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SPRING FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

Index Page No.

AUTUMN FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

Index Page No.

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers
Erica Hardy Heaths:-

Index Page No.

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers
Erica Hardy Heaths:-

Index Page No.

HEATHER EVERGREEN SHRUB
INDEX GALLERY PAGES

Index Page No.


Site Map

Introduction

Index Page No.

Click on Colour below to change to its Heather Flower Colour Page with Flower and Flower Stalk

Spr-Bronze

1

(o) Aut-Bronze

(o) 1

Erica garforthensis

(o) 1

Erica tetralix

1

CULTIVAR GROUP with Flowers

 

FLOWERING SEASON
with Flower and Flower Stalk

 

(o) H0
White
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Index Page No.

(o) H1 Amethyst
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Index Page No.

H2
Mauve
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Index Page No.

(o) Spr-Green

(o) 1

(o) Aut-Green

(o)
1 2

Erica gaudificans

(o) 1

Erica umbellata

1

Andromeda

(o) 1

(o) January
Winter

(o)
1 2

(o) 1

(o) 1

1

Spr-Grey

1

(o) Aut-Grey

(o) 1

(o) Erica x griffithsii

(o) 1

Erica vagans

1

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia changed to
Erica spiculifolia

1

(o)February
Winter

(o)
1 2

(o) H3
Lavender
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(o) 1

H4
Lilac
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1

H5
Ruby
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1

(o) Spr-Orange

(o) 1

Aut-Orange

1

Erica krameri

(o) 1

Erica veitchii

1

(o) Calluna

(o) 1

(o) March
Spring

(o)
1 2

Spr-Red

1

Aut-Red

1

(o) Erica lusitanica

(o) 1

Erica watsonii

1

(o) Daboecia

(o) 1

(o) April
Spring

(o)
1 2

H6
Cerise
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1

(o) H7
Rose Pink
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(o) 1

(o) H8
Pink
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(o) 1

(o) Spr-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Aut-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Erica mackayana

(o) 1

Erica williamsii

1

Erica Hardy Heaths:-

 

(o) May
Spring

(o) 1

(o) Spr-Other Colour

(o) 1

Aut-Other Colour

1

Erica maderensis

(o) 1

 

 

Erica x afroeuropea

(o) 1

(o) June
Summer

(o) 1

(o) H9
Beetroot
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(o) 1

(o) H10
Purple
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(o) 1

(o) H11
Lilac Pink
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(o) 1

 

 

 

 

(o) Erica manipuliflora

(o) 1

 

 

Erica andevalensis now treated as Erica mackayana ssp andevalensis

1

(o) July
Summer

(o) 1

SUMMER FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

 

WINTER FOLIAGE COLOUR
with Foliage Stalk and Form

 

Erica multiflora

1

SEED COLOUR

 

(o) Erica arborea

(o) 1

(o) August
Summer

(o) 1

(o) H12 Heliotrope
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(o) 1

H13 Crimson
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1

(o) H14 Magenta
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(o) 1

(o) Sum-Bronze

(o) 1

(o) Win-Bronze

(o) 1

(o) Erica
oldenburgensis

(o) 1

Seed

1

(o) Erica x arendsiana

(o) 1

(o) September
Autumn

(o) 1

(o) Sum-Green

(o)
1 2

(o) Win-Green

(o)
1 2

Erica platycodon

1

 

 

(o) Erica australis

(o) 1

(o) October
Autumn

(o) 1

H15 Salmon

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1

(o) H16
Shell Pink

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(o) 1

(o) H17 Multi-Coloured
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(o) 1

Sum-Grey

1

Win-Grey

1

Erica scoparia

1

BED PICTURES

 

(o) Erica azorica
(Syn.
Erica scoparia subsp. azorica)

(o) 1

(o) November
Autumn

(o) 1

Sum-Orange

1

(o) Win-Orange

(o) 1

Erica sicula

1

Garden

1

(o) Erica carnea

(o)
1 2

(o) December
Winter

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum-Red

1

(o) Win-Red

(o) 1

(o) Erica spiculifolia

(o) 1

 

 

(o) Erica ciliaris

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and
User Guidelines

 

 

 

(o) Sum-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Win-Yellow

(o) 1

(o) Erica stuartii

(o) 1


(o) COMMENTS

(o) Erica cinerea

(o) 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sum-Other Colour

1

(o) Win-Other Colour

(o) 1

Erica terminalis

1

(o) Erica x darleyensis

(o) 1

The 2 rows of "Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms) and Comment" state the Heather Description from 'Handy Guide to Heathers Descriptions & Suppliers of over 1000 varieties" by David & Anne Small, published in 1992 by Denbeigh Heather Nurseries (ISBN 0-9519160-0-9). This gives the official Heather Society flower colour(s) and foliage colour(s).
Photos from Chris Garnons-Williams are added to that respective flower colour or foliage colour page in the Shrub Heather Gallery and the relevant index page in this gallery IRRESPECTIVE OF THE ACTUAL FLOWER COLOUR OR FOLIAGE COLOUR (stated in the Handy Guide) IN THE IMAGE THAT WAS TAKEN BY CHRIS GARNONS-WILLIAMS.

(o) Erica erigena

(o) 1

End of Main Menu - See Sub-Menu and Data below:-

Ivydene Gardens Heather Evergreen Shrub Index
Gallery:
Erica maderensis Cultivars Index

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Species: Erica maderensis:-

 

"Erica maderensis : Madeira heath, Madeiran bell heather synonym: Erica cinerea subsp. maderensis
Bushy shrub to about 1m tall; mature stems stout and woody with grey bark; leaves in whorls of 3, to 5(–10)mm long, linear; flowers in terminal umbels of 3–6 flowers; calyx with 4 free sepals, centre green, sometimes tinged pink; corolla mauve (H2) to 5mm long, tubular-ovoid; stamens 8, included; anthers with spurs; fruit with woody, thickened walls, very hygroscopic, opening wide on warm dry days; interior of valves glossy, pale gold when freshly opened.
Blooms in summer.
Restricted to the mountains of Madeira, and one thought to be only a subspecies of the bell heather. However it may be more closely related to the Corsican heath (Erica terminalis). Very uncommon in cultivation and not available commercially. It can be grown successfully in lime-free and well-drained sompost in containers with protection from winter frost (see Yearbook of The Heather Society 1999: 11–21. Heathers 5: 17–25. 2008)." from the The Heather Society.

 

Heather Evergreen Shrub Cultivar or Hybrid Name
with link to its Description Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Bud

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Flower Bud Stalk

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Flower and Flower Colour
with link to its
Flower Colour Page

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White - H0

Photo from
 

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Flower Stalk

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Flowers

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Seed

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Seedhead

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Flowering Months with link to its Flowering Month Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms)
and Comment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fol-iage Stalk Col-our

Spring
with link to its
Spring Foliage Colour Page

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Dark Green

Photo from
 

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Summer with link to its
Summer Foliage Colour Page

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Dark Green

Photo from
 

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Autumn with link to its
Autumn Foliage Colour Page

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Dark Green

Photo from
 

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Winter
with link to its
Winter Foliage Colour Page

item2g1a59

Dark Green

Photo from
 

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Form dis-plays Over-all Fol-iage Col-our

Spring form
with link to supplier in the UK

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Spring Park Nursery

Photo of form from
 

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Summer form with link to supplier in Europe

Heather's Heide online shop from Holland is closed on Sunday

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Heather's Heide

Photo of form from
 

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Autumn form with link to supplier in USA

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Heaths and Heathers

Photo of form from
 

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Winter form
with link to supplier in Canada

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Bunchberry Nurseries

Photo of form from
 

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"Anyone during the summer months, who has walked over the moor lands throughout the British Isles will appreciate the magnificent mass of colour provided by Heathers. Heathers are native to not only the British Isles, but also much of mainland Europe to northern Italy and as far north as Iceland. Due to seed of our native Calluna vulgaris (Scotch Heather) being accidentally introduced on packaging materials, it has also become naturalised in parts of Nova Scotia and Eastern Canada.

We had better point out that there are more heather species (Erica) in South Africa than anywhere else in the world. Many of these have been introduced and sold as pot grown house plants, which if after flowering they are planted out in the garden, then they will die during the winter months. So do make sure the heather you are purchasing is hardy enough to be grown outdoors in the garden.

Most of the heathers require a fertile, moist, but not waterlogged, acid soil. By incorporating plenty of composted bark, or peat, we grow them quite successfully in a sandy loam of Ph6.5, which is almost neutral. If you garden on soils with a high lime content, it is better to create beds raised 15/20cm above your normal soil level and infill this with half and half John Innes No. 3 compost and composted bark, or peat. Heathers can also be grown in tubs, or troughs, but Calluna’s and Erica cinerea hate hot feet, but both species like an open sunny site and will not produce so many flowers if grown in dense shade. The winter flowering heather, Erica carnea, is a mountain plant consequently it will tolerate drier soils and warmer sites and will grow in fertile soils of PH7 with less bark, or peat being used.

FLOWERING TIMES
Erica carnea is a superb winter flowering, dwarf evergreen shrub. Over 130 named forms have been introduced varying in size, foliage and flower colour. Flowering time is usually from December to March when there is little else in flower.

Erica erigena is a strong growing shrub, which will attain between 75 cm and 2 metres and flowers during April and May. It has sported a number of foliage and flower cultivars, but they will not tolerate wet feet and exposed sites, but the hybrids between this species and Erica carnea are named Erica x darleyensis and these - although almost as tough as Erica carnea - are much stronger growers growing between 45 and 70cms in height. The x darleyensis cultivars produce flowers from white through to dark amethyst - all flower from December to May.

The tree heather, Erica arborea forms a small tree in Southern Europe where its roots are used to make briar pipes, but it is very tender. However, the variety alpina has been growing in our nursery showground for many years where - if left to its own devices - would attain 2-3 metres in height. It is massed with honey scented white flowers in April-May.

Erica cinerea is a superb low growing shrub which, according to cultivar, is massed with flowers of varying colours from June to September. Daboecia cantabrica also flowers at this time with attractive urn shaped flowers. The sub species scotica is lower growing and freer flowering.

Although there is only one species in Calluna vulgaris; over 600 named cultivars have been introduced, varying from dwarfs of 7cms to those which attain 60cms and with foliage of green, silver, or yellow. The flowers also vary from white to beetroot-red and appear from late June to September. Erica vagans, the Cornish Heath brings the season to a close; its stiff, upright branches produce masses of white, lavender, or pink flowers in September-October.

PRUNING
All of the summer flowering heathers can be pruned after flowering, or the brown seed heads left on until April. Erica arborea alpina and the x darleyensis hybrids can if room allows, be left to their own devices. If room is restricted they can be pruned over as soon as their flowers have faded.

" from Goscote Nurseries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heather Evergreen Shrub Cultivar or Hybrid Name
with link to its Description Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Bud

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Flower Bud Stalk

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Flower and Flower Colour
with link to its
Flower Colour Page

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White - H0

Photo from
 

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Flower Stalk

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Flowers

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Seed

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Seedhead

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Flowering Months

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Height x Spread in inches (cms) (1 inch = 2.5 cms, 12" = 1 foot = 30 cms)
and Comment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fol-iage Stalk Col-our

Spring
with link to its
Spring Foliage Colour Page

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Dark Green

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Summer with link to its
Summer Foliage Colour Page

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Dark Green

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Autumn with link to its
Autumn Foliage Colour Page

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Dark Green

Photo from
 

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Winter
with link to its
Winter Foliage Colour Page

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Dark Green

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Form dis-plays Over-all Fol-iage Col-our

Spring form
with link to supplier in the UK

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Spring Park Nursery

Photo of form from
 

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Summer form with link to supplier in Europe

Heather's Heide online shop from Holland is closed on Sunday

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Heather's Heide

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Autumn form with link to supplier in USA

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Heaths and Heathers

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Winter form
with link to supplier in Canada

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Bunchberry Nurseries

Photo of form from
 

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Depending on which heather species you choose with their 1 from the official 18 heather colours in the top menu, you can have flowers throughout the year, which is very useful for their pollination by bees.

Click on the 1 in the Colour Wheel below to link to those thumbnails in their Comparison Gallery -
with their index of those bee-pollinated plants in addition to heathers of that flower colour in that month -
to compare their blooms:-

bloomsmonth2a1a

 

"RHS Plants for Pollinators
There are lots of ways to make your garden as perfect for pollinators as possible with the RHS
We have compiled two downloadable plant lists to help gardeners identify plants that will provide nectar and pollen for bees and many other types of pollinating insects:
 

How to attract and support pollinating insects

  • Aim to have plants that are attractive to pollinating insects in flower from early spring to late autumn.
  • Grow garden plants with flowers that attract pollinating insects.
  • Avoid plants with double or multi-petalled flowers. Such flowers may lack nectar and pollen, or insects may have difficulty in gaining access.
  • Never use pesticides on plants when they are in flower.
  • Where appropriate, British wildflowers can be an attractive addition to planting schemes and may help support a wider range of pollinating insects.
  • Observe the plants in your garden. If you know of plants with blooms that regularly attract insects, let us know.
  • Encourage bees by keeping honeybees yourself or allowing a beekeeper to place hives in your garden. Nest boxes containing cardboard tubes or hollow plant stems, or holes drilled in blocks of wood will provide nest sites for some species of solitary bees. Such nests are available from garden centres or you can make your own (holes/tubes should be in a mixture of sizes with a diameter of 2 - 8mm)." from the RHS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2014. Index Page for each Comparison Page of Heather Comparison Gallery created in this Gallery in December 2014. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.
It is possible that the carrier pigeon used in the original link may have died and thus that link currently may no longer be functional. 

 

Some heathers besides having flowers have foliage colours that change from 1 season to the next season in the UK -

  • Spring (March, April, May),
  • Summer (June, July, August),
  • Autumn (September, October, November) and
  • Winter (December, January, February).


The Heather Comparison Gallery provides comparison pages of the:-

  • 18 flower colours with flower and flower stalk as shown in the menu table at the top of this page,
  • 18 flower colours with flower and flower stalk in each of the months that heather flowers,
  • 7 foliage colours with foliage stalk and form per season as shown in the menu table at the top of this page, and
  • Each of the Heather Cultivar Groups with flowers

and the Index for the heathers shown in each of these Comparison Pages is in 1 or more Index Pages in the relevant Heather Evergreen Shrub Index Gallery instead of being in the same Comparison page, due to their being too many to include within the available space.
THIS COMBINATION OF FOLIAGE COLOUR CHANGE CAN BE USED IN YOUR GARDEN DESIGN TO AID DIFFERENT GROUNDCOVER FOLIAGE COLOURS IN DIFFERENT SEASONS, together with the months of flower buds before flowering and the post months of seedheads.

From Heathers: Yearbook of the Heather Society:-

"Heathers 5: 17-25 (2008). © A. Hall

Erica maderensis in England

 

Allen Hall

 

10 Upper Green, Nanpantan, LOUGHBOROUGH, LE11 3SG.

 

Erica maderensis is a native of the island of Madeira and grows nowhere else in the wild. On Madeira, it frequents the highest ground, typically on the tops of mountains. Erica maderensis is rarely grown in cultivation and so is one of those heathers that is unfamiliar even to heather enthusiasts. For these reasons, the plant has been little observed and written about. This article is about my experience of growing Erica maderensis in England and may to some small extent help redress this situation.

In the mid- to late 1980s my interest in heather gardening spilled over into a curiosity about heathers themselves and I wanted to know more about heathers on the fringes of the hardy species of northern Europe that were rarely if ever cultivated. So I sought to acquire some of these plants, Erica maderensis among them. Plants of these species can't be obtained on the market. However, one of the unsung advantages of membership of The Heather Society is that rarities can be obtained through the liberality of fellow members. Heathers that are worthless to horticulturists, yet priceless to enthusiasts, are obtained without cost from one's fellows.

 

A CLONE FROM AN EXPEDITION IN 1974
Dr (now Professor) John Griffiths generously sent me a rooted cutting of Erica maderensis in 1989. This was a clone collected by Don Richards and David McClintock in Madeira in 1974. Don Richards subsequently wrote about the expedition in the Yearbook of The Heather Society. He reported that ... on the bleak top of Pico do Ariero Erica maderensis is quite common as tight cushions or mats draping the rocks. Some of these plants are ancient with a main stem thicker than one's thumb and close pressed to the rock up to 6 feet (1.83 metres) across. ... Erica maderensis survived on the bleak, rocky mountain tops where practically nothing else could find a living.

Lower down they saw bushy plants perhaps 1— 2ft (0.3-0.6m) tall. The colour of flowers was "near white to fawny or purplish pink, much like a paler version of Erica terminalis." Writing in 1981 about the same expedition, David McClintock said that all but the youngest plants had thick, stout stems. He stated that the colour of the flowers was mauve - H2. However, one plant had flowers with colours ranging from deep rose pink to near white.

A more recent botanical explorer was Dr Charles Nelson. In 2003, Dr Nelson gave a talk to the East Midlands Group of The Heather Society in which he showed a number of slides of Erica maderensis. One of these showed a woody plant fully 3m long hanging down a mountain side.

Seed from the Botanical Gardens in Madeira
The 1999 Heather Society conference at Falmouth was addressed by Dr Judy Rose of the Horticultural Research Institution, East Malling, Kent. Dr Rose was engaged in research in which heathers were to feature. After her lecture I discovered that she was seeking some plants to use in her research, in particular Erica bocquetii and Erica maderensis. Subsequently I sent her some plants of both species. Later, Dr Rose obtained some Erica maderensis seed from a contact at the Madeira Botanical Gardens and she had a surplus which she sent me as thanks for the plants I had given to her.

The seed from the Botanical Garden was dated 1998. I obtained, and sowed, my share in May 2000 and raised many fine plants, most of which I gave to fellow members of the Society, including John Griffiths and David Small, our current President, who has also assisted me with my collection of rare heathers over the years. I kept a number myself until I was satisfied that the plants had similar flowers and forms to each other and to the Richards /McClintock clone. I now have clones from two different sources.

Hardiness
When I received my first plant in 1989, David McClintock advised me that the species was hardy. Erica maderensis, after all, experiences windy conditions in its native clime and is sometimes covered with snow. Moreover, Don Richards could grow the species in his garden in Eskdale, Cumbria. David himself grew Erica maderensis outside at his home, Bracken Hill, Piatt, in Kent for a number of years, as he mentioned in his article on the bell heather of Madeira. He commented: "here it does not thrive or make the floriferous display to be seen in the climate of Madeira."

When I had accumulated a number of plants, I conducted my own experiment in my Surrey garden and later repeated it in Loughborough. In both trials/the plants were cut to the ground by winter frosts and fragile spring recoveries were not sustained. A mature plant was later installed in a concrete container, by the south wall of the house and sheltered from the east by a water-butt. This has survived, and indeed flourished, for several years. Dr Nelson saw this plant recently and thought it reminiscent of those he has seen growing in the wild on Pico de Ariero.

My conclusion is that Erica maderensis might be hardy in milder, western parts of the country but is on the fringes of hardiness in middle and eastern England. In these places, the species needs some protection in the winter either by careful selection of site, protection in a cold glasshouse, or, as I prefer, in a heated glasshouse.

Cultivation in England
I keep stock plants in a glasshouse from mid-September to mid-May. The glasshouse has an electric fan-heater thermostatically controlled to prevent the ambient temperature falling below +5°C. Good ventilation is important and the glasshouse is liberally equipped with automatically operated, and hand-worked, ventilators. On winter nights the ventilators have to be closed but they are opened during the day even if it is cold, providing the temperature does not drop below freezing.

Erica maderensis thrives when well watered. I water the plants every day except in the winter months when frequency and quantities of water are reduced to suit individual needs - as informed by experience. In some weeks at the turn of the year, watering once a week is enough.

During the summer, my Erica maderensis plants are put in a sheltered place outside and they enjoy their weeks in the sun.

I neglected to re-pot one of my plants for a number years but when I came eventually to re-pot it, I found no trace of the root ball being pot-bound. The plant, it seems, had accommodated itself to its conditions. This prompts me to wonder if in the wild Erica maderensis has to live in cracks and hollows in the rocks that contain little soil?

Compost
I use a compost mix of half moss peat and half Perlite. 6 This compost is light, free-draining and acidic. Both components are water-retentive. To this mixture is added John Innes base fertiliser at the rate of 6.25ml per litre (lfl oz per gallon). During the summer months, I give the plants feeds of liquid ericaceous fertiliser once a month.

I have not explored whether Erica maderensis might grow in a neutral or alkaline soil.

Propagation
I find that Erica maderensis is easier to grow from seed than from cuttings. Each flower is capable of producing many seeds and early autumn is a good time to collect them. I use similar techniques to those described by Barry Sellers, but confess that I do not take so many pains. I use the same peat/Perlite compost with a 3mm layer of horticultural grade sand on top. The seed is mixed with a little of the same sand and sprinkled on top. As Barry advised, in his authoritative article, the compost is not allowed to dry out. The seed typically germinates in three to five weeks after sowing.

Erica maderensis is a very woody plant but the stems throw slender, green side-shoots of up to about 2.5cm (lin) long. These can be used for cutting material but care has to be used in selecting them because they harden quickly and the best cutting material has half-ripe wood. I root them in a peat/Perlite mix with a thin layer of horticultural sand on the surface. The cuttings are placed in a cold frame and the strike rate I obtain is reasonable.

Size of plants in cultivation
Currently, I have four plants, two of the Richards / McClintock clone, and two from seeds obtained in 2000 from the Madeira Botanic Garden via Dr Rose.

One seedling, from the seed sown in May 2000, is now growing in a 19-litre (4-gallon) plastic container. It has a spread of 97cm (38in) and reached a height above the rim of the container of 45cm (18in). However, the nature of the plant is to form a hummock and it trails 27cm (10.5in) over the side of the container, reaching the ground. It has a single woody main stem that is 2.2cm in diameter - as thick as my thumb in fact. Erica seedlings take a long time to develop so I reckon that the main growth of the plant has occurred since around May 2001, in other words within six years.

A second, older plant of the Richards / McClintock clone has a single main stem 2.5cm in diameter (lin), while a third has seven stems emerging from the compost and the diameter of these is 10-1 3mm (<0.5in). These dimensions accord with David McClintock' s and Don Richards' s observations of plants in the wild.

General description
Erica maderensis is a distinctive plant with tough, woody stems and branches that are not brittle. It puts out short, stubby twigs which form green side- shoots. The twigs soon mature and harden. The plants characteristically form dense hummocks around their roots or mould themselves to their immediate environment and this habit may be a response to the strong, Atlantic winds that sweep its mountain homeland.

In my Leicestershire garden, the plants flower in June and July - depending on their particular locations - and sometimes flowers appear in August or even September.

My plants produce very pale pink flowers. From a distance, the flowers appear white and when in full flower a plant can look attractive. However, I do not regard it as a good garden plant, lack of hardiness aside.

In his talk to the East Midlands Group in 2003 , Dr Nelson pointed out that the valves of the fruits are woody. The fruits persist for a long time after the seed has been released and the valves open and close according to humidity (like a pine cone).

David McClintock raised the question of whether Erica maderensis should continue to be regarded as a separate species or as a subspecies of Erica cinerea. He concluded that its specific status should be retained but said that it would be helpful if someone could attempt to cross the two species. Professor Griffiths was present at the East Midlands Group meeting in October 2003 and said that he had crossed the two several times, using Erica maderensis as the seed parent.

 

References

1 D. A. Richards, 1976. Mostly Erica maderensis and Daboecia azorica. Yearbook of The Heather Society 2 (5): 15-20.

2 D. McClintock, 1981. The bell heather of Madeira. Yearbook of The Heather Society 2 (10): 48-50.

3 Report on a talk on "Heathers of the Atlantic Islands" given by Dr E. C. Nelson to the East Midlands Group October 2003. Bulletin of The Heather Society 6 (10: Autumn): 13-14. 2003.

4 A. Hall, 2002. The hardiness of some of the less familiar heathers in the English Midlands. Yearbook of The Heather Society 2002: 37-42.

5 A. Hall, 1999. Heathers in the glasshouse. Yearbook of The Heather Society 1999: 11- 21.

6 G. Yates, 1978. Pocket guide to heather gardening. Tabramhill Gardens, Far Sawrey.

7 B. Sellers, 1999. Propagation of heather from seed. Yearbook of The Heather Society 1999:23-29. "

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