec

Calluna,
Daboecia,
Erica: Carnea,
Erica: Cinerea and
Erica: Others
Plant
Description Pages (74)

Ericacarneagoldenstarletcflogarnonswilliams
Erica carnea

Ericacarnearubracflogarnonswilliams
Erica carnea

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u17g

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u18g

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u19g

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u20g

crocuscflotommasinianusgeetee1u21g

 

91 Herbaceous Perennial / Alpine
flower colours

in each month
with their

agapanthusafricanuscflokevock
Feb

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands
May

achilleafilipendulagoldplatecflorvroger
Jun

agapanthusalbusccflokevock
Jul

kniphofiaflotroyalstandard
Aug

kniphofiaflottriangularis
Sep

cichoriumintybusalbumcflorvroger
Oct

91 Herbaceous Perennial Plant
Description Pages,

astilbepurplelancecflokevock
Astilbe

gunneraflot1tictoria
Gun-nera

papaverorientaleflot
Pap-aver

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger
Dig-italis

achilleaptarmicabouledeneigecflorvroger
Ach-illea

alcearoseachatersdoublerosecflorvroger
Alcea

aconitumlycoctonumvulpariacflokevock
Aco-nitum

176 Permanent Herbaceous Perennials Plant
Description Pages
in the
Mixed Borders in
RHS garden in Wisley

and

achilleacfloclothofgoldkavanagh
Ach-illea

actaeacflos2simplexpinkspikegarnonswilliams
Actaea

baptisiacflo1australisgarnonswilliams
Bap-tisia

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh
Cen-taurea

echinaceacflopurpureamagnuskavanagh
Ech-inacea

geraniumcflo2psilostemongarnonswilliams
Ger-anium

helianthuscflo1lemonqueengarnonswilliams
Hel-ianthus

175 Herbaceous Perennial in
Number of Petals,
Flower Shape and
Natural Arrangement
Pages

crambecflomaritimagarnonswilliams
4 Petals

euphorbiacflo1wallichiigarnonswilliams
Cup Shape

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot
Goblet Shape

agapanthusbressinghambluecflocoblands
Funnel Shape

lobeliacardinalisflot
Lipped Shape

lysimachiapunctataflot
Tier Arrang-ement

astilberheinlandcflocoblands
Plumes Arrang-ement

 

343 Rose Plant
Description Pages of roses grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2007 (Group 1)
and
flower colours
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website
with their

rosatwiceinabluemooncflo1
Other Colours

rosasimplythebestflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Orange

rosathefairycflorogerltd
Pink

rosaroyalwilliamcflorogerltd
Red

rosasilveranniversaryflomidcgarnonswilliams1
White

rosagoldenweddingflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Yellow

rosabarrystephenscflorogerltd
2 or More Colours

82 Rose Plant
Description Pages
in
RHS garden in Wisley A-F (Group 2),

rosaawhitershadeofpalecflo2garnonswilliams
A Whiter Shade of Pale

rosabonicacflomidgarnonswilliams
Bonica

rosacarmenettacflomidgarnonswilliams1
Carme-netta

rosadarcybussellflomidcgarnonswilliams1
D'Arcey Bussell

rosaeasygoingflomidcgarnonswilliams
Easy Going

rosafascinationflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Fascin-ation

rosaflowercarpetwhiteflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Flower Carpet White

37 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley G-R
(Group 2),

rosagoldspiceflomidcgarnonswilliams
Gold Spice

rosaharlowcarrcflomidgarnonswilliams
Harlow Carr

rosaicebergkorbincflomidgarnonswilliams
Iceberg

rosajackswishcflomidgarnonswilliams
Jack's Wish

rosakeepsmilingcflomidgarnonswilliams
Keep Smiling

rosakentcflomidgarnonswilliams
Kent

rosamacmillannursecflomidgarnonswilliams1
Mac-millan Nurse

12 Rose Plant
Description Pages in
RHS garden in Wisley S-Z (Group 2)
with another
85 Roses in Group 2 Rose Index Menu and

rosasilveranniversaryflomidcgarnonswilliams1a
Silver Anniv-ersary

rosasimplythebestflomidcgarnonswilliams1a1
Simply The Best

rosaskylarkflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Skylark

rosastrawberryhillflomidcgarnonswilliams
Straw-berry Hill

rosathecharlatanflomidcgarnonswilliams1
The Charl-atan

rosawildedricflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Wild Edric

rosayorkminsterc1flomidgarnonswilliams1
York Minster

Rose Use Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website
with

rosababymasqueradecflo1
Bed-ding

rosamrssammcgredyclimbingcflorogerltd
Cli-mber

rosalinvillecflorogerltd
Cut-Flower

rosasilverghostflomidcgarnonswilliams1
Gro-und Cover

rosafryessexwildfireflomidcgarnonswilliams
Grow in Pot

rosawarmwelcomecflorogerltd
Fra-grant

rosathefairycflorogerltd1
Not Fra-grant

Rose Bloom Shape and Rose Petal Count Pages
of all these 3 groups of roses in this website.

Click on
Other Roses to see the further
161 roses
grown and sold by R.V. Roger in 2015
(Group 3)

rosabigchiefcflorogerltd
Hybrid Tea Shape

rosasarahvanfleetcflorogerltd
Quart-ered Bloom Shape

rosapimpinellifoliaflot
Flat

rosahenrimartincflorogerltd1
Glo-bular

rosafruhlingsmorgencflorogerltd
Single with 1-7 Petals

rosabeholdcflorogerltd
Double with 16-25 Petals

rosairrisistiblecflorogerltd
Very Full with over 40 Petals

 

99 Bedding
flower colours
with their

salviacfloguaranticablackandbluegarnonswilliams
Blue

dahliacflodavidhowardgarnonswilliams1b
Orange

verbenacflohomesteadpurplegarnonswilliams
Purple

pyrethrumcflo1roseumdurogarnonswilliams
Red

gypsophyllacflocoventgardengarnonswilliams
White

dianthuscflo1barbatuskaleidoscopekavanagh
White / Colour

dahliacfloabacussolgarnonswilliams
Yellow

99 Bedding
Plant Description Pages,

dahliacflojessicagarnonswilliams
Dahlia

salviacflo1patenskavanagh1
Salvia

cannacflophasiongarnonswilliams
Canna

cosmoscflosulphureusgarnonswilliams
Cosmos

salviacflosplendenssalsapurplegarnonswilliams
Salvia

penstemoncflowhitebedderkavanagh
Pen-stemon

verbenacflosxhybridasaintgeorgegarnonswilliams
Ver-bena


Flower Shape and
Petal Count
Pages
followed by

osteopspermumcflo1sunnycecilgarnonswilliams
Stars Shape

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams
Saucer Shape

penstemoncflopenningtongemgarnonswilliams
Trum-pet Shape

salviacflotrelissickgarnonswilliams
Lobes Shape

dahliacflofascinationgarnonswilliams
Floret Shape

dahliacfloteesbrookeaudreygarnonswilliams
6 or More Petals

dahliacflodavidhowardgarnonswilliams1
6 or More Petals


Bedding Use Pages

geraniumcflowlassovianumbluestargarnonswilliams
Bed-ding out

argyranthemumcflopetitepinkgirlgarnonswilliams
Filling In

salviacflophyllisfancygarnonswilliams
Scree-ning Use

verbenacflos1lafrancekavanagh
In Pots

bidenscfloferulifoliagoldeneyegarnonswilliams
In Window Boxes

cupheacflollaveakavanagh
In Hang-ing Bas-kets

dahliacflo1moonfiregarnonswilliams
Sum-mer Bed-ding

 

 

1115 Wildflowers have flower colour pages to compare the plants with the same flower colours:-

from all the Native-to-the-UK-plants-in-1950 in their following 180 families. Each plant in each Family Page is aimed to have the following photos with it:-

  • a Flower
  • Flowers
  • Foliage
  • Shape

as well as the text giving its

If its Plant Description Page has been created
(297 created by May 2015 - see number created from each family on far right),
then its Common Name in the Page will be linked to it.
All the Wildflower Plants in these Family Pages also have External Website Links to

 

 

  • and the other Photo Galleries in the Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics on the left at the top of each page.

The first 2 Colour Wheels detailed below add many of these plants together for comparison purposes.

 

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Colour from the initial 1381 Cultivated Plants and 628 Wildflower Plants detailed in this Website:-

Takes 15 Seconds to load

Click on number between 1-7 from 12 Colour or 1-6 from Black Sections or Wild White to see all the plant flowers (1381 cultivated - with another 115 roses in the Rose Plants Gallery, another 270 bulbs in the Bulb Gallery, and 628 native to the UK wildflower) in this website with their:-

  • Common Name,
  • Botanical Name and
  • Months of Flowering

in one of the above 53 Flower Colour Wheel pages to create your colour coordinated flower schemes.

Each Plant Description can then be selected by clicking on the:-

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Bloom Colour in that Month from the initial 1381 Cultivated Plants and 628 Wildflower Plants detailed in this Website:-

bloomsmonth

Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Click the number 1 to see all the plant flowers (1446 cultivated, 235 wildflower) in this website with their:-

  • Botanical Name (Common Name for Wildflowers)
  • Soil Preference
  • Sun Aspect
  • Soil Moisture
  • Height and
  • in each Month of Flowering

in one of the above 144 Flower Colour Wheel pages to create Blue, Brown, Cream, Green, Mauve, Orange, Purple, Red, Pink, White, Yellow or Multicoloured (Grey circle in the middle) colour coordinated flower schemes in each month.

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with the same Colour from Bee-Pollinated Flowers:-

For Hay Fever sufferers, it is better to have bee-pollinated plants than wind-pollinated plants, since the pollen spread by that wind is what causes their suffering. The plants in Bee Bloom Gallery are bee-pollinated and they should be used in preference to grasses.
 

Click on the OOO in the Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index below to link to those bee-pollinated plants of that flower colour in that month or any of

ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in April-June
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-June
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-September
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in April-June
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in May-June
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant - for those plants.

Enumber indicates Empty Index Page.
Bottom row of Grey is Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

OOO E1.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Blue

OOO

OOO
E11.

OOO
E12.

OOO E13.

OOO
E14.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Mauve

OOO

OOO

OOO
E24.

OOO
E25.

OOO
E26.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Purple

OOO
E34.

OOO
E35.

OOO
E36.

OOO
E37

OOO
E38

OOO

OOO
E40

OOO
E41

OOO
E42

OOO

OOO

OOO
Brown

OOO

OOO
E47

OOO
E48

OOO
E49

OOO
E50

OOO
E51

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Cream

OOO
E58

OOO
E59

OOO
E60

OOO
E61

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Green

OOO

OOO
E71

OOO
E72

OOO
E73

OOO
E74

OOO
E75

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E80

OOO
E81Orange

OOO
E82

OOO
E83

OOO
E84

OOO
E85

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Pink

OOO

OOO
E95

OOO
E96

OOO
E97

OOO
E98

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Red

OOO

OOO
E107

OOO
E108

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
White

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Yellow

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E133

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Unusual

OOO

OOO
E143

OOO
E144

There are topics on how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting in this website, with the following further detail:-

Garden Maintenance
When you get a private garden, you need to know about your soil so that possible remedial action can be taken. When you know whether it is acidic or alkaline then it's maintenance is easier for you.
This can be followed by organic garden maintenance to understand what are the problems and joys of your garden. The relevant sections of the glossary, tool shed and library should aid you.

Hard Landscaping Garden Design
If you decide to change a portion of your garden, then design the whole of your private garden; rather than doing bits which become unrelated to each other or to the house. If your soil is clay, then this has major design ramifications. The library with case studies will aid the hard landscaping design, especially on drives.

Soft Landscaping Garden Design
The offbeat glossary, the plants,
the plant photographic galleries - Aquatic , Bamboo , Bedding , Bulb , Climber , Conifer , Deciduous Shrub , Deciduous Tree , Evergreen Perennial , Evergreen Shrub , Evergreen Tree , Fern , Grass , Hedging , Herbaceous Perennial , Herb , Odds and Sods , Rhododendron , Rose , Soft Fruit , Top Fruit , Vegetable , Wild Flower -
and companion planting aid the soft landscaping design. To aid your flower colour selection:-

  • for complementary or contrasting colour schemes; the Colour Wheel - Flower Petal has been created as shown in the first colour wheel above.
  • The 12 colours per month in the Colour Wheel - Bloom in Month provide a crossection of bulb, climber, shrub etc plants with the same flower colour in the same month as shown in the second colour wheel above.
  • The third Colour Wheel above can be used by HayFever sufferers to use plants that are Bee-Pollinated instead of being wind pollinated.
  • The fourth Colour wheel below aids your selection of Rock Plants for your rock garden.

The Wild Flower Gallery and the Wildlife on Plant Butterfly Gallery show the relationship between the Butterfly and its plant to aid the creation of a wildlife friendly section to your garden.

You can select plants for your garden using the following hierarchy as further detailed in Plants:-

Garden Construction
Having done the structural and detailed design process, garden construction can then take place in stages with the aid of getting materials using useful data, before returning once more to organic garden maintenance.

Click on Flower Colour in the Colour Wheel below to
Compare Flowers with that same Colour of Rock Garden Plants:-

The Rock Garden Plant Index pages provide all the required information in a condensed form to aid your selection of (82) small rock garden plants for small areas - with the flower colour linking to the Rock Garden Plant Colour Wheel Page (click on number in colour of Rock Garden Colour Wheel Map below to transfer) to see which other rock garden plants are in that same colour.


colourwheelexported1a1

monkeyorchid1a1a1

This is a sad story about our native Monkey Orchid....

 

It is so sad, that she has to lie down, and...

monkeyorchid2a

Irrelevant material like this row, with

  • Ivydene Gardens Logo
  • Ivydene Horticultural Services Email Link and
  • copyright is added at bottom of each page.

...to prevent cows from eating our native orchid plants, we must put the orchids in chicken-wire cages:-monkeyorchid3a

 

"The Green Tree of Love's Mystery"
by
Madeleine F. Williamson Pires


thegreentreeoflovesmysterybymadeleinepires1a1a1a

"As well as producing oxygen for us to breathe, trees are for humans a place of refuge, source of building material and for me, a living testament to the bounteous beauties inherent in nature. In our fast-moving contemporary city life, I believe it is important to at least have pictures of trees around us to enrich our lives, since they are designed to make our environment healthier." from
Madeleine F. Williamson Pires.

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Amended May 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

If the idea of saving trees does not appeal, perhaps you could aid damsels in distress:-
A friend of mine recently had a problem with the hanging loop on the side of the backless dress having the zip, that the zip got caught in the hanging loop while she was pulling it up. This caused some lengthy period of time before - being by herself - she was able to free herself.

If the hanging loop attached to the dress either side of the zip at its top was instead a tube of material which went into an open-ended pocket on each side of the zip. Then, these 2 open-ended pockets on each side of the zip inside the dress would extend beyond the zip at the bottom of the zip. The loop of material could be threaded through on each side, before its ends were sewn together perhaps with a tassel end. The bottom of the loop would be on the outside of the dress, whereas the top of each pocket would be on the inside of the dress.

This same idea could be used on the other side with each open-sided pocket being the same length as the zip-side and it would be attached to the inside of the dress at the same distance away from the dress seam as for the zipped side.

When the dress is removed from its hanger, and the dress has been put on, then the woman can pull the bottom of each hanging loop or tassel before she does up the zip. This should stop the hanging loop from being caught up in the zip. The flat tassel would make it look as part of the fashion of the garment.

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So far as I can ascertain on 6 April 2019, few people in Portugal or Madeira -
out of 2,906 in February, 3,904 in March and 885 website visitors from around the world so far in April -
have bothered to look at the evidence within this website about their trees in pavements;
The following 2 photos illustrate how easy it is for an electrician to kill a tree by tying a metal/plastic tie so tight that it cuts through the Outer Bark, the Inner Bark or Phloem and the Cambium layers depriving the trunk above and kills it, without him/her knowing that is what will happen. Combine that with no maintenance of these trees in pavements and so the population and the paying visitors prepare to endure the failure of branches/trunks of these trees and hope that they are not underneath or that those trees will not interfere with gas tanks below them:

lightsontrees11garnonswilliams

 

lightsontrees12garnonswilliams

note the splits in the exposed heartwood, where the heartwood is starting to fail.

Below is a diagram showing how thin are the 3 top layers of a tree/shrub which provide protection and power to live for that tree and how easy it is to be damaged without the tree being able to repair that damage:-

 

trunkdiagram2garnonswilliams

 

 

 

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-

The people of Madeira and/or VAN DEN BERK NURSERIES could SOLVE THESE TREE PROBLEMS
or

they could continue to kill these trees and others in the same situation elsewhere on the island
and then continue to be killed by those trees falling on them or on a 1000 gallon cooking gas tank for each of 2 hotels, causing leaks, followed by explosions

or
invite me to do the work unpaid, with Madeira providing food/drink, work clothes, materials and equipment for these tree problems (Madeira would donate the use of the following sleeping facility with my ankles and head above my stomach to drain my ankles and prevent drowning from phlegm created in my throat during my sleep together with 11 medications for heart failure, head tumour, diuretics, blood thinners, reduction of heart rate by 60 beats a minute, glaucoma, and 3 of those medications for diabetes, etc).
It might take me a little time

  • to gather over 50 tons of seaweed/ cow manure and mix it before delivering it 3 times a year to each tree and pavement flower bed in this section within Funchal; more would be needed to cover the others in the island,
  • removal of pavers and white/black marble pavements and replace with reduced size pavers with 2 inch depth of sharp sand under them,
  • deal with unsealed tree branch cuts and rotting holes,
  • deal with rotting tree roots,
  • deal with root/lorry problems,
  • retighten tree braces,
  • erect steel structures over gas tanks to prevent damage by falling trees,
  • provide irrigation to the trees in those pavements on a weekly basis
  • create database of all trees/flower beds in pavements in Madeira, with repair schedule and paver replacement/ irrigation/ fertiliser creation; and irrigation and fertilising time schedules.
  • following my use of 6 FAIL (Fortran Assisted Instruction Lecture) written notes, so that the students from Years 1 and 2 of the Architecture Dept of Portsmouth Polytechnic would receive the next 1 hour lecture notes at the end of the previous, I taught the Fortran language, hardware, software, flowcharting and documentation to them within 6 hours followed by 2 afternoons of practical in creating stats from an experiment in the laboratory. Those students passed with 75% following my exam of a waffle, flowchart and program questions supervised by the Computer Science Dept. I graduated with a 2.2 in Psychology from Brunel University the previous year to this teaching, having spent 18 months under Section 22 from falling on my head at 60mph in Wales from a motorbike and then recovering the use of the spoken and written English language by myself. I was passed mentally fit in the January of the year that I took my finals. Due to 1/3 of my brain being detached from my skull, I am discouraged from engaging in contact sports. Following close contact between a female dentist and my teeth, which resulted in a 2 month hiatus in my blood-thining medication, I am also allergic to close contact with the female species, unless my eyes are closed until they move 2 feet (60 cms) away. I have a temperature range between 18-20 degrees Celcius, so it can be a problem where air-conditioning only brings the temperature down to 24 degrees Celcius as in cinemas, theatres and banqueting halls.
    Then perhaps I could teach the following students:-
    • Tree-surgeons to get trees thinned, crowned, etc to aid the purpose for which those trees were planted, not pollard the whole tree and produce a very dangerous result when used for trees in pavements, or for hanging electricity lighting schemes on them - the ties slowly cutting through the bark and the cambium killing the trunk/branch above.
    • Bed maintenance staff in how to prune, which does not mean chopping a rose to ground level each year and nor does it mean using a flail to chop shrubs into rectangles or turn shrub borders into oblong hedges.
    • Bed and tree maintenance staff with use of green manures, seaweed/cow-, pig-, sheep-, chicken-manure, recycled food waste from restaurants and food markets mixed with shredded shrub/tree prunings and used as a mulch to feed the plants under their care.
    • hotel and restaurant staff in checking the state of their toilets to stop the leakage of thousands of gallons of water from the overflow in the cistern or the washer seals into the latrine bowl.
      Having had to reveal 2 leaks in the 2 toilets in the Pestana Promenade Hotel suite in 2018 followed by a leak in 1 of the toilets in the Pestana Mirimar Hotel Suite in 2018 followed a year later in the Pestana Promenade Hotel Suite with one of the same toilets still leaking and it taking an hour for the Maintenance Manager to cure it this time, I am hopefull that next year there will not be a repeat performance.
      Your toilet cisterns remind me of the self-cleaning tumble dryer that used the water removed from the drying clothes to wash the condenser into the same match-box tank with foam pressure valve which activated a pump to transfer that water into a large tank at the top. Unfortunately when the system washed the fine dust into that matchbox, it clogged the foam and activated the pump. When no more water could be pumped, it refused to allow the machine to start drying. That tank was inaccessable to the machine owner and so cost £180 a time to get emptied. Brilliant - a machine designed to fail if it carried out its function, rather like the toilets in Madeira in wasting water.
    • educate the public about their relationship with plants that come into their environment to realise that without them they would be dead from lack of oxygen. In public spaces, it is advisable to be careful since many people suffer from hay-fever, so plants from All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month could be used, which would not affect them and those planted areas could be identified for them.

 

I could use Companion Planting, but I am sure that the above is enough for me to start with in taking 400 hours per day leaving my time schedule for sleep and nourishment not executed,

if

the people of Madeira do not wish to sort out these tree/shrub plant problems themselves as can be seen from the lack of response to what I wrote last year in the Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page.

 

 

Although the above is about the trees in the pavements in Madeira, other towns in other countries may find the information within it useful.

 

 

I have noticed in my home town that herbicide has been spread

  • round the trees on lawn-grass between the kerb and the tarmac pavement and
  • under the hoop barriers
    (hoop-barriers would probably be easier than the more effective Brett Trief Vehicle Containment Kerb system) stopping cars from parking on that verge in March 2019.
  • Also, where trees are in lawn-grass on steep slopes so that their roots are exposed up the bank, that that lawn-grass has been removed - instead of herbicide being used - between those visible roots.


Perhaps Green Manure seeds will be sown in these areas.
If the Green Manure (Mustard is bee-pollinated) is bee-pollinated rather wind-pollinated, then hay-fever sufferers would not be affected when it flowers and sets seed.
Then,

  • if the contractors using their ride-on mowers or rotary mowers cut into the green manure as well, it will not matter as the seed generated from that green manure will grow and replace the damaged legumes.
  • These legumes under the hoop barriers and besides the trees will then feed nitrogen to the roots of those trees and
  • what rain water that these legumes do not use will be available for those same tree-roots. This will help the trees
  • as well as reduce the possible damage to the bark of those trees by strimmers from those same contractors and
  • reduce the amount of grass mowings being put into the storm drains, when it rains after those mowings have strayed onto the tarmac road. Green manure instead of grass in and around hoop barriers within a very thin strip of grass between the road and the tarmac pavement will not require strimming as the grass it replaces does.
  • if the grass next to private household fences/walls/ telegraph poles/ other items within public grassed areas or next to public buildings is also killed off with herbicides and replaced with green manure like mustard, then the strimming of that public grassed area next to those boundaries could be stopped.

The legumes like mustard between spring to autumn will replace the bare earth, which would otherwise grow weeds and look unsightly - it does not matter if some mustard grows into the grassed areas, since it would be cut down.
Use Lawn Aerating Shoes to spike the bare earth, spread the green manure seed thinly and spread using a soft brush into the holes created by the spikes. Spray the seeded ground with water to dampen the ground, before spreading a thin layer of sharp sand over the seeded area and leave the seeds to grow.
Repeat this next spring, since the first frost during the previous autumn will have killed the top growth of the mustard and the worms will then clear the ground. It becomes too cold for the weeds and just replanting in the spring with mustard will superseed any new growth of weeds.

Overall maintenance cost would thus be greatly reduced and the trees would benefit.

 

 

The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it:-

hotelgardens4garnonswilliams1

This shows the roots of 1 ryegrass plant, which had been removed from the foundation bed of Type I MOT Roadstone in a client's garden. You can see that this plant has tens of yards or metres of root to absorb water.

"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season. You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."

"Native Grass Meadow
MARSHALL SILTY CLAY LOAM (HEAVY SUBSOIL PHASE) These plots (18-20) were located in an area that is in native grasses and has never been plowed, but being within a cemetery area has had frequent mowing. It adjoins the Agronomy Farm at Lincoln, Nebraska. T ests on these native grass plots (Table 1) showed that they absorbed over 2 inches of water during the first 1.5 hours with an absorption rate of about 1.4 inches per hour at the end of this time. Following a delay of 10 days during which there was no rain-fall, water was again applied to the test areas with practically the same results as for the previous test. It will be shown later that if the second test is made only 1 day after the first, the rate of intake will be materially reduced. This seems to be due to the settling of soil immediately after wetting. Upon longer standing the soil seems to resume its original condition."

 

hotelgardens5garnonswilliams

Photo 5 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG_6222.JPG

The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants. Replace the grass with GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.

 

The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,

  • since it is witin an enclosed public space.
  • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
  • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
  • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
  • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
  • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?

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Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
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Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...Amaranth
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...Bamboo
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...Cypress
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...Naiad
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...Peony
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...Pillwort
...Pine
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...Pipewort
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Quillwort
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...Seaheath
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...Waterwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel
...Yam
...Yew

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.


 

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

 


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi
l.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

 


Drinking Water deprivation in Medway, England

"Terror - Extreme fear; person or thing causing this;
Reign of terror - time in which community lives in dread of death or outrage" from Volume 2 M-Z of The Reader's Digest Great Encylopaedic Dictionary.

Southern Water Authority is responsible for water undertakings in Medway from 1973.

"Twenty-five years from now we will have lost a third of our water sources through climate change, seen a reduction in the amount of water we are allowed to take from rivers and underground sources, and our population will have grown by 15%. Without action, we predict a supply and demand deficit by 2030 equivalent to around 50% of our current supply. Our Plan proposes 43 performance commitments for the five-year period from 2020 to 2025, directly aligned to 10 key outcomes to create a resilient water future." from Southern Water.

Medway has a population of 274,015 in 2014.

More than 10,200 homes will be built within the next 20 years. Assuming 2 adults and 2.2 chidren per home, then there will be an increase of 42840 people which is an extra 15.63%. This assumes that the remaining 274,015 people do not have more children or get married/partnered and bring further people into Medway.

Southern Water are allowing for 15% population growth and therefore any extra growth in Medway area over that will not have water. Southern water did overabstract water from aquifers for Medway towns in a few months during 2017. Medway gets all its water from aquifers. If you continue to overabstract then you run out of water. There is less water going into the chalk from the rain since more and more households in Medway pave over their front gardens and use them as car parks, so there is going to be less rain in the chalk aquifers as more of the open land is built on to hold these houses. The rain from the house drives gets into the storm drain. Most storm drains have a single large exit at their point of discharge (often covered by a grating) into a canal, river, lake, reservoir, sea or ocean.

Souther Water is building a Havant Reservoir in Hampshire which is many miles from Medway, so will they then pipe that water at least 100 miles to Medway?

Medway is not the only area in Kent, Surrey, Sussex or Hampshire where the UK goverment is requesting that many more houses be built.

"Peak Water": how to invest in a world that's drying up by MoneyWeek., shows that the world is running out of water. A solution to this is required by 2019 before more than another billon people lack access to water, with residents of Medway joining them.

According to information concerning water in a local paper given out in buses running in Medway on 22 March 2019, there will be an increase of 100,000 in the population per year within the area of Southern England serviced by Southern Water. Since Southern Water are only building 1 reservoir in Havant, some people within Southern England are not going to have water within only a very few years - this will affect students since thay inflate the population during term and disappear in the holidays. In Medway we are now short of doctors, dentists, schools, surgeries and infrastucture like roads to service these new estates.

Medway regeneration includes the following objective:

"The development of around 30,000 new homes at major new developments such as Rochester Riverside and Chatham Waterfront by 2035" - this includes the 10,200 detailed above. So if we subtract that 10,200, we are left with 19,800 homes plus the students who move into the area each term time for the 3 universities resident within Medway, who will have no water to drink or wash in, cook with, etc.
No need to worry that those new homes will also prevent rainwater from entering the ground within most of their ground area, thus reducing the volume of rainwater that reach the aquifers even further.

 


This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5.

"

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